Regulation No. 104-00

Name:Regulation No. 104-00
Description:Reflectors.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Retro-reflective Markings for Vehicles of Categories M, N and O.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1998-01-22
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 8
Number of Pages:23
Vehicle Types:Bus, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Trailer
Subject Categories:Lighting and Light Signalling Equipment
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Keywords:

approval, retro-reflective, marking, regulation, material, annex, materials, axis, markings, test, class, supplement, force, angle, date, sample, granted, surface, type, observation, amendments, means, entry, number, mark, series, vehicles, production, specifications, water, retro-reflection, symbol, reference, specimen, requirements, paragraph, unit, technical, distinctive, cie, original, samples, coefficient, agreement, illumination, area, extension, graphics, trade, resistance

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.2/Add.103/Rev.1/Amend.2
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
June 22, 2015
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 104-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
RETRO-REFLECTIVE MARKINGS FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M, N AND O
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.01.98
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.01.00
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.12.02
Supplement 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.02.07
Corrigendum 1 to Supplement 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 09.04.08
Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.07
Corrigendum 1 to Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 18.01.08
Supplement 5 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.07.08
Supplement 6 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09
Corrigendum 2 to Revision 1 of the Regulation
Dated: 16.06.10
Supplement 7 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.06.15

REGULATION NO. 104
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF RETRO-REFLECTIVE MARKINGS
FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M, N AND O
REGULATION
CONTENTS
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for approval
4.
Trade names and other marks
5.
Approval
6.
General specifications
7.
Special specifications
8.
Modifications and extension of approval for retro-reflective marking materials
9.
Conformity of production
10.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
11.
Production definitely discontinued
12.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests and of
administrative departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
Annex 3
Annex 4
Annex 5
Annex 6
Annex 7
Annex 8
– The CIE co-ordinate system; Goniometer mechanism embodying the CIE angular system
– Communication concerning the approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval
or production definitely discontinued of retro-reflective markings of heavy and long
vehicles and their trailers pursuant to Regulation No. 104
– Arrangement of the approval mark
– Test procedure
– Specification of marking dimensions
– Colorimetric specifications
– Photometric specifications
– Resistance to external agents

2.3.6. "Reference axis (Symbol R)" means a designated line segment originating on the
reference centre which is used to describe the angular position of the retro-reflective device;
2.3.7. "Entrance angle (Symbol �)" means the angle from the illumination axis to the reference
axis. The entrance angle is usually not larger than 90° but, for completeness, its full range is
defined as 0° < � < 180°. In order to specify the orientation in full, this angle is characterised
by two components, � and � ;
2.3.8. "Rotation angle (Symbol �)" means the angle indicating the orientation of the
retro-reflecting material by an appropriate symbol with respect to rotation about the
reference axis;
2.3.9. "First axis (Symbol 1)" means an axis through the reference centre and perpendicular to
the observation half-plane;
2.3.10. "First component of the entrance angle (Symbol � )" means the angle from the
illumination axis to the plane containing the reference axis and the first axis; range: -
180° < � < 180°;
2.3.11. "Second component of the entrance angle (Symbol � )" means the angle from the plane
containing the observation half-plane to the reference axis; range: -90° < � < 90°;
2.3.12. "Second axis (Symbol 2)" means an axis through the reference centre and perpendicular
to both the first axis and the reference axis. The positive direction of the second axis lies in
the observation half-plane when -90° < � < 90° as shown in Annex 1, Figure 1.
2.4. Definition of Photometric Terms
2.4.1. "Coefficient of retro-reflection (Symbol R')" means the quotient of the coefficient of
luminous intensity R of a plane retro-reflecting surface and its Area A
� R �
�R'
� � The coefficient of retro-reflection R' is expressed in candelas per m per lx (cd.m .lx )
� A �
� �


R ' � � (Luminous / Illumination);

E A

2.4.2. "Angular diameter of the retro-reflector sample (Symbol � )" means the angle
subtended by the greatest dimension of the retro-reflective sample, either at the centre of
the source of illumination or at the centre of the receiver (� = � = 0°);
2.4.3. "Angular diameter of the receiver (Symbol � )" means the angle subtended by the
greatest dimension of the receiver as seen from the reference centre (� = � = 0°);
2.4.4. "Luminance factor (Symbol �)" means the ratio of the luminance of the body to the
luminance of a perfect diffuser under identical conditions of illumination and observation.
2.4.5. "Colour of the reflected light of the device" The definitions of the colour of the reflected
light are given in Paragraphs 2.30. of Regulation No. 48.

5. APPROVAL
5.1. If the retro-reflective marking material submitted for approval in accordance with
Paragraph 4 above meets the requirements of this Regulation, approval for this type of
marking material shall be granted.
5.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
00 for the Regulation in its original form) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party may not assign the same number
to another type of retro-reflective marking material.
5.3. Notice of approval or refusal or extension of approval of a type of marking material under
this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply
this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to
this Regulation.
5.4. Every marking material conforming to a type approved under this Regulation shall bear, in
addition to the marks prescribed in Paragraph 4.1., a clearly legible and indelible
international approval mark consisting of:
5.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval.
5.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
according to Paragraph 5.2.
5.4.3. The following additional symbols indicating the class of material:
5.4.3.1. "C" for material for contour/strip marking;
5.4.3.2. "D" for material for distinctive markings/graphics intended for a limited area;
5.4.3.3. "E" for material for distinctive markings/graphics for extended area.
5.4.3.4. "D/E" for materials for distinctive markings or graphics as base or background in printing
process for fully coloured logos and markings of Class "E" in use which fulfil the
requirements of Class "D" materials.
5.4.3.5. "F" for materials for extremities marking with red and white retro-reflective alternative
stripes.
1 for Germany, 2 for France, 3 for Italy, 4 for the Netherlands, 5 for Sweden, 6 for Belgium, 7 for Hungary, 8 for the Czech
Republic, 9 for Spain, 10 for Yugoslavia, 11 for the United Kingdom, 12 for Austria, 13 for Luxembourg, 14 for Switzerland,
15 (vacant), 16 for Norway, 17 for Finland, 18 for Denmark, 19 for Romania, 20 for Poland, 21 for Portugal, 22 for the
Russian Federation, 23 for Greece, 24 for Ireland, 25 for Croatia, 26 for Slovenia, 27 for Slovakia, 28 for Belarus, 29 for
Estonia, 30 (vacant), 31 for Bosnia and Herzegovina, 32 for Latvia, 33 (vacant), 34 for Bulgaria, 35 (vacant), 36 for Lithuania,
37 for Turkey, 38 (vacant), 39 for Azerbaijan, 40 for The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 41 (vacant), 42 for the
European Community (Approvals are granted by its Member States using their respective UNECE symbol), 43 for Japan,
44 (vacant), 45 for Australia, 46 for Ukraine, 47 for Republic of South Africa, 48 for New Zealand, 49 for Cyprus, 50 for Malta,
51 for Republic of Korea, 52 for Malaysia, 53 for Thailand, 54 and 55 (vacant), 56 for Montenegro, 57 (vacant) and 58 for
Tunisia. Subsequent numbers shall be assigned to other countries in the chronological order in which they ratify or accede to
the Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts
which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals
Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions, and the numbers thus assigned shall be communicated by the
Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement

7.3. Depending on the nature of retro-reflective marking material, the competent authorities may
authorise laboratories to omit certain unnecessary tests, provided that such omission is
mentioned under "Remarks" on the form notifying approval.
8. MODIFICATIONS AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL FOR RETRO-REFLECTIVE
MARKING MATERIALS
8.1. Every modification of the retro-reflective marking material shall be notified to the
administrative department which granted the type approval. The department may then:
8.1.1. either consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have appreciable adverse effects
and that in any case the type of device still complies with the requirements;
8.1.2. or require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the
tests.
8.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be notified by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 5.3. above to the parties to the Agreement applying this
Regulation.
8.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
9. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:
9.1. Any retro-reflective marking material approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured
as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 6
and 7 above.
9.2. The conformity of production shall not be contested if the mean value of the photometric
measurements of five specimens taken at random deviates unfavourably by not more than
20% from the prescribed values given in Annex 7 of this Regulation.
9.3. The conformity of production shall not be contested, if the mean value of the colorimetric
properties of five specimens taken at random meet the specifications of Annex 6 of this
Regulation, to be judged by visual inspection.
9.4. The authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control
methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications
shall be once every two years.

ANNEX 1
Figure 1
The CIE Co-ordinate System
1:
First Axis
�:
Illumination Axis
�:
Observation angle
2:
Second Axis
O:
Observation Axis
� , � :
Entrance angles
R:
Reference Axis
ε:
Rotation angle
The CIE angular system for specifying and measuring retro-reflective marking
materials. The first axis is perpendicular to the plane containing the observation axis and the
illumination axis. The second axis is perpendicular both to the first axis and to the reference
axis. All axes, angles, and directions of rotation are shown positive.
Notes: (a) The principle fixed axis is the illumination axis.
(b)
(c)
The first axis is fixed perpendicular to the plane containing the
observation and illumination axis.
The reference axis is fixed in the retro-reflective material and moveable
with � and � .

ANNEX 2
COMMUNICATION
(maximum format: A4 (210 x 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of retro-reflective markings of heavy and long vehicles and their trailers, pursuant to Regulation No. 104
Approval No. .................................................. Extension No .................................
1. Trade name mark of the marking material: ................................................................................
2. Class of the marking material: C/D/E/F ...................................................................................
3. Name and address of the manufacturer: ...................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ..........................................
...................................................................................................................................................
5. Date on which the marking material was submitted for approval tests: .....................................
6. Technical service responsible for carrying out the approval test: ..............................................
7. Date of test report issued by the technical service: ...................................................................
8. Number of test report issued by the technical service: ..............................................................
9. Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................
10. Approval granted/refused/extended/withdrawn
11. Reason(s) for the extension (if applicable): ...............................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
Distinguishing number of the country which has granted/extended/refused withdrawn approval (see approval provisions in the
Regulation).
Strike out what does not apply.

ANNEX 3
ARRANGEMENT OF THE APPROVAL MARK
The retro-reflective marking material bearing the above approval mark has been approved in Germany
(E1) under approval number 0001148. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the
approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 104 in its original
form. Symbol "C" indicates the class of the retro-reflective material which is intended for contour/strip
marking. Symbol "D" shall indicate material for distinctive markings/graphics intended for a limited area
and Symbol "E" material for distinctive markings/graphics for extended area. Symbol "F" shall indicate
material intended for extremities marking.
Note:
The approval number and the additional symbol must be placed close to the circle and either
above or below the Letter "E" or to the left or right of that letter. The digits of the approval
number must be on the same side of the Letter "E" and face in the same direction. The
approval number and the additional symbol must be placed diametrically opposite one
another. The use of Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to prevent
any confusion with other symbols.

ANNEX 5
SPECIFICATION OF MARKING DIMENSIONS
1. SIDE AND REAR MARKING WITH STRIPS
1.1. General
1.2. Dimensions
The markings shall be made of strips of retro-reflective material.
1.2.1. The width of a side and/or rear marking material shall be 50mm + 10/-0mm.
1.2.2. The minimum length of an element of a retro-reflective marking material shall be such that
at least one approval mark is visible.
2. SIDE, REAR AND/OR FRONT MARKING WITH STRIPS (CLASS F)
2.1. General
2.2. Dimensions
The markings shall be made of strips of retro-reflective material.
2.2.1. Class F retro-reflective materials shall consist of red and white diagonal stripes each
100mm wide sloping outwards and downwards at 45°. The basic standard area is a square
of 141mm in length subdivided diagonally into a white half and red half, which represents
one standard area as shown in Figure 1.
2.2.2. The minimum length of an element of a retro-reflective marking material shall incorporate a
minimum of 9 standard areas as described in Paragraph 2.2.1. above on large vehicles with
available mounting space, but may be reduced to a minimum of 4 standard areas on
vehicles with limited mounting space.
Figure 1
Retro-reflective Material Marking of Class F

ANNEX 7
PHOTOMETRIC SPECIFICATIONS
1. When illuminated with a CIE Standard illuminant A and measured as recommended by
CIE Publication No. 54, 1982, the coefficient of retro-reflection R' in candelas per m per lux
(cd/m /lux) of the retro-reflective areas in new condition shall be at least as indicated in Table 1
for yellow, white and red materials.
1.1. Minimum values for the coefficient of Retro-reflection
Photometric specifications for retro-reflective markings of Class C:
Table 1
Minimum values for the Coefficient of Retro-Reflection R' [cd.m .lx ]
Observation angle � [°] Entrance angle � [°]
� = 0.33° (20') � 0 0 0 0 0
Colour
� 5 20 30 40 60
yellow 300 – 130 75 10
white 450 – 200 95 16
red 120 60 30 10 –
1.2. Maximum values for the coefficient of retro-reflection
Photometric specifications for distinctive markings or graphics of Class D.
Table 2
Minimum values for the Coefficient of Retro-Reflection R' [cd.m .lux ]
Observation angle � [°] Entrance angle � [°]
� = 0.33° (20')


Any colour 150 65 37 5

2.2. Immediately after completion of the test, the sample shall show no sign of corrosion liable to
impair the efficiency of the marking.
2.2.1. The coefficient of retro-reflection R' of the retro-reflective areas, when measured after a
recovery period of 48h as specified in Paragraph l of Annex 7, at an entrance angle of � =
5° and an observation angle of � = 20', shall be not less than the value in Annex 7, Table 1
or more than the value in Table 2 respectively. Before measuring, the surface shall be
cleaned to remove salt deposits from the saline mist.
3. RESISTANCE TO FUELS
A section of a sample unit not less than 300mm long shall be immersed in a mixture of
n-heptane and toluol, 70% and 30% by volume, for one minute.
After removal, the surface shall be wiped dry with a soft cloth and shall not show any visible
change which would reduce its effective performance.
4. RESISTANCE TO HEAT
4.1. A section of a sample unit not less than 300mm long shall be kept for 12h (in the case of
moulded plastics reflectors this time shall be 48h) in a dry atmosphere at a temperature of
65 ± 2°C after which the sample shall be allowed to cool for 1 hour at 23 ± 2°C. It shall then
be kept for 12h at a temperature of -20 ± 2°C.
4.2. The sample shall be examined after a recovery time of 4h under normal laboratory
conditions.
4.3. After this test, no cracking or appreciable distortion of the surface particularly of the optical
units, shall be evident.
5. RESISTANCE TO CLEANING
5.1. Manual Cleaning
5.1.1. A test sample smeared with a mixture of detergent lubricating oil and graphite shall be easily
cleaned without damage to the retro-reflective material surface when wiped with a mild
aliphatic solvent such as n-heptane, followed by washing with a neutral detergent.
5.2. Power Washing
5.2.1. When subjected to a continuous spraying action for 60s on the test component in its normal
mounting conditions, a test sample shall show no damage to the retro-reflective surface or
delamination from the substrate or separation from the sample mounting surface under the
following set-up parameters:
(a)
Water/wash solution pressure 8 � 0.2 MPa;
(b) Water/wash solution temperature 60� -5� C;
(c)
Water/wash solution flow rate 7 � 1 l/min;

9. FLEXING
9.1. For samples that are to be adhered to a flexible substrate, i.e. tarpaulin, the following shall
apply:
9.1.1. A specimen of the sample unit that measures 50mm by 300mm shall be bent once
lengthwise, around a 3.2mm mandrel with adhesive contacting the mandrel for a period of
1 second.
The test temperature shall be 23� C � 2� C.
Note:
For ease of testing, spread talcum powder on the adhesive to prevent sticking to the
mandrel.
9.1.2. After this test, specimen shall not have cracking of the surface and shall not show any
visible change that would reduce its effective performance.
Reflectors.