Regulation No. 138-00

Name:Regulation No. 138-00
Description:Regulation on the Approval of Quiet Road Transport Vehicles (QRTV).
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Quiet Road Transport Vehicles with Regard to their Reduced Audibility.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2016-10-24
Amendment Level:00 Series
Number of Pages:43
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Electrical and Electronic, Noise
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Keywords:

vehicle, test, sound, speed, approval, annex, paragraph, level, frequency, regulation, type, measurement, background, noise, pressure, avas, condition, manufacturer, requirements, reported, facility, constant, a-weighted, vehicles, line, figure, means, conditions, appendix, measurements, microphone, range, indoor, maximum, tested, minimum, tests, shift, outdoor, target, simulated, method, plane, signal, granted, technical, motor, system, sample, table

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.2/Add.137
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
October 24, 2016
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 138-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
QUIET ROAD TRANSPORT VEHICLES WITH REGARD
TO THEIR REDUCED AUDIBILITY (QRTV)
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments Date of Entry into Force: 05.10.16

REGULATION
1. Scope
REGULATION NO. 138-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF QUIET ROAD
TRANSPORT VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR REDUCED AUDIBILITY (QRTV)
2. Definitions
3. Application for approval
4. Markings
5. Approval
6. Specifications
CONTENTS
7. Modification and extension of approval of a vehicle type
8. Conformity of production
9. Penalties for non-conformity of production
10. Production definitively discontinued
11. Transitional provisions
12. Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities
Annexes
Annex 1
Communication
Addendum to the Communication Form (Technical Information document)
Annex 2
Annex 3
Arrangements of the approval mark
Methods and instruments for measuring the sound made by motor vehicles
Appendix: Figures and Flowcharts

2.5.3. "Fuel Cell vehicle" (FCV) means a vehicle with a fuel cell and an electric machine as
propulsion energy converters.
2.5.4. "Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle" (FCHV) means a vehicle with at least one fuel storage system
and at least one Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (REESS) as propulsion
energy storage system.
2.6. "Mass in running order" means the mass of the vehicle, with its fuel tank(s) filled to at
least 90% of its or their capacity/ies, including the mass of the driver (75kg), of the fuel and
liquids, fitted with the standard equipment in accordance with the manufacturer’s
specifications and, when they are fitted, the mass of the bodywork, the cabin, the coupling
and the spare wheel(s) as well as the tools.
2.7. "Pause function" means a mechanism to halt temporarily the operation of an AVAS.
2.8. "Front plane of the vehicle" means a vertical plane tangent to the leading edge of the
vehicle.
2.9. "Rear plane of the vehicle" means a vertical plane tangent to the trailing edge of the
vehicle.
2.10. Symbols and abbreviated terms and the paragraph in which they are first used.

3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to reduced audibility shall be
submitted by its manufacturer or by a duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents and the following particulars:
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items mentioned in Paragraph 2.3.
above;
3.2.2. A description of the engine(s) as mentioned in Annex 1, Addendum;
3.2.3. If applicable, a list of the components constituting the AVAS;
3.2.4. If applicable, a drawing of the assembled AVAS and an indication of its position on the
vehicle.
3.3. In the case of Paragraph 2.3., the single vehicle, representative of the type in question, will
be selected by the Technical Service conducting approval tests, in accordance with the
vehicle manufacturer.
3.4. The Type Approval Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for
ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.
4. MARKINGS
4.1. The components of the AVAS (if applicable) shall bear:
4.1.1. The trade name or mark of the manufacturer(s) of the AVAS components;
4.1.2. A designated identification number(s).
4.2. These markings shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
5. APPROVAL
5.1. Type approval shall only be granted if the vehicle type meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 6 and 7 below.
5.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
00 corresponding to the 00 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number
to another vehicle type.
5.3. Notice of approval or of extension or of refusal or withdrawal of approval or of production
definitively discontinued of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated
to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a form conforming to
the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

6.2.1. Constant Speed Tests
6.2.1.1. The test speeds for approval are 10km/h and 20km/h.
6.2.1.2. When tested under the conditions of Annex 3 Paragraph 3.3.2, the vehicle shall emit a
sound
(a)
(b)
(c)
That has a minimum overall sound pressure level for the applicable test speed
according to Table 2 of Paragraph 6.2.8.;
That has at least two of the one-third octave bands according to Table 2 of
Paragraph 6.2.8. At least one of these bands shall be below or within the 1,600Hz
one-third octave band;
With minimum sound pressure levels in the chosen bands for the applicable test
speed according to Table 2 of Paragraph 6.2.8., Column 3 or Column 4.
6.2.1.3. If after a vehicle is tested in accordance with Annex 3 Paragraph 3.3.2., for ten consecutive
times within a series of measurements without recording a valid measurement because the
vehicle’s internal combustion engine (ICE) remains active or restarts and interferes with the
measurements, the vehicle is exempted from this particular test.
6.2.2. Reversing Test
6.2.2.1. When tested under the conditions of Annex 3 Paragraph 3.3.3. the vehicle must emit a
sound that has a minimum overall sound pressure level according to Table 2 of
Paragraph 6.2.8., Column 5.
6.2.2.2. If after a vehicle is tested in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 3.3.3., for ten consecutive
times within a series of measurements without recording a valid measurement because the
vehicle’s ICE remains active or restarts and interferes with the measurements, the vehicle is
exempted from this particular test.
6.2.3. Frequency Shift to Signify Acceleration and Deceleration
6.2.3.1. The intention of frequency shift is to acoustically inform road users about the change in
vehicle speed.
6.2.3.2. When tested under the conditions of Annex 3 Paragraph 4, at least one tone within the
frequency range as specified in Paragraph 6.2.8. emitted by the vehicle shall vary
proportionally with speed within each individual gear ratio by an average of at least 0.8% per
1km/h in the speed range from 5km/h to 20km/h inclusive when driving in forward direction.
In case more than one frequency is shifted, only one frequency shift needs to fulfil the
requirements.
6.2.4. Stationary Sound
The vehicle may emit a sound when stationary.
6.2.5. Driver Selectable Sounds
The vehicle manufacturer may define alternative sounds which can be selected by the
driver; each of these sounds shall be in compliance and approved with the provisions in
Paragraphs 6.2.1. to 6.2.3.

6.2.8. Minimum Sound Levels
The sound level measured in accordance with the provisions of Annex 3 to this Regulation,
mathematically rounded to the nearest integer value, shall have at least the followings
values:
Frequency in Hz
Table 2
Minimum Sound Level Requirements in dB(A)
Constant Speed Test
Paragraph 3.3.2.
(10km/h)
Constant Speed Test
Paragraph 3.3.2.
(20km/h)
Reversing Test
Paragraph 3.3.3.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
1/3 Octave Bands
Overall 50 56 47
160 45 50
200 44 49
250 43 48
315 44 49
400 45 50
500 45 50
630 46 51
800 46 51
1,000 46 51
1,250 46 51
1,600 44 49
2,000 42 47
2,500 39 44
3,150 36 41
4,000 34 39
5,000 31 36

11. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
Until June 30, 2019 ISO 10844:1994 may be applied as an alternative to ISO 10844:2014 to
check compliance of the test track as described in Annex 3, Paragraph 2.1.2. of this
Regulation.
12. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate
to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services
responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant
approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of
approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

SECTION II
1.
Additional information (where applicable): See Addendum
2.
Technical service responsible for carrying out the tests: ............................................................
3.
Date of test report: .......................................................................................................................
4.
Number of test report: ..................................................................................................................
5.
Remarks (if any): See Addendum
6.
Place: ...........................................................................................................................................
7.
Date: ............................................................................................................................................
8.
Signature: ....................................................................................................................................
9.
Reasons for Extensions
Attachments:
Information package
Test report(s)

Technical Information Document
0.
General
0.1.
Make (trade name of manufacturer): ........................................................................................
0.2.
Type
0.3.
Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle:
0.3.1.
Location of that marking: ...........................................................................................................
0.4.
Category of vehicle:
...............................................................................................................
0.5.
Company name and address of manufacturer: ........................................................................
0.6.
Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any): ............................................
0.8.
Name(s) and Address(es) of assembly plant(s): ......................................................................
1.
General construction characteristics of the vehicle
1.1.
Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: .......................................................
1.3.
Number of axles and wheels:
.................................................................................................
1.3.3.
Powered axles (number, position, interconnection): .................................................................
1.6.
Position and arrangement of the engine(s): ..............................................................................
2.
Masses and dimensions
(in kg and mm) (Refer to drawing where applicable): ....................
2.4.
Range of vehicle dimensions (overall):..................................................................................... .
2.4.1
For chassis without bodywork: ..................................................................................................
2.4.1.1.
Length: ......................................................................................................................................
2.4.1.2.
Width: ........................................................................................................................................
2.4.2.
For chassis with bodywork
2.4.2.1.
Length: ......................................................................................................................................
2.4.2.2.
Width: ........................................................................................................................................

17. AVAS (if applicable)
17.1. Type of the AVAS (loudspeaker ...): .........................................................................................
17.1.1. Make: ........................................................................................................................................
17.1.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
17.1.3. Geometrical characteristics (internal length and diameter)
17.2. The following documents are annexed to this communication:
17.2.1. drawings of the mountings of the sound emitting device(s),
17.2.2. ... drawings and diagrams giving the mounting positions and
characteristics of the parts of the structure on which the devices are fitted.
17.2.3. ... over-all views of the front of the vehicle and of the compartment in which the device is
situated and description of the component materials.
Signed: ...........................................................................................................................................................
Position in company: .....................................................................................................................................
Date: ..............................................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 3
METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SOUND MADE BY MOTOR VEHICLES
1. INSTRUMENTATION
1.1. Instruments for Acoustic Measurement
1.1.1. General
1.1.2. Calibration
The apparatus used for measuring the sound pressure level shall be a sound level meter or
equivalent measurement system meeting the requirements of Class 1 instruments (inclusive
of the recommended windscreen, if used). These requirements are described in
IEC 61672-1-2013.
The entire measurement system shall be checked by means of a sound calibrator that fulfils
the requirements of Class 1 sound calibrators in accordance with IEC 60942-2003.
Measurements shall be carried out using the time weighting "F" of the acoustic
measurement instrument and the "A" frequency weighting also described in
IEC 61672-1-2013. When using a system that includes a periodic monitoring of the
A-weighted sound pressure level, a reading should be made at a time interval not greater
than 30ms.
When measurements are carried out for one-third octaves, the instrumentation shall meet all
requirements of IEC 61260-1-2014, Class 1.
When measurements are carried out for frequency shift, the digital sound recording system
shall have at least a 16 bit quantization. The sampling rate and the dynamic range shall be
appropriate to the signal of interest.
The instruments shall be maintained and calibrated in accordance with the instructions of
the instrument manufacturer.
At the beginning and at the end of every measurement session, the entire acoustic
measurement system shall be checked by means of a sound calibrator as described in
Paragraph 1.1.1. Without any further adjustment, the difference between the readings shall
be less than or equal to 0.5dB(A). If this value is exceeded, the results of the measurements
obtained after the previous satisfactory check shall be discarded.
1.1.3. Compliance with requirements
Compliance of the sound calibrator with the requirements of IEC 60942-2003 shall be
verified once a year. Compliance of the instrumentation system with the requirements of
IEC 61672-3-2013 shall be verified at least every 2 years. All compliance testing shall be
conducted by a laboratory which is authorized to perform calibrations traceable to the
appropriate standards.

2.1.3. Indoor Hemi Anechoic or Anechoic Testing
This Paragraph specifies conditions applicable when testing a vehicle, either operating as it
would on the road with all systems operational, or operating in a mode where only the AVAS
is operational.
The test facility shall meet requirements of ISO 26101:2012 with the following qualification
criteria and measurement requirements appropriate to this test method.
Space to be deemed hemi-anechoic shall be defined as shown in Figure 3 of the Appendix
to this Annex.
For qualifying the hemi acoustic space, the following evaluation shall be conducted:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Sound source location shall be place on the floor in middle of the space deemed to be
anechoic;
Sound source shall provide a broadband input for measurement;
Evaluation shall be conducted in one-third-octave bands;
Microphone locations for evaluation shall be on a line from the source location to
each position of microphones used for measurement in this Regulation as shown in
Figure 3 of the Appendix to this Annex. This is commonly referred to as the
microphone transverse;
A minimum of 10 points shall be used for evaluation on the microphone transverse
line;
The one third octave bands used to establish hemi-anechoic qualification shall be
defined to cover the spectral range of interest.
The test facility shall have a cut-off frequency, as defined in ISO 26101:2012, lower than the
lowest frequency of interest. The lowest frequency of interest is the frequency below which
there is no signal content relevant to the measurement of sound emission for the vehicle
under test.
In the vicinity of the microphones, there shall be no obstacle that could influence the
acoustic field and no person shall remain between the microphone and the noise source.
The meter observer shall be positioned so as not to influence the meter reading.
Microphones shall be located as specified in Figures 2 of the Appendix to this Annex.

2.3.2. Vehicle A-weighted Sound Pressure Level Measurement Correction Criteria
Depending on the level and the range of maximum to minimum value of the representative
background noise A-weighted sound pressure level over a defined time period, the
measured j test result within a test condition, L , shall be corrected according to the table
below to obtain the background noise corrected level L . Except where noted,
L = L - L .
Background noise corrections to measurements are only valid when the range of the
maximum to minimum background noise A-weighted sound pressure levels are 2dB(A) or
less.
In all cases where the range of the maximum to minimum background noise is greater than
2dB(A), the maximum level of the background noise shall be 10dB(A) or greater below the
level of the measurement. When the maximum to minimum range of background noise is
greater than 2dB(A) and the level of the background noise is less than 10dB(A) below the
measurement, no valid measurement is possible.
Table 3
Correction for Level of Background Noise when
Measuring Vehicle A-weighted Sound Pressure Level
Range of maximum to minimum
value of the representative
background noise A-weighted
sound pressure level over a defined
time period ∆L in dB(A)
Correction for background noise
Sound pressure level of
j-th test result minus
background noise level
∆L = L - L
in dB(A)
Correction in dB(A)
L
– ∆L ≥ 10 no correction needed
≤2
8 ≤ ∆L <10 0.5
6 ≤ ∆L <8 1.0
4.5 ≤ ∆L <6 1.5
3 ≤ ∆L <4.5 2.5
∆L <3
no valid measurement can be reported
If a sound peak obviously out of character with the general sound pressure level is
observed, that measurement shall be discarded.
As an aid for measurement correction criteria see flowchart in Figure 5 of the Appendix to
this Annex.

3.2.3. Multi-mode Operation
If the vehicle is equipped with multiple driver selectable operating modes, the mode which
provides the lowest sound emission during the test conditions of Paragraph 3.3 shall be
selected.
When the vehicle provides multiple operating modes that are automatically selected by the
vehicle, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to determine the correct manner of testing
to achieve the minimum sound emission.
In cases where it is not possible to determine the vehicle operating mode providing the
lowest sound emission, all modes shall be tested and the mode giving the lowest test result
shall be used to report the vehicle sound emission in accordance with this regulation.
3.2.4. Test Mass of Vehicle
Measurements shall be made on vehicles at mass in running order with an allowable
tolerance of 15%.
3.2.5. Tyre Selection and Condition
The tyres fitted to the vehicle during testing are selected by the vehicle manufacturer, and
shall correspond to one of the tyre sizes and types designated for the vehicle by the vehicle
manufacturer.
The tyres shall be inflated to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer for the
test mass of the vehicle.
3.3. Operating Conditions
3.3.1. General
For each operating condition, the vehicle can be tested either indoor or outdoor.
For constant speed and reversing tests the vehicle may be tested either in motion or in
simulated operating condition. For simulated vehicle operation, signals shall be applied to
the vehicle to simulate actual in-use operation.
If the vehicle is equipped with an internal combustion engine, it shall be turned off.
3.3.2. Constant Speed Tests
These tests are conducted with the vehicle in forward motion or with the vehicle speed
simulated by an external signal to the AVAS with the vehicle in standstill condition.

3.3.3.1. Reversing Test in Motion
For a vehicle tested in an outdoor facility, the path of the centreline of the vehicle shall follow
Line CC’ as closely as possible with constant speed v throughout the entire test. The rear
plane of the vehicle shall pass from the Line AA’ at the start of the test and the front plane of
the vehicle shall pass from the Line BB’ at the end of the test, as shown on Figure 1b of the
Appendix to this Annex. Any trailer, which is not readily separable from the towing vehicle,
shall be ignored when considering the crossing of the Line BB’.
A vehicle tested in an indoor facility, shall be located with the rear plane of the vehicle on
the PP' Line as shown in Figure 2b of the Appendix to this Annex. The vehicle shall maintain
a constant test speed, v for at least 5s.
For constant speed test condition of 6km/h, the test speed v shall be 6km/h ± 2km/h.
For automatic transmission vehicles, the gear selector shall be placed as specified by the
manufacturer for normal reverse driving.
For manual transmission vehicles, the gear selector shall be placed in the highest reverse
gear which can achieve the target vehicle speed with constant engine speed.
3.3.3.2. Reversing test simulated by an external signal to the AVAS with the vehicle in standstill
condition
A vehicle tested in an indoor or outdoor facility, shall be located with the rear plane of the
vehicle on the PP' Line as shown in Figure 2b of the Appendix to this Annex. The vehicle
shall maintain a constant simulated test speed, v for at least 5s.
For constant test condition of 6km/h, the simulated test speed v shall be 6km/h ± 0.5km/h.
3.3.3.3. Reversing Test in Standstill Condition
A vehicle tested in an indoor or outdoor facility, shall be located with the rear plane of the
vehicle on the PP' Line as shown in Figure 2b of the Appendix to this Annex.
The vehicle’s gear selection control shall be in the reverse position and the brake released
for the test.

4. TEST PROCEDURES FOR FREQUENCY SHIFT
4.1. General
The provisions on frequency shift outlined in 6.2.3 of the main body shall be checked using
one of the following test methods to be selected by the manufacturer:
Method (A)
Method (B)
Method (C)
Method (D)
Method (E)
Test of the complete vehicle in motion on an outdoor test track
Test of the complete vehicle in standstill condition on an outdoor test track
with simulation of the vehicle movement to the AVAS by an external signal
generator
Test of the complete vehicle in motion in an indoor facility on a chassis
dynamometer
Test of the complete vehicle in standstill condition in an indoor facility with
simulation of the vehicle movement to the AVAS by an external signal
generator
Test of the AVAS without a vehicle in an indoor facility with simulation of the
vehicle movement to the AVAS by an external signal generator
The facility requirements as well as the vehicle and test setup specifications are the same
as given in Paragraphs 1, 2, 3.1 and 3.2 of this Annex according to the selected test method
unless the following Paragraphs below provide different or additional specifications.
No background noise correction shall be applied to any measurement. Special care must be
given for outdoor measurements. Any interference of the background noise shall be
avoided. If a sound peak obviously out of character with the general signal is observed, that
measurement shall be discarded.
4.2. Instrumentation and Signal Processing
Analyser settings shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the technical service to
provide data according to these requirements.
The sound analysis system shall be capable of performing spectral analysis at a sampling
rate and over a frequency range containing all frequencies of interest. The frequency
resolution shall be sufficiently precise to differentiate between the frequencies of the various
test conditions.

4.4. Measurement Readings
4.4.1. Test Method (A)
At least four measurements shall be made at every speed specified in Paragraph 4.3.1. The
emitted sound shall be recorded during each passage of the vehicle between AA’ and BB’
for each microphone position. From each measurement sample a segment taken from AA
until -1m before PP’ shall be cut out for further analysis.
4.4.2. Test Methods (B), (C), (D) and (E)
The emitted sound shall be measured at every speed specified in correlated Paragraphs
above for at least 5s.
4.5. Signal Processing
For each recorded sample the average auto power spectrum shall be determined, using a
Hanning window and at least 66.6% overlap averages. The frequency resolution shall be
chosen to be sufficiently narrow as to allow a separation of the frequency shift per target
condition. The reported speed per sample segment is the average vehicle speed over the
time of the sample segment rounded to the first decimal place.
In case of test method (A) the frequency that is intended to be changed with the speed shall
be determined per sample segment. The reported frequency per target condition f shall
be the mathematical average of the frequencies determined per measurement sample and
rounded to the nearest integer. The reported speed per target condition shall be the
mathematical average of the four sample segments.

4.5.1. Data Compilation and Reported Results
The frequency intended to be shifted shall be used for the further calculation. The frequency
of the lowest reported test speed rounded to the nearest integer is taken as the reference
frequency f .
For the other vehicle speeds, the corresponding shifted frequencies f rounded to the
nearest integer shall be taken from the spectra analysis. Calculate del f, the frequency shift
of the signal according to Equation (1):
where
del f = {[(f - f )/(v – v )]/f } · 100 Equation (1)
f is the frequency at a given speed value;
f is the frequency at the reference speed of 5km/h or the lowest reported speed;
v is the vehicle speed, actual or simulated, corresponding to the frequency f ;
v is the vehicle speed, actual or simulated, corresponding to the frequency f ;
The results shall be reported using the following table:

ANNEX 3 – APPENDIX
FIGURES AND FLOWCHARTS
1a. Forward 1b. Reverse
Figures 1a and 1b
Measuring Positions for Vehicles in Motion Outdoor
2a. Forward 2b. Reverse
Figures 2a and 2b
Measuring Positions for Vehicles in Motion Indoor and in Standstill

Figure 5
Vehicle A-Weighted Sound Pressure Level Measurement Correction Criteria

Figure 7a
Test Procedures for Measurement of Frequency Shift

Figure 7c
Test Procedures for Measurement of Frequency Shift, Methods B, C, D, and E
Regulation on the Approval of Quiet Road Transport Vehicles (QRTV).