Regulation No. 131-01

Name:Regulation No. 131-01
Description:Advanced Emergency Braking Systems.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Motor Vehicles with Regard to the Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2014-02-10
Amendment Level:01 Series, Supplement 2
Number of Pages:23
Vehicle Types:Bus, Component, Heavy Truck
Subject Categories:Braking
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.2/Add.130/Rev.1/Amend.1
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
October 28, 2016
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 131-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE ADVANCED
EMERGENCY BRAKING SYSTEMS (AEBS)
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.07.13
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.01.14
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.02.14
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.10.16

REGULATION No. 131-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE ADVANCED
EMERGENCY BRAKING SYSTEMS (AEBS)
CONTENTS
REGULATION
Introduction
1. Scope and purpose
2. Definitions
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications
6. Test procedure
7. Modification of vehicle type and extension of approval
8. Conformity of production
9. Penalties for non-conformity of production
10. Production definitively discontinued
11. Names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of
Type Approval Authorities
12. Transitional provisions
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
Annex 3
Annex 4
Communication
Arrangements of approval marks
Warning and activation test requirements – Pass/fail values
Special requirements to be applied to the safety aspects of complex electronic vehicle
control systems.

1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE
This Regulation applies to the approval of vehicles of Category M , N , M and N with
regard to an on-board system to avoid or mitigate the severity of a rear-end in lane collision.
2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. "Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS)" means a system which can
automatically detect a potential forward collision and activate the vehicle braking system to
decelerate the vehicle with the purpose of avoiding or mitigating a collision.
2.2. "Vehicle Type with Regard to its Advanced Emergency Braking System" means a
category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The manufacturer's trade name or mark;
Vehicle features which significantly influence the performances of the Advanced
Emergency Braking System;
The type and design of the Advanced Emergency Braking System.
2.3. "Subject Vehicle" means the vehicle being tested.
2.4. "Target" means a high volume series production passenger car of Category M AA saloon
or in the case of a soft target an object representative of such a vehicle in terms of its
detection characteristics applicable to the sensor system of the AEBS under test.
2.5. "Moving Target" means a target travelling at a constant speed in the same direction and in
the centre of the same lane of travel as the subject vehicle.
2.6. "Stationary Target" means a target at standstill facing the same direction and positioned on
the centre of the same test lane of travel as the subject vehicle.
2.7. "Soft Target" means a target that will suffer minimum damage and cause minimum damage
to the subject vehicle in the event of a collision.
2.8. "Collision Warning Phase" means the phase directly preceding the emergency braking
phase, during which the AEBS warns the driver of a potential forward collision.
2.9. "Emergency Braking Phase" means the phase starting when the AEBS emits a braking
demand for at least 4m/s² deceleration to the service braking system of the vehicle.
2.10. "Common Space" means an area on which two or more information functions (e.g. symbol)
may be displayed, but not simultaneously.

4.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations,
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above need not be repeated; in such
a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols shall be placed in
vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.
5. SPECIFICATIONS
5.1. General
5.1.1. Any vehicle fitted with an AEBS complying with the definition of Paragraph 2.1. above shall
meet the performance requirements contained in Paragraphs 5.1. to 5.6.2. of this
Regulation and shall be equipped with an anti-lock braking function in accordance with the
performance requirements of Annex 13 to Regulation No. 13.
5.1.2. The effectiveness of AEBS shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields.
This shall be demonstrated by fulfilling the technical requirements and respecting the
transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10 by applying:
(a)
(b)
The 03 series of amendments for vehicles without a coupling system for charging the
Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries);
The 04 series of amendments for vehicles with a coupling system for charging the
Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries).
5.1.3. Conformity with the safety aspects of complex electronic control systems shall be shown by
meeting the requirements of Annex 4.
5.2. Performance Requirements
5.2.1. The system shall provide the driver with appropriate warning(s) as below:
5.2.1.1. A collision warning when the AEBS has detected the possibility of a collision with a
preceding vehicle of Category M, N or O in the same lane which is travelling at a slower
speed, has slowed to a halt or is stationary having not being identified as moving. The
warning shall be as specified in Paragraph 5.5.1. above.
5.2.1.2. A failure warning when there is a failure in the AEBS that prevents the requirements of this
Regulation of being met. The warning shall be as specified in Paragraph 5.5.4. below.
5.2.1.2.1. There shall not be an appreciable time interval between each AEBS self-check, and
subsequently there shall not be an appreciable delay in illuminating the warning signal, in
the case of an electrically detectable failure.
5.2.1.3. A deactivation warning, if the vehicle is equipped with a means to manually deactivate the
AEBS, shall be given when the system is deactivated. This shall be as specified in
Paragraph 5.4.2. below.

5.5.3. Where an optical means is used as part of the collision warning, the optical signal may be
the flashing of the failure warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.5.4. below.
5.5.4. The failure warning referred to in Paragraph 5.2.1.2. above shall be a constant yellow
optical warning signal.
5.5.5. Each AEBS optical warning signal shall be activated either when the ignition (start) switch is
turned to the "on" (run) position or when the ignition (start) switch is in a position between
the "on" (run) and "start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a check position (initial
system (power-on)). This requirement does not apply to warning signals shown in a
common space.
5.5.6. The optical warning signals shall be visible even by daylight; the satisfactory condition of the
signals must be easily verifiable by the driver from the driver's seat.
5.5.7. When the driver is provided with an optical warning signal to indicate that the AEBS is
temporarily not available, for example due to inclement weather conditions, the signal shall
be constant and yellow in colour. The failure warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.5.4.
above may be used for this purpose.
5.6. Provisions for the Periodic Technical Inspection
5.6.1. At a periodic technical inspection it shall be possible to confirm the correct operational
status of the AEBS by a visible observation of the failure warning signal status, following a
"power-ON" and any bulb check.
In the case of the failure warning signal being in a common space, the common space must
be observed to be functional prior to the failure warning signal status check.
5.6.2. At the time of type approval, the means to protect against simple unauthorised modification
of the operation of the failure warning signal chosen by the manufacturer shall be
confidentially outlined.
Alternatively, this protection requirement is fulfilled when a secondary means of checking
the correct operational status of the AEBS is available.
6. TEST PROCEDURE
6.1. Test Conditions
6.1.1. The test shall be performed on a flat, dry concrete or asphalt surface affording good
adhesion.
6.1.2. The ambient temperature shall be between 0°C and 45°C.
6.1.3. The horizontal visibility range shall allow the target to be observed throughout the test.
6.1.4 The tests shall be performed when there is no wind liable to affect the results.

6.4.3. The collision warning phase shall be followed by the emergency braking phase.
6.4.4. The total speed reduction of the subject vehicle at the time of the impact with the stationary
target shall be not less than the value specified in Table I, Column D of Annex 3.
6.4.5. The emergency braking phase shall not start before a TTC equal to or less than 3.0s.
Compliance shall be verified by either actual measurement during the test or using
documentation provided by the vehicle manufacturer, as agreed between the Technical
Service and the vehicle manufacturer.
6.5. Warning and Activation Test with a Moving Target
6.5.1. The subject vehicle and the moving target shall travel in a straight line, in the same
direction, for at least two seconds prior to the functional part of the test, with a subject
vehicle to target centreline offset of not more than 0.5m.
The functional part of the test shall start with the subject vehicle travelling at a speed of
80 ± 2km/h, the moving target at speed of the value specified in Table I, Column H of
Annex 3, and a separation distance of at least 120m between them.
From the start of the functional part of the test until the subject vehicle comes to a speed
equal to that of the target there shall be no adjustment to any subject vehicle control by the
driver other than slight steering adjustments to counteract any drifting.
6.5.2. The timing for the collision warning modes referred to in Paragraph 5.5.1. above shall
comply with the following:
6.5.2.1. At least one haptic or acoustic warning mode shall be provided no later than specified in
Table I, Column E of Annex 3.
6.5.2.2. At least two warning modes shall be provided no later than specified in Table I, Column F of
Annex 3.
6.5.2.3. Any speed reduction during the warning phase shall not exceed either 15km/h or 30% of the
total subject vehicle speed reduction, whichever is higher.
6.5.3. The emergency braking phase shall result in the subject vehicle not impacting the moving
target.
6.5.4. The emergency braking phase shall not start before a TTC equal to or less than 3.0s.
Compliance shall be verified by either actual measurement during the test or using
documentation provided by the vehicle manufacturer, as agreed between the Technical
Service and the vehicle manufacturer.

7. MODIFICATION OF VEHICLE TYPE AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL
7.1. Every modification of the vehicle type as defined in Paragraph 2.2. above shall be notified to
the Type Approval Authority which approved the vehicle type. The Type Approval Authority
may then either:
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made do not have an adverse effect on the conditions of the
granting of the approval and grant an extension of approval;
7.1.2. Consider that the modifications made affect the conditions of the granting of the approval
and require further tests or additional checks before granting an extension of approval.
7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement
which apply this Regulation.
7.3. The Type Approval Authority shall inform the other Contracting Parties of the extension by
means of the communication form which appears in Annex 1 to this Regulation. It shall
assign a serial number to each extension, to be known as the extension number.
8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. Procedures concerning conformity of production shall conform to the general provisions
defined in Appendix 2 to the Agreement (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) and meet
the following requirements:
8.2. A vehicle approved pursuant to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to
the type approved by meeting the requirements of Paragraph 5. above;
8.3. The Type Approval Authority which has granted approval may at any time verify the
conformity of control methods applicable to each production unit. The normal frequency of
such inspections shall be once every two years.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8. above are not complied with.
9.2. If a Contracting Party withdraws an approval it had previously granted, it shall forthwith so
notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation by sending them a
communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type Approval Authority which
granted the approval, which in turn shall forthwith inform the other Contracting Parties to the
Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the
model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 mm × 297 mm))
Issued by:
Name of administration
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of vehicle with regard to the advanced emergency braking system pursuant to
Regulation No. 131
Approval No. ................................... Extension No.
1. Trademark: ..........................................................................................................................................
2. Type and trade name(s): .....................................................................................................................
3. Name and address of manufacturer: ...................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ...................................................
5. Brief description of vehicle: .................................................................................................................
6. Data to enable the identification of the type of AEBS: ........................................................................
7. Date of submission of vehicle for approval: ........................................................................................
8. Technical Service performing the approval tests: ...............................................................................
9. Date of report issued by that Service: .................................................................................................
10. Number of report issued by that Service: ............................................................................................
11. Approval with regard to the AEBS is granted/refused : .....................................................................
12. Place: ...................................................................................................................................................
13. Date: ....................................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 2
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
(See Paragraphs 4.4. to 4.4.2. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in Belgium (E 6) with regard to the Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS) pursuant to
Regulation No. 131. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in
accordance with the requirements of the 01 series of amendments to the Regulation No. 131.

ANNEX 4
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS TO BE APPLIED TO THE SAFETY ASPECTS OF COMPLEX
ELECTRONIC VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
This Annex defines the special requirements for documentation, fault strategy and
verification with respect to the safety aspects of Complex electronic vehicle control systems
(definition 2.3. below) as far as this Regulation is concerned.
This Annex may also be called, by special Paragraphs in this Regulation, for safety related
functions which are controlled by electronic system(s).
This Annex does not specify the performance criteria for "The System" but covers the
methodology applied to the design process and the information which must be disclosed to
the Technical Service, for type approval purposes.
This information shall show that "The System" respects, under normal and fault conditions,
all the appropriate performance requirements specified elsewhere in this Regulation.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Annex:
2.1. "Safety Concept" is a description of the measures designed into the system, for example
within the electronic units, so as to address system integrity and thereby ensure safe
operation even in the event of an electrical failure.
The possibility of a fall-back to partial operation or even to a back-up system for vital vehicle
functions may be a part of the safety concept.
2.2. "Electronic Control System" means a combination of units, designed to cooperate in the
production of the stated vehicle control function by electronic data processing.
Such systems, often controlled by software, are built from discrete functional components
such as sensors, electronic control units and actuators and connected by transmission links.
They may include mechanical, electro pneumatic or electro-hydraulic elements.
"The System", referred to herein, is the one for which type approval is being sought.
2.3. "Complex Electronic Vehicle Control Systems" are those electronic control systems
which are subject to a hierarchy of control in which a controlled function may be over-ridden
by a higher level electronic control system/function.
A function which is over-ridden becomes part of the complex system.
2.4. "Higher-Level Control" systems/functions are those which employ additional processing
and/or sensing provisions to modify vehicle behaviour by commanding variations in the
normal function(s) of the vehicle control system.
This allows complex systems to automatically change their objectives with a priority which
depends on the sensed circumstances.

3.2. Description of the Functions of "The System"
A description shall be provided which gives a simple explanation of all the control functions
of "The System" and the methods employed to achieve the objectives, including a statement
of the mechanism(s) by which control is exercised.
3.2.1. A list of all input and sensed variables shall be provided and the working range of these
defined.
3.2.2. A list of all output variables which are controlled by "The System" shall be provided and an
indication given, in each case, of whether the control is direct or via another vehicle system.
The range of control (see Paragraph 2.7. of this Annex) exercised on each such variable
shall be defined.
3.2.3. Limits defining the boundaries of functional operation (see Paragraph 2.8. of this Annex)
shall be stated where appropriate to system performance.
3.3. System Layout and Schematics
3.3.1. Inventory of Components
A list shall be provided, collating all the units of "The System" and mentioning the other
vehicle systems which are needed to achieve the control function in question.
An outline schematic showing these units in combination shall be provided with both the
equipment distribution and the interconnections made clear.
3.3.2. Functions of the Units
The function of each unit of "The System" shall be outlined and the signals linking it with
other Units or with other vehicle systems shall be shown. This may be provided by a
labelled block diagram or other schematic, or by a description aided by such a diagram.
3.3.3. Interconnections
Interconnections within "The System" shall be shown by a circuit diagram for the electric
transmission links, by an optical-fibre diagram for optical links, by a piping diagram for
pneumatic or hydraulic transmission equipment and by a simplified diagrammatic layout for
mechanical linkages.
3.3.4. Signal Flow and Priorities
There shall be a clear correspondence between these transmission links and the signals
carried between units.
Priorities of signals on multiplexed data paths shall be stated, wherever priority may be an
issue affecting performance or safety as far as this Regulation is concerned.

3.4.3.3. If the chosen provision selects the removal of the higher level function, all the corresponding
output control signals associated with this function shall be inhibited, and in such a manner
as to limit the transition disturbance.
3.4.4. The documentation shall be supported, by an analysis which shows, in overall terms, how
the system will behave on the occurrence of any one of those specified faults which will
have a bearing on vehicle control performance or safety.
This may be based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), a Fault Tree Analysis
(FTA) or any similar process appropriate to system safety considerations.
The chosen analytical approach(es) shall be established and maintained by the
manufacturer and shall be made open for inspection by the technical service at the time of
the type approval.
3.4.4.1. This documentation shall itemise the parameters being monitored and shall set out, for each
fault condition of the type defined in Paragraph 3.4.4. above, the warning signal to be given
to the driver and/or to service/technical inspection personnel.
4. VERIFICATION AND TEST
4.1. The functional operation of "The System", as laid out in the documents required in
Paragraph 3. above, shall be tested as follows:
4.1.1. Verification of the Function of "The System".
As the means of establishing the normal operational levels, verification of the performance
of the vehicle system under non-fault conditions shall be conducted against the
manufacturer's basic benchmark specification unless this is subject to a specified
performance test as part of the approval procedure of this or another Regulation.
4.1.2. Verification of the Safety Concept of Paragraph 3.4. above
The reaction of "The System" shall, at the discretion of the Type Approval Authority, be
checked under the influence of a failure in any individual unit by applying corresponding
output signals to electrical units or mechanical elements in order to simulate the effects of
internal faults within the unit.
The verification results shall correspond with the documented summary of the failure
analysis, to a level of overall effect such that the safety concept and execution are
confirmed as being adequate.
Advanced Emergency Braking Systems.