Regulation No. 109-00 Proposed Supplement 7

Name:Regulation No. 109-00 Proposed Supplement 7
Description:Retreaded Tyres - Commercial Vehicles. Proposed Supplement 7 to the 00 Series.
Official Title:Proposal for Supplement 7 to the Original Version of Regulation No. 109 (Retreaded Pneumatic Tyres for Commercial Vehicles and their Trailers).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2015-04-13
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:27
Information:Provisional Date of Entry into Force: January 20, 2016
Vehicle Types:Bus, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Trailer
Subject Categories:Drafts and Proposals (Historical)
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Keywords:

tyre, test, snow, tyres, paragraph, candidate, srtt, vehicle, control, index, speed, performance, reference, acceleration, read, load, average, conditions, grip, testing, regulation, slip, standard, annex, traction, relative, tests, tread, calculated, ratio, temperature, case, production, severe, insert, type, data, paragraphs, means, order, set, runs, size, surface, measured, service, range, approval, pressure, authority

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2015/67
PROPOSAL FOR SUPPLEMENT 7
TO THE ORIGINAL VERSION OF
REGULATION NO. 109
(RETREADED PNEUMATIC TYRES FOR COMMERICIAL
VEHICLES AND THEIR TRAILERS)
ADOPTED AT THE 166 SESSION – JUNE 2015
PROVISIONAL DATE OF ENTRY INTO FORCE: JANUARY 20, 2016

2.47. "Standard reference test tyre (SRTT)" means a tyre that is produced, controlled and
stored in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
standards:
(a)
E1136-93 (2003) for the size P195/75R14;
(b) F2872 (2011) for the size 225/75 R 16 C;
(c)
(d)
F2871 (2011) for the size 245/70R19.5;
F2870 (2011) for the size 315/70R22.5.
2.48. "Control tyre" means a new production tyre that is used to establish the snow grip
performance of tyre sizes unable to be fitted to the same vehicle as the standard
reference test tyre – see Paragraph 3.4.3. of Annex 10 to this Regulation.
2.49. "Snow grip index (SG)" means the ratio between the performance of the candidate tyre
and the performance of the standard reference test tyre.
2.50. "Candidate tyre" means a tyre, that is submitted to one of the procedures for snow
performance testing relative to snow tyre for use in severe snow conditions – see Annex
10 to this Regulation.
2.51. Class C2 tyres: Tyres conforming to Regulation No. 54 and identified by a load capacity
index in single formation lower or equal to 121 and a speed category symbol higher or
equal to "N";
2.52. Class C3 tyres: Tyres conforming to Regulation No. 54 and identified by:
(a)
(b)
A load capacity index in single formation higher or equal to 122 or;
A load capacity index in single formation lower or equal to 121 and a speed
category symbol lower or equal to "M"."
Insert a new Paragraph 3.2.7.1., to read:
"3.2.7.1. The "Alpine" symbol (3-peak-mountain with snowflake) shall be added if the snow tyre is
classified as "snow tyre for use in severe snow conditions.
In addition, in case a pre-cured tread is used for the retreading process, the inscription
M+S or MS or M.S. or M & S and the "Alpine" symbol shall be marked, at least once, on
both sides of the tread shoulder.
In both cases, the "Alpine" symbol ("3-peak-mountain with snowflake") shall conform to
the symbol described in Annex 10, Appendix 1."
Paragraph 3.2.12., amend to read:
"3.2.12. The Inscription "ET" or "ML" or "MPT" for Special Use Tyres."

Insert new Paragraphs 6.4.4.1. and 6.4.4.2. and a footnote , to read:
"6.4.4.1. For tyres retreaded by using pre-cured tread material with a tread pattern not covered by
Paragraph 6.4.4.2. having to fulfil the requirements of Paragraph 7.2. the retreader
shall ensure that either the manufacturer or the supplier of the pre-cured tread material
provides:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A copy of the test report(s) as in Annex 10, Appendix 3 of the representative tyre
size(s) (2.46) demonstrating compliance of the pre-cured tread to the
requirements of Paragraph 7.2.;
The list of tyre sizes to which it can be applied for the retreading process and
validated by the same designated Technical Service and/or TAA which issued the
test report in Paragraph 6.4.4.1. a)
A copy of the measures taken to ensure the conformity of production. These
measures shall include test results demonstrating that the minimum levels of the
snow performances required in Paragraph 7.2.1 will be maintained.
________________________
6.4.4.2. For tyres retreaded by using either mould cure or pre-cured tread material with the same
major features including tread pattern(s) as a new tyre type approved according to
Regulation No. 117 having fulfilled the requirements about minimum snow performance
in severe snow conditions, the retreader shall ensure that the manufacturer of the new
tyre type provides either directly to the Type Approval Authority (or Technical Service) or
to the retreader: a copy of the UN Regulation No. 117 certificate(s) and a copy of the
appropriate test report(s) issued by a designated Technical Service** demonstrating
compliance of the new tyre to the minimum snow performance in severe snow
conditions.
(a)
(b)
(c)
The list of tyre sizes to which it can be applied for the retreading process and
validated by the same designated Technical Service and/or TAA that issued the
Regulation No. 117 certificate(s);
The drawing(s) of the tread pattern(s) covered by the certificate(s);
A copy of the last report of the Conformity of Production as required in UN
Regulation No. 177."
________________________
Paragraph 6.6., amend to read:
"6.6. Performance Tests"
Insert a new Paragraph 6.6.1., to read:
"6.6.1. Load/Speed Endurance Test:"

Paragraph 9.2.1., amend to read:
"9.2.1. 0.01% of the total annual production but in any case not less than 2 and not necessarily
more than 10 during each year of production, and spread throughout that year;"
Insert a new Paragraph 9.2.2., to read:
"9.2.2. At least 1 tyre once every two years in order to verify conformity of the performance of
the snow tyres for use in severe snow conditions fulfilling Paragraph 6.6.2. and not
covered by Paragraphs 6.4.4.1. or 6.4.4.2."
Insert a new Paragraph 9.2.3., to read
"9.2.3. At least 1 tyre once every four years in order to verify conformity of the performance of
the snow tyres for use in severe snow conditions fulfilling Paragraph 6.6.2. and covered
by Paragraphs 6.4.4.1. or 6.4.4.2. This requirement can be fulfilled through the analysis
either of the test results requested in Paragraph 6.4.4.1.c or the report(s) requested in
Paragraph 6.4.4.2.c."
Paragraph 9.4., amend to read:
"9.4. The authority which has approved the retreading production unit may at any time verify
the conformity control methods applied in each production facility including among others
the prescriptions defined in the Paragraph 6.4.4.1.c and 6.4.4.2.c. For each production
facility, the type Approval Authority shall take samples at random and at least the
following number of tyres, representative of the range being produced, shall be checked
and tested as prescribed in this Regulation:"
Paragraph 9.4.1., amend to read:
"9.4.1. 0.01% of the total annual production but in any case not less than 2 and not necessarily
more than 10 during each and every production year;"
Insert a new Paragraph 9.4.2., to read:
"9.4.2. At least 1 tyre once every two years in order to verify conformity of the performance of
the snow tyres for use in severe snow conditions fulfilling Paragraph 6.6.2. and not
covered by Paragraphs 6.4.4.1. or 6.4.4.2."
Insert a new Paragraph 9.4.3., to read:
"9.4.3. A least 1 tyre once every four years in order to verify conformity of the performance of
the snow tyres for use in severe snow conditions fulfilling Paragraph 6.6.2. and covered
by Paragraphs 6.4.4.1. or 6.4.4.2. This requirement can be fulfilled through the analysis
either of the test results requested in Paragraph 6.4.4.1.c or the report(s) requested in
Paragraph 6.4.4.2.c."

3.1.2. Vehicle
3.1.3. Tyres
The air temperature, measured about one meter above the ground, shall be between -
2°C and -15°C; the snow temperature, measured at a depth of about one centimetre,
shall be between -4°C and -15°C.
It is recommended to avoid direct sunlight, large variations of sunlight or humidity, as
well as wind.
The snow compaction index measured with a CTI penetrometer shall be between 75
and 85.
The test shall be conducted with a standard production vehicle in good running order and
equipped with an ABS system.
The vehicle used shall be such that the loads on each wheel are appropriate to the tyres
being tested. Several different tyre sizes can be tested on the same vehicle.
The tyres should be "broken-in" prior to testing to remove spew, compound nodules or
flashes resulting from the moulding process. The tyre surface in contact with snow shall
be cleaned before performing a test.
Tyres shall be conditioned at the outdoor ambient temperature at least two hours before
their mounting for tests. Tyre pressures shall then be adjusted to the values specified for
the test.
In case a vehicle cannot accommodate both the reference and candidate tyres, a third
tyre ("control" tyre) may be used as an intermediate. First test control vs. reference on
another vehicle, then test candidate vs. control on the vehicle.
3.1.4. Load and Pressure
3.1.4.1. For C2 tyres, the vehicle load shall be such that the resulting loads on the tyres are
between 60% and 100%of the load corresponding to the tyre load index.
The static tyre load on the same axle should not differ by more than 10%.
The inflation pressure is calculated to run at constant deflection:

When it is no longer possible not to overlap full ABS-braking zones, the test course shall
be re-groomed.
Required sequence:
3.2.2. Order of Testing:
6 repeats SRTT, then shift aside to test next tyre on fresh surface;
6 repeats Candidate 1, then shift aside;
6 repeats Candidate 2, then shift aside;
6 repeats SRTT, then shift aside.
If only one candidate tyre is to be evaluated, the order of testing shall be:
Where:
R1 - T - R2
R1: is the initial test of the SRTT, R2 is the repeat test of the SRTT and T is the test of
the candidate tyre to be evaluated.
A maximum of two candidate tyres may be tested before repeating the SRTT test,
for example:
R1 - T1 - T2 - R2.
3.2.3. The comparative tests of SRTT and candidate tyres shall be repeated on two different
days.
3.3. Test Procedure
3.3.1. Drive the vehicle at a speed not lower than 28km/h.
3.3.2. When the measuring zone has been reached, the vehicle gear is set into neutral, the
brake pedal is depressed sharply by a constant force sufficient to cause operation of the
ABS on all wheels of the vehicle and to result in stable deceleration of the vehicle and
held down until the speed is lower than 8km/h.
3.3.3. The mean fully developed deceleration between 25km/h and 10km/h shall be computed
from time, distance, speed, or acceleration measurements.

3.4.3. In the case where the candidate tyres cannot be fitted to the same vehicle as the SRTT,
for example, due to tyre size, inability to achieve required loading and so on, comparison
shall be made using intermediate tyres, hereinafter referred to as "control tyres", and two
different vehicles. One vehicle shall be capable of being fitted with the SRTT and the
control tyre and the other vehicle shall be capable of being fitted with the control tyre and
the candidate tyre.
3.4.3.1. The snow grip index of the control tyre relative to the SRTT (SG1) and of the candidate
tyre relative to the control tyre (SG2) shall be established using the procedure in
Paragraphs 3.1. to 3.4.2. above.
The snow grip index of the candidate tyre relative to the SRTT shall be the product of the
two resulting snow grip indices that is SG1 × SG2.
3.4.3.2. The ambient conditions shall be comparable. All tests shall be completed within the
same day.
3.4.3.3. The same set of control tyres shall be used for comparison with the SRTT and with the
candidate tyre and shall be fitted in the same wheel positions.
3.4.3.4. Control tyres that have been used for testing shall subsequently be stored under the
same conditions as required for the SRTT.
3.4.3.5. The SRTT and control tyres shall be discarded if there is irregular wear or damage or
when the performance appears to have been deteriorated.
4. ACCELERATION METHOD FOR CLASS C3 TYRES
4.1. According to the definition of C3 tyres reported into Paragraph 2.52. of this Regulation,
the additional classification for the purpose of this test method only applies:
(a)
(b)
C3 Narrow (C3N), when the C3 tyre nominal section width is lower than 285mm;
C3 Wide (C3W), when the C3 tyre nominal section width is greater or equal to
285mm.
4.2. Methods for Measuring Snow Grip index (SG)
Snow performance is based on a test method by which the average acceleration in an
acceleration test, of a candidate tyre is compared to that of a standard reference tyre.
The relative performance shall be indicated by a snow grip index.
When tested in accordance with the acceleration test in Paragraph 4.7. below, the
average acceleration of a candidate snow tyre shall be at least 1.25 compared to one of
the two equivalent SRTTs – ASTM F 2870 and ASTM F 2871.

4.4.1.2. The snow compaction index measured with a CTI penetrometer shall be between 80 and
90. Refer to the appendix of ASTM F1805 for additional details on measuring method.
4.4.1.3. The air temperature, measured about one meter above the ground, shall be between -
2°C and -15°C; the snow temperature, measured at a depth of about one centimetre,
shall be between -4°C and -15°C.
Air temperature shall not vary more than 10°C during the test.
4.5. Tyres Preparation and Break-in
4.5.1. Fit the test tyres on rims as per ISO 4209-1 using conventional mounting methods.
Ensure proper bead seating by the use of a suitable lubricant. Excessive use of lubricant
should be avoided to prevent slipping of the tyre on the wheel rim.
4.5.2. The tyres should be "broken-in" prior to testing to remove spew, compound nodules or
flashes resulting from moulding process.
4.5.3. Tyres shall be conditioned at the outdoor ambient temperature at least two hours before
their mounting for tests.
They should be placed such that they all have the same ambient temperature prior to
testing and be shielded from the sun to avoid excessive heating by solar radiation.
The tyre surface in contact with snow shall be cleaned before performing a test.
Tyre pressures shall then be adjusted to the values specified for the test.
4.6. Testing Sequence
If only one candidate tyre is to be evaluated, the order of testing shall be:
Where:
R1, T, R2
R1
is the initial test of the SRTT, R2 is the repeat test of the SRTT and T is the test of
the candidate tyre to be evaluated.
A maximum of 3 candidate tyres may be tested before repeating the SRTT test,
for example: R1, T1, T2, T3, R2.
Recommendations are that the zones where acceleration is fully applied shall not
overlap without reworking and when a new set of tyres is tested;
The runs are performed after shifting the vehicle trajectory in order not to
accelerate on the tracks of the previous tyre; when it is no longer possible not to
overlap full acceleration zones, the test course should be re-groomed.

4.7.4. Load and inflation pressure
4.7.4.1. The static load on each rear driven test tyres must be between 20% and 55% of the
tested tyre load capacity written on the sidewall.
The vehicle front steer total static axle load should be between 60% and 160% of the
driven rear total axle load.
The static tyre load on the same driven axle should not differ by more than 10%
4.7.4.2. The driven tyres inflation pressure shall be 70% of the one written on the sidewall.
4.7.5. Testing Runs
The steer tyres are inflated at nominal sidewall pressure
4.7.5.1. Mount first the set of reference tyres on the vehicle and when on the testing area.
Drive the vehicle at an initial constant speed between 4km/h and 11km/h and the gear
ratio capable of covering the speed range of 19km/h.
Recommended gear ratio selected is third or fourth and shall give minimum 13%
average slip ratio in the measured range of speed.
4.7.5.2. In case of Traction Control System equipped vehicles (already switched "on" before the
run) apply full throttle until the vehicle has reached the final speed.
Final speed = Initial speed + 15km/h
No rearward restraining force shall be applied to the test vehicle.
4.7.5.2.1. In the particular case of Paragraph 4.7.2.1.1. above where it is not possible to find a
standard commercial vehicle having the Traction Control system, the driver maintains
manually the averaged slip ratio range of 20% ± 10% (Controlled Slip procedure in place
of the Full Slip) in the same range of speeds. All the tyres and runs in the test session
are performed with Controlled Slip procedure.
4.7.5.3. Measure the distance and the time between the initial speed and the final speed.
4.7.5.4. For every candidate tyre and the standard reference tyre, the acceleration test runs shall
be repeated a minimum of 6 times and the coefficients of variation
(standard deviation/average × 100) calculated for minimum 6 valid runs on the distance
and the time should be lower than or equal to 6%.
4.7.5.5. In case of Traction Control System equipped vehicle, the average slip ratio shall be in
the range from 13% to 40% (calculated as per in Paragraph 4.3.4. above).
4.7.5.6. Apply testing sequence as defined in Paragraph 4.6. above.

4.8.3. Calculation of the "average AA"
If R1 is the average of the "AA" values in the first test of the reference tyre, R2 is the
average of the "AA" values in the second test of the reference tyre, the following
operations are performed, according to Table 1 below.
If the number of sets of
candidate tyres between two
successive runs of the
reference tyre is:
Table 1
and the set of candidate
tyres to be qualified is:
then "Ra" is calculated by
applying the following:
1 R − T1 − R
T1 Ra = 1/2 (R1 + R2)
2 R − T1 − T2 − R T1
T2
1 R − T1 − T2 − T3 − R
T1
T2
T3
Ra = 2/3 R1 + 1/3 R2
Ra = 1/3 R1 + 2/3 R2
Ra = 3/4 R1 + 1/4 R2
Ra = 1/2 (R1 + R2)
Ra = 1/4 R1 + 3/4 R2
"Ta" (a = 1, 2, …) is the average of the AA values for a test of a candidate tyre.
4.8.4. "AFC" Calculation (Acceleration Force Coefficient)
Also called AFC Acceleration Force Coefficient
Calculation on of AFC(Ta) and AFC(Ra) as defined in Table 2 :
Table 2
The acceleration force coefficient "AFC" is:
Reference tyre
AFC (R) =
Ra
g
Candidate tyre
AFC(T) =
Ta
Ra and Ta are in m/s
"g"= gravity acceleration (rounded to 9.81m/s )
g

The snow grip performance index of the candidate tyre compared to the reference tyre is
deduced by multiplying the relative efficiencies calculated above:
Snow Grip Index = SG1 × SG2
4.9.3. Selection of a Set of Tyres as a Control Tyre Set
A control tyre set is a group of identical tyres made in the same factory during one week
period.
4.10. Storage and Preservation
Before the first assessment (control tyre / reference tyre), normal storage conditions can
be used. It is necessary that all the tyres of a control tyre set have been stored in the
same conditions.
As soon as the control tyre set has been assessed in comparison with the reference tyre,
specific storage conditions shall be applied for control tyres replacement.
When irregular wear or damage results from tests, or when wear influences the test
results, the use of the tyre shall be discontinued."

Add a new Appendix 2 to Annex 10, to read:
"ANNEX 10 - APPENDIX 2
TEST REPORTS AND TEST DATA FOR C2 TYRES
Part 1 – Report
1.
Type Approval Authority or Technical Service: .....................................................................
2.
Name and address of applicant: ...........................................................................................
3.
Test report No.: ....................................................................................................................
4.
Manufacturer and brand name or trade description:
5.
Tyre class: .............................................................................................................................
6.
Category of use: ....................................................................................................................
7.
Snow index relative to SRTT according to Paragraph 7.2.1.
7.1.
Test procedure and SRTT used ...........................................................................................
8.
Comments (if any): ................................................................................................................
9.
Date: ......................................................................................................................................
10.
Signature: ..............................................................................................................................
11.
Signature of the technical service:
12.
Signature of the Type Approval Authority:
Part 2 - Test data
1.
Date of test: ..................................................................................................................
2.
Location of test track: ..................................................................................................

5. Test Results: Mean Fully Developed Decelerations (m/s ) / Traction Coefficient.
Run number
Specification
SRTT
(1st test)
Candidate
Candidate
SRTT
(2nd test)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Mean
Std-deviation
CV (%) <6%
Validation
SRTT
(SRTT) <5%
SRTT average
Snow index 1.00

3.
Test vehicle (make, model and type, year): ..........................................................................
4.
Test tyre details .....................................................................................................................
4.1.
Tyre size designation and service description: .....................................................................
4.2.
Tyre brand and trade description: .........................................................................................
4.3.
Test tyre data: .......................................................................................................................
SRTT
test)
(1st
Candidate 1
Candidate 2
Candidate 3
SRTT
(2nd
test)
Tyre
dimensions
Test rim width
code
Tyre loads F/R
(kg)
Load index
F/R (per cent)
Tyre pressure
F/R (kPa)
5. Test results: average accelerations (m/s )
Run number
Specification
SRTT
(1st test)
Candidate
1
Candidate
2
Candidate
3
SRTT
(2nd test)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Mean
Std-deviation
Slip ratio (%)
CV (%) < 6%
Validation (SRTT) < 5%
SRTT
SRTT
average
Snow index 1.00
Retreaded Tyres - Commercial Vehicles. Proposed Supplement 7 to the 00 Series.