Regulation No. 114-00

Name:Regulation No. 114-00
Description:Airbag Modules for Replacement Airbag Systems.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: I. An Airbag Module for a Replacement Airbag System; II. A Replacement Steering Wheel Equipped with an Airbag Module of an Approved Type; III. A Replacement Airbag System Other than that Installed in a Steering Wheel.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2003-02-01
Amendment Level:00 Series
Number of Pages:42
Vehicle Types:Car, Component, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Occupant Protection
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.2/Add.113
July 2, 2003
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 114
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
I. AN AIRBAG MODULE FOR A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM;
II.
III.
A REPLACEMENT STEERING WHEEL EQUIPPED WITH AN AIRBAG MODULE OF
AN APPROVED TYPE;
A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM OTHER THAN THAT INSTALLED IN A
STEERING WHEEL
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments Date of Entry into Force: 01.02.03

REGULATION No. 114
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
I. AN AIRBAG MODULE FOR A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM;
II.
III.
A REPLACEMENT STEERING WHEEL EQUIPPED WITH AN AIRBAG MODULE OF AN
APPROVED TYPE;
A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM OTHER THAN THAT INSTALLED IN A STEERING
WHEEL
CONTENTS
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Requirements
6. Tests
7. Instructions for users
8. Conformity of production
9. Penalties for non-conformity of production
10. Modifications of the type of airbag module for a replacement airbag system or the type of
replacement steering wheel with an airbag module of an approved Type or the type of replacement
airbag system, other than that installed in a steering wheel
11. Production definitely discontinued
12. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for approval tests, and of administrative
departments

REGULATION NO. 114
1. SCOPE
This Regulation applies to the following aftermarket equipment:
1.1. To airbag modules for replacement airbag systems intended to be installed on motor vehicles;
1.2. To replacement steering wheels for vehicles of Categories M and N , equipped with an airbag
module of an approved type and intended to be installed as an additional restraint system
beside safety-belts and other restraint systems in power-driven vehicles, i.e. a system which, in
the event of a severe impact, automatically deploys a flexible structure intended to reduce the
severity of injuries of the occupants;
1.3. To replacement airbag systems other than those installed in steering wheels and equipped with
airbag modules of an approved type as an additional restraint system beside safety-belts and
other restraint systems in power-driven vehicles of Categories M and N , i.e. a system which,
in the event of a severe impact, automatically deploys a flexible structure intended to reduce
the severity of injuries of the occupants.
2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. "Airbag system" means a group of components which, once installed in vehicle(s), perform all
functions provided for by the manufacturer. This system comprises as a minimum a release
unit activating one or more airbag modules and the electrical wiring harness, if present.
2.2. "Airbag" means a flexible material, forming an enclosed volume that receives the gas from the
inflator and restrains the occupant.
2.3. "Airbag module" means the smallest sub-assembly comprising the energy source for its
deployment and the airbag involved in the deployment.
2.4. "Replacement steering wheel" (equipped with an airbag module) means an aftermarket
steering wheel which is supplied to modify a motor vehicle and which may vary in its functional
dimensions, form and/or material from the original steering wheel provided by the vehicle
manufacturer.
2.5. "Replacement airbag system" means an aftermarket airbag system which is supplied to
modify a motor vehicle, and which may vary in its functional dimensions, form, materials or
operation from any original airbag system provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that motor
vehicle.

2.12. "Type of a replacement steering wheel equipped with an airbag module" means
aftermarket steering wheels, which do not differ in such essential aspects as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The presence of an airbag,
The dimension and diameter of the steering wheel,
The form, in so far as the safety performance and the strength performance is
influenced,
The material,
The type definition of an airbag module for a replacement airbag system according to
Paragraph 2.11. above.
2.13. "Type of a replacement airbag system other than that installed in a steering wheel"
comprises replacement airbag systems, which do not differ in such essential respects as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
The Category of airbag module,
The geometry of the airbag,
The material of the airbag,
The vents or equivalent devices,
The gas generator,
The envelope principle,
The material, structure and dimension of the cover,
The composition of the propellant,
The method of fixation of the module.
2.14. "Vehicle type" means a Category of power-driven vehicles, which do not differ in such
essential respects in so far as they have an effect on the results of the impact tests prescribed
in this Regulation for:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The structure, dimension, body version and materials of the vehicle,
The unladen kerb mass, as defined in Paragraph 2.10. above,
The steering control, the seat and the safety-belt system and other restraint systems,
The siting and orientation of the engine,
The parts and optional arrangements or fittings of the vehicle which influence the
performance of the airbag.

3.3. Application for Approval of a Replacement Airbag System other than that Installed in a
Steering Wheel
3.3.1. The application for approval of a replacement airbag system other than that installed in a
steering wheel shall be submitted by the holder of the trade mark of the replacement airbag
system or by the manufacturer, or by their duly accredited representatives.
3.3.2. For each type of a replacement airbag system, the application shall be accompanied by the
following documents in triplicate and the following particulars:
3.3.2.1. A technical description, including mounting instructions,
3.3.2.2. Sufficiently detailed drawings,
3.3.2.3. Drawings showing the position of the airbag system(s) and its (their) attachment(s) on the
vehicle,
3.3.2.4. The position intended for the approval mark and required under Paragraph 4.3.4. below,
3.3.2.5. A sufficient number of replacement airbag systems and vehicles representative of the types for
which the replacement system shall be approved for, shall be submitted to the technical service
responsible for conducting the approval tests so as to verify conformity with the relevant
Paragraphs 5. and 6. of this Regulation.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. Approval of an Airbag Module for a Replacement Airbag System
4.1.1. If the samples of the airbag module submitted for approval meet the requirements of the
relevant Paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval for this type of airbag module for a replacement
airbag system shall be granted.
4.1.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (00 at present)
shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party may not assign the same number to another type of airbag module for a
replacement airbag system.
4.1.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or of definite
discontinuation of production of a type of airbag module for a replacement airbag system,
pursuant to this Regulation, shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying
this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

4.2.4. The samples of the replacement airbag steering wheel and the hub (adapters) shall be clearly
and indelibly marked with the manufacturer's trade name or mark and an approval mark
consisting of:
4.2.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval,
4.2.4.2. An approval number,
4.2.4.3. An additional symbol, indicating the airbag module Category (see Paragraph. 2.6. above).
4.2.5. The approval mark and the additional symbol shall be clearly legible and indelible.
4.2.6. The approval mark shall be placed on the replacement steering wheel and on the hub
(adapter). If the replacement steering wheel and hub are in one piece, one approval mark and
one mark with the manufacturer's trade name or mark is sufficient.
4.2.7. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives an example of the approval mark and the additional symbol
mentioned above.
4.3. Approval of a Replacement Airbag System other than that Installed in a Steering Wheel
4.3.1. If a replacement airbag system other than that installed in a steering wheel submitted for
approval meets the requirements of the relevant Paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval of that
type of replacement airbag system shall be granted.
4.3.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (00 at present)
shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party may not assign the same number to another type of replacement airbag
system.
4.3.3. Notice of approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or of definite
discontinuation of production of a replacement airbag system pursuant to this Regulation shall
be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a form
conforming to the model in Annex 3 to this Regulation.

5.1.5. Toxicity and Burns
A certificate shall be presented stating that the nature, concentration and temperature of the
gases and solid particles released on deployment of an airbag are not such as to be liable to
injure seriously the occupants of the vehicle. The authorities responsible for issuing the
approval shall reserve the right to verify the accuracy of the statement.
5.2. Requirements for the Approval of an Airbag Module for a Replacement Airbag System
5.2.1. Each airbag module shall comply with the requirements of the "International Standard
ISO 12097-2 ROAD VEHICLES-AIRBAG COMPONENT TESTING-PART 2: Testing of Airbag
Modules" version: 1996-08-00, to guarantee the operating safety of the airbag modules.
Airbag modules designed for front seats equipped with side airbag systems shall comply, as far
as possible, with the requirements of the above-mentioned ISO Standard (for example tests
according to Paragraph 5.2.2.).
The module manufacturer shall state that the above-mentioned tests were carried out with
positive test results. In case of doubts the approval authority responsible for issuing the
approval shall reserve the right to verify the accuracy of this statement.
5.2.2. Instead of Paragraph 5.2.1., a reduced test programme is permitted which shows as a
minimum the following test elements:
5.2.2.1. Drop test
5.2.2.2. Mechanical impact test
5.2.2.3. Simultaneous vibration temperature test
5.2.2.4. Thermal humidity cycling test
5.2.2.5. Solar radiation simulation test
5.2.2.6. Temperature shock test
5.2.2.7. Static deployment test
5.3. Requirements for the Approval of a Replacement Steering Wheel Equipped with an
Airbag Module of an Approved Type
5.3.1. Before type approval is granted according to Paragraph 4.2., the competent authority shall
verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for carrying out:
5.3.1.1. A heat test of the replacement steering wheel (all parts except the airbag module), as
described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1., to guarantee a cohesion of all materials.
5.3.1.2. A bending test, as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.2., to guarantee a minimum deformation of the
steering wheel rim,
5.3.1.3. A torque test, as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.3., to guarantee a sufficient stiffness when the
replacement steering wheel is loaded tangentially to the steering wheel rim,
5.3.1.4. A fatigue test, as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.4., to guarantee a sufficient lifetime.

5.4. Requirements for the Approval of a Replacement Airbag System other than that Installed
in a Steering Wheel
5.4.1. Replacement airbag systems shall be equipped with an approved airbag module or it shall be
demonstrated to the satisfaction of the technical service, responsible for this test, that the
system used complies with the requirements prescribed in Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.2. above.
5.4.2. Replacement airbag systems other than those installed in steering wheels shall be such that,
when installed in a vehicle, this vehicle fulfils in case of an airbag system of:
5.4.2.1. Category B, the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.1., 5.2.1.2., 5.2.1.3., 5.2.1.4., and 5.2.1.5. of
Regulation No. 94, 01 series of amendments;
5.4.2.2. Category C, the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.1., 5.2.1.2., 5.2.1.3., 5.2.1.4., and 5.2.1.5. of
Regulation No. 94, 01 series of amendments; in addition instrumented dummies shall be used
for the verification of the performance of the airbag system;
5.4.2.3. Category D, the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.1., 5.2.1.2., 5.2.1.3., 5.2.1.4., and 5.2.1.5. of
Regulation No. 95, 01 series of amendments; in this case the side impact dummy shall be used
for the test.
6. TESTS
6.1. Tests of an Airbag Module for a Replacement Airbag System
The tests shall be carried out according to ISO 12097-Part 2, version 1996-08-00.
6.2. Tests of a Replacement Steering Wheel Equipped with an Airbag Module of an Approved
Type
6.2.1. Strength Tests:
6.2.1.1. Heat Test
The replacement steering wheel (except the airbag module) is exposed to the following
temperature carried out in one circle:
⎯ 16 hours at - 15° C ± 2° C
⎯ 30 minutes at + 22° C ± 2° C
⎯ 3 hours at + 80° C ± 2° C
⎯ 30 minutes at - 22° C ± 2° C
This test must leave no permanent deformation over and above the design tolerances, or any
cracks or fractures.

6.2.2. Installation Requirement Tests and Driver's View to the Instrument Panel
6.2.2.1. The driver's view to:
(a)
(b)
The speedometer
The tell tales for:
Direction indicator
Main beam
Rear fog lamp
Hazard warning signal
Automatic antilock system
Brake system malfunctions
Airbag function indicator
shall be guaranteed. The visibility is assessed by means of a comparative evaluation of
photographs taken of the instrument panel of the vehicle under test equipped with a
replacement steering wheel. The H points are measured after the vehicle has been aligned on
the three dimensional measuring device.
The relation between vehicle and coordinate system is established through reference points of
the body.
If the coordinates of the R point are not known, the H point is determined using a 50 percentile
manikin. The driver's seat is adjusted as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Seat in rearmost position of the device for longitudinal adjustment;
Backrest inclined corresponding to 25° back angle of the manikin;
Other adjusting devices in central position.
A 35 mm camera inclined by 15° towards the horizontal plane is used to simulate binocular
viewing and photos are taken from each of the eye points.
Position of the eye points related to the R or H point in the coordinate system in accordance
with ISO 4130 (dimensions in mm):
x y z x y z
0 -32.5 + 635.0 0 + 32.5 + 635.0
For the camera the eye points are determined 35 mm in front of the plane of representation
(normally the film plane) and on the centre axis of the optical system.

6.3. Tests of a Replacement Airbag System other than that Installed in a Steering Wheel
6.3.1. Tests of an Airbag Module for a Replacement Airbag System
The replacement airbag system shall be equipped with an approved airbag module or the
manufacturer of the replacement airbag system shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the
technical service, responsible for this test, that the system fulfils the requirements as prescribed
in Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.2. above.
6.3.2. Replacement airbag systems other than those installed in steering wheels shall be such that
when installed in a vehicle, this vehicle fulfils:
6.3.2.1. In case of an airbag system of Category B, the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.1., 5.2.1.2.,
5.2.1.3., 5.2.1.4., and 5.2.1.5. of Regulation No. 94, 01 series of amendments;
6.3.2.2. In case of an airbag system of Category C, the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.1., 5.2.1.2.,
5.2.1.3., 5.2.1.4., and 5.2.1.5. of Regulation No. 94, 01 series of amendments; in addition
instrumented dummies shall be used for the verification of the performance of the airbag
system;
6.3.2.3. In case of an airbag system of Category D, the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.1., 5.2.1.2.,
5.2.1.3., 5.2.1.4., and 5.2.1.5. of Regulation No. 95, 01 series of amendments; in this case the
side impact dummy shall be used for the test.
7. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USERS
7.1. The manufacturer of the replacement airbag systems shall include in the operating instructions
any recommendations or precautions to be taken during the use, maintenance or destruction of
the system or of any of its components.
7.1.1. In Particular:
7.1.1.1. If the system is fitted with a monitoring device intended to inform the user of its operating
condition, it shall be clearly indicated how messages delivered by the system, of whatever kind,
are to be interpreted. An indication shall be given of measures to be taken in the event of a
message warning of malfunctioning, together with a description of any risk involved in using the
vehicle in such a condition;
7.1.1.2. It shall be indicated whether maintenance or repair work is to be performed exclusively by
specially trained personnel, and whether any risks are involved in disassembling the system;
7.1.1.3. The procedure to be followed in the event of deployment shall be explained. In particular,
details shall be given of any precautions to be taken as regards products generated by
deployment, in the form of gases, liquids or solids. Similarly, if there is any danger from the
components of the system as a result of deployment, such as dangerous roughness or sharp
edges, temperature, corrosion, etc., these dangers shall be described, as well as the ways of
avoiding them;
7.1.1.4. If the scrapping of the replacement airbag system(s) can lead to situations which are
dangerous either directly to humans or to the environment, an appropriate procedure for
avoiding them shall be indicated. This may consist in a method for deliberately releasing the
airbag if its released state does not lead to a dangerous situation, in an obligation to return the
system or part of it to the constructor or manufacturer, or in any other appropriate measure.

8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) with the following requirements:
8.1. The authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control
methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications shall
be once every two years. Where negative results are recorded during one of these
verifications, their frequency may be increased.
8.2. Conformity of Production of an Airbag Module for a Replacement Airbag System
Airbag modules approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the
type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.2. above.
8.3. Conformity of production of replacement steering wheel equipped with an airbag module of an
approved type
Replacement steering wheels equipped with an airbag module of an approved type and
approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved
by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.3. above.
8.4. Conformity of production of a replacement airbag system other than that installed in a steering
wheel
Replacement airbag systems other than those installed in steering wheels approved under this
Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the
requirements set forth in Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.4. above.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The approval granted for a type of airbag module for a replacement airbag system, a type of
replacement steering wheel equipped with an airbag of an approved type, or a type of
replacement airbag system other than that installed in a steering wheel, pursuant to this
Regulation, may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8. above are not
complied with.
10. MODIFICATIONS OF THE TYPE OF AIRBAG MODULE FOR A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG
SYSTEM OR THE TYPE OF REPLACEMENT STEERING WHEEL WITH AN AIRBAG
MODULE OF AN APPROVED TYPE OR THE TYPE OF REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM,
OTHER THAN THAT INSTALLED IN A STEERING WHEEL
10.1. Every modification of the type of the above-mentioned system shall be notified to the
administrative department which approved the type. The department may then either:
10.1.1. Decide that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and that
in any case the module or the system or the replacement steering wheel still meets the
requirements,
10.1.2. Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of airbag module for a replacement airbag system pursuant to Regulation No. 114
Approval No.............................................. Extension No. ..................................................
1. Replacement airbag module of Categories A, B, C, D: .................................................................
2. Trade name or mark: ......................................................................................................................
3. Description of the type of airbag module for a replacement airbag system given by the
manufacturer: .................................................................................................................................
4. Manufacturer's name: .....................................................................................................................
5. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ..............................................
6. Airbag module for a replacement airbag system submitted for approval on: ................................
7. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: ........................................................
8. Date of test report issued by this service: ......................................................................................
9. Number of test report issued by this service: .................................................................................
10. Approval granted/refused/extended/withdrawn for general use/for use in a specific vehicle or in
specific types of vehicles

ANNEX 2
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of replacement steering wheel equipped with an airbag module of an approved type pursuant to
Regulation No. 114
Approval No.............................................. Extension No. ..................................................
1. Trade name or mark of the replacement steering wheel: ..............................................................
2. Manufacturer's name and address: ................................................................................................
3. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ..............................................
........................................................................................................................................................
4. Trade name and mark of the type of the airbag module and Approval No.: ..................................
........................................................................................................................................................
5. Extension of approval of the type of replacement steering wheel: ................................................
6. List of vehicles, where the replacement steering wheel can be installed (name of vehicle
manufacturer/commercial name/vehicle code/replacement steering wheel type/adapter type
and number): ..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
7. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: ........................................................
8. Date of test report issued by this service: ......................................................................................
9. Number of test report issued by this service: .................................................................................

ANNEX 3
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of replacement airbag system other than that installed in a replacement steering wheel pursuant
to Regulation No. 114
Approval No.............................................. Extension No. ..................................................
1. Trade name or mark of the replacement airbag system: ...............................................................
2. Category of the airbag system and Approval No. of the airbag module: .......................................
........................................................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: ................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ..............................................
5. Replacement airbag system and vehicles submitted for approval on: ...........................................
6. Extension of approval of the type of replacement airbag system: .................................................
7. List of vehicles, where the replacement airbag system can be installed: ......................................
........................................................................................................................................................
8. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: ........................................................
9. Date of test report issued by this service: ......................................................................................
10. Number of test report issued by this service: .................................................................................

ANNEX 4
EXAMPLE OF AN APPROVAL MARK FOR AN AIRBAG MODULE
FOR A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM
a = 5 mm min.
The airbag module bearing the above approval mark is a Category A airbag module approved in France
(E2) under the Number 002439. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval
was granted in accordance with the requirements of the Regulation in its original form.
Note:
The approval number and additional symbol(s) must be placed close to the circle and either above or
below the "E" or to the left or right of that letter.
The digits of the approval number must be on the same side of the "E" and oriented in the same
direction. The additional symbol(s) must be diametrically opposite the approval number. The use of
Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to prevent any confusion with the other
symbols.

ANNEX 6
EXAMPLE OF AN APPROVAL MARK FOR A REPLACEMENT AIRBAG SYSTEM
OTHER THAN THAT INSTALLED IN A STEERING WHEEL
a = 8mm min.
The replacement airbag system bearing the above approval mark is a Category B airbag system
approved in France (E2) under the Number 002439. The first two digits of the approval number indicate
that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of the Regulation in its original form.
Note:
The approval number and additional symbol(s) must be placed close to the circle and either above or
below the "E" or to the left or right of that letter.
The digits of the approval number must be on the same side of the "E" and oriented in the same
direction. The additional symbol(s) must be diametrically opposite the approval number. The use of
Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to prevent any confusion with the other
symbols.

1. PURPOSE
ANNEX 8
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE "H" POINT AND THE ACTUAL
TORSO ANGLE FOR SEATING POSITIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES
The procedure described in this Annex is used to establish the "H" point location and the actual
torso angle for one or several seating positions in a motor vehicle and to verify the relationship
of measured data to design specifications given by the vehicle manufacturer.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Annex:
2.1. "Reference data" means one or several of the following characteristics of a seating position:
2.1.1. the "H" point and the "R" point and their relationship,
2.1.2. the actual torso angle and the design torso angle and their relationship.
2.2. "Three-dimensional 'H' point machine" (3-D H machine) means the device used for the
determination of "H" points and actual torso angles. This device is described in Appendix 1 to
this Annex;
2.3. "H point" means the pivot centre of the torso and the thigh of the 3-D H machine installed in
the vehicle seat in accordance with Paragraph 4 below. The "H" point is located in the centre
of the centreline of the device, which is between the "H" point sight buttons on either side of the
3-D H machine. The "H" point corresponds theoretically to the "R" point (for tolerances see
Paragraph 3.2.2. below). Once determined in accordance with the procedure described in
Paragraph 4, the "H" point is considered fixed in relation to the seat-cushion structure and to
move with it when the seat is adjusted;
2.4. "R point" or "seating reference point" means a design point defined by the vehicle
manufacturer for each seating position and established with respect to the three-dimensional
reference system;
2.5. "Torso-line" means the centreline of the probe of the 3-D H machine with the probe in the fully
rearward position;
2.6. "Actual torso angle" means the angle measured between a vertical line through the "H" point
and the torso line using the back angle quadrant on the 3-D H machine. The actual torso angle
corresponds theoretically to the design torso angle (for tolerances see Paragraph 3.2.2. below):
2.7. "Design torso angle" means the angle measures between a vertical line through the "R" point
and the torso line in a position which corresponds to the design position of the seat-back
established by the vehicle manufacturer;

4. PROCEDURE FOR "H" POINT AND ACTUAL TORSO ANGLE DETERMINATION
4.1. The vehicle shall be preconditioned at the manufacturer's discretion, at a temperature of
20° C ± 10° C to ensure that the seat material reached room temperature. If the seat to be
checked has never been sat upon, a 70 to 80 kg person or device shall sit on the seat twice for
one minute to flex the cushion and back. At the manufacturer's request, all seat assemblies
shall remain unloaded for a minimum period of 30 min prior to installation of the
3-D H machine.
4.2. The vehicle shall be at the measuring attitude defined in Paragraph 2.11. above.
4.3. The seat, if it is adjustable, shall be adjusted first to the rearmost normal driving or riding
position, as indicated by the vehicle manufacturer, taking into consideration only the
longitudinal adjustment of the seat, excluding seat travel used for purposes other than normal
driving or riding positions. Where other modes of seat adjustment exist (vertical, angular,
seat-back, etc.) these will then be adjusted to the position specified by the vehicle
manufacturer. For suspension seats, the vertical position shall be rigidly fixed corresponding to
a normal driving position as specified by the manufacturer.
4.4. The area of the seating position contacted by the 3-D H machine shall be covered by a muslin
cotton, of sufficient size and appropriate texture, described as a plain cotton fabric having
18.9 threads per cm and weighing 0.228 kg/m or knitted or non-woven fabric having equivalent
characteristics. If the test is run on a seat outside the vehicle, the floor on which the seat is
placed shall have the same essential characteristics as the floor of the vehicle in which the
seat is intended to be used.
4.5. Place the seat and back assembly of the 3-D H machine so that the centreplane of the
occupant (C/LO) coincides with the centreplane of the 3-D H machine. At the manufacturer's
request, the 3-D H machine may be moved inboard with respect to the C/LO if the 3-D H
machine is located so far outboard that the seat edge will not permit levelling of the 3-D H
machine.
4.6. Attach the foot and lower leg assemblies to the seat pan assembly, either individually or by
using the T-bar and lower leg assembly. A line through the "H" point sight buttons shall be
parallel to the ground and perpendicular to the longitudinal Centreplane of the seat.
4.7. Adjust the feet and leg positions of the 3-D H machine as follows:
4.7.1. Designated seating position: driver and outside front passenger
4.7.1.1. Both feet and leg assemblies shall be moved forward in such a way that the feet take up
natural positions on the floor, between the operating pedals if necessary. Where possible the
left foot shall be located approximately the same distance to the left of the centreplane of the
3-D H machine as the right foot is to the right. The spirit level verifying the transverse
orientation of the 3-D H machine is brought to the horizontal by readjustment of the seat pan if
necessary, or by adjusting the leg and foot assemblies towards the rear. The line passing
through the "H" point right buttons shall be maintained perpendicular to the longitudinal
centreplane of the seat.
4.7.1.2. If the left leg cannot be kept parallel to the right leg and the left foot cannot be supported by the
structure, move the left foot until it is supported. The alignment of the sight buttons shall be
maintained.

4.13. Holding the T-bar to prevent the 3-D H machine from sliding forward on the seat cushion,
proceed as follows:
(a)
(b)
return the back pan to the seat-back;
alternately apply and release a horizontal rearward load, not to exceed 25 N, to the back
angle bar at a height approximately at the centre of the torso weights until the hip angle
quadrant indicates that a stable position has been reached after load release. Care shall
be exercised to ensure that no exterior downward or lateral loads are applied to the
3-D H machine. If another level adjustment of the 3-D H machine is necessary, rotate
the back pan forward, re-level, and repeat the procedure from Paragraph 4.12.
4.14. Take all measurements:
4.14.1. The co-ordinates of the "H" point are measured with respect to the three-dimensional reference
system.
4.14.2. The actual torso angle is read at the back angle quadrant of the 3-D H machine with the probe
in its fully rearward position.
4.15. If a re-run of the installation of the 3-D H machine is desired, the seat assembly should remain
unloaded for a minimum period of 30 min prior to the re-run.
The 3-D H machine should not be left loaded on the seat assembly longer than the time
required to perform the test.
4.16. If the seats in the same row can be regarded as similar (bench seat, identical seats, etc.) only
one "H" point and one "actual torso angle" shall be determined for each row of seats, the 3-D H
machine described in Appendix 1 to this Annex being seated in a place regarded as
representative for the row. This place shall be
in the case of:
4.16.1. the front row, the driver's seat;
4.16.2. the rear row or rows, an outer seat.

Figure 1
3-D H Machine Elements Designation

ANNEX 8 - APPENDIX 2
THREE-DIMENSIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
1. The three-dimensional reference system is defined by three orthogonal planes established by the
vehicle manufacturer (see Figure).
2. The vehicle-measuring attitude is established by positioning the vehicle on the supporting surface
such that the co-ordinates of the fiducial marks correspond to the values indicated by the
manufacturer.
3. The co-ordinates of the "R" point and the "H" point are established in relation to the fiducial marks
defined by the vehicle manufacturer.
Figure
Three-dimensional Reference System

Airbag Modules for Replacement Airbag Systems.