Regulation No. 112-00

Name:Regulation No. 112-00
Description:Headlamps - Asymmetrical Passing/Driving Beam - Filament Lamps and/or LED Modules.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Motor Vehicle Headlamps Emitting an Asymmetrical Passing Beam or a Driving Beam or Both and Equipped with Filament Lamps and/or LED Modules.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2001-09-21
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 12
Number of Pages:75
Vehicle Types:Agricultural Tractor, Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

headlamp, beam, regulation, paragraph, test, approval, led, passing, module, light, lamp, headlamps, requirements, driving, annex, traffic, source, tests, filament, samples, photometric, figure, case, sample, point, line, position, designed, values, lens, cut-off, part, type, material, time, maximum, mark, class, lamps, measured, force, vertical, left-hand, number, approved, amendments, lit, accordance, paragraphs, supplement

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.2/Add.111/Rev.2
September 20, 2010
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 112-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
MOTOR VEHICLE HEADLAMPS EMITTING AN ASYMMETRICAL PASSING
BEAM OR A DRIVING BEAM OR BOTH AND EQUIPPED WITH
FILAMENT LAMPS AND/OR LED MODULES
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 21.09.01
Supplement 6 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.10.06
Supplement 7 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.02.07
Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.07.08
Corr. 1 to Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 09.04.08
Corr. 2 to Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 30.04.09
Corr. 3 to Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 16.06.10
Supplement 9 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08
Supplement 10 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Supplement 11 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.10
Supplement 12 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 19.08.10

REGULATION NO. 112
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF MOTOR VEHICLE
HEADLAMPS EMITTING AN ASYMMETRICAL PASSING BEAM OR A DRIVING
BEAM OR BOTH AND EQUIPPED WITH FILAMENT LAMPS AND/OR LED MODULES
CONTENTS
REGULATION
A. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS
0. Scope
1. Definitions
2. Application for approval of a headlamp
3. Markings
4. Approval
B. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HEADLAMPS
5. General specifications
6. Illumination
7. Colour
8. Gauging of discomfort
C. FURTHER ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS
9. Modification of the headlamp type and extension of approval
10. Conformity of production
11. Penalties for non-conformity of production
12. Production definitely discontinued
13. Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
Administrative Departments
14. Transitional Provisions

A. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS
0. SCOPE
REGULATION NO. 112
This Regulation applies to headlamps for vehicles of Categories L, M, N and T .
1. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Regulation,
1.1. "Lens" means the outermost component of the headlamp (unit) which transmits light
through the illuminating surface;
1.2. "Coating" means any product or products applied in one or more layers to the outer face of
a lens;
1.3. Headlamps of different "types" mean headlamps which differ in such essential respects as:
1.3.1. The trade name or mark;
1.3.2. The characteristics of the optical system;
1.3.3. The inclusion or elimination of components capable of altering the optical effects by
reflection, refraction, absorption and/or deformation during operation.
1.3.4. Suitability for right-hand or left-hand traffic or for both traffic systems;
1.3.5. The kind of beam produced (passing beam, driving beam or both);
1.3.6. The materials constituting the lenses and coating, if any;
1.3.7. The category of filament lamp used and/or the LED module specific identification code(s).
1.3.8. However, a device intended for the installation on the left side of the vehicle and the
corresponding device intended for the installation on the right side of the vehicle shall be
considered to be of the same type.
1.4. Headlamps of different "Classes" (A or B) mean headlamps identified by particular
photometric provisions.
1.5. The definitions given in Regulation No. 48 and its series of amendments in force at the time
of application for type approval shall apply to this Regulation.
1.6. References made in this Regulation to standard (étalon) filament lamp(s) and to
Regulation No. 37 shall refer to Regulation No. 37 and its series of amendments in force at
the time of application for type approval.

2.2.4.1.2. Every such lens or sample of material shall be produced by the method to be used in mass
production;
2.2.4.2. A reflector to which the lenses can be fitted in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions.
2.2.5. For testing the ultraviolet (UV)-resistance of light transmitting components made of plastic
material against UV radiation of LED modules inside the headlamp:
2.2.5.1. One sample of each of the relevant material as being used in the headlamp or one
headlamp sample containing these. Each material sample shall have the same appearance
and surface treatment, if any, as intended for use in the headlamp to be approved;
2.2.5.2. The UV-resistance testing of internal materials to light source radiation is not necessary if no
LED modules other than low-UV-types as specified in Annex 10 of this Regulation are being
applied or if provisions are taken, to shield the relevant headlamp components from UV
radiation, e.g. by glass filters.
2.2.6. One electronic light source control gear, if applicable.
2.3. The materials making up the lenses and coatings, if any, shall be accompanied by the test
report of the characteristics of these materials and coatings if they have already been
tested.
3. MARKINGS
3.1. Headlamps submitted for approval shall bear the trade name or mark of the applicant.
3.2. They shall comprise, on the lens and on the main body, spaces of sufficient size for the
approval mark and the additional symbols referred to in Paragraph 4; these spaces shall be
indicated on the drawings referred to in Paragraph 2.2.1. above.
3.3. Headlamps equipped with passing beam designed to satisfy the requirements both of righthand
and of left-hand traffic shall bear markings indicating the two settings of the optical unit
or LED module on the vehicle or of the filament lamp on the reflector; these markings shall
consist of the Letters "R/D" for the position for right-hand traffic and the Letters "L/G" for the
position for left-hand traffic.
3.4. In the case of lamps with LED module(s), the lamp shall bear the marking of the rated
voltage and rated wattage and the light source module specific identification code.
3.5. LED module(s) submitted along with the approval of the lamp:
3.5.1. Shall bear the trade name or mark of the applicant. This marking shall be clearly legible and
indelible;

4.2. Composition of the Approval Mark
The approval mark shall consist of:
4.2.1. An international approval marking, comprising:
4.2.1.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval;
4.2.1.2. The approval number prescribed in Paragraph 4.1.3. above;
4.2.2. The following additional symbol (or symbols):
4.2.2.1. On headlamps meeting left-hand traffic requirements only, a horizontal arrow pointing to the
right of an observer facing the headlamp, i.e. to the side of the road on which the traffic
moves;
4.2.2.2. On headlamps designed to meet the requirements of both traffic systems by means of an
appropriate adjustment of the setting of the optical unit or the filament lamp or LED
module(s), a horizontal arrow with a head on each end, the heads pointing respectively to
the left and to the right;
4.2.2.3. On headlamps meeting the requirements of this Regulation in respect of the passing beam
only, the Letters "C" for Class A headlamp or "HC" for Class B headlamp;
4.2.2.4 On headlamps meeting the requirements of this Regulation in respect of the driving beam
only, the Letters "R" for Class A headlamp or "HR" for Class B headlamp;
4.2.2.5. On headlamps meeting the requirements of this Regulation in respect of both the passing
beam and the driving beam, the Letters "CR" for Class A headlamp or "HCR" for Class B
headlamp;
4.2.2.6. On headlamps incorporating a lens of plastic material, the group of Letters "PL" to be affixed
near the symbols prescribed in Paragraphs 4.2.2.3. to 4.2.2.5. above;

4.3.2. Grouped, Combined or Reciprocally Incorporated Lamps
4.3.2.1. Where grouped, combined or reciprocally incorporated lamps have been found to comply
with the requirements of several Regulations, a single international approval mark may be
affixed, consisting of a circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing
number of the country which has granted the approval, and an approval number. This
approval mark may be located anywhere on the grouped, combined or reciprocally
incorporated lamps, provided that:
4.3.2.1.1. It is visible as per Paragraph 4.2.5.;
4.3.2.1.2. No part of the grouped, combined or reciprocally incorporated lamps that transmits light can
be removed without at the same time removing the approval mark.
4.3.2.2. The identification symbol for each lamp appropriate to each Regulation under which
approval has been granted, together with the corresponding series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments to the Regulation at the time of
issue of the approval, and if necessary, the required arrow shall be marked:
4.3.2.2.1. Either on the appropriate light-emitting surface,
4.3.2.2.2. Or in a group, in such a way that each of the grouped, combined or reciprocally incorporated
lamps may be clearly identified (see four possible examples in Annex 2).
4.3.2.3. The size of the components of a single approval mark shall not be less than the minimum
size required for the smallest of the individual marks by the Regulation under which
approval has been granted.
4.3.2.4. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. The same Contracting Party
may not assign the same number to another type of grouped, combined or reciprocally
incorporated lamps covered by this Regulation.
4.3.2.5. Figure 11 of Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks
for grouped, combined or reciprocally incorporated lamps with all the above-mentioned
additional symbols.
4.3.3. Lamps, the Lens of which are Used for Different Types of Headlamps and which may be
Reciprocally Incorporated or Grouped with Other Lamps
The provisions laid down in Paragraph 4.3.2. above are applicable.
4.3.3.1. In addition, where the same lens is used, the latter may bear the different approval marks
relating to the different types of headlamps or units of lamps, provided that the main body of
the headlamp, even if it cannot be separated from the lens, also comprises the space
described in Paragraph 3.2. above and bears the approval marks of the actual functions.
If different types of headlamps comprise the same main body, the latter may bear the
different approval marks.
4.3.3.2. Figure 12 of Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks
relating to the above case.

5.4. Headlamps designed to satisfy the requirements both of right-hand and of left-hand traffic
may be adapted for traffic on a given side of the road either by an appropriate initial setting
when fitted on the vehicle or by selective setting by the user. Such initial or selective setting
may consist, for example, of fixing either the optical unit at a given angle on the vehicle or
the filament lamp or LED module(s) producing the principal passing beam at a given
angle/position in relation to the optical unit. In all cases, only two different and clearly
distinct settings, one for right-hand and one for left-hand traffic, shall be possible, and the
design shall preclude inadvertent shifting from one setting to the other or setting in an
intermediate position. Where two different setting positions are provided for the filament
lamp or LED module(s) producing the principal passing beam, the components for attaching
the filament lamp or LED module(s) producing the principal passing beam to the reflector
must be so designed and made that, in each of its two settings, this filament lamp or LED
module(s) will be held in position with the precision required for headlamps designed for
traffic on only one side of the road. Conformity with the requirements of this paragraph shall
be verified by visual inspection and, where necessary, by a test fitting.
5.5. Complementary tests shall be done according to the requirements of Annex 4 to ensure that
in use there is no excessive change in photometric performance.
5.6. Light transmitting components made of plastic material shall be tested according to the
requirements of Annex 6.
5.7. On headlamps designed to provide alternately a driving beam and a passing beam, or a
passing beam and/or a driving beam designed to become bend lighting, any mechanical,
electromechanical or other device incorporated in the headlamp for these purposes shall be
so constructed that:
5.7.1. The device is robust enough to withstand 50 000 operations under normal conditions of use.
In order to verify compliance with this requirement, the Technical Service responsible for
approval tests may:
(a)
(b)
Require the applicant to supply the equipment necessary to perform the test;
Forego the test if the headlamp presented by the applicant is accompanied by a test
report, issued by a Technical Service responsible for approval tests for headlamps of
the same construction (assembly), confirming compliance with this requirement.
5.7.2. In the case of failure the illumination above the Line H-H shall not exceed the values of a
passing beam according to Paragraph 6.2.4.; in addition, on headlamps designed to provide
a passing and/or a driving beam to become a bend lighting, a minimum illumination of at
least 3 lux shall be fulfilled in test Point 25 V (V-V line, D 75 cm).
When performing the tests to verify compliance with these requirements, the Technical
Service responsible for approval tests shall refer to the instructions supplied by the
applicant.
5.7.3. Either the passing beam or the driving beam shall always be obtained without any possibility
of the mechanism stopping in between two positions;
5.7.4. The user cannot, with ordinary tools, change the shape or position of the moving parts.

6.1.3. Apart from LED module(s), the headlamps shall be checked by means of an uncoloured
standard (étalon) filament lamp designed for a rated voltage of 12 V. During the checking of
the headlamp, the voltage at the terminals of the filament lamp shall be regulated so as to
obtain the reference luminous flux as indicated for each filament lamp at the relevant data
sheet of Regulation No. 37. The headlamp shall be considered acceptable if it meets the
requirements of Paragraph 6 with at least one standard (étalon) filament lamp, which may
be submitted with the headlamp.
6.1.4. LED module(s) shall be measured at 6.3 V, 13.2 V or 28.0 V respectively, if not otherwise
specified within this Regulation. LED module(s) operated by an electronic light source
control gear, shall be measured as specified by the applicant.
The values obtained by the LED module(s) shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.7 prior to
check for compliance.
6.1.5. In the case of headlamps equipped with LED module(s) and filament lamps, the part of the
headlamp with filament lamp(s) shall be tested according to Paragraph 6.1.3 and the part of
the headlamp with LED module(s) shall be evaluated according to the provisions of
Paragraph 6.1.4 and then added to the previous result obtained from the filament lamp(s)
tested.
6.2. Provisions Concerning Passing Beams
6.2.1. The luminous intensity distribution of the principal passing beam headlamp shall incorporate
a "cut-off" (see Figure 1), which enables the headlamp to be adjusted correctly for the
photometric measurements and for the aiming on the vehicle.
The "cut-off" shall provide:
(a)
For right-hand traffic beams:
(i)
(ii)
A straight "horizontal part" towards the left;
A raised "elbow - shoulder" part towards the right.
(b)
For left-hand traffic beams:
(i)
(ii)
A straight "horizontal part" towards the right;
A raised "elbow − shoulder" part towards the left.
In each case the "elbow-shoulder" part shall have a sharp edge.

6.2.2.3. Where a headlamp so aimed does not meet the requirements set out in Paragraphs 6.2.4.
to 6.2.6. and 6.3., its alignment may be changed, provided that the axis of the beam is not
displaced:
Horizontally from Line A by more than:
(a)
(b)
0.5° to the left or 0.75° to the right, for right-hand traffic; or
0.5° to the right or 0.75° to the left, for left-hand traffic; and
vertically not more than 0.25° up or down from Line B.
6.2.2.4. If, however, vertical adjustment cannot be performed repeatedly to the required position
within the tolerances described in Paragraph 6.2.2.3 above, the instrumental method of
Annex 9, Paragraphs 2 and 3 shall be applied to test compliance with the required minimum
quality of the "cut-off" and to perform the vertical and horizontal adjustment of the beam.
6.2.3. When so aimed, the headlamp, if its approval is sought solely for provision of a passing
beam, need comply only with the requirements set out in Paragraphs 6.2.4 to 6.2.6 below;
if it is intended to provide both a passing beam and a driving beam, it shall comply with the
requirements set out in Paragraphs 6.2.4 to 6.2.6. and 6.3.
6.2.4. The illumination produced on the screen by the passing beam shall meet the following
requirements:
Point on measuring screen
Headlamps for
right-hand traffic
Point B 50 L
Point 75 R
Point 75 L
Point 50 L
Point 50 R
Point 50 V
Point 25 L
Point 25 R
Any point in Zone III
Any point in Zone IV
Any point in Zone I
Headlamps for
left-hand traffic
Point B 50 R
Point 75 L
Point 75 R
Point 50 R
Point 50 L
Point 50 V
Point 25 R
Point 25 L
Required illumination in lux
Class A
headlamp
≤ 0.4
≥ 6
≤ 12
≤ 15
≥ 6

≥ 1.5
≥ 1.5
≤ 0.7
≥ 2
≤ 20
Class B
headlamp
≤ 0.4
≥ 12
≤ 12
≤ 15
≥ 12
≥ 6
≥ 2
≥ 2
≤ 0.7
≥ 3
≤ 2E

6.2.9.3. In the event of failure of an additional filament light source or one or more additional LED
module(s), the headlamp shall continue to fulfil the requirements of the passing beam.
6.3. Provisions Concerning Driving Beams
6.3.1. In the case of a headlamp designed to provide a driving beam and a passing beam,
measurements of the illumination produced on the screen by the driving beam shall be
taken with the same headlamp alignment as for measurements under Paragraphs 6.2.4. to
6.2.6. above; in the case of a headlamp providing a driving beam only, it shall be so
adjusted that the area of maximum illumination is centred on the point of intersection of
Lines H-H and V-V; such a headlamp need meet only the requirements referred to in
Paragraph 6.3. Where more than one light source is used to provide the driving beam, the
combined functions shall be used to determine the maximum value of the illumination (EM).
6.3.2. Irrespective of the type of light source (LED module(s) or filament light source(s)) used to
produce the principal passing beam, several light sources:
(a)
(b)
Either filament light sources listed in Regulation No. 37; or
LED module(s) may be used for each individual driving beam.
6.3.3. The illumination produced on the screen by the driving beam shall meet the following
requirements.
6.3.3.1. The point of intersection (HV) of Lines h-h and vv shall be situated within the isolux 80% of
maximum illumination. This maximum value (E ) shall not be less than 32 lux for
Class A headlamps and 48 lux for Class B headlamps. The maximum value shall in no
circumstances exceed 240 lux; in addition, in the case of a combined passing and driving
headlamp, this maximum value shall not be more than 16 times the illumination measured
for the passing beam at Point 75 R (or 75 L).
6.3.3.1.1. The maximum intensity (I ) of the driving beam expressed in thousands of candelas shall be
calculated by the formula:
I = 0.625 E
6.3.3.1.2. The reference mark (I ) of this maximum intensity, referred to in Paragraph 4.2.2.7. above,
shall be obtained by the ratio:
I
I' = = 0.208 E
3
This value shall be rounded off to the value 7.5 - 10 - 12.5 - 17.5 - 20 - 25 - 27.5 - 30 - 37.5 -
40 - 45 - 50.
6.3.3.2. Starting from Point HV, horizontally to the right and left, the illumination shall be not less
than 16 lux for Class A headlamp and 24 lux for Class B headlamp up to a distance of
1.125 m and not less than 4 lux for Class A headlamp and 6 lux for Class B headlamp up to
a distance of 2.25 m.

C. FURTHER ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS
9. MODIFICATION OF THE HEADLAMP TYPE AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL
9.1. Every modification of the headlamp type shall be notified to the Administrative Department
which approved the headlamp type. The said department may then either:
9.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have appreciable adverse effects and
that in any event the headlamp still complies with the requirements; or
9.1.2. Require a further test report from the Technical Service responsible for conducting the tests.
9.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.1.4. above to the Parties to the Agreement which apply
this Regulation.
9.3. The Competent Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension and inform thereof the other
Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form
conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
10. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) with the following requirements:
10.1. Headlamps approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the
type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 6 and 7.
10.2. The minimum requirements for conformity of production control procedures set fourth in
Annex 5 to this Regulation shall be complied with.
10.3. The minimum requirements for sampling by an inspector set forth in Annex 7 to this
Regulation shall be complied with.
10.4. The authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control
methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications
shall be once every two years.
10.5. Headlamps with apparent defects are disregarded.
10.6. The reference mark is disregarded.
11. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
11.1. The approval granted in respect of a type of headlamp pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements are not complied with or if a headlamp bearing the approval
mark does not conform to the type approved.
11.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297 mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of headlamp pursuant to Regulation No. 112
Approval No....................
Extension No.....................
1.
Trade name or mark of the device:...............................................................................................
2.
Manufacturer's name for the type of device: ................................................................................
3.
Manufacturer's name and address: ..............................................................................................
4.
If applicable, name and address of the manufacturer's representative:.......................................
5.
Submitted for approval on: ...........................................................................................................
6.
Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: .....................................................
7.
Date of report issued by that service:...........................................................................................
8.
Number of report issued by that service:......................................................................................

ANNEX 2
EXAMPLES OF ARRANGEMENT OF APPROVAL MARKS
a ≥ 8 mm
Figure 1 Figure 2
The headlamp bearing one of the above approval marks has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4)
pursuant to Regulation No. 112 under Approval Number 243, meeting the requirements of this
Regulation in its original form (00). The passing beam is designed for right-hand traffic only. The
Letters CR (Figure 1) indicate that it concerns a Class A passing and driving beam and the
Letters HCR (Figure 2) indicate that it concerns a Class B passing and driving beam.
The Figure 30 indicates that the maximum luminous intensity of the driving beam is between 86250 and
101250 candelas.
Note: The approval number and additional symbols shall be placed close to the circle and either above
or below the Letter 'E', or to the right or left of that letter. The digits of the approval number shall
be on the same side of the Letter 'E' and face in the same direction.
The use of Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to prevent any confusion
with other symbols.

Figure 5 Figure 6
The headlamp bearing the above approval mark is a headlamp incorporating a lens of plastic material
meeting the requirements of this Regulation in respect of the passing beam only and is designed:
Figure 5: Class A for both traffic systems.
Figure 6: Class B for right-hand traffic only.
Figure 7 Figure 8
The headlamp bearing the above approval mark is a headlamp meeting the requirements of this
Regulation:
Figure 7: Class B in respect of the passing beam only and is designed for left-hand traffic only.
Figure 8: Class A in respect of the driving beam only.

(The vertical and horizontal lines schematise the shape of the light-signalling device. They are not part
of the approval mark).
Model A
Model B
Model C
Model D
Figure 11
Simplified Marking for Grouped, Combined or Reciprocally Incorporated Lamps

Or
even either of the above-mentioned-headlamps approved as a single lamp.
The main body of the headlamp shall bear the only valid approval number, for instance:
Example 2
The above example corresponds to the marking of a lens of plastic material used in a unit of two
headlamps approved in France (E2) under Approval Number 81151, consisting of:
A headlamp, Class B, emitting a passing beam and a driving beam with a maximum luminous intensity
between x and y candelas, meeting the requirements of this Regulation, and
A headlamp, Class B, emitting a driving beam designed for both traffic systems with a maximum
luminous intensity between w and z candelas, meeting the requirements of this Regulation, the maximum
luminous intensities of the driving beams as a whole being comprised between 86 250 and
101 250 candelas.
MD E3 17325
Figure 13
LED Modules
The LED module bearing the light source module identification code shown above has been approved
together with a headlamp initially approved in Italy (E3) under approval number 17325.

(dimension in mm with screen at 25 m distance)
STANDARD EUROPEAN BEAM
Figure B
Headlamp for Left-hand Traffic

ANNEX 4
TESTS FOR STABILITY OF PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF HEADLAMPS IN OPERATION
TESTS ON COMPLETE HEADLAMPS
Once the photometric values have been measured according to the prescriptions of this Regulation, in
the point for E for driving beam and in Points HV, 50 R, B 50 L for passing beam (or HV, 50 L, B 50 R
for headlamps designed for left-hand traffic) a complete headlamp sample shall be tested for stability of
photometric performance in operation. "Complete headlamp" shall be understood to mean the complete
lamp itself including those surrounding body parts and lamps which could influence its thermal
dissipation.
The tests shall be carried out:
(a)
(b)
In a dry and still atmosphere at an ambient temperature of 23°C ± 5°C, the test sample being
mounted on a base representing the correct installation on the vehicle;
In case of replaceable light sources: using mass production filament light sources, which have
been aged for at least one hour, or mass production gas-discharge light sources, which have been
aged for at least 15 hours or mass production LED modules which have been aged for at least
48 hours and cooled down to ambient temperature before starting the tests as specified in this
Regulation. The LED modules supplied by the applicant shall be used.
The measuring equipment shall be equivalent to that used during headlamp type approval tests.
The test sample shall be operated without being dismounted from or readjusted in relation to its test
fixture. The light source used shall be a light source of the category specified for that headlamp.
1. TEST FOR STABILITY OF PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE
1.1. Clean Headlamp
The headlamp shall be operated for 12 hours as described in Paragraph 1.1.1. and checked
as prescribed in Paragraph 1.1.2.
1.1.1. Test Procedure
The headlamp shall be operated for a period according to the specified time, so that:

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
If the applicant declares that the headlamp is to be used with only the passing
beam lit or only the driving beam(s) lit at a time, the test shall be carried out
in accordance with this condition, activating successively the passing beam
half of the time and the driving beam(s) for half the time specified in
Paragraph 1.1. above, while the front fog lamp is subjected to a cycle of
15 minutes off and 5 minutes lit for half of the time and during the operation of
the driving beam;
If the applicant declares that the headlamp is to be used with only the passing
beam lit or only the front fog lamp lit at a time, the test shall be carried out in
accordance with this condition, activating successively the passing beam half
of the time and the front fog lamp for half of the time specified in Paragraph 1.1.
above, while the driving beam(s) is(are) subjected to a cycle of 15 minutes off
and 5 minutes lit for half of the time and during the operation of the passing
beam;
If the applicant declares that the headlamp is to be used with only the passing
beam lit or only the driving beam(s) lit or only the front fog lamp lit at a
time, the test shall be carried out in accordance with this condition, activating
successively the passing beam one third of the time, the driving beam(s) one
third of the time and the front fog lamp for one third of the time specified in
Paragraph 1.1. above.
(e)
In the case of a passing beam designed to provide bend lighting with the addition of a
filament light source and/or one or more LED module(s), this light source and/or LED
module(s) shall be switched on for 1 minute, and switched off for 9 minutes during the
activation of the passing beam only (see Annex 4 - Appendix 1).
1.1.1.2. Test Voltage
The voltage shall be applied to the terminals of the test sample as follows:
(a)
In case of replaceable filament light source(s) operated directly under vehicle voltage
system conditions:
The test shall be performed at 6.3 V, 13.2 V or 28.0 V as applicable except if the
applicant specifies that the test sample may be used at a different voltage. In this
case, the test shall be carried out with the filament light source operated at the
highest voltage that can be used.
(b)
In case of replaceable gas discharge light source(s): The test voltage for the
electronic light source control-gear is 13.2 ± 0.1 volts for 12 V vehicle voltage system,
or otherwise specified in the application for approval.

1.2. Dirty Headlamp
After being tested as specified in Paragraph 1.1. above, the headlamp shall be operated for
one hour as described in Paragraph 1.1.1., after being prepared as prescribed in
Paragraph 1.2.1., and checked as prescribed in Paragraph 1.1.2.
1.2.1. Preparations of the Headlamp
1.2.1.1. Test Mixture
1.2.1.1.1. For headlamp with the outside lens in glass:
The mixture of water and a polluting agent to be applied to the headlamp shall be composed
of:
9 parts by weight of silica sand with a particle size of 0-100 µm,
1 part by weight of vegetal carbon dust (beechwood) with a particle size of 0-100 µm,
0.2 parts by weight of NaCMC , and
An appropriate quantity of distilled water, with a conductivity of ≤ 1 mS/m.
The mixture must not be more than 14 days old.
1.1.2. For headlamp with outside lens in plastic material:
The mixture of water and polluting agent to be applied to the headlamp shall be composed
of:
9 parts by weight of silica sand with a particle size of 0-100 µm,
1 part by weight of vegetal carbon dust (beechwood) with a particle size of 0-100 µm,
0.2 part by weight of NaCMC ,
13 parts by weight of distilled water with a conductivity of ≤ 1 mS/m, and
2 ± 1 parts by weight of surface-actant .
The mixture must not be more than 14 days old.

2.2. Test Results
2.2.1. The result in milliradians (mrad) shall be considered as acceptable for a passing lamp, only
when the absolute value Δr = │ r - r │ recorded on the headlamp is not more than
1.0 mrad (Δr ≤ 1.0 mrad).
2.2.2. However, if this value is more than 1.0 mrad but not more than 1.5 mrad
(1.0 mrad < Δr ≤ 1.5 mrad) a second headlamp shall be tested as described in
Paragraph 2.1. after being subjected three consecutive times to the cycle as described
below, in order to stabilize the position of mechanical parts of the headlamp on a base
representative of the correct installation on the vehicle:
Operation of the passing beam for one hour, (the voltage shall be adjusted as specified in
Paragraph 1.1.1.2.),
Period of rest for one hour.
The headlamp type shall be considered as acceptable if the mean value of the absolute
values Δr measured on the first sample and Δr measured on the second sample is not
more than 1.0 mrad.
⎛ Δr
+ Δr


2

≤ 1mrad⎟


ANNEX 5
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION CONTROL PROCEDURES
1. GENERAL
1.1. The conformity requirements shall be considered satisfied from a mechanical and a
geometrical standpoint, if the differences do not exceed inevitable manufacturing deviations
within the requirements of this Regulation. This condition also applies to colour.
1.2. With respect to photometric performances, the conformity of mass-produced headlamps
shall not be contested if, when testing photometric performances of any headlamp chosen
at random and equipped with a standard (étalon) filament lamp and/or LED module(s), as
present in the lamp:
1.2.1. No measured value deviates unfavourably by more than 20% from the value prescribed in
this Regulation. For values B 50 L (or R) and Zone III, the maximum unfavourable deviation
may be respectively:
1.2.2. Or if
B 50 L (or R): 0.2 lx equivalent 20%
0.3 lx equivalent 30%
Zone III 0.3 lx equivalent 20%
0.45 lx equivalent 30%
1.2.2.1. For the passing beam, the values prescribed in this Regulation are met at HV (with a
tolerance of + 0.2 lx) and related to that aiming at least one point of each area delimited on
the measuring screen (at 25 m) by a circle 15 cm in radius around Points B 50 L (or R)
(with a tolerance of + 0.1 lx), 75 R (or L), 50 V, 25 R, 25 L, and in the entire area of Zone IV
which is not more than 22.5 cm above line 25 R and 25 L;
1.2.2.2. And if, for the driving beam, HV being situated within the isolux 0.75 E , a tolerance of
+ 20% for maximum values and -20% for minimum values is observed for the photometric
values at any measuring point specified in Paragraph 6.3.2. of this Regulation.
1.2.3. If the results of the test described above do not meet the requirements, the alignment of the
headlamp may be changed, provided that the axis of the beam is not displaced laterally by
more than 1° to the right or left.
1.2.4. If in the case of a lamp equipped with a replaceable filament light source the results of the
tests described above do not meet the requirements, tests shall be repeated using another
standard (étalon) filament lamp.

2.3. Nature of Sampling
Samples of headlamps shall be selected at random from the production of a uniform
batch. A uniform batch means a set of headlamps of the same type, defined according to
the production methods of the manufacturer.
The assessment shall, in general, cover series production from individual
factories. However, a manufacturer may group together records concerning the same type
from several factories provided these operate under the same quality system and quality
management.
2.4. Measured and Recorded Photometric Characteristics
The sampled headlamps shall be subjected to photometric measurements at the points
provided for in the Regulation, the reading being limited at the Points E , HV , HL, HR
in the case of a driving beam, and to Points B 50 L (or R), HV, 50 V, 75 R (or L) and 25 L
(or R) in the case of the passing beam (see Figure in Annex 3).
2.5. Criteria Governing Acceptability
The manufacturer is responsible for carrying out a statistical study of the test results and for
defining, in agreement with the Competent Authority, criteria governing acceptability of his
products in order to meet the specification laid down for verification of conformity of products
in Paragraph 10.1. of this Regulation.
The criteria governing acceptability shall be such that, with a confidence level of 95%, the
minimum probability of passing a spot check in accordance with Annex 7 (first sampling)
would be 0.95.

2.1.2. Photometric Measurements
2.1.2.1. Method
2.1.2.2. Results
Photometric measurements shall be carried out on the samples before and after the test.
These measurements shall be made using a standard (étalon) lamp and/or LED module(s),
as present in the headlamp, at the following points:
B 50 L and 50 R for the passing beam of a passing lamp or a passing/driving lamp (B 50 R
and 50 L in the case of headlamps intended for left-hand traffic);
E route for the driving beam of a driving lamp or a passing/driving lamp.
The variation between the photometric values measured on each sample before and after
the test shall not exceed 10% including the tolerances of the photometric procedure.
2.2. Resistance to Atmospheric and Chemical Agents
2.2.1. Resistance to Atmospheric Agents
Three new samples (lenses or samples of material) shall be exposed to radiation from a
source having a spectral energy distribution similar to that of a black body at a temperature
between 5,500 K and 6,000 K. Appropriate filters shall be placed between the source and
the samples so as to reduce as far as possible radiations with wave lengths smaller than
295 nm and greater than 2,500 nm. The samples shall be exposed to an energetic
illumination of 1,200 W/m ± 200 W/m for a period such that the luminous energy that they
receive is equal to 4,500 MJ/m ± 200 MJ/m . Within the enclosure, the temperature
measured on the black panel placed on a level with the samples shall be 50°C ± 5°C. In
order to ensure a regular exposure, the samples shall revolve around the source of radiation
at a speed between 1 and 5 1/min.
The samples shall be sprayed with distilled water of conductivity lower than 1 mS/m at a
temperature of 23°C ± 5°C, in accordance with the following cycle:
spraying: 5 minutes; drying: 25 minutes.
2.2.2. Resistance to Chemical Agents
After the test described in Paragraph 2.2.1. above and the measurement described in
Paragraph 2.2.3.1. below have been carried out, the outer face of the said three samples
shall be treated as described in Paragraph 2.2.2.2. with the mixture defined in
Paragraph 2.2.2.1. below.
2.2.2.1. Test Mixture
The test mixture shall be composed of 61.5% n-heptane, 12.5% toluene, 7.5% ethyl
tetrachloride, 12.5% trichloroethylene and 6% xylene (volume %).

2.2.4. Resistance to Light Source Radiations
The following test shall be done:
Flat samples of each light transmitting plastic component of the headlamp are exposed to
the light of the LED module(s). The parameters such as angles and distances of these
samples shall be the same as in the headlamp. These samples shall have the same colour
and surface treatment, if any, as the parts of the headlamp.
After 1 500 hours of continuous operation, the colorimetric specifications of the transmitted
light must be met, and the surfaces of the samples shall be free of cracks, scratches,
scalings or deformation.
2.3. Resistance to Detergents and Hydrocarbons
2.3.1. Resistance to Detergents
The outer face of three samples (lenses or samples of material) shall be heated to
50°C ± 5°C and then immersed for five minutes in a mixture maintained at 23°C ± 5°C and
composed of 99 parts distilled water containing not more than 0.02% impurities and one part
alkylaryl sulphonate.
At the end of the test, the samples shall be dried at 50°C ± 5°C. The surface of the samples
shall be cleaned with a moist cloth.
2.3.2. Resistance to Hydrocarbons
2.3.3. Results
The outer face of these three samples shall then be lightly rubbed for one minute with a
cotton cloth soaked in a mixture composed of 70% n-heptane and 30% toluene (volume %),
and shall then be dried in the open air.
After the above two tests have been performed successively, the mean value of the
variation in transmission
T
Δ t =
− T
T
,
measured on the three samples according to the procedure described in Appendix 2 to this
Annex shall not exceed 0.010 (Δ t ≤ 0.010).
2.4. Resistance to Mechanical Deterioration
2.4.1. Mechanical Deterioration Method
The outer face of the three new samples (lenses) shall be subjected to the uniform
mechanical deterioration test by the method described in Appendix 3 to this Annex.

2.6. Tests of the Complete Headlamp Incorporating a Lens of Plastic Material
2.6.1. Resistance to Mechanical Deterioration of the Lens Surface
2.6.1.1. Tests
2.6.1.2. Results
The lens of lamp Sample No. 1 shall be subjected to the test described in Paragraph 2.4.1.
above.
After the test, the results of photometric measurements carried out on the headlamp in
accordance with this Regulation shall not exceed by more than 30% the maximum values
prescribed at Points B 50 L and HV and not be more than 10% below the minimum values
prescribed at Point 75 R (in the case of headlamps intended for left-hand traffic, the points
to be considered are B 50 R, HV and 75 L).
2.6.2. Test of Adherence of Coatings, if any
The lens of lamp Sample No. 2 shall be subjected to the test described in Paragraph 2.5.
above.
3. VERIFICATION OF THE CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
3.1. With regard to the materials used for the manufacture of lenses, the lamps of a series shall
be recognised as complying with this Regulation if:
3.1.1. After the test for resistance to chemical agents and the test for resistance to detergents and
hydrocarbons, the outer face of the samples exhibits no cracks, chipping or deformation
visible to the naked eye (see Paragraphs 2.2.2, 2.3.1 and 2.3.2);
3.1.2. After the test described in Paragraph 2.6.1.1, the photometric values at the points of
measurement considered in Paragraph 2.6.1.2 are within the limits prescribed for conformity
of production by this Regulation.
3.2. If the test results fail to satisfy the requirements, the tests shall be repeated on another
sample of headlamps selected at random.

B. Tests on complete headlamps (supplied pursuant to Paragraph 2.2.3 of this Regulation)
Tests
2.1.
Deterioration (Paragraph 2.6.1.1)
2.2.
Photometry (Paragraph 2.6.1.2)
2.3.
Adherence (Paragraph 2.6.2)
Complete headlamp
Sample No.
1 2
x
x
x

2. MEASUREMENTS
The following readings shall be taken:
Reading
With sample
With central
part of D
Quantity represented
T no no Incident flux in initial reading
T
T
T
T
yes
(before test)
yes
(after test)
yes
(before test)
yes
(after test)
no
no
yes
yes
Flux transmitted by the new
material in a field of 24°
Flux transmitted by the tested
material in a field of 24°
Flux diffused by the new
material
Flux diffused by the tested
material

APPENDIX 4
ADHESIVE TAPE ADHERENCE TEST
1. PURPOSE
This method allows to determine under standard conditions the linear force of adhesion of an
adhesive tape to a glass plate.
2. PRINCIPLE
Measurement of the force necessary to unstick an adhesive tape from a glass plate at an
angle of 90°.
3. SPECIFIED ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
The ambient conditions shall be at 23°C ± 5°C and 65 ± 15% (RH).
4. TEST PIECES
Before the test, the sample roll of adhesive tape shall be conditioned for 24 hours in the
specified atmosphere (see Paragraph 3 above).
Five test pieces each 400 mm long shall be tested from each roll. These test pieces shall be
taken from the roll after the first three turns were discarded.
5. PROCEDURE
The test shall be under the ambient conditions specified in Paragraph 3.
Take the five test pieces while unrolling the tape radially at a speed of approximately
300 mm/s, then apply them within 15 seconds in the following manner:
Apply the tape to the glass plate progressively with a slight length-wise rubbing movement of
the finger, without excessive pressure, in such a manner as to leave no air bubble between
the tape and the glass plate.
Leave the assembly in the specified atmospheric conditions for 10 minutes
Unstick about 25 mm of the test piece from the plate in a plane perpendicular to the axis of
the test piece.
Fix the plate and fold back the free end of the tape at 90°. Apply force in such a manner that
the separation line between the tape and the plate is perpendicular to this force and
perpendicular to the plate.
6. RESULTS
Pull to unstick at a speed of 300 mm/s ± 30 mm/s and record the force required.
The five values obtained shall be arranged in order and the median value taken as a result of
the measurement. This value shall be expressed in Newtons per centimetre of width of the
tape.

1.3. If, however, vertical adjustment cannot be performed repeatedly to the required position within
the tolerances described in Paragraph 6.2.2.3. of this Regulation, one sample shall be tested
according to the procedure described in Paragraphs 2 and 3 of Annex 9.
2. FIRST SAMPLING
In the first sampling four headlamps are selected at random. The first sample of two is
marked A, the second sample of two is marked B.
2.1. The Conformity is Not Contested
2.1.1. Following the sampling procedure shown in Figure 1 of this Annex the conformity of
mass-produced headlamps shall not be contested if the deviations of the measured values of
the headlamps in the unfavourable directions are:
2.1.1.1. Sample A
2.1.1.2. Sample B
A1: one headlamp 0%
one headlamp not more than 20%
A2:
both headlamps
more than
0%
but
not more than
20%
go to sample B
B1: both headlamps 0%
2.1.2. or if the conditions of Paragraph 1.2.2. for Sample A are fulfilled.
2.2. The Conformity is Contested
2.2.1. Following the sampling procedure shown in Figure 1 of this Annex the conformity of
mass-produced headlamps shall be contested and the manufacturer requested to make his
production meet the requirements (alignment) if the deviations of the measured values of the
headlamps are:
2.2.1.1. Sample A
2.2.1.2. Sample B
A3:
one headlamp
not more than
20%
one headlamp
more than
20%
but
not more than
30%
B2:
in the case of A2
one headlamp
more than
0%
but
not more than
20%
one headlamp
not more than
20%
B3:
in the case of A2
one headlamp
0%
one headlamp
more than
20%
but
not more than
30%

3.1.1.2. Sample D
D1: in the case of C2
both headlamps 0%
3.1.2. or if the conditions of Paragraph 1.2.2. for Sample C are fulfilled.
3.2. The Conformity is Contested
3.2.1. Following the sampling procedure shown in Figure 1 of this Annex the conformity of
mass-produced headlamps shall be contested and the manufacturer requested to make his
production meet the requirements (alignment) if the deviations of the measured values of the
headlamps are:
3.2.1.1. Sample D
D2: in the case of C2
one headlamp
more than
0%
but
not more than
20%
one headlamp
not more than
20%
3.2.1.2. Or if the conditions of Paragraph 1.2.2. for Sample C are not fulfilled:
3.3. Approval Withdrawn
3.3.1. Sample C
3.3.2. Sample D
Conformity shall be contested and Paragraph 11 applied if, following the sampling procedure
shown in Figure 1 of this Annex, the deviations of the measured values of the headlamps are:
C3: one headlamp
not more than
20%
one headlamp
more than
20%
C4: both headlamps more than 20%
D3: in the case of C2
one headlamp
0 or more than
0%
one headlamp
more than
20%
3.3.3. Or if the conditions of Paragraph 1.2.2. for Samples C and D are not fulfilled.
4. CHANGE OF THE VERTICAL POSITION OF THE CUT-OFF LINE
With respect to the verification of the change in vertical positions of the cut-off line under the
influence of heat, the following procedure shall be applied:
One of the headlamps of Sample A after sampling procedure in Figure 1 of this Annex shall
be tested according to the procedure described in Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 4 after being
subjected three consecutive times to the cycle described in Paragraph 2.2.2. of Annex 4.

Figure 1

8. P+D+F (HCR B) or P+D +D +F (HCR HR B)
9. P+D+F (HC/R B) or P+D +D +F (HC/R HR B)
10. P+D+F (HCR B/) or P+D +D +F (HC/R HR B/)
11. P+D+F (HC/R B/) or P+D +D +F (HC/R HR B/)

2.3. Linearity
The part of the horizontal "cut-off" that serves for vertical adjustment shall be horizontal
between 1.5° and 3.5° from the V-V Line (see Figure 1).
The inflection points of the "cut-off" gradient at the vertical lines at 1.5°, 2.5° and 3.5° shall be
determined by the equation:
The maximum vertical distance between the inflection points determined shall not exceed 0.2°.
(d (log E) / dβ = 0).
3. VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ADJUSTMENT
If the "cut-off" complies with the quality requirements of Paragraph 2 of this Annex, the beam
adjustment may be performed instrumentally.
Note: The scales are different for vertical and horizontal lines.
Figure 1
Measurement of "cut-off" Quality

(b) The "3 line" method (see Figure 3)
Three vertical lines shall be scanned from 2° D to 2° U at 1°R, 2°R, and 3°R after the
lamp has been aimed vertically. The respective maximum gradients "G" determined
using the formula:
G = (log E – log E )
where β is the vertical position in degrees, shall not be less than 0.08. The inflection
points found on the three lines shall be used to derive a straight line. The intersection of
this line and the Line B found while performing vertical aim shall be placed on the V Line.
Note: The scales are different for vertical and horizontal lines.
Figure 3
Instrumental Vertical and Horizontal Adjustment-Three Line Scan Method

3.3. Ageing
Upon the request of the applicant the LED module shall be operated for 15 h and cooled
down to ambient temperature before starting the tests as specified in this Regulation.
4. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
4.1. Colour Rendering
4.1.1. Red Content
In addition to measurements as described in Paragraph 7 of this Regulation:
The minimum red content of the light of a LED module or headlamp incorporating LED
module(s) tested at 50 V shall be such that:
k
=
∫ E
∫ E
( λ) V( λ)
( λ) V( λ)


≥ 0.05
where:
E (λ) (unit: W)
V(λ) (unit: l)
is the spectral distribution of the irradiance;
is the spectral luminous efficiency;
(λ) (unit: nm) is the wavelength.
This value shall be calculated using intervals of one nanometre.

4.3. Temperature Stability
4.3.1. Illuminance
4.3.1.1. A photometric measurement of the headlamp shall be made after 1 minute of operation for
the specific function at the test point specified below. For these measurements, the aim can
be approximate but must be maintained for before and after ratio measurements.
Test points to be measured:
Passing beam 50 V
Driving beam H − V
4.3.1.2. The lamp shall continue operation until photometric stability has occurred. The moment at
which the photometry is stable is defined as the point in time at which the variation of the
photometric value is less than 3% within any 15 minute period. After stability has occurred,
aim for complete photometry shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of the
specific device. Photometer the lamp at all test points required for the specific device.
4.3.1.3. Calculate the ratio between the photometric test point value determined in
Paragraph 4.3.1.1. and the point value determined in Paragraph 4.3.1.2.
4.3.1.4. Once stability of photometry has been achieved, apply the ratio calculated above to each of
the remainder of the test points to create a new photometric table that describes the
complete photometry based on one minute of operation.
4.3.1.5. The illuminance values, measured after one minute and after photometric stability has
occurred, shall comply with the minimum and maximum requirements.
4.3.2. Colour
The colour of the light emitted measured after one minute and measured after photometric
stability has been obtained, as described in Paragraph 4.3.1.2. of this Annex, shall both be
within the required colour boundaries.
5. The measurement of the objective luminous flux of LED module(s) producing the principal
passing beam shall be carried out as follows:
5.1. The LED module(s) shall be in the configuration as described in the technical specification
as defined in Paragraph 2.2.2. of this Regulation. Optical elements (secondary optics) shall
be removed by the Technical Service at the request of the applicant by the use of
tools. This procedure and the conditions during the measurements as described below shall
be described in the test report.

ANNEX 11
A GENERAL ILLUSTRATION FOR PRINCIPAL PASSING BEAM AND
BEAM CONTRIBUTORS AND CORRELATED LIGHT SOURCE OPTIONS
Headlamps - Asymmetrical Passing/Driving Beam - Filament Lamps and/or LED Modules.