Regulation No. 13-H-01
|Name:||Regulation No. 13-H-01|
|Description:||Passenger Car Braking.|
|Official Title:||Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Passenger Cars with Regard to Braking.|
|Country:||ECE - United Nations|
|Date of Issue:||2017-02-22|
|Amendment Level:||01 Series|
|Number of Pages:||100|
|Vehicle Types:||Car, Component, Light Truck|
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February 22, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.05.98
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Corr. 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Corr. 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Corr. 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.12.00
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.02.02
Corr. 1 to Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Supplement 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 04.04.05
Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.06.07
Supplement 5 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Corr. 1 of 17.09.09 to Revision 1
Supplement 6 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08
Supplement 7 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Corr. 1 of 17.09.09 to Supplement 7 to Revision 1
Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09
Supplement 9 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 17.03.10
Corr. 1 to Supplement 9 to the 00 series of amendments
Supplement 10 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.12.10
Supplement 11 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 30.01.11
Corr. 1 of 16.11.11 to Revision 2
Corr. 2 of 14.03.12 to Revision 2
Supplement 12 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11
Supplement 13 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.04.12
Supplement 14 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.01.13
Corr. 3 of 11.09.13 to Revision 2
Supplement 15 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.02.14
Supplement 16 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.06.15
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.02.17
REGULATION NO. 13-H-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
3. Application for Approval
7. Modification of Vehicle Type or Braking System and Extension of Approval
8. Conformity of Production
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10. Production Definitively Discontinued
11. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities
12. Transitional Provisions
Appendix – List of vehicle data for the purpose of Regulation No. 90 approvals
− Arrangements of Approval Marks
− Braking Tests and Performance of Braking Systems
Appendix − Procedure for monitoring the state of battery charge
− Provisions Relating to Energy Sources and Energy Storage Devices (Energy
REGULATION NO. 13-H-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
1.1. This Regulation applies to the braking of vehicles of Category M and N .
1.2. This Regulation does not cover:
1.2.1. Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25km/h;
1.2.2. Vehicles fitted for invalid drivers;
1.2.3. The approval of the ESC and BAS systems of the vehicle.
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking.
2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects
2.2.1. The maximum mass, as defined in Paragraph 2.11. below;
2.2.2. The distribution of mass among the axles;
2.2.3. The maximum design speed;
2.2.4. A different type of braking equipment, with more particular reference to the presence or
otherwise of equipment for braking a trailer or any presence of electric braking system;
2.2.5. The engine type;
2.2.6. The number and ratios of gears;
2.2.7. The final drive ratios;
2.2.8. The tyre dimensions.
2.9. "Progressive and graduated braking" means braking during which, within the normal
operating range of the device, and during actuation of the brakes (see Paragraph 2.16.
2.9.1. The driver can at any moment increase or decrease the braking force by acting on the
2.9.2. The braking force varies proportionally as the action on the control (monotonic function);
2.9.3. The braking force can be easily regulated with sufficient precision.
2.10. "Laden vehicle" means, except where otherwise stated, a vehicle so laden as to attain its
2.11. "Maximum mass" means the maximum mass stated by the vehicle manufacturer to be
technically permissible (this mass may be higher than the "permissible maximum mass" laid
down by the national administration).
2.12. "The distribution of mass among the axles" means the distribution of the effect of the
gravity on the mass of the vehicle and/or its contents among the axles.
2.13. "Wheel/axle load" means the vertical static reaction (force) of the road surface in the
contact area on the wheel/wheels of the axle.
2.14. "Maximum stationary wheel/axle load" means the stationary wheel/axle load achieved
under the condition of the laden vehicle.
2.15. "Hydraulic braking equipment with stored energy" means a braking equipment where
energy is supplied by a hydraulic fluid under pressure, stored in one or more accumulator(s)
fed from one or more pressure pump(s), each fitted with a means of limiting the pressure to
a maximum value. This value shall be specified by the manufacturer.
2.16. "Actuation" means both application and release of the control.
2.17. "Electric regenerative braking" means a braking system which, during deceleration,
provides for the conversion of vehicle kinetic energy into electrical energy;
2.17.1. "Electric regenerative braking control" means a device which modulates the action of the
electric regenerative braking system;
2.17.2. "Electric regenerative braking system of Category A" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is not part of the service braking system;
2.17.3. "Electric regenerative braking system of Category B" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is part of the service braking system;
2.17.4. "Electric state of charge" means the instantaneous ratio of electric quantity of energy
stored in the traction battery relative to the maximum quantity of electric energy which could
be stored in this battery;
2.17.5. "Traction battery" means an assembly of accumulators constituting the storage of energy
used for powering the traction motor(s) of the vehicle.
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking shall be submitted by
the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the under-mentioned documents in triplicate and by the following
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in Paragraph 2.2. above.
The numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and the engine type shall be
3.2.2. A list of the components, duly identified, constituting the braking equipment;
3.2.3. A diagram of assembled braking equipment and an indication of the position of its
components on the vehicle;
3.2.4. Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified.
3.3. A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the
Technical Service conducting the approval tests.
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the
requirements of Paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved, its first two digits shall
indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to the same vehicle type equipped with
another type of braking equipment, or to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by
means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation and of a summary of
the information contained in the documents referred to in Paragraphs 3.2.1. to 3.2.4. above,
the drawings supplied by the applicant for approval being in a format not exceeding A4
(210 x 297mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate scale.
184.108.40.206. A failure detection signal may interrupt momentarily (<10ms) the demand signal in the
control transmission, provided that the braking performance is thereby not reduced.
5.1.2. Functions of the Braking Equipment
The braking equipment defined in Paragraph 2.3. of this Regulation shall fulfil the following
220.127.116.11. Service Braking System
The service braking system shall make it possible to control the movement of the vehicle
and to halt it safely, speedily and effectively, whatever its speed and load, on any up or
down gradient. It must be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able
to achieve this braking action from his driving seat without removing his hands from the
18.104.22.168. Secondary Braking System
The secondary braking system shall make it possible by application of the service brake
control to halt the vehicle within a reasonable distance in the event of failure of the service
braking system. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able
to obtain this braking action from his driving seat without removing his hands from the
steering control. For the purposes of these provisions it is assumed that not more than one
failure of the service braking system can occur at one time.
22.214.171.124. Parking Braking System
The parking braking system shall make it possible to hold the vehicle stationary on an up or
down gradient even in the absence of the driver, the working parts being then held in the
locked position by a purely mechanical device. The driver shall be able to achieve this
braking action from his driving seat.
5.1.3. The requirements of Annex 8 shall be applied to the safety aspects of all complex electronic
vehicle control systems, including those defined in an independent regulation, which provide
or form part of the control transmission of the braking function, included those which utilize
the braking system(s) for automatically commanded braking or selective braking.
However, vehicles equipped with systems or functions, including those defined in an
independent regulation, which use the braking system as the means of achieving a higher
level objective, are subject to Annex 8 only insofar as they have a direct effect on the
braking system. If such systems are provided, they must not be deactivated during type
approval testing of the braking system.
5.1.4. Provisions for the periodic technical inspection of braking systems
126.96.36.199. It shall be possible to assess the wear condition of the components of the service brake that
are subject to wear e.g. friction linings and drums/discs (in the case of drums or discs, wear
assessment may not necessarily be carried out at the time of periodic technical inspection).
The method by which this may be realized is defined in Paragraphs 188.8.131.52. of this
184.108.40.206. If service braking is ensured by the action of the driver's muscular energy assisted by one or
more energy reserves, secondary braking shall, in the event of failure of that assistance, be
capable of being ensured by the driver's muscular energy assisted by the energy reserves,
if any, which are unaffected by the failure, the force applied to the service brake control not
exceeding the prescribed maximum;
220.127.116.11. If the service braking force and transmission depend exclusively on the use, controlled by
the driver, of an energy reserve, there shall be at least two completely independent energy
reserves, each provided with its own transmission, likewise independent; each of them may
act on the brakes of only two or more wheels so selected as to be capable of ensuring by
themselves the prescribed degree of secondary braking without endangering the stability of
the vehicle during braking; in addition, each of the aforesaid energy reserves shall be
equipped with a warning device as defined in Paragraph 5.2.14. below;
18.104.22.168. If the service braking force and transmission depend exclusively on the use of an energy
reserve, one energy reserve for the transmission is deemed to be sufficient, provided that
the prescribed secondary braking is ensured by the action of the driver's muscular energy
acting on the service brake control and the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.5. below are met;
22.214.171.124. Certain parts, such as the pedal and its bearing, the master cylinder and its piston or
pistons, the control valve, the linkage between the pedal and the master cylinder or the
control valve, the brake cylinders and their pistons, and the lever-and-cam assemblies of
brakes, shall not be regarded as liable to breakage if they are amply dimensioned, are
readily accessible for maintenance, and exhibit safety features at least equal to those
prescribed for other essential components (such as the steering linkage) of the vehicle. Any
such part as aforesaid whose failure would make it impossible to brake the vehicle with a
degree of effectiveness at least equal to that prescribed for secondary braking shall be
made of metal or of a material with equivalent characteristics and must not undergo notable
distortion in normal operation of the braking systems.
5.2.3. The failure of a part of a hydraulic transmission system shall be signalled to the driver by a
device comprising a red tell-tale signal lighting up before or upon application of a differential
pressure of not more than 15.5 bar between the active and failed brake equipment,
measured at the master cylinder outlet and remaining lit as long as the failure persists and
the ignition (start) switch is in the "On" (run) position. However, a device comprising a red
tell-tale signal lighting up when the fluid in the reservoir is below a certain level specified by
the manufacturer is permitted. The tell-tale signal shall be visible even by daylight; the
satisfactory condition of the signal shall be easily verifiable by the driver from the driver's
seat. The failure of a component of the device shall not entail total loss of the braking
equipment's effectiveness. Application of the parking brake shall also be indicated to the
driver. The same tell-tale signal may be used.
5.2.4. Where use is made of energy other than the muscular energy of the driver, there need not
be more than one source of such energy (hydraulic pump, air compressor, etc.), but the
means by which the device constituting that source is driven shall be as safe as practicable.
126.96.36.199. In the event of failure in any part of the transmission of a braking system, the feed to the
part not affected by the failure shall continue to be ensured if required for the purpose of
halting the vehicle with the degree of effectiveness prescribed for secondary braking. This
condition shall be met by means of devices which can easily be actuated when the vehicle
is stationary, or by automatic means.
188.8.131.52.1. A difference in transverse braking pressures on any axle:
(a) Of 25% of the higher value for vehicle decelerations ≥2m/sec ,
A value corresponding to 25% at 2m/sec for decelerations below this rate.
184.108.40.206.2. An individual compensating value on any axle:
(a) >50% of the nominal value for vehicle decelerations ≥2m/sec ,
A value corresponding to 50% of the nominal value at 2m/sec for decelerations
below this rate.
220.127.116.11. Compensation as defined above, is permitted only when the initial brake application is made
at vehicle speeds greater than 10km/h.
5.2.9. Malfunctions of the electric control transmission shall not apply the brakes contrary to the
5.2.10. The service, secondary and parking braking systems shall act on braking surfaces
connected to the wheels through components of adequate strength.
Where braking torque for a particular axle or axles is provided by both a friction braking
system and an electrical regenerative braking system of Category B, disconnection of the
latter source is permitted, providing that the friction braking source remains permanently
connected and able to provide the compensation referred to in Paragraph 18.104.22.168. above.
However, in the case of short disconnection transients, incomplete compensation is
accepted, but within 1s, this compensation shall have attained at least 75% of its final value.
Nevertheless, in all cases, the permanently connected friction braking source shall ensure
that both the service and secondary braking systems continue to operate with the
prescribed degree of effectiveness.
Disconnection of the braking surfaces of the parking braking system shall be permitted only
on condition that the disconnection is controlled exclusively by the driver from his driving
seat, by a system incapable of being brought into action by a leak.
5.2.11. Wear of the brakes shall be capable of being easily taken up by means of a system of
manual or automatic adjustment. In addition, the control and the components of the
transmission and of the brakes shall possess a reserve of travel and, if necessary, suitable
means of compensation such that, when the brakes become heated, or the brake linings
have reached a certain degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate
adjustment being necessary.
22.214.171.124. Wear adjustment shall be automatic for the service brakes. Automatic wear adjustment
devices shall be such that after heating followed by cooling of the brakes, effective braking
is still ensured. In particular the vehicle shall remain capable of normal running after the
tests conducted in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 1.5. (Type-I test).
5.2.14. Warning Device
126.96.36.199. Any vehicle fitted with a service brake actuated from an energy reservoir shall, where the
prescribed secondary braking performance cannot be obtained by means of this brake
without the use of the stored energy, be provided with a warning device, giving an optical or
acoustic signal when the stored energy, in any part of the system, falls to a value at which
without recharging of the reservoir and irrespective of the load conditions of the vehicle, it is
possible to apply the service brake control a fifth time after four full-stroke actuations and
obtain the prescribed secondary braking performance (without faults in the service brake
transmission device and with the brakes adjusted as closely as possible). This warning
device shall be directly and permanently connected to the circuit. When the engine is
running under normal operating conditions and there are no faults in the braking system, as
is the case in type approval tests, the warning device shall give no signal except during the
time required for charging the energy reservoir(s) after start-up of the engine. The red
warning signal specified in Paragraph 188.8.131.52.1. below shall be used as the optical warning
184.108.40.206. However, in the case of vehicles which are only considered to comply with the requirements
of Paragraph 220.127.116.11. of this Regulation by virtue of meeting the requirements of
Paragraph 1.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation, the warning device shall consist of an acoustic
signal in addition to an optical signal. These devices need not operate simultaneously,
provided that each of them meets the above requirements and the acoustic signal is not
actuated before the optical signal. The red warning signal specified in Paragraph 18.104.22.168.1.
below shall be used as the optical warning signal.
22.214.171.124. This acoustic device may be rendered inoperative while the parking brake is applied and/or,
at the choice of the manufacturer, in the case of automatic transmission the selector is in the
5.2.15. Without prejudice to the requirements of Paragraph 126.96.36.199. above, where an auxiliary
source of energy is essential to the functioning of a braking system, the reserve of energy
shall be such as to ensure that, if the engine stops or in the event of a failure of the means
by which the energy source is driven, the braking performance remains adequate to bring
the vehicle to a halt in the prescribed conditions. In addition, if the muscular effort applied by
the driver to the parking braking system is reinforced by a servo device, the actuation of
parking braking shall be ensured in the event of a failure of the servo device, if necessary by
using a reserve of energy independent of that normally supplying the servo device. This
reserve of energy may be that intended for the service braking system.
5.2.16. The pneumatic/hydraulic auxiliary equipment shall be supplied with energy in such a way
that during its operation the prescribed deceleration values can be reached and that even in
the event of damage to the source of energy the operation of the auxiliary equipment cannot
cause the reserves of energy feeding the braking systems to fall below the level indicated in
Paragraph 5.2.14. above.
188.8.131.52. For vehicles equipped with an anti-lock device, the anti-lock device shall control the electric
184.108.40.206. The state of charge of the traction batteries is determined by the method set out in
Appendix 1 to Annex 3 to this Regulation .
5.2.19. Special additional requirements for the electric transmission of the parking braking system:
220.127.116.11. In the case of a failure within the electric transmission, any unintended actuation of the
parking braking system shall be prevented;
18.104.22.168. In the case of an electrical failure in the control or a break in the wiring within the electric
control transmission between the control and the ECU directly connected with it, excluding
the energy supply, it shall remain possible to apply the parking braking system from the
driver's seat and thereby be capable of holding the laden vehicle stationary on an 8% up or
down gradient. Alternatively, in this case, an automatic actuation of the parking brake is
allowed when the vehicle is stationary, provided that the above performance is achieved
and, once applied, the parking brake remains engaged independently of the status of the
ignition (start) switch. In this alternative, the parking brake shall be automatically released as
soon as the driver starts to set the vehicle in motion again. The engine/manual transmission
or the automatic transmission (park position) may be used to achieve or assist in achieving
the above performance.
22.214.171.124.1. A break in the wiring within the electrical transmission, or an electrical failure in the control
of the parking braking system shall be signalled to the driver by the yellow warning signal
specified in Paragraph 126.96.36.199.2. When caused by a break in the wiring within the electrical
control transmission of the parking braking system, this yellow warning signal shall be
signalled as soon as the break occurs.
In addition, such an electrical failure in the control or break in the wiring external to the
electronic control unit(s) and excluding the energy supply shall be signalled to the driver by
flashing the red warning signal specified in Paragraph 188.8.131.52.1. as long as the ignition
(start) switch is in the "On" (run) position including a period of not less than 10s thereafter
and the control is in the "On" (activated) position.
However, if the parking braking system detects correct clamping of the parking brake, the
flashing of the red warning signal may be suppressed and the non-flashing red signal shall
be used to indicate "parking brake applied".
Where actuation of the parking brake is normally indicated by a separate red warning signal,
satisfying all the requirements of Paragraph 184.108.40.206. below, this signal shall be used to
satisfy the above requirement for a red signal.
220.127.116.11. Auxiliary equipment may be supplied with energy from the electric transmission of the
parking braking system provided that the supply of energy is sufficient to allow the actuation
of the parking braking system in addition to the vehicle electrical load under non-fault
conditions. In addition, where the energy reserve is also used by the service braking
system, the requirements of Paragraph 18.104.22.168. below shall apply.
22.214.171.124. When the battery voltage falls below a value nominated by the manufacturer at which the
prescribed service braking performance can no longer be guaranteed and/or which
precludes at least two independent service braking circuits from each achieving the
prescribed secondary braking performance, the red warning signal specified in
Paragraph 126.96.36.199.1. below shall be activated. After the warning signal has been activated,
it shall be possible to apply the service braking control and obtain at least the secondary
performance prescribed in Paragraph 2.2. of Annex 3 to this Regulation. It should be
understood that sufficient energy is available in the energy transmission of the service
188.8.131.52. If auxiliary equipment is supplied with energy from the same reserve as the electric control
transmission, it shall be ensured that, with the engine running at a speed not greater than
80% of the maximum power speed, the supply of energy is sufficient to fulfil the prescribed
deceleration values by either provision of an energy supply which is able to prevent
discharge of this reserve when all auxiliary equipment is functioning or by automatically
switching off pre-selected parts of the auxiliary equipment at a voltage above the critical
level referred to in Paragraph 184.108.40.206. above of this Regulation such that further discharge
of this reserve is prevented. Compliance may be demonstrated by calculation or by a
practical test. This paragraph does not apply to vehicles where the prescribed deceleration
values can be reached without the use of electrical energy.
220.127.116.11. If the auxiliary equipment is supplied with energy from the electric control transmission, the
following requirements shall be fulfilled:
18.104.22.168.1. In the event of a failure in the energy source, whilst the vehicle is in motion, the energy in
the reservoir shall be sufficient to actuate the brakes when the control is applied;
22.214.171.124.2. In the event of a failure in the energy source, whilst the vehicle is stationary and the parking
braking system applied, the energy in the reservoir shall be sufficient to actuate the lights
even when the brakes are applied.
5.2.21. The general requirements for optical warning signals whose function is to indicate to the
driver certain specified failures (or defects) within the braking equipment of the motor
vehicle, are set out in the following sub-paragraphs. Other than as described in
Paragraph 126.96.36.199. below, these signals shall be used exclusively for the purposes
prescribed by this Regulation.
188.8.131.52. Motor vehicles shall be capable of providing optical brake failure and defect warning signals,
184.108.40.206.1. A red warning signal, indicating failures defined elsewhere in this Regulation within the
vehicle braking equipment which preclude achievement of the prescribed service braking
performance and/or which preclude the functioning of at least one of two independent
service braking circuits;
220.127.116.11.2. Where applicable, a yellow warning signal indicating an electrically detected defect within
the vehicle braking equipment, which is not indicated by the red warning signal described in
Paragraph 18.104.22.168.1. above.
22.214.171.124. The warning signals shall be visible, even by daylight; the satisfactory condition of the
signals shall be easily verifiable by the driver from the driver's seat; the failure of a
component of the warning devices shall not entail any loss of the braking system's
126.96.36.199. Electric regenerative braking systems as defined in Paragraph 2.17., of this Regulation,
which produce a retarding force upon release of the accelerator control, shall generate the
signal mentioned above according to the following provisions:
>0.7m/s and ≤1.3m/s
The signal shall not be generated
The signal may be generated
The signal shall be generated
In all cases the signal shall be de-activated at the latest when the deceleration has fallen
below 0.7m/s .
5.2.23. When a vehicle is equipped with the means to indicate emergency braking, activation and
de-activation of the emergency braking signal shall only be generated by the application of
the service braking system when the following conditions are fulfilled :
188.8.131.52. The signal shall not be activated when the vehicle deceleration is below 6m/s but it may be
generated at any deceleration at or above this value, the actual value being defined by the
The signal shall be de-activated at the latest when the deceleration has fallen below
184.108.40.206. The following conditions may also be used:
The signal may be generated from a prediction of the vehicle deceleration resulting
from the braking demand respecting the activation and de-activation thresholds
defined in Paragraph 220.127.116.11. above;
The signal may be activated at a speed above 50km/h when the antilock system is
fully cycling (as defined in Paragraph 2. of Annex 6).
The signal shall be deactivated when the antilock system is no longer fully cycling.
5.2.25. Power-driven vehicles of Category M and N equipped with temporary-use spare
wheels/tyres shall satisfy the relevant technical requirements of Annex 3 to
Regulation No. 64.
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING APPROVAL
TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to
which forms, certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in
other countries, are to be sent.
12. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
12.1. As from September 1, 2018, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to
grant or refuse to accept type approvals to this regulation as amended by the 01 series of
12.2. Even after September 1, 2018, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall continue to
accept type approvals granted to the 00 series of amendments to this Regulation.
However, Contracting Parties applying this regulation shall not be obliged to accept, for the
purpose of national or regional type approval, type approvals to the 00 series of
amendments to this Regulation for vehicle types not fitted with a Vehicle Stability Function
(as defined in Regulation No. 13) or ESC and BAS.
12.3. As from September 1, 2018, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant type
approvals only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation
as amended by the 01 series of amendments.
12.4. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type
approvals for existing types, regardless of whether they are fitted with a Vehicle Stability
Function (as defined in Regulation No. 13) or ESC and BAS or not, on the basis of the
provisions valid at the time of the original approval.
Alternative brake linings tested to Annex 7: ...................................................................................
Brake disc and drums
Identification code of brake discs covered by the braking system approval: .................................
Identification code of brake drums covered by the braking system approval: ...............................
Engine type: ....................................................................................................................................
Number and ratios of gears: ............................................................................................................
Final drive ratio(s): ..........................................................................................................................
If applicable, maximum mass of trailer which may be coupled: ......................................................
Unbraked trailer: ..............................................................................................................................
Tyre dimension: ...............................................................................................................................
Temporary-use spare wheel/tyre dimensions: ................................................................................
Vehicle meets the technical requirements of Annex 3 to Regulation No. 64: Yes/No
Maximum design speed: .................................................................................................................
Brief description of braking equipment: ...........................................................................................
Mass of vehicle when tested: ..........................................................................................................
Axle No. 1
Axle No. 2
16. Result of the tests:
22.1. Category of Brake Assist System A / B
22.1.1. For Category A systems, define the force threshold at which the ratio between pedal force and
brake pressure increases;
22.1.2. For Category B systems, define the brake pedal speed which shall be achieved in order to
activate the Brake Assist System (e.g. pedal stroke speed (mm/s) during a given time
23. Vehicle submitted for approval on ..................................................................................................
24. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval ..................................................................
25. Date of report issued by that Service ..............................................................................................
26. Number of report issued by that Service .........................................................................................
27. Approval granted/refused/extended/withdrawn
28. Position of approval mark on the vehicle ........................................................................................
29. Place: ..............................................................................................................................................
30. Date: ................................................................................................................................................
31. Signature: ........................................................................................................................................
32. The summary referred to in Paragraph 4.3. of this Regulation is annexed to this communication
Specification of brake .....................................................................................................................
Disc brake type (e.g. number of pistons with diameter(s), ventilated or solid disc) .......................
Drum brake type (e.g. duo servo, with piston size and drum dimensions) ....................................
In case of compressed air brake systems, e.g. type and size of chambers, levers, etc ................
Master cylinder type and size .........................................................................................................
Booster type and size .....................................................................................................................
BRAKING TESTS AND PERFORMANCE OF BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. BRAKING TESTS
1.1.1. The performance prescribed for braking systems is based on the stopping distance and the
mean fully developed deceleration. The performance of a braking system shall be
determined by measuring the stopping distance in relation to the initial speed of the vehicle
and/or by measuring the mean fully developed deceleration during the test.
1.1.2. The stopping distance shall be the distance covered by the vehicle from the moment when
the driver begins to actuate the control of the braking system until the moment when the
vehicle stops; the initial speed shall be the speed at the moment when the driver begins to
actuate the control of the braking system; the initial speed shall not be less than 98% of the
prescribed speed for the test in question.
The mean fully developed deceleration (d ) shall be calculated as the deceleration
averaged with respect to distance over the interval v to v , according to the following
v − v
25.92 (s − s
initial vehicle speed in km/h,
vehicle speed at 0.8 v in km/h,
vehicle speed at 0.1 v in km/h,
distance travelled between v and v in metres,
distance travelled between v and v in metres.
The speed and distance shall be determined using instrumentation having an accuracy of
±1% at the prescribed speed for the test. The d may be determined by other methods than
the measurement of speed and distance; in this case, the accuracy of the d shall be within
1.2. For the approval of any vehicle, the braking performance shall be measured during road
tests conducted in the following conditions:
1.2.1. The vehicle's condition as regards mass shall be as prescribed for each type of test and be
specified in the test report;
1.2.2. The test shall be carried out at the speeds prescribed for each type of test; if the maximum
design speed of a vehicle is lower than the speed prescribed for a test, the test shall be
performed at the vehicle's maximum speed;
1.2.3. During the tests, the force applied to the brake control in order to obtain the prescribed
performance shall not exceed the maximum force laid down;
1.4. Type-0 Test (Ordinary Performance Test with Cold Brakes)
18.104.22.168. The average temperature of the service brakes on the hottest axle of the vehicle, measured
inside the brake linings or on the braking path of the disc or drum, is between 65 and 100°C
prior to any brake application.
22.214.171.124. The test shall be conducted in the following conditions:
126.96.36.199.1. The vehicle shall be laden, the distribution of its mass among the axles being that stated by
the manufacturer; where provision is made for several arrangements of the load on the
axles the distribution of the maximum mass among the axles shall be such that the mass on
each axle is proportional to the maximum permissible mass for each axle;
188.8.131.52.2. Every test shall be repeated on the unladen vehicle; there may be, in addition to the driver,
a second person on the front seat who is responsible for noting the results of the test;
184.108.40.206.3. In the case of a vehicle equipped with an electric regenerative braking system, the
requirements depend on the category of this system:
Any separate electric regenerative braking control which is provided, shall not
be used during the Type-0 tests.
Category B. The contribution of the electric regenerative braking system to the braking
force generated shall not exceed that minimum level guaranteed by the
This condition is deemed to be satisfied if the state of charge of the batteries is in one of the
At the maximum charge level recommended by the manufacturer, as listed in the
At a level not less than 95% of the full charge level, where the manufacturer has
made no specific recommendation,
At a maximum level resulting from automatic charge control on the vehicle; or
When the tests are conducted without a regenerative braking component regardless
of the state of charge of the batteries.
220.127.116.11.4. The limits prescribed for minimum performance, both for tests with the vehicle unladen and
for tests with the vehicle laden, shall be those laid down hereunder; the vehicle shall satisfy
both the prescribed stopping distance and the prescribed mean fully developed
deceleration, but it may not be necessary to actually measure both parameters;
18.104.22.168.5. The road shall be level; unless otherwise specified each test may comprise up to six stops
including any needed for familiarization.
22.214.171.124. In these tests, the force applied to the control shall be so adjusted as to attain a mean
deceleration of 3m/s during every brake application; two preliminary tests may be carried
out to determine the appropriate control force.
126.96.36.199. During brake applications, the highest gear ratio (excluding overdrive, etc.) shall be
188.8.131.52. For regaining speed after braking, the gearbox shall be used in such a way as to attain the
speed v in the shortest possible time (maximum acceleration allowed by the engine and
184.108.40.206. For vehicles not having sufficient autonomy to carry out the cycles of heating of the brakes,
the tests shall be carried out by achieving the prescribed speed before the first braking
application and thereafter by using the maximum acceleration available to regain speed and
then braking successively at the speed reached at the end of each 45s cycle duration.
220.127.116.11. For vehicles equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of Category B, the
condition of the vehicle batteries at the start of the test, shall be such that the braking force
contribution provided by the electric regenerative braking system does not exceed the
minimum guaranteed by the system design. This requirement is deemed to be satisfied if
the batteries are at one of the state of charge conditions as listed in Paragraph 18.104.22.168.3.
1.5.2. Hot Performance
22.214.171.124. At the end of the Type-I test (described in Paragraph 1.5.1. of this Annex) the hot
performance of the service braking system shall be measured in the same conditions (and
in particular at a mean control force no greater than the mean force actually used) as for the
Type-0 test with the engine disconnected (the temperature conditions may be different).
126.96.36.199. This hot performance shall not be less than 75% of that prescribed, nor less than 60% of
the figure recorded in the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected.
188.8.131.52. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A, during brake
applications, the highest gear shall be continuously engaged and the separate electric
braking control, if any, not used.
184.108.40.206. In the case of vehicles equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of Category B,
having carried out the heating cycles according to Paragraph 220.127.116.11. of this Annex, the hot
performance test shall be carried out at the maximum speed which can be reached by the
vehicle at the end of the brake heating cycles, unless the speed specified in
Paragraph 2.1.1.(A) of this Annex can be reached.
For comparison, a later Type-0 test with cold brakes shall be repeated from this same speed
and with a similar electric regenerative braking contribution, as set by an appropriate state
of battery charge, as was available during the hot performance test.
Following the recovery process and test, further reconditioning of the linings shall be
permitted before the test is made to compare this second cold performance with that
achieved in the hot test, against the criteria of Paragraphs 18.104.22.168. or 22.214.171.124. of this Annex.
The tests may be conducted without a regenerative braking component. In this case, the
requirement on the state of charge of the batteries is not applicable.
2. PERFORMANCE OF BRAKING SYSTEMS
2.1. Service Braking System
2.1.1. The service brakes shall be tested under the conditions shown in the following table:
0.1v + 0.0060v (m)
80% v ≤160km/h
0.1v + 0.0067 v (m)
6.5 – 50daN
v = test speed, in km/h
s = stopping distance, in metres
d = mean fully developed deceleration, in m/s
f = force applied to foot control, in daN
v = maximum speed of the vehicle, in km/h
2.1.2. In the case of a motor vehicle authorized to tow an unbraked trailer, the minimum Type-0
performance of the combination shall not be less than 5.4m/s in both the laden and
The combination performance shall be verified by calculations referring to the maximum
braking performance actually achieved by the motor vehicle alone (laden) during the Type-0
test with the engine disconnected, using the following formula (no practical tests with a
coupled unbraked trailer are required):
calculated mean fully developed deceleration of the motor vehicle when
coupled to an unbraked trailer, in m/s
maximum mean fully developed deceleration of the motor vehicle alone
achieved during the Type-0 test with engine disconnected, in m/s
P = mass of the motor vehicle (laden)
maximum mass of an unbraked trailer which may be coupled, as declared by
the motor vehicle manufacturer.
3. RESPONSE TIME
3.1. Where a vehicle is equipped with a service braking system which is totally or partially
dependent on a source of energy other than the muscular effort of the driver, the following
requirements shall be satisfied:
3.1.1. In an emergency manoeuvre, the time elapsing between the moment when the control
device begins to be actuated and the moment when the braking force on the least
favourable placed axle reaches the level corresponding to the prescribed performance shall
not exceed 0.6s;
3.1.2. In the case of vehicles fitted with hydraulic braking systems, the requirements of
Paragraph 3.1.1. above are considered to be satisfied if, in an emergency manoeuvre, the
deceleration of the vehicle or the pressure at the least favourable brake cylinder, reaches a
level corresponding to the prescribed performance within 0.6s.
PROVISIONS RELATING TO ENERGY SOURCES AND ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES
HYDRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEMS WITH STORED ENERGY
1. CAPACITY OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES (ENERGY ACCUMULATORS)
1.1.1. Vehicles on which the braking equipment requires the use of stored energy provided by
hydraulic fluid under pressure shall be equipped with energy storage devices (energy
accumulators) of a capacity meeting the requirements of Paragraphs 1.2. or 1.3. of this
1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if
the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible with the
service brake control to achieve a braking performance at least equal to that prescribed for
the secondary braking system;
1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of Paragraphs 1.2., 1.3. and 2.1. of this
Annex, the brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible and, for Paragraph 1.2. of this
Annex, the rate of full-stroke actuations shall be such as to provide an interval of at least
60s between each actuation.
1.2. Vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy shall meet the
1.2.1. After eight full-stroke actuations of the service brake control, it shall still be possible to
achieve, on the ninth application, the performance prescribed for the secondary braking
1.2.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
126.96.36.199. Testing shall commence at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but is not
higher than the cut-in pressure ;
188.8.131.52. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
1.3. Vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy which cannot meet
the requirements of Paragraph 184.108.40.206. of this Regulation shall be deemed to satisfy that
Paragraph if the following requirements are met:
1.3.1. After any single transmission failure it shall still be possible after eight full-stroke actuations
of the service brake control, to achieve, at the ninth application, at least the performance
prescribed for the secondary braking system.
DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING AMONG THE AXLES OF VEHICLES
Vehicles which are not equipped with an anti-lock system as defined in Annex 6 to this
Regulation shall meet all the requirements of this Annex. If a special device is used, this
shall operate automatically.
axle index (i = 1, front axle;
i = 2, rear axle)
P = normal reaction of road surface on axle i under static conditions
N = normal reaction of road surface on axle i under braking
T = force exerted by the brakes on axle i under normal braking conditions on the road
f = T /N , adhesion utilised by axle i
J = deceleration of the vehicle
g = acceleration due to gravity : g = 9.81m/s
z = braking rate of vehicle = J/g
P = mass of vehicle
height of centre of gravity specified by the manufacturer and agreed by the
Technical Services conducting the approval test
E = wheelbase
k = theoretical coefficient of adhesion between tyre and road
4. REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET IN CASE OF FAILURE OF THE BRAKING DISTRIBUTION
When the requirements of this Annex are fulfilled by means of a special device
(e.g. controlled mechanically by the suspension of the vehicle), it shall be possible, in the
event of the failure of its control, (e.g. by disconnecting the control linkage), to stop the
vehicle under the conditions of the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected to give a
stopping distance not exceeding 0.1v + 0.0100v (m) and a mean fully developed
deceleration not less than 3.86m/s .
5. VEHICLE TESTING
During the type-approval testing of a vehicle, the technical inspection authority shall verify
conformity with the requirements contained in the present Annex, by carrying out the
5.1. Wheel-lock Sequence Test (see Appendix 1)
If the wheel-lock sequence test confirms that the front wheels lock before or simultaneously
with the rear wheels, conformity with Paragraph 3. of this Annex has been verified and
testing is complete.
5.2. Additional Tests
If the wheel-lock sequence test indicates that the rear wheels lock before the front wheels,
then the vehicle:
Will be subjected to additional testing, as follows:
Additional wheel-lock sequence tests; and/or
Torque wheel tests (see Appendix 2) to determine brake factors
To generate adhesion utilization curves; these curves shall satisfy the
requirements in Paragraph 3.1.(A) of this Annex.
May be refused type-approval.
5.3. The results of the practical tests shall be appended to the type-approval report.
ANNEX 5 - APPENDIX 1
WHEEL-LOCK SEQUENCE TEST PROCEDURE
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
The purpose of this test is to ensure that lockup of both front wheels occurs at a lower
deceleration rate than the lockup of both rear wheels when tested on road surfaces
on which wheel lockup occurs at braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8.
A simultaneous lockup of the front and rear wheels refers to the condition when the
time interval between the lockup of the last (second) wheel on the rear axle and the
last (second) wheel on the front axle is <0.1s for vehicle speeds >30km/h.
2. VEHICLE CONDITIONS
Vehicle load: Laden and unladen
Transmission position: Engine disconnected
3. TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES
Initial brake temperature: Between 65°C and 100°C average on the hottest axle.
(b) Test speed: 65km/h for a braking rate ≤0.50;
100km/h for a braking rate >0.50.
Pedal force is applied and controlled by a skilled driver or by a mechanical
brake pedal actuator.
Pedal force is increased at a linear rate such that the first axle lockup occurs no
less than one-half (0.5) second and no more than one and one-half (1.5)
seconds after the initial application of the pedal.
The pedal is released when the second axle locks, or when the pedal force
reaches 1kN, or 0.1s after the first lockup, whichever occurs first.
Wheel lockup: Only wheel lockups above a vehicle speed of 15km/h are considered.
Test surface: This test is conducted on road test surfaces on which wheel lockup
occurs at braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8.
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
ANNEX 5 - APPENDIX 2
TORQUE WHEEL TEST PROCEDURE
The purpose of this test is to measure the brake factors and thus determine the adhesion
utilization of the front and rear axles over a range of braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8.
2. VEHICLE CONDITIONS
Vehicle load: Laden and unladen
Transmission position: Engine disconnected
3. TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES
Initial brake temperature: Between 65°C and 100°C average on the hottest axle.
Test speeds: 100km/h and 50km/h.
Pedal force: Pedal force is increased at a linear rate between 100 and 150N/sec for
the 100km/h test speed, or between 100 and 200N/sec for the 50km/h test speed,
until the first axle locks or until a pedal force of 1kN is reached, whichever occurs first.
Brake cooling: Between brake applications, the vehicle is driven at speeds up to
100km/h until the initial brake temperature specified in Paragraph 3.(a) above is
Number of runs: With the vehicle unladen, run five stops from a speed of 100km/h
and five stops from a speed of 50km/h, while alternating between the two test speeds
after each stop. With the vehicle laden, repeat the five stops at each test speed while
alternating between the two test speeds.
Test surface: This test is conducted on a road test surface affording good adhesion.
Data to be recorded: The following information shall be automatically recorded in
phase continuously throughout each test run such that values of the variables can be
cross referenced in real time:
Brake pedal force
(iii) Angular velocity of each wheel
(iv) Brake torque at each wheel
(v) Hydraulic line pressure in each brake circuit, including transducers on at least
one front wheel and one rear wheel downstream of any operative proportioning
or pressure limiting valve(s)
(vi) Vehicle deceleration.
Calculate the adhesion utilized at each axle as a function of braking rate using the
z × h × P × g
z × h × P × g
The symbols are defined in Paragraph 2. of this Annex.
Plot f and f as a function of z, for both laden and unladen load conditions. These are
the adhesion utilization curves for the vehicle, which shall satisfy the requirements in
Paragraph 5.2.(a)(ii) of this Annex (or, in the case of Conformity of Production checks,
these curves shall satisfy the requirements in Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex).
3. TYPES OF ANTI-LOCK SYSTEMS
3.1. A vehicle is deemed to be equipped with an anti-lock system within the meaning of
Paragraph 1. of Annex 5 to this Regulation, if one of the following systems is fitted:
3.1.1. Category 1 Anti-lock System
A vehicle equipped with a Category 1 anti-lock system shall meet all the requirements of this
3.1.2. Category 2 Anti-lock System
A vehicle equipped with a Category 2 anti-lock system shall meet all the requirements of this
Annex, except those of Paragraph 5.3.5. below.
3.1.3. Category 3 Anti-lock System
A vehicle equipped with a Category 3 anti-lock system shall meet all the requirements of this
Annex, except those of Paragraphs 5.3.4. and 5.3.5. below. On such vehicles, any individual
axle which does not include at least one directly controlled wheel shall fulfil the conditions of
adhesion utilization and the wheel-locking sequence of Annex 5 to this Regulation, instead
of the adhesion utilization requirements prescribed in Paragraph 5.2. of this Annex.
However, if the relative positions of the adhesion utilization curves do not meet the
requirements of Paragraph 3.1. of Annex 5 to this Regulation, a check shall be made to
ensure that the wheels on at least one of the rear axles do not lock before those of the front
axle or axles under the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 3.1. of Annex 5 to this
Regulation, with regard to the braking rate and the load respectively. These requirements
may be checked on high- and low-adhesion road surfaces (about 0.8 and 0.3 maximum) by
modulating the service braking control force.
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1. Any electrical failure or sensor anomaly that affects the system with respect to the functional
and performance requirements in this Annex, including those in the supply of electricity, the
external wiring to the controller(s), the controller(s) and the modulator(s) shall be signalled
to the driver by a specific optical warning signal. The yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraph 220.127.116.11.2. of this Regulation shall be used for this purpose.
4.1.1. Sensor anomalies, which cannot be detected under static conditions, shall be detected not
later than when the vehicle speed exceed 10km/h . However, to prevent erroneous fault
indication when a sensor is not generating a vehicle speed output, due to non-rotation of a
wheel, verification may be delayed but detected not later than when the vehicle speed
4.1.2. When the anti-lock braking system is energized with the vehicle stationary, electrically
controlled pneumatic modulator valve(s) shall cycle at least once.
5.1.2. Additional Requirements
18.104.22.168. The coefficient of adhesion of the road surface shall be measured with the vehicle under
test, by the method described in Paragraph 1.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex.
22.214.171.124. The braking test shall be conducted with the engine disconnected and idling, and with the
126.96.36.199. The braking time t shall be determined by the formula:
(but not less than 15s)
where t is expressed in seconds and v represents the maximum design speed of the
vehicle expressed in km/h, with an upper limit of 160km/h.
188.8.131.52. If the time t cannot be completed in a single braking phase, further phases may be used, up
to a maximum of four in all.
184.108.40.206. If the test is conducted in several phases, no fresh energy shall be supplied between the
phases of the test.
From the second phase, the energy consumption corresponding to the initial brake
application may be taken into account, by subtracting one full brake application from the four
full applications prescribed in Paragraph 220.127.116.11. (and 18.104.22.168. and 22.214.171.124.) of this Annex for
each of the second, third and fourth phases used in the test prescribed in Paragraph 5.1.1.
of this Annex as applicable.
126.96.36.199. The performance prescribed in Paragraph 188.8.131.52. of this Annex shall be deemed to be
satisfied if, at the end of the fourth application, with the vehicle stationary, the energy level in
the storage device(s) is at or above that required for secondary braking with the laden
5.2. Utilization of Adhesion
5.2.1. The utilization of adhesion by the anti-lock system takes into account the actual increase in
braking distance beyond the theoretical minimum. The anti-lock system shall be deemed to
be satisfactory when the condition ε ≥ 0.75 is satisfied, where ε represents the adhesion
utilized, as defined in Paragraph 1.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex.
5.2.2. The adhesion utilization ε shall be measured on road surfaces with a coefficient of adhesion
of 0.3 or less, and of about 0.8 (dry road), with an initial speed of 50km/h. To eliminate the
effects of differential brake temperatures it is recommended that z be determined prior to
the determination of k.
5.2.3. The test procedure to determine the coefficient of adhesion (k) and the formulae for
calculation of the adhesion utilization (ε) shall be those laid down in Appendix 2 to this
5.3.5. Furthermore, laden vehicles equipped with anti-lock systems of Category 1 shall, under the
conditions of Paragraph 5.3.4. of this Annex satisfy the prescribed braking rate in
Appendix 3 to this Annex;
5.3.6. However, in the tests provided in Paragraphs 5.3.1., 5.3.2., 5.3.3., 5.3.4. and 5.3.5. of this
Annex, brief periods of wheel-locking shall be allowed. Furthermore, wheel-locking is
permitted when the vehicle speed is less than 15km/h; likewise, locking of indirectly
controlled wheels is permitted at any speed, but stability and steerability shall not be
affected and the vehicle shall not exceed a yaw angle of 15° or deviate from a 3.5m wide
5.3.7. During the tests provided in Paragraphs 5.3.4. and 5.3.5. of this Annex, steering correction
is permitted, if the angular rotation of the steering control is within 120° during the initial 2s,
and not more than 240° in all. Furthermore, at the beginning of these tests the longitudinal
median plane of the vehicle shall pass over the boundary between the high- and
low-adhesion surfaces and during these tests no part of the outer tyres shall cross this
TABLE: SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS – Continued
time interval (s)
mean value of t
minimum value of t
braking rate z of the vehicle with the anti-lock system operative
mean braking rate
maximum value of z
of the power-driven vehicle on a "split surface"
1.1.8. For example, in the case of a two-axle rear-wheel drive vehicle, with the front axle (1) being
braked, the coefficient of adhesion (k) is given by:
P × g −
× P × g
The other symbols (P, h, E) are defined in Annex 5 to this Regulation.
1.1.9. One coefficient will be determined for the front axle k and one for the rear axle k .
1.2. Determination of the Adhesion Utilized (ε)
1.2.1. The adhesion utilized (ε) is defined as the quotient of the maximum braking rate with the
anti-lock system operative (z ) and the coefficient of adhesion (k ) i.e.,
1.2.2. From an initial vehicle speed of 55km/h, the maximum braking rate (z ) shall be measured
with full cycling of the anti-lock braking system and based on the average value of three
tests, as in Paragraph 1.1.3. of this Appendix, using the time taken for the speed to reduce
from 45km/h to 15km/h, according to the following formula:
1.2.3. The coefficient of adhesion k shall be determined by weighting with the dynamic axle
P × g
× P × g
× P × g
1.2.4. The value of ε shall be rounded to two decimal places.
1.2.5. In the case of a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock system of Categories 1 or 2, the value of
z will be based on the whole vehicle, with the anti-lock system in operation, and the
adhesion utilized (ε) is given by the same formula quoted in Paragraph 1.2.1. of this
ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX 3
PERFORMANCE ON DIFFERING ADHESION SURFACES
1. The prescribed braking rate referred to in Paragraph 5.3.5. of this Annex may be calculated by
reference to the measured coefficient of adhesion of the two surfaces on which this test is carried
out. These two surfaces shall satisfy the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 5.3.4. of this Annex.
2. The coefficient of adhesion (k and k ) of the high- and low-adhesion surfaces, respectively, shall
be determined in accordance with the provisions in Paragraph 1.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex.
3. The braking rate (z ) for laden vehicles shall be:
≥ 0.75 (
) and z
INERTIA DYNAMOMETER TEST METHOD FOR BRAKE LININGS
1.1. The procedure described in this Annex may be applied in the event of a modification of
vehicle type resulting from the fitting of brake linings of another type to vehicles which have
been approved in accordance with this Regulation.
1.2. The alternative types of brake linings shall be checked by comparing their performance with
that obtained from the brake linings with which the vehicle was equipped at the time of
approval and conforming to the components identified in the relevant information document,
a model of which is given in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
1.3. The Technical Authority responsible for conducting approval tests may at its discretion
require comparison of the performance of the brake linings to be carried out in accordance
with the relevant provisions contained in Annex 3 to this Regulation.
1.4. Application for approval by comparison shall be made by the vehicle manufacturer or by his
duly accredited representative.
1.5. In the context of this Annex "vehicle" shall mean the vehicle type approved according to this
Regulation and for which it is requested that the comparison shall be considered
2. TEST EQUIPMENT
2.1. A dynamometer having the following characteristics shall be used for the tests:
2.1.1. It shall be capable of generating the inertia required by Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex, and
have the capacity to meet the requirements prescribed by Paragraph 1.5. of Annex 3 to this
Regulation with respect to the Type-I fade test;
2.1.2. The brakes fitted shall be identical with those of the original vehicle type concerned;
2.1.3. Air cooling, if provided, shall be in accordance with Paragraph 3.4. of this Annex;
2.1.4. The instrumentation for the test shall be capable of providing at least the following data;
184.108.40.206. A continuous recording of disc or drum rotational speed;
220.127.116.11. Number of revolutions completed during a stop, to resolution not greater than one eighth of
18.104.22.168. Stop time;
22.214.171.124. A continuous recording of the temperature measured in the centre of the path swept by the
lining or at mid-thickness of the disc or drum or lining;
126.96.36.199. A continuous recording of brake application control line pressure or force;
188.8.131.52. A continuous recording of brake output torque.
4.3.3. The mean braking torque recorded during the above cold performance tests on the linings
being tested for the purpose of comparison shall, for the same input measurement, be within
the test limits ±15% of the mean braking torque recorded with the brake linings conforming
to the component identified in the relevant application for vehicle type approval.
4.4. Type-I Test (Fade Test)
4.4.1. Heating Procedure
184.108.40.206. Brake linings shall be tested according to the procedure given in Paragraph 1.5.1. of
Annex 3 to this Regulation.
4.4.2. Hot Performance
220.127.116.11. On completion of the tests required under Paragraph 4.4.1. of this Annex, the hot braking
performance test specified in Paragraph 1.5.2. of Annex 3 to this Regulation shall be carried
18.104.22.168. The mean braking torque recorded during the above hot performance tests on the linings
being tested for the purpose of comparison shall, for the same input measurement, be within
the test limits ±15% of the mean braking torque recorded with the brake linings conforming
to the component identified in the relevant application for vehicle type approval.
5. INSPECTION OF BRAKE LININGS
Brake linings shall be visually inspected on completion of the above tests to check that they
are in satisfactory condition for continued use in normal service.
2.5. "Units" are the smallest divisions of system components which will be considered in this
Annex, since these combinations of components will be treated as single entities for
purposes of identification, analysis or replacement.
2.6. "Transmission links" are the means used for inter-connecting distributed units for the
purpose of conveying signals, operating data or an energy supply.
This equipment is generally electrical but may, in some part, be mechanical, pneumatic,
hydraulic or optical.
2.7. "Range of control" refers to an output variable and defines the range over which the
system is likely to exercise control.
2.8. "Boundary of functional operation" defines the boundaries of the external physical limits
within which the system is able to maintain control.
The manufacturer shall provide a documentation package which gives access to the basic
design of "The System" and the means by which it is linked to other vehicle systems or by
which it directly controls output variables.
The function(s) of "The System" and the safety concept, as laid down by the manufacturer,
shall be explained.
Documentation shall be brief, yet provide evidence that the design and development has
had the benefit of expertise from all the system fields which are involved.
For periodic technical inspections, the documentation shall describe how the current
operational status of "The System" can be checked.
3.1.1. Documentation shall be made available in 2 parts:
The formal documentation package for the approval, containing the material listed in
Paragraph 3 (with the exception of that of Paragraph 3.4.4.) which shall be supplied
to the Technical Service at the time of submission of the type approval application.
This will be taken as the basic reference for the verification process set out in
Paragraph 4. of this Annex.
Additional material and analysis data of Paragraph 3.4.4., which shall be retained by
the manufacturer, but made open for inspection at the time of type approval.
3.3.5. Identification of Units
Each unit shall be clearly and unambiguously identifiable (e.g. by marking for hardware and
marking or software output for software content) to provide corresponding hardware and
Where functions are combined within a single Unit or indeed within a single computer, but
shown in multiple blocks in the block diagram for clarity and ease of explanation, only a
single hardware identification marking shall be used.
The manufacturer shall, by the use of this identification, affirm that the equipment supplied
conforms to the corresponding document.
22.214.171.124. The identification defines the hardware and software version and, where the latter changes
such as to alter the function of the unit as far as this Regulation is concerned, this
identification shall also be changed.
3.4. Safety Concept of the Manufacturer
3.4.1. The manufacturer shall provide a statement which affirms that the strategy chosen to
achieve "The System" objectives will not, under non-fault conditions, prejudice the safe
operation of systems which are subject to the prescriptions of this Regulation.
3.4.2. In respect of software employed in "The System", the outline architecture shall be explained
and the design methods and tools used shall be identified. The manufacturer shall be
prepared, if required, to show some evidence of the means by which they determined the
realisation of the system logic, during the design and development process.
3.4.3. The Manufacturer shall provide the technical authorities with an explanation of the design
provisions built into "The System" so as to generate safe operation under fault conditions.
Possible design provisions for failure in "The System" are for example:
Fall-back to operation using a partial system.
Change-over to a separate back-up system.
Removal of the high level function.
In case of a failure, the driver shall be warned for example by warning signal or message
display. When the system is not deactivated by the driver, e.g. by turning the Ignition (run)
switch to "off", or by switching off that particular function if a special switch is provided for
that purpose, the warning shall be present as long as the fault condition persists.
126.96.36.199. If the chosen provision selects a partial performance mode of operation under certain fault
conditions, then these conditions shall be stated and the resulting limits of effectiveness
188.8.131.52. If the chosen provision selects a second (back-up) means to realise the vehicle control
system objective, the principles of the change-over mechanism, the logic and level of
redundancy and any built in back-up checking features shall be explained and the resulting
limits of back-up effectiveness defined.
ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL AND BRAKE ASSIST SYSTEMS
A. REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL SYSTEMS, WHERE
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Vehicles equipped with an ESC system shall meet the functional requirements specified in
Paragraph 2. and the performance requirements in Paragraph 3. under the test procedures
specified in Paragraph 4. and under the test conditions specified in Paragraph 5. of this part
of this Annex.
2. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Each vehicle to which this Annex applies shall be equipped with an electronic stability
control system that:
Is capable of applying braking torques individually to all four wheels
and has a control
algorithm that utilizes this capability;
2.2. Is operational over the full speed range of the vehicle, during all phases of driving including
acceleration, coasting, and deceleration (including braking), except:
2.2.1. When the driver has disabled ESC;
2.2.2. When the vehicle speed is below 20km/h;
2.2.3. While the initial start-up self test and plausibility checks are completed, not to exceed 2min
when driven under the conditions of Paragraph 5.10.2.;
2.2.4. When the vehicle is being driven in reverse.
2.3. Remains capable of activation even if the antilock braking system or traction control system
is also activated.
3.2. The yaw rate measured 1.75s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input shall not
exceed 20% of the first peak value of yaw rate recorded after the steering wheel angle
changes sign (between first and second peaks) during the same test run.
3.3. The lateral displacement of the vehicle centre of gravity with respect to its initial straight path
shall be at least 1.83m for vehicles with a GVM of 3,500kg or less, and 1.52m for vehicles
with a maximum mass greater than 3,500kg when computed 1.07s after the Beginning of
Steer (BOS). BOS is defined in Paragraph 5.11.6.
3.3.1. The computation of lateral displacement is performed using double integration with respect
to time of the measurement of lateral acceleration at the vehicle centre of gravity, as
expressed by the formula:
Lateral Displacement = ∫∫ a
An alternative measuring method may be allowed for type approval testing, provided it
demonstrates at least an equivalent level of precision as the double integration method.
3.3.2. Time t = 0 for the integration operation is the instant of steering initiation, known as the
Beginning of Steer (BOS). BOS is defined in Paragraph 5.11.6.
3.4. ESC Malfunction Detection
The vehicle shall be equipped with a tell-tale that provides a warning to the driver of the
occurrence of any malfunction that affects the generation or transmission of control or
response signals in the vehicle's electronic stability control system.
3.4.1. The ESC malfunction tell-tale:
184.108.40.206. Shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121;
220.127.116.11. Except as provided in Paragraph 18.104.22.168., the ESC malfunction tell-tale shall illuminate when
a malfunction exists and shall remain continuously illuminated under the conditions specified
in Paragraph 3.4. for as long as the malfunction exists, whenever the ignition locking system
is in the "On" ("Run") position;
22.214.171.124. Except as provided in Paragraph 3.4.2., each ESC malfunction tell-tale shall be activated as
a check of lamp function either when the ignition locking system is turned to the "On"
("Run") position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition locking system is in a
position between "On" ("Run") and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a check
126.96.36.199. Shall extinguish at the next ignition cycle after the malfunction has been corrected in
accordance with Paragraph 5.10.4.;
188.8.131.52. May also be used to indicate the malfunction of related systems/functions, including traction
control, trailer stability assist, corner brake control, and other similar functions that use
throttle and/or individual torque control to operate and share common components with
3.5.4. A control for another system that has the ancillary effect of placing the ESC system in a
mode in which it no longer satisfies the performance requirements of Paragraphs 3., 3.1.,
3.2. and 3.3. need not be identified by the "ESC Off" symbol of Paragraph 3.5.2.
3.6. ESC Off Tell-tale
If the manufacturer elects to install a control to turn off or reduce the performance of the
ESC system under Paragraph 3.5., the tell-tale requirements of Paragraphs 3.6.1. to 3.6.4.
shall be met in order to alert the driver to the inhibited or reduced state of ESC system
functionality. This requirement does not apply for the driver-selected mode referred to in
3.6.1. The vehicle manufacturer shall provide a tell-tale indicating that the vehicle has been put
into a mode that renders it unable to satisfy the requirements of Paragraphs 3., 3.1., 3.2.
and 3.3., if such a mode is provided.
3.6.2. The "ESC Off" tell-tale:
184.108.40.206. Shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.
220.127.116.11. Shall remain continuously illuminated for as long as the ESC is in a mode that renders it
unable to satisfy the requirements of Paragraphs 3., 3.1., 3.2. and 3.3;
18.104.22.168. Except as provided in Paragraphs 3.6.3. and 3.6.4. each "ESC Off" tell-tale shall be
activated as a check of lamp function either when the ignition locking system is turned to the
"On" ("Run") position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition locking system is
in a position between "On" ("Run") and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a
22.214.171.124. Shall extinguish after the ESC system has been returned to the manufacturer’s original
3.6.3. The "ESC Off" telltale need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.
3.6.4. The requirement of Paragraph 126.96.36.199. of this part does not apply to tell-tales shown in a
3.6.5. The manufacturer may use the "ESC Off" telltale to indicate an ESC level of function other
than the manufacturer’s original default mode even if the vehicle would meet Paragraphs 3.,
3.1., 3.2. and 3.3. of this part at that level of ESC function.
3.7. ESC System Technical Documentation
Further to the requirements defined in Annex 8 to this Regulation the documentation
package shall, as confirmation that the vehicle is equipped with an ESC system that meets
the definition of an "ESC System" as in Paragraph 2.25. to this Regulation, include the
vehicle manufacturer's documentation as specified in Paragraphs 3.7.1. to 3.7.4. below.
3.7.1. System diagram identifying all ESC system hardware. The diagram shall identify those
components that are used to generate brake torques at each wheel, determine vehicle yaw
rate, estimated side-slip or the side-slip derivative and driver steering inputs.
4.3.3. Tyres. The tyres are inflated to the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation
pressure(s) e.g. as specified on the vehicle's placard or the tyre inflation pressure label.
Tubes may be installed to prevent tyre de-beading.
4.3.4. Outriggers. Outriggers may be used for testing if deemed necessary for test drivers' safety.
In this case, the following applies for vehicles with a Static Stability Factor (SSF) ≤1.25:
188.8.131.52. Vehicles with a mass in running order under 1,588kg shall be equipped with "lightweight"
outriggers. Lightweight outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 27kg and a
maximum roll moment of inertia of 27kg·m .
184.108.40.206. Vehicles with a mass in running order between 1,588kg and 2,722kg shall be equipped with
"standard" outriggers. Standard outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 32kg
and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 35.9kg·m .
220.127.116.11. Vehicles with a mass in running order equal to or greater than 2,722kg shall be equipped
with "heavy" outriggers. Heavy outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 39kg
and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 40.7kg·m .
4.3.5. Automated steering machine. A steering robot programmed to execute the required
steering pattern shall be used in Paragraphs 5.5.2., 5.5.3., 5.6. and 5.9. The steering
machine shall be capable of supplying steering torques between 40 to 60Nm. The steering
machine shall be able to apply these torques when operating with steering wheel velocities
up to 1,200°/s.
5. TEST PROCEDURE
5.1. Inflate the vehicles' tyres to the manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure(s)
e.g. as provided on the vehicle's placard or the tyre inflation pressure label.
5.2. Tell-tale bulb check. With the vehicle stationary and the ignition locking system in the
"Lock" or "Off" position, switch the ignition to the "On" ("Run") position or, where applicable,
the appropriate position for the lamp check. The ESC malfunction tell-tale shall be
illuminated as a check of lamp function, as specified in Paragraph 18.104.22.168., and if equipped,
the "ESC Off" tell-tale shall also be illuminated as a check of lamp function, as specified in
Paragraph 22.214.171.124. The tell-tale bulb check is not required for a tell-tale shown in a common
space as specified in Paragraphs 3.4.3. and 3.6.4.
5.3. "ESC Off" control check. For vehicles equipped with an "ESC Off" control, with the vehicle
stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off" position, switch the ignition
locking system to the "On" ("Run") position. Activate the "ESC Off" control and verify that the
"ESC Off" tell-tale is illuminated, as specified in Paragraph 3.6.2. Turn the ignition locking
system to the "Lock" or "Off" position. Again, switch the ignition locking system to the "On"
("Run") position and verify that the "ESC Off" tell-tale has extinguished indicating that the
ESC system has been restored as specified in Paragraph 3.5.1.
5.7. After the quantity A has been determined, without replacing the tyres, the tyre conditioning
procedure described in Paragraph 5.5. is performed again immediately prior to conducting
the Sine with Dwell test of Paragraph 5.9. Initiation of the first Sine with Dwell test series
shall begin within 2h after completion of the slowly increasing steer tests of Paragraph 5.6.
5.8. Check that the ESC system is enabled by ensuring that the ESC malfunction and "ESC Off"
(if provided) tell-tales are not illuminated.
5.9. Sine with Dwell Test of Oversteer Intervention and Responsiveness
The vehicle is subjected to two series of test runs using a steering pattern of a sine wave at
0.7Hz frequency with a 500ms delay beginning at the second peak amplitude as shown in
Figure 2 (the Sine with Dwell tests). One series uses anticlockwise steering for the first half
cycle, and the other series uses clockwise steering for the first half cycle. The vehicle is
allowed to cool-down between each test runs for a period of 1.5 to 5min, with the vehicle
Sine with Dwell
5.9.1. The steering motion is initiated with the vehicle coasting in high gear at 80 ± 2km/h.
5.9.2. The steering amplitude for the initial run of each series is 1.5A, where A is the steering
wheel angle determined in Paragraph 5.6.1.
5.9.3. In each series of test runs, the steering amplitude is increased from run to run, by 0.5A,
provided that no such run will result in a steering amplitude greater than that of the final run
specified in Paragraph 5.9.4.
5.9.4. The steering amplitude of the final run in each series is the greater of 6.5A or 270°, provided
the calculated magnitude of 6.5A is less than or equal to 300°. If any 0.5A increment, up to
6.5A, is greater than 300°, the steering amplitude of the final run shall be 300°.
5.9.5. Upon completion of the two series of test runs, post processing of yaw rate and lateral
acceleration data is done as specified in Paragraph 5.11.
126.96.36.199. Using the steering wheel rate data calculated using the methods described in
Paragraph 5.11.4., the first instant that the steering wheel rate exceeds 75°/s is identified.
From this point, steering wheel rate shall remain greater than 75°/s for at least 200ms. If the
second condition is not met, the next instant that the steering wheel rate exceeds 75°/s is
identified and the 200ms validity check applied. This iterative process continues until both
conditions are ultimately satisfied.
188.8.131.52. The "zeroing range" is defined as the 1.0s time period prior to the instant the steering wheel
rate exceeds 75°/s (i.e., the instant the steering wheel velocity exceeds 75°/s defines the
end of the "zeroing range").
5.11.6. The Beginning of Steer (BOS) is defined as the first instance when the filtered and zeroed
steering wheel angle data reaches -5° (when the initial steering input is anticlockwise) or +5°
(when the initial steering input is clockwise) after a time defining the end of the "zeroing
range." The value for time at the BOS is interpolated.
5.11.7. The Completion of Steer (COS) is defined as the time the steering wheel angle returns to
zero at the completion of the Sine with Dwell steering manoeuvre. The value for time at the
zero degree steering wheel angle is interpolated.
5.11.8. The second peak yaw rate is defined as the first local yaw rate peak produced by the
reversal of the steering wheel. The yaw rates at 1.000 and 1.750s after COS are determined
5.11.9. Determine lateral velocity by integrating corrected, filtered and zeroed lateral acceleration
data. Zero lateral velocity at the BOS point. Determine lateral displacement by integrating
zeroed lateral velocity. Zero lateral displacement at the BOS point. The lateral displacement
measurement is made at 1.07s after BOS point and is determined by interpolation.
2.2. Measuring Equipment
2.2.1. The variables listed in Paragraph 2.1. of this part shall be measured by means of
appropriate transducers. Accuracy, operating ranges, filtering techniques, data processing
and other requirements are described in ISO Standard 15037-1: 2006.
2.2.2. Accuracy of pedal force and disc temperature measurements shall be as follows:
Variable range system
Typical operating range
of the transducers
Pedal force 0 to 2 000N ±10N
Brake temperature 0 – 1 000°C ±5°C
Brake pressure 0 – 20MPa ±100kPa
2.2.3. Details on analogue and digital data processing of the BAS test procedures are described in
Appendix 5 to this Annex. A sampling rate for data acquisition of at least 500Hz is required.
2.2.4. Alternative measuring methods to those referred to in Paragraph 2.2.3. may be allowed,
provided they demonstrate at least an equivalent level of precision.
2.3. Test Conditions
2.3.1. Test vehicle loading condition: The vehicle shall be unladen. There may be, in addition to
the driver, a second person on the front seat who is responsible for noting the results of the
2.3.2. Braking tests shall be carried out on a dry surface affording good adhesion.
2.4. Test Method
2.4.1. The tests as described in Paragraphs 3. and 4. of this part shall be carried out from a test
speed of 100 ± 2km/h. The vehicle shall be driven at the test speed in a straight line.
2.4.2. The average temperature of the brakes shall be in accordance with Paragraph 184.108.40.206. of
2.4.3. For the tests the reference time, t , is defined as the moment when the brake pedal force
Note: For vehicles equipped with a brake system assisted by an energy source, the
applied pedal force necessary depends on the energy level that exists in the energy
storage device. Therefore, sufficient energy level shall be ensured at the beginning
of the test.
3.2.4. A straight line is drawn from the origin through the point F , a (as shown in Figure 1a). The
value of brake pedal force "F", at the point of intersection between this line and a horizontal
line defined by a=a , is defined as F :
3.2.5. As an alternative, which can be selected by the manufacturer, in the case of vehicles of
Category N , or M derived from those N vehicles, with a gross vehicle mass
GVM >2,500kg, the pedal force figures for F , F , F and F may be
derived from the brake line pressure response characteristic instead of the vehicle
deceleration characteristic. This shall be measured as the brake pedal force is increasing.
220.127.116.11. The pressure, at which ABS cycling commences, shall be determined by making five tests
from 100 ± 2km/h in which the brake pedal is applied up to the level which produces ABS
operation and the five pressures at which this occurs as determined from front wheel
pressure records, shall be recorded and the mean value obtained as P .
18.104.22.168. The threshold pressure P shall be stated by the manufacturer and correspond to a
deceleration in the range of 2.5 - 4.5m/s .
22.214.171.124. Figure 1b shall be constructed in the manner set out in Paragraph 3.2.4., but using line
pressure measurements to define the parameters set out in Paragraph 3.2.5. of this part
Pedal Force Characteristic Needed in Order to Achieve
Maximum Deceleration with Category "A" BAS
4.3. Data Evaluation
The presence of BAS 'B' is demonstrated if a mean deceleration (a ) of at least
0.85 × a is maintained from the time when t = t + 0.8s to the time when the vehicle
speed has been reduced to 15km/h.
Example of Test 2 of a Category "B" BAS System
ANNEX 9 − APPENDIX 2
DYNAMIC STABILITY SIMULATION TOOL AND ITS VALIDATION
1. SPECIFICATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL
1.1. The simulation method shall take into account the main factors which influence the directional
and roll motion of the vehicle. A typical model may include the following vehicle parameters in an
explicit or implicit form:
Power train/driveline, if applicable;
1.2. The Vehicle Stability Function shall be added to the simulation model by means of:
A subsystem (software model) of the simulation tool; or
The electronic control box in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration.
ANNEX 9 − APPENDIX 3
VEHICLE STABILITY FUNCTION SIMULATION TOOL TEST REPORT
Test Report Number: .....................................................................................................................................
1.1. Name and address of the simulation tool manufacturer ..............................................................
1.2. Simulation tool identification: name/model/number (hardware and software) ............................
2. SCOPE OF APPLICATION
2.1. Vehicle type: ................................................................................................................................
2.2. Vehicle configurations: ................................................................................................................
3. VERIFYING VEHICLE TEST
3.1. Description of vehicle(s): .............................................................................................................
3.1.1. Vehicle(s) identification: make/model/VIN ...................................................................................
3.1.2. Vehicle description, including suspension/wheels, engine and drive line, braking system(s),
steering system, with name/model/number identification: ...........................................................
3.1.3. Vehicle data used in the simulation (explicit): .............................................................................
3.2. Description of location(s), road/test area surface conditions, temperature and date(s): .............
3.3. Results with the vehicle stability function switched on and off, including the motion variables
referred to in Annex 9, Appendix 2, Paragraph 2.1 as appropriate: ............................................
4. SIMULATION RESULTS
4.1. Vehicle parameters and the values used in the simulation that are not taken from the actual
test vehicle (implicit): ...................................................................................................................
4.2. Yaw stability and lateral displacement according to Paragraphs 3.1 to 3.3 of Part A of
5. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Appendix 2 of
Annex 9 to Regulation No. 13-H, as last amended by the Supplement 7.
Technical Service conducting the test ......................................................................................
Signed: ........................................ Date: ..................................................................
Approval Authority ....................................................................................................................
Signed: ........................................ Date: ..................................................................
1.4. Five tests meeting the requirements of Paragraph 1.3. above shall be carried out. For each
of these valid tests the vehicle deceleration shall be plotted as a function of the recorded
brake pedal force. Only data recorded at speeds above 15km/h shall be taken for the
calculations described in the following Paragraphs.
1.5. For the determination of a and F , a low pass filter of 2Hz for vehicle deceleration as
well as pedal force shall be applied.
1.6. The five individual "deceleration versus brake pedal force" curves are averaged by
calculating the mean deceleration of the five individual "deceleration vs. brake pedal force"
curves at increments of 1N pedal force. The result is the mean deceleration versus brake
pedal force curve, which will be referred to as the "maF curve" in this Appendix.
1.7. The maximum value for the vehicle deceleration is determined from the "maF curve" and is
named as "a ".
1.8. All values of the "maF curve" that are above 90% of this deceleration value "a " are
averaged. This value of "a" is the deceleration "a " referred to in this Annex.
1.9. The minimum force on the pedal (F ) sufficient to achieve the deceleration a is defined
as the value of F corresponding to a = a on the maF curve.
2.2. Aliasing Errors
In order to avoid uncorrectable aliasing errors, the analogue signals shall be appropriately
filtered before sampling and digitising. The order of the filters used and their pass band shall
be chosen according to both the required flatness in the relevant frequency range and the
The minimum filter characteristics and sampling rate shall be such that:
Within the relevant frequency range of 0Hz to f
= 30Hz the attenuation is less than
the resolution of the data acquisition system; and
At one-half the sampling rate (i.e. the Nyquist or "folding" frequency) the magnitudes
of all frequency components of signal and noise are reduced to less than the system
For 0.05% resolution the filter attenuation shall be less than 0.05% in the frequency range
between 0 and 30Hz, and the attenuation shall be greater than 99.95% at all frequencies
greater than one-half the sampling frequency.
Note: For a Butterworth filter the attenuation is given by:
1 + ⎜
n is the order to filter;
f is the relevant frequency range (30Hz);
f is the filter cut-off frequency;
f is the Nyquist or "folding" frequency.
For a fourth order filter
for A = 0.9995: f = 2.37 × f
for A = 0.0005: f , = 2 × (6.69 × f ), where f , is the sampling frequency = 2 × f .