Regulation No. 13-10

Name:Regulation No. 13-10
Description:Braking - Vehicle Categories M, N and O.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicles of Categories M, N and O with Regards to Braking.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2005-04-04
Amendment Level:10 Series, Supplement 5
Number of Pages:247
Vehicle Types:Bus, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Trailer
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

braking, brake, system, vehicle, annex, control, paragraph, test, trailer, pressure, regulation, performance, service, energy, axle, device, vehicles, requirements, force, line, case, brakes, maximum, appendix, type, speed, trailers, electric, approval, systems, equipped, prescribed, mass, anti-lock, signal, tests, defined, manufacturer, transmission, category, failure, conditions, time, power-driven, warning, adhesion, wheels, means, coupling, kpa

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.12/Rev.6/Amend.2
November 4, 2008
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 13-10 Supp 5
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M, N AND O WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
Incorporating:
Corr. 1 to Revision 5 of the Regulation
Dated: 15.07.05
Corr. 2 to Revision 5 of the Regulation
Dated: 07.04.06
Supplement 8 to the 09 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.02.04
Corr. 1 to Supplement 8 to the 09 series of amendments
Dated: 01.03.04
Corr. 3 to Supplement 6 to the 09 series of amendments
Dated: 13.05.04
Corr. 1 to Supplement 7 to the 09 series of amendments
Dated: 13.05.04
Supplement 9 to the 09 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.11.04
Supplement 10 to the 09 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 04.04.05
Supplement 11 to the 09 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.11.05
Corr. 1 to Supplement 11 to the 09 series of amendments
Dated: 07.04.06
Supplement 12 to the 09 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.01.06
10 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 04.04.05
Supplement 1 to the 10 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.11.05
Supplement 2 to the 10 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.02.07
Supplement 3 to the 10 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.06.07
Supplement 4 to the 10 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Corr. 1 of 30.04.09 to Revision 6 of the Regulation
Date of Entry into Force: 10.03.09
Supplement 5 to the 10 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08

REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions
REGULATION NO. 13
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF
CATEGORIES M, N AND O WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
3. Application for Approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications
6. Tests
Contents
7. Modification of Vehicle Type or Braking System and Extension of Approval
8. Conformity of Production
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10. Production Definitely Discontinued
11. Names and addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests and of
Administrative Departments
12. Transitional Provisions
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
– Braking Equipment, Devices, Methods and Conditions not Covered by this Regulation
– Communication Concerning the Approval or Extension or Refusal or Withdrawal of
Approval or Production Definitely Discontinued of a Vehicle Type with Regard to Braking,
Pursuant to Regulation No. 13
Annex 2 – Appendix 1 – List of Vehicle Data for the Purpose of Regulation No. 90
Approvals
Annex 2 – Appendix 2 – Type Approval Certificate concerning the Vehicle Braking
Equipment
Annex 3
Annex 4
– Arrangements of Approval Marks
– Braking Tests and Performance of Braking Systems
Annex 4 – Appendix
– Procedure for Monitoring the State of Battery Charge

Annex 13 – Test Requirements for Vehicles Fitted With Anti-Lock Systems
Annex 13 – Appendix 1 – Symbols and Definitions
Annex 13 – Appendix 2 – Utilisation of Adhesion
Annex 13 – Appendix 3 – Performance on Differing Adhesion Surfaces
Annex 13 – Appendix 4 – Method of Selection of the Low-Adhesion Surfaces
Annex 14 – Test Conditions for Trailers with Electrical Braking Systems
Annex 14 – Appendix
– Compatibility of the Braking Rate of the Trailer and the Mean
Fully Developed Deceleration of the Tractor/Trailer
Combination (Trailer Laden and Unladen)
Annex 15 – Inertia Dynamometer Test Method for Brake Linings
Annex 16 – (Reserved)
Annex 17 – Test Procedure to Assess the Functional Compatibility of Vehicles Equipped with Electric
Control Lines
Annex 18 – Special Requirements to be Applied to the Safety Aspects of Complex Electronic Vehicle
Control Systems
Annex 19 – Performance Testing of Trailer Braking Components
Annex 19 – Appendix 1 – Model Verification Report Form for Diaphragm Brake
Chambers
Annex 19 – Appendix 2 – Model Reference Record of Test Results for Diaphragm
Brake Chambers
Annex 19 – Appendix 3 – Model Verification Report Form for Spring Brakes
Annex 19 – Appendix 4 – Model Reference Record of Test Results for Spring Brakes
Annex 19 – Appendix 5 – Trailer Anti-lock Braking System Information Document
Annex 19 – Appendix 6 – Trailer Anti-lock Braking System Test Report
Annex 19 – Appendix 7 – Symbols and Definitions
Annex 19 – Appendix 8 – Field Test Documentation Form as Prescribed in
Paragraph 4.4.2.9 to this Annex

1. SCOPE
REGULATION NO. 13
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF
CATEGORIES M, N AND O WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
1.1. This Regulation applies to vehicles of Categories M , M , N and O with regard to
braking .
1.2. This Regulation does not cover:
1.2.1. Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25 km/h;
1.2.2. Trailers which may not be coupled to power-driven vehicles with a design speed
exceeding 25 km/h;
1.2.3. Vehicles fitted for invalid drivers;
1.3. Subject to the applicable provisions of this Regulation, the equipment, devices, methods
and conditions enumerated in Annex 1 are not covered by this Regulation.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking;
2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential
respects as:
2.2.1. In the case of power-driven vehicle,
2.2.1.1. The vehicle category, (see Paragraph 1.1. above);
2.2.1.2. The maximum mass, as defined in Paragraph 2.16. below;
2.2.1.3. The distribution of mass among the axles;
2.2.1.4. The maximum design speed;
2.2.1.5. A different type of braking equipment, with more particular reference to the presence or
otherwise of equipment for braking a trailer, or any presence of an electric regenerative
braking system;
2.2.1.6. The number and arrangement of the axles;
2.2.1.7. The engine type;

2.6. "Brake" means the part in which the forces opposing the movement of the vehicle
develop. It may be a friction brake (when the forces are generated by friction between two
parts of the vehicle moving relatively to one another); an electrical brake (when the forces
are generated by electro-magnetic action between two parts of the vehicle moving
relatively to but not in contact with one another); a fluid brake (when the forces are
generated by the action of a fluid situated between two parts of the vehicle moving
relatively to one another); or an engine brake (when the forces are derived from an
artificial increase in the braking action, transmitted to the wheels, of the engine);
2.7. "Different types of braking systems" means systems which differ in such essential
respects as:
2.7.1. Components having different characteristics;
2.7.2. A component made of materials having different characteristics, or a component differing
in shape or size;
2.7.3. A different assembly of the components;
2.8. "Component of a braking system" means one of the individual parts which, when
assembled, constitute the braking system;
2.9. "Continuous braking" means the braking of a combination of vehicles through an
installation having the following characteristics:
2.9.1. A single control which the driver actuates progressively, by a single movement, from his
driving seat;
2.9.2. The energy used for braking the vehicles constituting the combination is furnished by the
same source (which may be the muscular energy of the driver);
2.9.3. The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the
constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions;
2.10. "Semi-continuous braking" means the braking of a combination of vehicles through an
installation having the following characteristics:
2.10.1. A single control which the driver actuates progressively, by a single movement, from his
driving seat;
2.10.2. The energy used for braking the vehicles constituting the combination is furnished by two
different sources (one of which may be the muscular energy of the driver);
2.10.3. The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the
constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions;
2.11. "Automatic braking" means braking of the trailer or trailers occurring automatically in the
event of separation of components of the combination of coupled vehicles, including such
separation through the breakage of a coupling, the effectiveness of the braking of the
remainder of the combination not being thereby destroyed;
2.12. "Inertia (or overrun) braking" means braking by utilising the forces generated by the
trailer's moving up on the towing vehicle;

2.21. "Electric regenerative braking" means a braking system which, during deceleration,
provides for the conversion of vehicle kinetic energy into electrical energy.
2.21.1. "Electric regenerative braking control" means a device which modulates the action of
the electric regenerative braking system.
2.21.2. "Electric regenerative braking system of Category A" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is not part of the service braking system.
2.21.3. "Electric regenerative braking systems of Category B" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is part of the service braking system.
2.21.4. "Electric state of charge" means the instantaneous ratio of electric quantity of energy
stored in the traction battery relative to the maximum quantity of electric energy which
could be stored in this battery.
2.21.5. "Traction battery" means an assembly of accumulators constituting the storage of energy
used for powering the traction motor(s) of the vehicle.
2.22. "Hydraulic braking system with stored energy" means a braking system where energy
is supplied by a hydraulic fluid under pressure, stored in one or more accumulators fed
from one or more pressure pumps, each fitted with a means of limiting the pressure to a
maximum value. This value shall be specified by the manufacturer;
2.23. "Simultaneous lockup of the front and rear wheels" refers to the condition when the
time interval between the first occurrence of lockup of the last (second) wheel on the rear
axle and the first occurrence of lockup on the last (second) wheel on the front axle is less
than 0.1 second.
2.24. "Electric control line" means the electrical connection between power-driven vehicle and
trailer which provides the braking control function to the trailer. It comprises the electrical
wiring and connector and includes the parts for data communication and the electrical
energy supply for the trailer control transmission.
2.25. "Data communication" means the transfer of digital data under the rules of a protocol.
2.26. "Point-to-point" means a topology of a communication network with only two units. Each
unit has an integrated termination resistor for the communication line.
2.27. "Coupling force control" means a system/function to balance automatically the braking
rate of towing vehicle and trailer.
2.28. "Nominal value" definitions for braking reference performance are required to put a value
on the transfer function of the braking system, relating output to input for vehicles
individually and when used in combination.
2.28.1. "Nominal value" is defined, for a power-driven vehicle, as the characteristic which can be
demonstrated at Type Approval and which relates the braking rate of the vehicle on its
own to the level of the braking input variable.
2.28.2. "Nominal value" is defined, for a trailer, as the characteristic which can be demonstrated
at Type Approval and which relates the braking rate to the coupling head signal.

4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the
requirements of Paragraphs 5 and 6 below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved, its first two digits (at
present 10) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to the same vehicle type
equipped with another type of braking system, or to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means
of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation and of a summary of the
information contained in the documents referred to in Paragraphs 3.2.1. to 3.2.4. above,
the drawings supplied by the applicant being in a format not exceeding
A4 (210 × 297 mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate scale.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this
Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval and
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval
number to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.5. However, if a vehicle of Categories M or M has been approved pursuant to the
provisions of Annex 4, Paragraph 1.8 to this Regulation, the number of the Regulation
shall be followed by the Letter M.
4.6. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations,
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a
case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the
Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted
approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the
symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.7. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

5.1.2.3. Parking Braking System
The parking braking system shall make it possible to hold the vehicle stationary on an up
or down gradient even in the absence of the driver, the working parts being then held in
the locked position by a purely mechanical device. The driver shall be able to achieve this
braking action from his driving seat, subject, in the case of a trailer, to the provisions of
Paragraph 5.2.2.10. of this Regulation. The trailer air brake and the parking braking
system of the towing vehicle may be operated simultaneously provided that the driver is
able to check, at any time, that the parking brake performance of the vehicle combination,
obtained by the purely mechanical action of the parking braking system, is sufficient.
5.1.3. Connections, for compressed-air braking systems, between power-driven vehicles and
trailers.
5.1.3.1. The connections of the compressed-air braking systems between power-driven vehicles
and trailers shall be provided according to Paragraphs 5.1.3.1.1., 5.1.3.1.2. or 5.1.3.1.3.:
5.1.3.1.1. One pneumatic supply line and one pneumatic control line;
5.1.3.1.2. One pneumatic supply line, one pneumatic control line and one electric control line;
5.1.3.1.3. One pneumatic supply line and one electric control line; this option is subject to
footnote.
5.1.3.2. The electric control line of the power-driven vehicle shall provide information as to whether
the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.18.2. can be satisfied by the electric control line,
without assistance from the pneumatic control line. It shall also provide information as to
whether it is equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. with two control lines or
according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. with only an electric control line.
5.1.3.3. A power-driven vehicle equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. shall recognise that
the coupling of a trailer equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. is not
compatible. When such vehicles are electrically connected via the electric control line of
the towing vehicle, the driver shall be warned by the red optical warning signal specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. and when the system is energised, the brakes on the towing
vehicle shall be automatically applied. This brake application shall provide at least the
prescribed parking braking performance required by Paragraph 2.3.1. of Annex 4 to this
Regulation.
5.1.3.4. In the case of a power-driven vehicle equipped with two control lines as defined in
Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., when electrically connected to a trailer which is also equipped with
two control lines, the following provisions shall be fulfilled:
5.1.3.4.1. Both signals shall be present at the coupling head and the trailer shall use the electric
control signal unless this signal is deemed to have failed. In this case the trailer shall
automatically switch to the pneumatic control line;
5.1.3.4.2. Each vehicle shall conform to the relevant provisions of Annex 10 to this Regulation for
both electric and pneumatic control lines; and

5.1.3.7.3. When the power-driven vehicle is equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. or, if it
satisfies the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.18.2. without assistance from the pneumatic
control line, Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., the actuation of the parking braking system on the
power-driven vehicle shall actuate a braking system on the trailer via the electric control
line. When the electrical energy for the braking equipment of the power-driven vehicle is
switched off, the braking of the trailer shall be effected by evacuation of the supply line (in
addition, the pneumatic control line may remain pressurised); the supply line may only
remain evacuated until the electrical energy for the braking equipment of the power-driven
vehicle is restored and simultaneously the braking of the trailer via the electric control line
is restored.
5.1.3.8. Shut-off devices which are not automatically actuated shall not be permitted. In the case
of articulated vehicle combinations, the flexible hoses and cables shall be a part of the
power-driven vehicle. In all other cases, the flexible hoses and cables shall be a part of
the trailer.
5.1.4. Provisions for the Periodic Technical Inspection of Braking Systems
5.1.4.1. It shall be possible to assess the wear condition of the components of the service brake
that are subject to wear e.g. friction linings and drums/discs (in the case of drums or discs,
wear assessment may not necessarily be carried out at the time of periodic technical
inspection). The method by which this may be realized is defined in
Paragraphs 5.2.1.11.2. and 5.2.2.8.2. of this Regulation.
5.1.4.2. For the purpose of determining the in-use braking forces of each axle of the vehicle, with a
compressed-air braking system, air pressure test connections are required:
5.1.4.2.1. In each independent circuit of the braking system, at the closest readily accessible position
to the brake cylinder which is the least favourably placed as far as the response time
described in Annex 6 is concerned.
5.1.4.2.2. In a braking system which incorporates a pressure modulation device as referred to in
Paragraph 7.2. of Annex 10, located in the pressure line upstream and downstream of this
device at the closest accessible position. If this device is pneumatically controlled an
additional test connection is required to simulate the laden condition. Where no such
device is fitted, a single pressure test connection, equivalent to the downstream connector
mentioned above, shall be provided. These test connections shall be so located as to be
easily accessible from the ground or within the vehicle.
5.1.4.2.3. At the closest readily accessible position to the least favourably placed energy storage
device within the meaning of Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 7, Section A.
5.1.4.2.4. In each independent circuit of the braking system so it is possible to check the input and
output pressure of the complete transmission line.
5.1.4.2.5. The pressure test connections shall comply with Clause 4 of ISO Standard 3583:1984.
5.1.4.3. The accessibility of required pressure test connections shall not be obstructed by
modifications and assembly of accessories or the vehicle body.
5.1.4.4. It shall be possible to generate maximum braking forces under static conditions on a
rolling road or roller brake tester.
5.1.4.5. Data for braking systems:

5.1.4.7. It shall be possible to verify, in a simple way, the correct operational status of those
complex electronic systems which have control over braking. If special information is
needed, this shall be made freely available.
5.1.4.7.1. At the time of type approval, the means implemented to protect against simple
unauthorised modification of the operation to the verification means chosen by the
manufacturer (e.g. warning signal) shall be confidentially outlined.
Alternatively, this protection requirement is fulfilled when a secondary means of checking
the correct operational status is available.
5.1.5. The requirements of Annex 18 shall be applied to the safety aspects of all complex
electronic vehicle control systems which provide or form part of the control transmission of
the braking function included those which utilise the braking system(s) for automatically
commanded braking or selective braking.
However, systems or functions, which use the braking system as the means of achieving a
higher level objective, are subject to Annex 18 only insofar as they have a direct effect on
the braking system. If such systems are provided, they shall not be deactivated during
type approval testing of the braking system.
5.2. Characteristics of Braking Systems
5.2.1. Vehicles of Categories M , M and N
5.2.1.1. The set of braking systems with which a vehicle is equipped shall satisfy the requirements
laid down for service, secondary and parking braking systems.
5.2.1.2. The systems providing service, secondary and parking braking may have common
components so long as they fulfil the following conditions:
5.2.1.2.1. There shall be at least two controls, independent of each other and readily accessible to
the driver from his normal driving position.
For all categories of vehicles, except M and M , every brake control (excluding an
endurance braking system control) shall be designed such that it returns to the fully off
position when released. This requirement shall not apply to a parking brake control (or
that part of a combined control) when it is mechanically locked in an applied position;
5.2.1.2.2. The control of the service braking system shall be independent of the control of the
parking braking system;
5.2.1.2.3. If the service braking system and the secondary braking system have the same control,
the effectiveness of the linkage between that control and the different components of the
transmission systems shall not be liable to diminish after a certain period of use;
5.2.1.2.4. If the service braking system and the secondary braking system have the same control,
the parking braking system shall be so designed that it can be actuated when the vehicle
is in motion. This requirement shall not apply if the vehicle's service braking system can
be actuated, even partially, by means of an auxiliary control;

5.2.1.4. The service braking system shall, whether or not it is combined with the secondary braking
system, be such that in the event of failure in a part of its transmission a sufficient number
of wheels are still braked by actuation of the service brake control; these wheels shall be
so selected that the residual performance of the service braking system satisfies the
requirements laid down in Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
5.2.1.4.1. However, the foregoing provisions shall not apply to tractor vehicles for semi-trailers when
the transmission of the semi-trailer's service braking system is independent of that of the
tractor vehicle's service braking system;
5.2.1.4.2. The failure of a part of a hydraulic transmission system shall be signalled to the driver by a
device comprising a red warning signal, as specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. Alternatively, the lighting up of this device when the fluid in the
reservoir is below a certain level specified by the manufacturer shall be permitted.
5.2.1.5. Where use is made of energy other than the muscular energy of the driver, there need not
be more than one source of such energy (hydraulic pump, air compressor, etc.), but the
means by which the device constituting that source is driven shall be as safe as
practicable.
5.2.1.5.1. In the event of failure in any part of the transmission of a braking system, the feed to the
part not affected by the failure shall continue to be ensured if required for the purpose of
halting the vehicle with the degree of effectiveness prescribed for residual and/or
secondary braking. This condition shall be met by means of devices which can be easily
actuated when the vehicle is stationary, or by automatic means.
5.2.1.5.2. Furthermore, storage devices located down-circuit of this device shall be such that in the
case of a failure in the energy supply after four full-stroke actuations of the service brake
control, under the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 7 to this Regulation, it
is still possible to halt the vehicle at the fifth application, with the degree of effectiveness
prescribed for secondary braking.
5.2.1.5.3. However, for hydraulic braking systems with stored energy, these provisions can be
considered to be met provided that the requirements of Paragraph 1.2.2. of Part C of
Annex 7 to this Regulation, are satisfied.
5.2.1.6. The requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.2., 5.2.1.4. and 5.2.1.5. of this Regulation shall be
met without the use of any automatic device of a kind such that its ineffectiveness might
pass unnoticed through the fact that parts normally in a position of rest come into action
only in the event of failure in the braking system.
5.2.1.7. The service braking system shall act on all wheels of the vehicle and shall distribute its
action appropriately among the axles.
5.2.1.7.1. In the case of vehicles with more than two axles, in order to avoid wheel-locking or glazing
of the brake linings, the brake force on certain axles may be reduced to zero automatically
when carrying a much reduced load, provided that the vehicle meets all the performance
requirements prescribed in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

5.2.1.10. The service, secondary and parking braking systems shall act on braking surfaces
connected to the wheels through components of adequate strength.
Where braking torque for a particular axle or axles is provided by both a friction braking
system and an electrical regenerative braking system of Category B, disconnection of the
latter source is permitted, providing that the friction braking source remains permanently
connected and able to provide the compensation referred to in Paragraph 5.2.1.7.2.1.
However in the case of short disconnection transients, incomplete compensation is
accepted, but within 1 s, this compensation shall have attained at least 75% of its final
value.
Nevertheless, in all cases the permanently connected friction braking source shall ensure
that both the service and secondary braking systems continue to operate with the
prescribed degree of effectiveness.
Disconnection of the braking surfaces of the parking braking system shall be permitted
only on condition that the disconnection is controlled exclusively by the driver from his
driving seat, by a system incapable of being brought into action by a leak.
5.2.1.11. Wear of the brakes shall be capable of being easily taken up by means of a system of
manual or automatic adjustment. In addition, the control and the components of the
transmission and of the brakes shall possess a reserve of travel and, if necessary, suitable
means of compensation such that, when the brakes become heated, or the brake linings
have reached a certain degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate
adjustment being necessary.
5.2.1.11.1. Wear adjustment shall be automatic for the service brakes. However, the fitting of
automatic brake adjustment devices is optional for off road vehicles of Categories N and
N and for the rear brakes of vehicles of Category N . Brakes equipped with automatic
brake adjustment devices shall, after heating followed by cooling, be capable of free
running as defined in Paragraph 1.5.4. of Annex 4 following the Type-I test also defined in
that Annex.
5.2.1.11.2. Checking the wear of the service brake friction components.
5.2.1.11.2.1. It shall be possible to easily assess this wear on service brake linings from the outside or
underside of the vehicle, without the removal of the wheels, by the provision of appropriate
inspection holes or by some other means. This may be achieved by utilising simple
standard workshop tools or common inspection equipment for vehicles.
Alternatively, a sensing device per wheel (twin wheels are considered as a single wheel),
which will warn the driver at his driving position when lining replacement is necessary is
acceptable. The yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. below may be
used.

5.2.1.13.1.2. This acoustic device may be rendered inoperative while the handbrake is applied and/or,
at the choice of the manufacturer, in the case of automatic transmission the selector is in
the "Park" position.
5.2.1.14. Without prejudice to the requirements of Paragraph 5.1.2.3. of this Regulation, where an
auxiliary source of energy is essential to the functioning of a braking system, the reserve
of energy shall be such as to ensure that, if the engine stops or in the event of a failure of
the means by which the energy source is driven, the braking performance remains
adequate to bring the vehicle to a halt in the prescribed conditions. In addition, if the
muscular effort applied by the driver to the parking braking system is reinforced by a servo
device, the actuation of the parking braking system shall be ensured in the event of a
failure of the servo device, if necessary by using a reserve of energy independent of that
normally supplying the servo device. This reserve of energy may be that intended for the
service braking system.
5.2.1.15. In the case of a power-driven vehicle to which the coupling of a trailer equipped with a
brake controlled by the driver of the towing vehicle is authorised, the service braking
system of the towing vehicle shall be equipped with a device so designed that in the event
of failure of the trailer's braking system, or in the event of an interruption in the air supply
pipe (or of such other type of connection as may be adopted) between the towing vehicle
and its trailer, it shall still be possible to brake the towing vehicle with the effectiveness
prescribed for secondary braking; it is accordingly prescribed, in particular, that this device
shall be situated on the towing vehicle.
5.2.1.16. The pneumatic/hydraulic auxiliary equipment shall be supplied with energy in such a way
that during its operation, the prescribed deceleration values can be reached and that even
in the event of damage to the source of energy the operation of the auxiliary equipment
cannot cause the reserves of energy feeding the braking systems to fall below the level
indicated in Paragraph 5.2.1.13. above.
5.2.1.17. If the trailer is of Category O or O , the service braking system shall be of the continuous
or semi-continuous type.
5.2.1.18. In the case of a vehicle authorised to tow a trailer of Category O or O , its braking
systems shall satisfy the following conditions:
5.2.1.18.1. When the towing vehicle's secondary braking system comes into action, there shall also
be a graduated braking action in the trailer;
5.2.1.18.2. In the event of failure of the towing vehicle's service braking system, where that system
consists of at least two independent parts, the part or parts not affected by the failure shall
be capable of partially or fully actuating the brakes of the trailer. It shall be possible to
graduate this braking action. If this operation is achieved by a valve which is normally at
rest, then such a valve may only be incorporated if its correct functioning can easily be
checked by the driver, either from within the cab or from outside the vehicle, without the
use of tools;
5.2.1.18.3. In the event of a failure (e.g. breakage or leak) in one of the pneumatic connecting lines,
interruption or defect in the electric control line, it shall nevertheless be possible for the
driver, fully or partially, to actuate the brakes of the trailer by means either of the service
braking control or of the secondary braking control or of the parking braking control, unless
the failure automatically causes the trailer to be braked with the performance prescribed in
Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.

5.2.1.23. Power-driven vehicles authorised to tow a trailer equipped with an anti-lock system shall
also be equipped with a special electrical connector, conforming to ISO 7638:1997 , for
the electric control line transmission and/or the anti-lock systems of trailers.
5.2.1.24. Additional requirements for vehicles of Categories M , N and Category N < 5 t equipped
with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A.
5.2.1.24.1. The electric regenerative braking shall only be actuated by the accelerator control and/or
the gear selector neutral position for vehicles of Category N .
5.2.1.24.2. In addition, for vehicles of Categories M and N (< 5 t), the electric regenerative braking
control can be a separate switch or lever.
5.2.1.24.3. The requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.25.6. and 5.2.1.25.7. also apply to Category A
regenerative braking systems.
5.2.1.25. Additional requirements for vehicles of Categories M , N and Category N < 5 t fitted with
an electric regenerative braking system of Category B:
5.2.1.25.1. It shall not be possible to disconnect, partially or totally, one part of the service braking
system other than by automatic means. This should not be construed as a departure from
the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.10.
5.2.1.25.2. The service braking system shall have only one control device.
5.2.1.25.3. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of both categories, all the
relevant prescriptions shall apply except Paragraph 5.2.1.24.1.
In this case, the electric regenerative braking may be actuated by the accelerator control
and/or the gear selector neutral position for vehicles of Category N .
Additionally, the action on the service braking control shall not reduce the above braking
effect generated by the release of accelerator control.
5.2.1.25.4. The service braking system shall not be adversely affected by the disengagement of the
motor(s) or by the gear ratio used.
5.2.1.25.5. If the operation of the electric component of braking is ensured by a relation established
between the information coming from the control of the service brake and the braking force
at the respective wheels, a failure of this relation leading to the modification of the braking
distribution among the axles (Annex 10 or 13, whichever is applicable) shall be signalled to
the driver by an optical warning signal at the latest at the moment when the control is
actuated and this signal shall remain lit as long as this defect exists and that the vehicle
control switch (key) is in the "ON" position.
5.2.1.25.6. The operation of the electric regenerative braking shall not be adversely affected by
magnetic or electric fields.
5.2.1.25.7. For vehicles equipped with an anti-lock device, the anti-lock device shall control the
electric regenerative braking system.

5.2.1.26.3. Auxiliary equipment may be supplied with energy from the electric transmission of the
parking braking system provided that the supply of energy is sufficient to allow the
actuation of the parking braking system in addition to the vehicle electrical load under
non-fault conditions. In addition, where the energy reserve is also used by the service
braking system, the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.27.7. shall apply.
5.2.1.26.4. After the ignition/start switch which controls the electrical energy for the braking equipment
has been switched off and/or the key removed, it shall remain possible to apply the
parking braking system, whereas releasing shall be prevented.
5.2.1.27. Special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control
transmission.
5.2.1.27.1. With the parking brake released, the service braking system shall be able to generate a
static total braking force at least equivalent to that required by the prescribed Type-0 test,
even when the ignition/start switch has been switched off and/or the key has been
removed. In the case of power-driven vehicles authorised to tow trailers of Category O or
O , such vehicles shall provide a full control signal for the service braking system of the
trailer. It should be understood that sufficient energy is available in the energy
transmission of the service braking system.
5.2.1.27.2. In the case of a single temporary failure (< 40 ms) within the electric control transmission,
excluding its energy supply, (e.g. non-transmitted signal or data error) there shall be no
distinguishable effect on the service braking performance.
5.2.1.27.3. A failure within the electric control transmission , not including its energy reserve, that
affects the function and performance of systems addressed in this Regulation shall be
indicated to the driver by the red or yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraphs 5.2.1.29.1.1. and 5.2.1.29.1.2., respectively, as appropriate. When the
prescribed service braking performance can no longer be achieved (red warning signal),
failures resulting from a loss of electrical continuity (e.g. breakage, disconnection) shall be
signalled to the driver as soon as they occur, and the prescribed residual braking
performance shall be fulfilled by operating the service braking control in accordance with
Paragraph 2.4, of Annex 4 to this Regulation. These requirements shall not be construed
as a departure from the requirements concerning secondary braking.
5.2.1.27.4. A power-driven vehicle, electrically connected to a trailer via an electric control line, shall
provide a clear warning to the driver whenever the trailer provides the failure information
that the stored energy in any part of the service braking system on the trailer falls below
the warning level, as specified in Paragraph 5.2.2.16. below. A similar warning shall also
be provided when a continuous failure (> 40 ms) within the electric control transmission of
the trailer, excluding its energy reserve, precludes achievement of the prescribed service
braking performance of the trailer, as specified in Paragraph 5.2.2.15.2.1. below. The red
warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. shall be used for this purpose.

5.2.1.27.10. In the case of a failure in the electric control transmission of a trailer, electrically connected
via an electric control line only, according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3., braking of the trailer
shall be ensured according to Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.1. This shall be the case whenever
the trailer provides the "supply line braking request" signal via the data communication
part of the electric control line or in the event of the continuous absence of this data
communication. This Paragraph shall not apply to power-driven vehicles which cannot be
operated with trailers connected via an electric control line only, as described in
Paragraph 5.1.3.5.
5.2.1.28. Special requirements for coupling force control.
5.2.1.28.1. Coupling force control shall only be permitted in the towing vehicle.
5.2.1.28.2. The action of the coupling force control shall be to reduce the difference between the
dynamic braking rates of towing and towed vehicles. The operation of the coupling force
control shall be checked at the time of type approval. The method by which this check is
carried out shall be agreed between the vehicle manufacturer and the technical service
with the method of assessment and results being appended to the type approval report.
5.2.1.28.2.1. The coupling force control may control the braking rate T /P , and/or the brake demand
value(s) for the trailer. In the case of a towing vehicle equipped with two control lines
according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. above, both signals shall be subject to similar control
adjustments.
5.2.1.28.2.2. The coupling force control shall not prevent the maximum possible braking pressure(s)
from being applied.
5.2.1.28.3. The vehicle shall fulfil the laden compatibility requirements of Annex 10, but to achieve the
objectives of Paragraph 5.2.1.28.2. the vehicle may deviate from these requirements when
the coupling force control is in operation.
5.2.1.28.4. A coupling force control failure shall be detected and indicated to the driver by a yellow
warning signal such as that specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. In the event of a failure
the relevant requirements of Annex 10 shall be fulfilled.

Diagram 2
Tractive Units for Semi-trailers
5.2.1.28.6. A coupling force control system shall control only the coupling forces generated by the
service braking system of the motor vehicle and the trailer. Coupling forces resulting from
the performance of endurance braking systems shall not be compensated by the service
braking system of either the motor vehicle or trailer. It is considered that endurance
braking systems are not part of the service braking systems.
5.2.1.29. Brake failure and defect warning signal
The general requirements for optical warning signals whose function is to indicate to the
driver certain specified failures (or defects) within the braking equipment of the
power-driven vehicle or, where appropriate, its trailer, are set out in the following
sub-paragraphs. Other than as described in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.6. below, these signals
shall be used exclusively for the purposes prescribed by this Regulation.
5.2.1.29.1. Power-driven vehicles shall be capable of providing optical brake failure and defect
warning signals, as follows:
5.2.1.29.1.1. A red warning signal, indicating failures defined elsewhere in this Regulation within the
vehicle braking equipment which preclude achievement of the prescribed service braking
performance and/or which preclude the functioning of at least one of two independent
service braking circuits.

5.2.1.29.6. Non-specified failures (or defects), or other information concerning the brakes and/or
running gear of the power-driven vehicle, may be indicated by the yellow signal specified
in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. above, provided that all the following conditions are fulfilled:
5.2.1.29.6.1. The vehicle is stationary;
5.2.1.29.6.2. After the braking equipment is first energised and the signal has indicated that, following
the procedures detailed in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.5. above, no specified failures (or defects)
have been identified; and
5.2.1.29.6.3. Non-specified faults or other information shall be indicated only by the flashing of the
warning signal. However, the warning signal shall be extinguished by the time when the
vehicle first exceeds 10 km/h.
5.2.1.30. Generation of a braking signal to illuminate stop lamps.
5.2.1.30.1. Activation of the service braking system by the driver shall generate a signal that will be
used to illuminate the stop lamps.
5.2.1.30.2. Requirements for vehicles installed with endurance braking systems.
5.2.1.30.2.1. In the case of vehicles that utilise electronic signalling to control initial application of
braking, the following shall apply:
Deceleration Thresholds
≤ 1.0 m/sec
May generate the signal
> 1.0 m/sec
Shall generate the signal
5.2.1.30.2.2. In the case of vehicles equipped with a braking system of a specification different to that
defined in Paragraph 5.2.1.30.2.1 above, the operation of the endurance braking system
may generate the signal irrespective of the deceleration produced.
5.2.1.30.2.3. The signal shall not be generated when retardation is produced by the natural braking
effect of the engine alone.
5.2.1.30.3. Activation of the service braking system by "automatically commanded braking" shall
generate the signal mentioned above. However, when the retardation generated is less
than 0.7 m/s , the signal may be suppressed.
5.2.1.30.4. Activation of part of the service braking system by "selective braking" shall not generate
the signal mentioned above.
5.2.1.30.5. In the case of vehicles equipped with an electric control line the signal shall be generated
by the motor vehicle when a message "illuminate stop lamps" is received via the electric
control line from the trailer.

5.2.2.4. The service braking system:
5.2.2.4.1. Shall act on all the wheels of the vehicle;
5.2.2.4.2. Shall distribute its action appropriately among the axles;
5.2.2.4.3. Shall contain in at least one of the air reservoirs a device for draining and exhausting in an
adequate and easily accessible position.
5.2.2.5. The action of the service braking system shall be distributed between the wheels of one
and the same axle symmetrically in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the
vehicle. Compensation and functions such as anti-lock, which may cause deviations from
this symmetrical distribution, shall be declared.
5.2.2.5.1. Compensation by the electric control transmission for deterioration or defect within the
braking system shall be indicated to the driver by means of the separate yellow optical
warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. This requirement shall apply for all
conditions of loading when compensation exceeds the following limits:
5.2.2.5.1.1. A difference in transverse braking pressures on any axle of:
(a) 25% of the higher value for vehicle decelerations ≥ 2 m/s ,
(b)
A value corresponding to 25% at 2 m/s for decelerations below this rate.
5.2.2.5.1.2. An individual compensating value on any axle of:
(a)
(b)
> 50% of the nominal value for vehicle decelerations ≥ 2 m/s
A value corresponding to 50% of the nominal value at 2 m/s for decelerations
below this rate.
5.2.2.5.2. Compensation as defined above, is permitted only when the initial brake application is
made at vehicle speeds greater than 10 km/h.
5.2.2.6. Malfunctions of the electric control transmission shall not apply the brakes contrary to the
driver's intentions;
5.2.2.7. The braking surfaces required to attain the prescribed degree of effectiveness shall be in
constant connection with the wheels, either rigidly or through components not liable to
failure.
5.2.2.8. Wear of the brakes shall be capable of being easily taken up by means of a system of
manual or automatic adjustment. In addition, the control and the components of the
transmission and of the brakes shall possess a reserve of travel and, if necessary, suitable
means of compensation such that, when the brakes become heated, or the brake linings
have reached a certain degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate
adjustment being necessary.

5.2.2.10. On every trailer which is required to be equipped with a service braking system, parking
braking must be assured even when the trailer is separated from the towing vehicle. The
parking braking device shall be capable of being actuated by a person standing on the
ground; however, in the case of a trailer used for the carriage of passengers, this brake
shall be capable of being actuated from inside the trailer.
5.2.2.11. If the trailer is fitted with a device enabling compressed-air actuation of the braking system
other than the parking braking system to be cut out, the first-mentioned system shall be so
designed and constructed that it is positively restored to the position of rest not later than
on resumption of the supply of compressed-air to the trailer.
5.2.2.12. Trailers of Categories O and O shall satisfy the conditions specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. An easily accessible pressure test connection is required
downstream of the coupling head of the control line.
5.2.2.12.1. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line and electrically connected to a
towing vehicle with an electric control line the automatic braking action specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. may be suppressed as long as the pressure in the compressed air
reservoirs of the trailer is sufficient to ensure the braking performance specified in
Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
5.2.2.13. Trailers of Category O shall be equipped with an anti-lock braking system in accordance
with the requirements of Annex 13 to this Regulation. Trailers of Category O shall be
equipped with an anti-lock braking system in accordance with the Category A
requirements of Annex 13 to this Regulation.
5.2.2.14. Where the auxiliary equipment is supplied with energy from the service braking system,
the service braking system shall be protected to ensure that the sum of the braking forces
exerted at the periphery of the wheels shall be at least 80% of the value prescribed for the
relevant trailer as defined in Paragraph 3.1.2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. This
requirement shall be fulfilled under both of the following operating conditions:
During operation of the auxiliary equipment; and
In the event of breakage or leakage from the auxiliary equipment, unless such breakage or
leakage affects the control signal referred to in Paragraph 6 to Annex 10 to this
Regulation, in which case the performance requirements of that Paragraph shall apply.
5.2.2.14.1. The above provisions are deemed to be fulfilled when the pressure in the service brake
storage device(s) is maintained at a pressure of at least 80% of the control line demand
pressure or equivalent digital demand as defined in Paragraph 3.1.2.2. of Annex 4 to this
Regulation.
5.2.2.15. Special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control
transmission.
5.2.2.15.1. In the case of a single temporary failure (< 40 ms) within the electric control transmission,
excluding its energy supply, (e.g. non-transmitted signal or data error) there shall be no
distinguishable effect on the service braking performance.

5.2.2.17. Trailers equipped with an electric control line and O and O Category trailers equipped
with an anti-lock system, shall be fitted with a special electrical connector for the braking
system and/or anti-lock system, conforming to ISO 7638:1997. . Failure warning
signals required from the trailer by this Regulation shall be activated via the above
connector. The requirement to be applied to trailers with respect to the transmission of
failure warning signals shall be those, as appropriate, which are prescribed for motor
vehicles in Paragraphs 5.2.1.29.4., 5.2.1.29.5. and 5.2.1.29.6.
Trailers equipped with an ISO 7638:1997 connector as defined above shall be marked in
indelible form to indicate the functionality of the braking system when the ISO 7638:1997
connector is connected and disconnected. This marking is to be positioned so that it is
visible when connecting the pneumatic and electrical interface connections.
5.2.2.17.1. Trailers that utilize selective braking as a means to enhance vehicle stability shall in the
event of a failure within the electric control transmission of the stability system indicate the
failure by the separate yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. above via
Pin 5 of the ISO 7638:1997 connector.
Note: This requirement shall be kept under review during subsequent amendments to
Regulation No. 13 pending:
(i)
(ii)
an amendment to the ISO 11992:2003 data communication standard that includes a
message to indicate a failure within the electric control transmission of the trailer
stability control system; and
vehicles equipped to that standard are in general use.

5.2.2.21. In addition to the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.18.4.2 and 5.2.1.21 above, the brakes
of the trailer may also be applied automatically when this is initiated by the trailer braking
system itself following the evaluation of on-board generated information.
5.2.2.22. Activation of the service braking system.
5.2.2.22.1. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line the message "illuminate stop
lamps" shall be transmitted by the trailer via the electric control line when the trailer
braking system is activated during "automatically commanded braking" initiated by the
trailer. However, when the retardation generated is less than 0.7 m/s , the signal may be
suppressed.
5.2.2.22.2. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line the message "illuminate stop
lamps" shall not be transmitted by the trailer via the electrical control line during "selective
braking" initiated by the trailer.
6. TESTS
Braking tests which the vehicles submitted for approval are required to undergo, and the
braking performance required, are described in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
7. MODIFICATION OF VEHICLE TYPE OR BRAKING SYSTEM AND EXTENSION OF
APPROVAL
7.1. Every modification of the vehicle type or of its braking equipment with regard to the
characteristics in Annex 2 to this Regulation shall be notified to the administrative
department which approved the vehicle type. That department may then either:
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect
and that in any case the vehicle still meets the requirements; or
7.1.2. Require a further report from the Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests.
7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by
the procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above, to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation.
7.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension and inform thereof the other
Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement by means of a communication form conforming
to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.

9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with.
9.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an
approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation by means of a copy of a communication form conforming to the
model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved
in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof
the other Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means a
communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING
APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued
in other countries are to be sent.
12. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
12.1. General
12.1.1. As from the official date of entry into force of Supplement 8 to the 09 series of
amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant
ECE approval under this Regulation as amended by Supplement 8 to the 09 series of
amendments.
12.1.1.2. Unless otherwise stated, or unless the context requires otherwise, supplements to the
10 series of amendments shall also apply to the issuing and maintenance of 09 series
approvals.
12.1.3. As from the official date of entry into force of the 10 series of amendments, no Contracting
Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant approval under this Regulation as
amended by the 10 series of amendments.
12.1.4. As from the official date of entry into force of Supplement 4 to the 10 series of
amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant approval
under this Regulation, as amended by Supplement 4.

ANNEX 1
BRAKING EQUIPMENT, DEVICES, METHODS AND CONDITIONS NOT
COVERED BY THIS REGULATION
1. Method of measuring reaction ("response") times in brakes other than compressed-air brakes.

9. In the case of a power-driven vehicle:
9.1. Engine type:..................................................................................................................................
9.2. Number and ratios of gears: .........................................................................................................
9.3. Final drive ratio(s):........................................................................................................................
9.4. If applicable, maximum mass of trailer which may be coupled: ...............................................
9.4.1. Full trailer:.....................................................................................................................................
9.4.2. Semi-trailer: ..................................................................................................................................
9.4.3. Centre-axle trailer (indicate also the maximum ratio of the coupling overhang to the
wheelbase:....................................................................................................................................
9.4.4. Unbraked trailer: ...........................................................................................................................
9.4.5. Maximum mass of combination:...................................................................................................
10. Tyre dimensions ...........................................................................................................................
10.1. Temporary-use spare wheel/tyre dimensions: .............................................................................
11. Number and arrangement of axles:..............................................................................................
12. Brief description of braking equipment: ........................................................................................
13.
Mass of vehicle when tested:
Unladen (kg)
Laden (kg)
King pin / supporting load
Axle No. 1
Axle No. 2
Axle No. 3
Axle No. 4
TOTAL

14.10.2. The vehicle fulfils the requirements of Annex 13: Yes/No
14.10.3. Vehicle is/is not equipped to tow trailers equipped with anti-lock systems
14.10.4. Where an Annex 19 anti-lock test report has been utilised, the test report number(s) shall be
stated.
14.11. The vehicle is subject to the requirements of Annex 5 (ADR) Yes/No
14.11.1. The vehicle fulfils the endurance braking performance requirements according to the Type-IIA
test up to a total maximum mass of . . . t: Yes/No
14.11.2. The power-driven vehicle is fitted with a control device for the endurance braking system on
the trailer: Yes/No
14.11.3. In the case of trailers, the vehicle is equipped with an endurance braking system Yes/No
14.12. Vehicle is equipped with a control line(s) according to Paragraphs 5.1.3.1.1., 5.1.3.1.2.,
5.1.3.1.3.
14.13. Adequate documentation according to Annex 18 was supplied in respect of the following
system(s) .............................................................................................. Yes/No/Not applicable
15. Additional information for use with the Annex 20 alternative type approval procedure.
15.1. Description of suspension: ...........................................................................................................
15.1.1. Manufacturer:................................................................................................................................
15.1.2. Make: ............................................................................................................................................
15.1.3. Type:.............................................................................................................................................
15.1.4. Model: ...........................................................................................................................................
15.2. Wheelbase of vehicle tested:........................................................................................................
15.3. Actuation differential (if any) within bogie:....................................................................................
16. Trailer approved utilising Annex 20 procedure:............................................................ Yes/No
(If yes, Appendix 2 to this Annex shall be completed)
17. Vehicle submitted for approval on: ...............................................................................................
18. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: .....................................................
19. Date of report issued by that service:...........................................................................................
20. Number of report issued by that service:......................................................................................

ANNEX 2 - APPENDIX 1
LIST OF VEHICLE DATA FOR THE PURPOSE OF
REGULATION NO. 90 APPROVALS
1. Description of the vehicle type......................................................................................................
1.1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle, if available............................................................................
1.2. Vehicle category ...........................................................................................................................
1.3. Vehicle type according to Regulation No. 13 approval.................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
1.4. Models or trade names of vehicles constituting the vehicle type, if available ..............................
......................................................................................................................................................
1.5. Manufacturer's name and address ...............................................................................................
2. Make and type of brake linings
2.1. Brake linings tested to all relevant prescriptions of Annex 4........................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
2.2. Brake linings tested to Annex 15..................................................................................................
3. Minimum mass of vehicle .............................................................................................................
3.1. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value).....................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
4. Maximum mass of vehicle ............................................................................................................
4.1. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value).....................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
5. Maximum vehicle speed ...............................................................................................................
6. Tyre and wheel dimensions..........................................................................................................
7. Brake circuit configuration (e.g. front/rear or diagonal split).........................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
8. Declaration of which is the secondary braking system.................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
9. Specifications of brake valves (if applicable)................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
9.1. Adjustment specifications of the load sensing valve ....................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
9.2. Setting of pressure valve ..............................................................................................................

ANNEX 2 - APPENDIX 2
TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE CONCERNING THE
VEHICLE BRAKING EQUIPMENT
1. General
The following additional items are to be recorded when the trailer has been approved utilising
the alternative procedure defined in Annex 20 to this Regulation.
2. Annex 19 test reports
2.1. Diaphragm brake chambers: Report No..................
2.2. Spring brakes: Report No..................
2.3. Trailer brake cold performance characteristics: Report No..................
2.4. Anti-lock braking system: Report No..................
3. Performance checks
3.1. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 4, Paragraphs 3.1.2 and 1.2.7 (service braking
cold performance)
Yes/No
3.2. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 4, Paragraph 3.2 (parking braking cold
performance)
Yes/No
3.3. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 4, Paragraph 3.3 (emergency/automatic braking
performance)
Yes/No
3.4. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 10, Paragraph 6 (braking performance in the case
of a failure in the braking distribution system)
Yes/No
3.5. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.2.14.1 to this Regulation (braking
performance in the event of leakage from auxiliary equipment)
Yes/No
3.6. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 13 (anti-lock braking) Yes/No

Model C
(See Paragraph 4.6. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 13 and 24 . (In the case of the latter
Regulation the corrected absorption coefficient is 1.30 m .)

1.2.3. During the tests, the force applied to the control of the braking system in order to obtain the
prescribed performance shall not exceed the maximum force laid down for the test vehicle's
category;
1.2.4. The road shall have a surface affording good adhesion, unless specified otherwise in the
relevant Annexes;
1.2.5. The tests shall be performed when there is no wind liable to affect the results;
1.2.6. At the start of the tests, the tyres shall be cold and at the pressure prescribed for the load
actually borne by the wheels when the vehicle is stationary;
1.2.7. The prescribed performance shall be obtained without locking of the wheels, without deviation
of the vehicle from its course, and without abnormal vibration.
1.2.8. For vehicles powered completely or partially by an electric motor (or motors), permanently
connected to the wheels, all tests shall be carried out with the motor(s) connected.
1.2.9. For vehicles as described in Paragraph 1.2.8., fitted with an electric regenerative braking
system of Category A, behaviour tests defined in Paragraph 1.4.3.1. of this Annex shall be
carried out on a track with a low adhesion coefficient (as defined in Paragraph 5.2.2. of
Annex 13).
1.2.9.1. Moreover, for vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A,
transient conditions as gear changes or accelerator control release shall not affect the
behaviour of the vehicle under test condition described in Paragraph 1.2.9.
1.2.10. During the tests specified in Paragraphs 1.2.9. and 1.2.9.1., wheel locking is not
allowed. However, steering correction is permitted if the angular rotation of the steering
control is within 120° during the initial 2 seconds and not more than 240° in total.
1.2.11. For a vehicle with electrically actuated service brakes powered from traction batteries (or an
auxiliary battery) which receive(s) energy only from an independent external charging system,
these batteries shall, during braking performance testing, be at an average of not more than
5% above that state of charge at which the brake failure warning prescribed in
Paragraph 5.2.1.27.6 is required to be given.
If this warning is given, the batteries may receive some recharge during the tests, to keep
them in the required state of charge range.
1.3. Behaviour of the Vehicle During Braking
1.3.1. In braking tests, and in particular in those at high speed, the general behaviour of the vehicle
during braking shall be checked.
1.3.2. Behaviour of the vehicle during braking on a road on which adhesion is reduced. The
behaviour of vehicles of Categories M , M , N , N , N , O , O and O on a road on which
adhesion is reduced shall meet the relevant requirements of Annex 10 and/or Annex 13 to
this Regulation.

This requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the batteries are at one of the following state of
charge conditions where state of charge is determined by the method set out in Appendix 1
to this Annex:
(a)
(b)
(c)
at the maximum charge level as recommended by the manufacturer in the vehicle
specification, or
at a level not less than 95% of the full charge level, where the manufacturer has made
no specific recommendation, or
at the maximum level which results from automatic charge control on the vehicle.
1.4.1.2.3. The limits prescribed for minimum performance, both for tests with the vehicle unladen and
for tests with the vehicle laden, shall be those laid down hereunder for each category of
vehicles; the vehicle shall satisfy both the prescribed stopping distance and the prescribed
mean fully developed deceleration for the relevant vehicle category, but it may not be
necessary to actually measure both parameters.
1.4.1.2.4. The road must be level.
1.4.2. Type-0 Test with Engine Disconnected
The test shall be carried out at the speed prescribed for the category to which the vehicle
belongs, the figures prescribed in this connection being subject to a certain margin of
tolerance. The minimum performance prescribed for each category shall be attained.
1.4.3. Type-0 Test with Engine Connected
1.4.3.1. Tests shall also be carried out at various speeds, the lowest being equal to 30% of the
maximum speed of the vehicle and the highest being equal to 80% of that speed. In the case
of vehicles equipped with a speed limiter, this limiter speed shall be taken as the maximum
speed of the vehicle. The maximum practical performance figures shall be measured and the
behaviour of the vehicle shall be recorded in the test report. Tractors for semi-trailers,
artificially loaded to simulate the effects of a laden semi-trailer shall not be tested beyond
80 km/h.
1.4.3.2. Further tests shall be carried out with the engine connected, from the speed prescribed for the
category to which the vehicle belongs. The minimum performance prescribed for each
category shall be attained. Tractive units for semi-trailers, artificially loaded to simulate the
effects of a laden semi-trailer shall not be tested beyond 80 km/h.
1.4.4. Type-0 Test for Vehicles of Category O, Equipped with Compressed-air Brakes.
1.4.4.1. The braking performance of the trailer can be calculated either from the braking rate of the
towing vehicle plus the trailer and the measured thrust on the coupling or, in certain cases,
from the braking rate of the towing vehicle plus the trailer with only the trailer being
braked. The engine of the towing vehicle shall be disconnected during the braking test.
In the case where only the trailer is braked, to take account of the extra mass being retarded,
the performance will be taken to be the mean fully developed deceleration.

Category of
vehicles
v
[km/h]
M 80% v
≤ 100
N 80% v
≤ 120
M , N , N 80% v
≤ 60
Conditions
v
Δt
n
[km/h]
[sec]
½ v 55 15
½ v 55 15
½ v 60 20
where:
v = initial speed, at beginning of braking
v = speed at end of braking
v = maximum speed of vehicle
n = number of brake applications
Δt
=
duration of a braking cycle: time elapsing between the initiation of one brake
application and the initiation of the next.
1.5.1.2. If the characteristics of the vehicle make it impossible to abide by the duration prescribed for
Δt, the duration may be increased; in any event, in addition to the time necessary for braking
and accelerating the vehicle, a period of 10 seconds shall be allowed in each cycle for
stabilising the speed v .
1.5.1.3. In these tests, the force applied to the control shall be so adjusted as to attain the mean fully
developed deceleration of 3 m/s at the first brake application; this force shall remain constant
throughout the succeeding brake applications.
1.5.1.4. During brake applications, the highest gear ratio (excluding overdrive, etc.) shall be
continuously engaged.
1.5.1.5. For regaining speed after braking, the gearbox shall be used in such a way as to attain the
speed v in the shortest possible time (maximum acceleration allowed by the engine and
gearbox).
1.5.1.6. For vehicles not having sufficient autonomy to carry out the cycles of heating of the brakes,
the tests shall be carried out by achieving the prescribed speed before the first braking
application and thereafter by using the maximum acceleration available to regain speed and
then braking successively at the speed reached at the end of each time cycle duration as
specified, for the appropriate vehicle category, in Paragraph 1.5.1.1 above.

Speed [km/h]
Distance [metres]
40
1700
30
1950
20
2500
15
3100
1.5.2.3. In the case of trailers equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices the adjustment of
the brakes shall, prior to the Type-I test prescribed above, be set according to the procedure
as laid down in Paragraph 1.7.1.1. of this Annex.
1.5.3. Hot Performance
1.5.3.1. At the end of the Type-I test (test described in Paragraph 1.5.1. or test described in
Paragraph 1.5.2. of this Annex) the hot performance of the service braking system shall be
measured in the same conditions (and in particular at a constant control force no greater than
the mean force actually used) as for the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected (the
temperature conditions may be different).
1.5.3.1.1. For power-driven vehicles this hot performance shall not be less than 80% of that prescribed
for the category in question, nor less than 60% of the figure recorded in the Type-0 test with
the engine disconnected.
1.5.3.1.2. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A, during brake
applications, the highest gear shall be continuously engaged and the separate electric
regenerative braking control, if any, shall not be used.
1.5.3.1.3. In the case of vehicles equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of Category B,
having carried out the heating cycles according to Paragraph 1.5.1.6 of this Annex, the hot
performance test shall be carried out at the maximum speed which can be reached by the
vehicle at the end of the brake heating cycles, unless the speed specified in Paragraph 1.4.2
of this Annex can be reached.
For comparison, the Type-0 test with cold brakes shall be repeated from this same speed and
with a similar electric regenerative braking contribution, as set by an appropriate state of
battery charge, as was available during the hot performance test.
Reconditioning of the linings shall be permitted before the test is made to compare this
second Type-0 cold performance with that achieved in the hot test, against the criteria of
Paragraphs 1.5.3.1.1 and 1.5.3.2 of this Annex.
1.5.3.1.4. However, in the case of trailers, the hot brake force at the periphery of the wheels when
tested at 40 km/h shall not be less than 36% of the maximum stationary wheel load, nor less
than 60% of the figure recorded in the Type-0 test at the same speed.
1.5.3.2. In the case of a power-driven vehicle which satisfies the 60% requirement specified in
Paragraph 1.5.3.1.1. above, but which cannot comply with the 80% requirement of
Paragraph 1.5.3.1.1. above, a further hot performance test may be carried out using a control
force not exceeding that specified in Paragraph 2 of this Annex for the relevant vehicle
category. The results of both tests shall be entered in the report.

1.7. Type-III Test (Fade Test for Vehicles of Category O )
1.7.1. Track Test
1.7.1.1. The adjustment of the brakes shall, prior to the Type-III test below, be set according to the
following procedures as appropriate:
1.7.1.1.1. In the case of trailers equipped with air operated brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall be
such as to enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the
actuator stroke shall be adjusted to s ≥ 1.1 × s (the upper limit shall not exceed a value
recommended by the manufacturer):
where:
s is the re-adjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of
the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. the stroke, where it starts to re-adjust
the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 100 kPa.
Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator
stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service.
From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 200 kPa,
50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator
pressure of ≥ 650 kPa.
1.7.1.1.2. In the case of trailers equipped with hydraulically operated disc brakes no setting
requirements are deemed necessary.
1.7.1.1.3. In the case of trailers equipped with hydraulically operated drum brakes the adjustment of the
brakes shall be as specified by the manufacturer.
1.7.1.2. For the road test the conditions shall be as follows:
Number of brake applications 20
Duration of a braking cycle
Initial speed at the beginning of braking
Braking applications
60 s
60 km/h
In these tests, the force applied to the control
shall be so adjusted as to attain the mean fully
developed deceleration of 3 m/s in respect to the
trailer mass P at the first brake application; this
force shall remain constant throughout the
succeeding brake applications.
The braking rate of a trailer is calculated according to the formula given in Paragraph 1.4.4.3.
of this Annex:
( z − R)
( P + P )
z =
⋅ + R
P

1.8. Type-IIA Test (Endurance Braking Performance)
1.8.1. Vehicles of the following categories shall be subject to the Type-IIA test:
1.8.1.1. Vehicles of Category M , belonging to Class II, III or B as defined in the Consolidated
Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), Annex 7.
1.8.1.2. Vehicles of Category N which are authorised to tow a trailer of Category O . If the maximum
mass exceeds 26 t, the test mass is limited to 26 t or, in the case where the unladen mass
exceeds 26 t, this mass is to be taken into account by calculation.
1.8.1.3. Certain vehicles subject to ADR (see Annex 5).
1.8.2. Test Conditions and Performance Requirements
1.8.2.1. The performance of the endurance braking system shall be tested at the maximum mass of
the vehicle or of the vehicle combination.
1.8.2.2. Laden vehicles shall be tested in such a manner that the energy input is equivalent to that
recorded in the same period of time with a laden vehicle driven at an average speed of
30 km/h on a 7% down-gradient for a distance of 6 km. During the test, the service,
secondary and parking braking systems shall not be engaged. The gear engaged shall be
such that the speed of the engine does not exceed the maximum value prescribed by the
manufacturer. An integrated endurance braking system may be used, provided that it is
suitably phased such that the service braking system is not applied; this may be verified by
checking that its brakes remain cold, as defined in Paragraph 1.4.1.1. of this Annex.
1.8.2.3. For vehicles in which the energy is absorbed by the braking action of the engine alone, a
tolerance of ± 5 km/h on the average speed shall be permitted, and the gear enabling the
speed to be stabilised at a value closest to 30 km/h on a 7% down-gradient shall be
engaged. If the performance of the braking action of the engine alone is determined by
measuring the deceleration, it shall be sufficient if the mean deceleration measured is at least
0.6 m/s .

d
= d

P
P
+ P
where:
d
=
calculated mean fully developed deceleration of the power-driven vehicle when
coupled to an unbraked trailer, in m/s ,
d
=
maximum mean fully developed deceleration of the power-driven vehicle alone
achieved during the Type-0 test with engine disconnected, in m/s ,
P = mass of the power-driven vehicle (laden),
P
=
maximum mass of an unbraked trailer which may be coupled, as declared by the
power-driven vehicle manufacturer.
2.2. Secondary Braking System
2.2.1. The secondary braking system, even if the control which actuates it is also used for other
braking functions, shall give a stopping distance not exceeding the following values and a
mean fully developed deceleration not less than the following values:
Categories M , M 0.15 v + (2v /130) (the second term corresponds to a mean fully
developed deceleration d = 2.5 m/s )
Category N
0.15 v + (2v /115) (the second term corresponds to a mean fully
developed deceleration d = 2.2 m/s )
2.2.2. If the control is manual, the prescribed performance shall be obtained by applying to the
control a force not exceeding 60 daN and the control shall be so placed that it can be easily
and quickly grasped by the driver.
2.2.3. If it is a foot control, the prescribed performance shall be obtained by applying to the control a
force not exceeding 70 daN and the control shall be so placed that it can be easily and quickly
actuated by the driver.
2.2.4. The performance of the secondary braking system shall be checked by the Type-0 test with
engine disconnected from the following initial speeds:
M : 60 km/h
M : 60 km/h
N : 70 km/h N : 50 km/h N : 40 km/h
2.2.5. The secondary braking effectiveness test shall be conducted by simulating the actual failure
conditions in the service braking system.

3. PERFORMANCE OF BRAKING SYSTEMS OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORY O
3.1. Service Braking System
3.1.1. Provision Relating to Tests of Vehicles of Category O :
Where the provision of a service braking system is mandatory, the performance of the system
shall meet the requirements laid down for vehicles of Categories O and O .
3.1.2. Provisions Relating to Tests of Vehicles of Categories O and O :
3.1.2.1. If the service braking system is of the continuous or semi-continuous type, the sum of the
forces exerted on the periphery of the braked wheels shall be at least x% of the maximum
stationary wheel load, x having the following values:
x [%]
Full trailer, laden and unladen:
50
Semi-trailer, laden and unladen:
45
Centre-axle trailer, laden and unladen:
50
3.1.2.2. If the trailer is fitted with a compressed-air braking system, the pressure in the supply line
shall not exceed 700 kPa during the brake test and the signal value in the control line shall
not exceed the following values, depending on the installation:
(a)
(b)
650 kPa in the pneumatic control line;
A digital demand value corresponding to 650 kPa (as defined in ISO 11992:2003) in
the electric control line.
The test speed is 60 km/h. A supplementary test at 40 km/h shall be carried out with
the laden trailer for comparison with the Type-I test result.
3.1.2.3. If the braking system is of the inertia type, it shall comply with the requirements of Annex 12
to this Regulation.
3.1.2.4. In addition, the vehicles shall undergo the Type-I test.
3.1.2.5. In the Type-I test of a semi-trailer, the mass braked by the latter's axle(s) shall correspond to
the maximum axle load(s) (not including the king pin load).
3.1.3. Provisions Relating to Tests of Vehicles of Category O :
3.1.3.1. If the service braking system is of the continuous or semi-continuous type, the sum of the
forces exerted on the periphery of the braked wheels shall be at least x% of the maximum
stationary wheel load, x having the following values:
x [%]
Full trailer, laden and unladen:
50
Semi-trailer, laden and unladen:
45
Centre-axle trailer, laden and unladen:
50

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX
PROCEDURE FOR MONITORING THE STATE OF BATTERY CHARGE
This procedure is applicable to vehicle batteries used for traction and regenerative braking.
The procedure requires the use of a bi-directional DC Watt-hour meter.
1. PROCEDURE
1.1. If the batteries are new or have been subject to extended storage, they shall be cycled as
recommended by the manufacturer. A minimum 8 hour soak period at ambient temperature shall
be allowed after completion of cycling.
1.2. A full charge shall be established using the manufacturer's recommended charging procedure.
1.3. When the braking tests of Paragraphs 1.2.11, 1.4.1.2.2, 1.5.1.6 and 1.5.3.1.3 of Annex 4 are
conducted the watt-hours consumed by the traction motors and supplied by the regenerative
braking system shall be recorded as a running total which shall then be used to determine the
state of charge existing at the beginning or end of a particular test.
1.4. To replicate a level of state of charge in the batteries for comparative tests, such as those of
Paragraph 1.5.3.1.3, the batteries shall be either recharged to that level or charged to above that
level and discharged into a fixed load at approximately constant power until the required state of
charge is reached. Alternatively, for vehicles with battery powered electric traction only, the state
of charge may be adjusted by running the vehicle. Tests conducted with a battery partially
charged at their start shall be commenced as soon as possible after the desired state of charge
has been reached.

2.4. Braking Requirements for EX/III Vehicles of Categories O and O
2.4.1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph 5.2.2.9. of this Regulation, EX/III vehicles, as
defined in Regulation No. 105, of Categories O and O , irrespective of their mass, shall be
equipped with a braking system which automatically brakes the trailer to a stop if the coupling
device separates while the trailer is in motion.

2.6. The time elapsing from the initiation of brake-pedal actuation to the moment when
(a)
(b)
The pressure measured at the coupling head of the pneumatic control line,
The digital demand value in the electric control line measured according to
ISO 11992:2003.
reaches x% of its asymptotic, respectively final, value shall not exceed the times shown in the
table below:
x [%]
10
75
t [s]
0.2
0.4
2.7. In the case of power-driven vehicles authorised to tow trailers of Category O or O fitted with
compressed-air braking systems, in addition to the above-mentioned requirements, the
prescriptions in Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.1 of this Regulation shall be verified by conducting the
following test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
By measuring the pressure at the extremity of a pipe 2.5 m long with an internal
diameter of 13 mm which shall be joined to the coupling head of the supply line;
By simulating a failure of the control line at the coupling head;
By actuating the service braking control device in 0.2 seconds, as described in
Paragraph 2.3. above.
3. TRAILERS
3.1. The trailer's response times shall be measured without the power-driven vehicle. To replace
the power-driven vehicle, it is necessary to provide a simulator to which the coupling heads of
the supply line, the pneumatic control line and/or the connector of the electric control line are
connected.
3.2. The pressure in the supply line shall be 650 kPa.
3.3. The simulator for pneumatic control lines shall have the following characteristics:
3.3.1. It shall have a reservoir with a capacity of 30 litres which shall be charged to a pressure of
650 kPa before each test and which shall not be recharged during each test. At the outlet of
the braking control device, the simulator shall incorporate an orifice with a diameter of from
4.0 to 4.3 mm inclusive. The volume of the pipe measured from the orifice up to and including
the coupling head shall be 385 ± 5 cm (which is deemed to be equivalent to the volume of a
pipe 2.5 m long with an internal diameter of 13 mm and under a pressure of 650 kPa). The
control line pressures referred to in Paragraph 3.3.3. of this Annex shall be measured
immediately downstream of the orifice.
3.3.2. The braking system control shall be so designed that its performance in use is not affected by
the tester.

ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX
EXAMPLE OF SIMULATOR
(See Annex 6, Paragraph 3)
1. Setting the simulator

3. Example of a simulator for electric control lines
ECL = electric control line corresponding to ISO 7638
SIMU = simulator of Byte 3, 4 of EBS 11 according to ISO 11992 with output signals at
start, 65 kPa and 650 kPa.
A = supply connection with shut-off valve
C2 = pressure switch to be connected to the brake actuator of the trailer, to operate at
75% of the asymptotic pressure in the brake actuator CF
CF = brake cylinder
M = pressure gauge
PP = pressure test connection
TA = coupling head, supply line
VRU = emergency relay valve

1.3. Trailers
1.3.1. The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) with which trailers are equipped shall be such
that, after eight full-stroke actuations of the towing vehicle's service braking system, the
energy level supplied to the operating members using the energy does not fall below a level
equivalent to one-half of the figure obtained at the first brake application and without actuating
either the automatic or the parking braking system of the trailer.
1.3.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
1.3.2.1. The pressure in the energy storage devices at the beginning of each test shall be 850 kPa;
1.3.2.2. The supply line shall be stopped; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary
equipment shall be isolated;
1.3.2.3. The energy storage devices shall not be replenished during the test;
1.3.2.4. At each brake application, the pressure in the pneumatic control line shall be 750 kPa.
1.3.2.5. At each brake application, the digital demand value in the electric control line shall be
corresponding to a pressure of 750 kPa.
2. CAPACITY OF ENERGY SOURCES
2.1. General
The compressors shall meet the requirements set forth in the following Paragraphs.
2.2. Definitions
2.2.1. "p " is the pressure corresponding to 65% of the pressure p defined in Paragraph 2.2.2.
below.
2.2.2. "p " is the value specified by the manufacturer and referred to in Paragraph 1.2.2.1. above.
2.2.3. "t " is the time required for the relative pressure to rise from 0 to p , and "t " is the time
required for the relative pressure to rise from 0 to p .
2.3. Conditions of Measurement
2.3.1. In all cases, the speed of the compressor shall be that obtained when the engine is running at
the speed corresponding to its maximum power or at the speed allowed by the governor.
2.3.2. During the tests to determine the time t and the time t , the energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
2.3.3. If it is intended to attach a trailer to a power-driven vehicle, the trailer shall be represented by
an energy storage device whose maximum relative pressure p (expressed in kPa/100) is that
which can be supplied through the towing vehicle's supply circuit and whose volume V,
expressed in litres, is given by the formula p × V = 20 R (R being the permissible maximum
mass, in t, on the axles of the trailer).

B. VACUUM BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. CAPACITY OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES (ENERGY RESERVOIRS)
1.1. General
1.1.1. Vehicles on which operation of the braking system requires the use of a vacuum shall be
equipped with energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of a capacity meeting the
requirements of Paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this Annex (Part B).
1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if
the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible to achieve
a braking performance at least equal to that prescribed for the secondary braking system.
1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of Paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this Annex, the
brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible.
1.2. Power-Driven Vehicles
1.2.1. The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of power-driven vehicles shall be such that it
is still possible to achieve the performance prescribed for the secondary braking system:
1.2.1.1. After eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control where the energy
source is a vacuum pump; and
1.2.1.2. After four full-stroke actuations of the service brake control where the energy source is the
engine.
1.2.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
1.2.2.1. The initial energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the
manufacturer. It shall be such as to enable the prescribed performance of the service
braking system to be achieved and shall correspond to a vacuum not exceeding 90% of the
maximum vacuum furnished by the energy source;
1.2.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition any energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated;
1.2.2.3. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorised to tow a trailer, the supply line shall be
stopped and an energy storage device of 0.5 litre capacity shall be connected to the control
line. After the test referred to in Paragraph 1.2.1. above, the vacuum level provided at the
control line shall not have fallen below a level equivalent to one-half of the figure obtained at
the first brake application.

C. HYDRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEMS WITH STORED ENERGY
1. CAPACITY OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES (ENERGY ACCUMULATORS)
1.1. General
1.1.1. Vehicles on which operation of the braking system requires the use of stored energy provided
by hydraulic fluid under pressure shall be equipped with energy storage devices (energy
accumulators) of a capacity meeting the requirements of Paragraph 1.2. of this Annex
(Part C).
1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if
the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible with the
service braking system control to achieve a braking performance at least equal to that
prescribed for the secondary braking system.
1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of Paragraphs 1.2.1., 1.2.2. and 2.1. of this
Annex, the brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible and, for Paragraph 1.2.1., the rate
of full-stroke actuations must be such as to provide an interval of at least 60 seconds between
each actuation.
1.2. Power-Driven Vehicles
1.2.1. Power-driven vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy shall
meet the following requirements:
1.2.1.1. After eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control, it shall still be possible
to achieve, on the ninth application, the performance prescribed for the secondary braking
system.
1.2.1.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
1.2.1.2.1. Testing shall commence at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but is not
higher than the cut-in pressure;
1.2.1.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
1.2.2. Power-driven-vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy which
cannot meet the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.5.1. of this Regulation shall be deemed to
satisfy that Paragraph if the following requirements are met:
1.2.2.1. After any single transmission failure it shall still be possible after eight full-stroke actuations of
the service braking system control, to achieve, at the ninth application, at least the
performance prescribed for the secondary braking system or, where secondary performance
requiring the use of stored energy is achieved by a separate control, it shall still be possible
after eight full-stroke actuations to achieve, at the ninth application, the residual performance
prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.4. of this Regulation.

1. DEFINITION
ANNEX 8
PROVISIONS RELATING TO SPECIFIC CONDITIONS FOR
SPRING BRAKING SYSTEMS
1.1. "Spring braking systems" are braking systems in which the energy required for braking is
supplied by one or more springs acting as an energy storage device (energy accumulator)
1.1.1. The energy necessary to compress the spring in order to release the brake is supplied and
controlled by the "control" actuated by the driver (see definition in Paragraph 2.4. of this
Regulation).
1.2. "Spring compression chamber" means the chamber where the pressure variation that
induces the compression of the spring is actually produced.
1.3. If the compression of the springs is obtained by means of a vacuum device, "pressure" shall
mean negative pressure everywhere in this Annex.
2. GENERAL
2.1. A spring braking system shall not be used as a service braking system. However, in the
event of a failure in a part of the transmission of the service braking system, a spring braking
system may be used to achieve the residual performance prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.4. of
this Regulation provided that the driver can graduate this action. In the case of power-driven
vehicles, with the exception of tractors for semi-trailers meeting the requirements specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.4.1 of this Regulation, the spring braking system shall not be the sole source
of residual braking. Vacuum spring braking systems shall not be used for trailers.
2.2. A small variation in any of the pressure limits which may occur in the spring compression
chamber feed circuit shall not cause a significant variation in the braking force.
2.3. The following requirements shall apply to power-driven vehicles equipped with spring brakes:
2.3.1. The feed circuit to the spring compression chamber shall either include an own energy
reserve or shall be fed from at least two independent energy reserves. The trailer supply line
may be branched from this feed line under the condition that a pressure drop in the trailer
supply line shall not be able to apply the spring brake actuators.
2.3.2. Auxiliary equipment may only draw its energy from the feed line for the spring brake actuators
under the condition that its operation, even in the event of damage to the energy source,
cannot cause the energy reserve for the spring brake actuators to fall below a level from
which one release of the spring brake actuators is possible.
2.3.3. In any case, during re-charging of the braking system from zero pressure, the spring brakes
shall remain fully applied irrespective of the position of the control device until the pressure in
the service braking system is sufficient to ensure at least the prescribed secondary braking
performance of the laden vehicle, using the service braking system control.
2.3.4. Once applied, the spring brakes shall not release unless there is sufficient pressure in the
service braking system to at least provide the prescribed residual braking performance of the
laden vehicle by application of the service braking control.

3.2. If the operation of the auxiliary device referred to in Paragraph 3.1. above requires the use of
a tool or spanner, the tool or spanner shall be kept on the vehicle.
3.3. Where an auxiliary release system utilizes stored energy to release the spring brakes the
following additional requirements shall apply:
3.3.1. Where the control of the auxiliary spring brake release system is the same as that used for
the secondary/parking brake, the requirements defined in Paragraph 2.3 above shall apply in
all cases.
3.3.2. Where the control for the auxiliary spring brake release system is separate to the
secondary/parking brake control, the requirements defined in Paragraph 2.3 above shall apply
to both control systems. However, the requirements of Paragraph 2.3.4 above shall not apply
to the auxiliary spring brake release system. In addition the auxiliary release control shall be
located so that it is protected against application by the driver from the normal driving
position.
3.4. If compressed air is used in the auxiliary release system, the system should be activated by a
separate control, not connected to the spring brake control.

ANNEX 10
DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING AMONG THE AXLES OF VEHICLES AND REQUIREMENTS
FOR COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN TOWING VEHICLES AND TRAILERS
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Vehicles of Categories M , M ,, N, O , O and O which are not equipped with an anti-lock
system as defined in Annex 13 to this Regulation shall meet all the requirements of this
Annex. If a special device is used, this shall operate automatically.
However, vehicles - in the above Categories - which are equipped with an anti-lock system as
defined in Annex 13, shall also meet the requirements of Paragraphs 7 and 8 of this Annex if
they are in addition fitted with a special automatic device which controls the distribution of
braking among the axles. In the event of failure of its control, it shall be possible to stop the
vehicle as stipulated under Paragraph 6 of this Annex.
1.1.1. Where a vehicle is installed with an endurance braking system the retarding force shall not be
taken into consideration when determining the vehicle performance with respect to the
provisions of this Annex.
1.2. The requirements relating to the diagrams specified in Paragraphs 3.1.5., 3.1.6., 4.1., 5.1. and
5.2. of this Annex, are valid both for vehicles with a pneumatic control line according to
Paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation and for vehicles with an electric control line according
to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. of this Regulation. In both cases, the reference value (abscissa of the
diagrams) will be the value of the transmitted pressure in the control line:
(a)
(b)
for vehicles equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation, this will be
the actual pneumatic pressure in the control line (p );
for vehicles equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. of this Regulation, this will be
the pressure corresponding to the transmitted digital demand value in the electric
control line, according to ISO 11992:2003.
Vehicles equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. of this Regulation (with both pneumatic
and electric control lines) shall satisfy the requirements of the diagrams related to both control
lines. However, identical braking characteristic curves related to both control lines are not
required.

2. SYMBOLS
i = axle index (i = 1, front axle; i = 2, second axle; etc.)
P = normal reaction of road surface on axle i under static conditions
N = normal reaction of road surface on axle i under braking
T = force exerted by the brakes on axle i under normal braking conditions on the road
f = T /N , adhesion utilised by axle i
J = deceleration of vehicle
g = acceleration due to gravity: g = 9.81 m/s
z = braking rate of vehicle = J/g
P = mass of vehicle
h
=
height above ground of centre of gravity specified by the manufacturer and agreed
by the Technical Services conducting the approval test
E = wheelbase
k = theoretical coefficient of adhesion between tyre and road
K = correction factor: semi-trailer laden
K = correction factor: semi-trailer unladen
T =
P
sum of braking forces at the periphery of all wheels of towing vehicles for trailers
= total normal static reaction of road surface on wheels of towing vehicles for
trailers

3.1.2.3. For all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30 in the case of vehicles of other categories;
This condition is also considered satisfied if, for braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the
adhesion utilisation curves for each axle are situated between two lines parallel to the line of
ideal adhesion utilisation given by the equation k = z ± 0.08 as shown in Diagram 1B of this
Annex and the adhesion utilisation curve for the rear axle for braking rates z ≥ 0.3 complies
with the relation
z ≥ 0.3 + 0.74 (k - 0.38).
3.1.3. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorised to tow trailers of Category O or O fitted with
compressed-air braking systems.
3.1.3.1. When tested with the energy source stopped, the supply line blocked off, a reservoir of
0.5 litre capacity connected to the pneumatic control line, and the system at cut-in and cut-out
pressures, the pressure at full application of the braking control shall be between 650 and
850 kPa at the coupling heads of the supply line and the pneumatic control line, irrespective
of the load condition of the vehicle.
3.1.3.2. For vehicles equipped with an electric control line; a full application of the control of the
service braking system shall provide a digital demand value corresponding to a pressure
between 650 and 850 kPa (see ISO 11992:2003).
3.1.3.3. These values shall be demonstrably present in the power-driven vehicle when uncoupled
from the trailer. The compatibility bands in the diagrams specified in Paragraphs 3.1.5.,
3.1.6., 4.1., 5.1. and 5.2. of this Annex, should not be extended beyond 750 kPa and/or the
corresponding digital demand value (see ISO 11992:2003).
3.1.3.4. It shall be ensured that at the coupling head of the supply line, a pressure of at least 700 kPa
is available when the system is at cut-in pressure. This pressure shall be demonstrated
without applying the service brakes.
3.1.4. Verification of the requirements of Paragraphs 3.1.1. and 3.1.2.
3.1.4.1. In order to verify the requirements of Paragraphs 3.1.1. and 3.1.2. of this Annex, the
manufacturer shall provide the adhesion utilisation curves for the front and rear axles
calculated by the formulae:
f
T
=
N
=
P
T
h
+ z ⋅ ⋅ P ⋅ g
E
f
T
=
N
=
P
T
h
− z ⋅ ⋅ P ⋅ g
E
The curves shall be plotted for both the following load conditions:
3.1.4.1.1. Unladen, in running order with the driver on board; in the case of a vehicle presented as a
chassis-cab, a supplementary load may be added to simulate the mass of the body, not
exceeding the minimum mass declared by the manufacturer in Annex 2 to this Regulation,

3.1.6. Tractors for Semi-trailers
3.1.6.1. Tractors with unladen semi-trailer. An unladen combination is understood to be a tractor in
running order, with the driver on board, coupled to an unladen semi-trailer. The dynamic load
of the semi-trailer on the tractor shall be represented by a static mass P mounted at the fifth
wheel coupling equal to 15% of the maximum mass on the coupling. The braking forces shall
continue to be regulated between the state of the "tractor with unladen semi-trailer" and that
of the "tractor alone"; the braking forces relating to the "tractor alone" shall be verified.
3.1.6.2. Tractors with laden semi-trailer. A laden combination is understood to be a tractor in running
order, with the driver on board, coupled to a laden semi-trailer. The dynamic load of the
semi-trailer on the tractor shall be represented by a static mass P mounted at the fifth wheel
coupling equal to:
where:
P = P (1 + 0.45z)
P represents the difference between the maximum laden mass of the tractor and its
unladen mass.
For h the following value shall be taken:
h
h =
⋅ P
+ h
P
⋅ P
where:
h
h
P
is the height of the centre of gravity of the tractor;
is the height of the coupling on which the semi-trailer rests;
is the unladen mass of the tractor alone
and:
P = P
+ P
P
=
+ P
g
3.1.6.3. In the case of a vehicle fitted with a compressed-air braking system, the permissible
relationship between the braking rate T /P and the pressure p shall be within the areas
shown on Diagram 3 of this Annex for all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa.
3.2. Vehicles with More Than Two Axles.
The requirements of Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex shall apply to vehicles with more than
two axles. The requirements of Paragraph 3.1.2. of this Annex with respect to wheel lock
sequence shall be considered to be met if, in the case of braking rates between 0.15 and
0.30, the adhesion utilised by at least one of the front axles is greater than that utilised by at
least one of the rear axles.

5.2. For Centre-axle Trailers Fitted with Compressed-air Braking Systems:
5.2.1. The permissible relationship between the braking rate T /P and the pressure p shall lie
within two areas derived from Diagram 2 of this Annex, by multiplying the vertical scale by
0.95. This requirement shall be met at all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa, in both the
laden and unladen states of load.
5.2.2. If the requirements of Paragraph 3.1.2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation cannot be satisfied
due to lack of adhesion, then the centre-axle trailer shall be fitted with an anti-lock system
complying with Annex 13 to this Regulation.
6. REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET IN CASE OF FAILURE OF THE BRAKING DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
When the requirements of this Annex are fulfilled by means of a special device
(e.g. controlled mechanically by the suspension of the vehicle), it shall be possible, in the
event of the failure of its control, to stop the vehicle under the conditions specified for
secondary braking in the case of power-driven vehicles; for those power-driven vehicles
authorised to tow a trailer fitted with compressed-air braking systems, it shall be possible to
achieve a pressure at the coupling head of the control line within the range specified in
Paragraph 3.1.3. of this Annex. In the event of failure of the control of the device on trailers, a
service braking performance of at least 30% of that prescribed for the vehicle in question shall
be attained.
7. MARKINGS
7.1. Vehicles, which meet the requirements of this Annex by means of a device mechanically
controlled by the suspension of the vehicle, shall be marked to show the useful travel of the
device between the positions corresponding to vehicle unladen and laden states, respectively,
and any further information to enable the setting of the device to be checked.
7.1.1. When a brake load sensing device is controlled via the suspension of the vehicle by any other
means, the vehicle shall be marked with information to enable the setting of the device to be
checked.
7.2. When the requirements of this Annex are met by means of a device which modulates the air
pressure in the brake transmission, the vehicle shall be marked to show the axle loads at the
ground, the nominal outlet pressures of the device and an inlet pressure of not less than 80%
of the maximum design inlet pressure, as declared by the vehicle manufacturer, for the
following states of load:
7.2.1. Technically permissible maximum axle load for the axle(s) which control(s) the device;
7.2.2. Axle load(s) corresponding to the unladen mass of the vehicle in running order as stated in
Paragraph 13 of Annex 2 to this Regulation;
7.2.3. The axle load(s) approximating to the vehicle with proposed bodywork in running order where
the axle load(s) mentioned in Paragraph 7.2.2. of this Annex relate(s) to the vehicle chassis
with cab;
7.2.4. The axle load(s) designated by the manufacturer to enable the setting of the device to be
checked in service if this is (these are) different from the loads specified in Paragraphs 7.2.1.
to 7.2.3. of this Annex.

Diagram 1B
Vehicles other than those of Category N and Full Trailers
(see Paragraphs 3.1.2.3. and 5.1.1.2. of this Annex)
Note:
The lower limit k = z - 0.08 is not applicable for the adhesion utilisation of the rear axle.

Diagram 2
Towing Vehicles and Trailers
(except tractors for semi-trailers and semi-trailers)
(see-Paragraph 3.1.5.1. of this Annex)
Note:
The relationships required by the diagram shall apply progressively for intermediate states of
loading between the laden and the unladen states and shall be achieved by automatic
means.

Diagram 4A
Semi -Trailers
(see Paragraph 4 of this Annex)
Note:
The relation between the braking rate T /P and the control line pressure for the laden and
unladen conditions is determined as follows:
The factors K (laden), K (unladen) are obtained by reference to Diagram 4B. To determine
the areas corresponding to the laden and unladen conditions, the values of the ordinates of
the upper and lower limits of the hatched area in Diagram 4A are multiplied by the factors K
and K respectively.

EXPLANATORY NOTE ON THE USE OF DIAGRAM 4B
1. Formula from which Diagram 4B is derived:
⎡ 0.7 P
K = ⎢1.7

⎣ P




⎢1.35

⎢⎣
0.96
E

⎜1.0
+

g . P ⎞⎤
⎟⎥
P ⎠⎥⎦



⎤ h − 1.0
⎥ ⎢
⎦ ⎣ 2.5
⎡ ⎤
( h − 1.2) ⎟ − 1.0 −
⎥ ⎦
P
P
2. Description of method of use with practical example.
2.1. The broken lines shown on Diagram 4B refer to the determination of the factors K and K for
the following vehicle, where:
Laden
Unladen
P 24 t (240 kN) 4.2 t (42 kN)
P 150 kN 30 kN
P 150 kN 150 kN
h 1.8 m 1.4 m
E 6.0 m 6.0 m
In the following Paragraphs the figures in parentheses relate only to the vehicle being used
for the purpose of illustrating the method of using Diagram 4B.
2.2. Calculation of ratios
(a)
⎡g . P⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ P ⎦
laden (= 1.6)
(b)
⎡g . P⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ P ⎦
unladen (= 1.4)
(c)
⎡ P

⎣P



unladen (= 0.2)
2.3.
Determination of the correction factor when laden, K :
(a)
Start at the appropriate value of h (h = 1.8 m)
(b)
Move horizontally to the appropriate g · P/P line (g · P/P = 1.6)
(c)
Move vertically to the appropriate E line (E = 6.0 m)
(d)
Move horizontally to the K scale; K is the laden correction factor required (K = 1.04)

ANNEX 11
CASES IN WHICH TYPE-I AND/OR TYPE-II (OR TYPE-IIA) OR TYPE-III TESTS
DO NOT HAVE TO BE CARRIED OUT
1. Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests need not be performed on a vehicle
submitted for approval in the following cases:
1.1. The vehicle concerned is a power-driven vehicle or a trailer which, as regards tyres, braking
energy absorbed per axle, and mode of tyre fitting and brake assembly, is identical with
respect to braking with a power-driven vehicle or a trailer which:
1.1.1. Has passed the Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test; and
1.1.2. Has been approved, with regard to the braking energy absorbed, for mass per axle not lower
than that of the vehicle concerned.
1.2. The vehicle concerned is a power-driven vehicle or a trailer whose axle or axles are, as
regards tyres, braking energy absorbed per axle, and mode of tyre fitting and brake assembly,
identical with respect to braking with an axle or axles which have individually passed the
Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test for masses per axle not lower than that of
the vehicle concerned, provided that the braking energy absorbed per axle does not exceed
the energy absorbed per axle in the reference test or tests carried out on the individual axle.
1.3. The vehicle concerned is equipped with an endurance braking system, other than the engine
brake, identical with a endurance braking system already tested under the following
conditions:
1.3.1. The endurance braking system shall, by itself, in a test carried out on a gradient of at least 6%
(Type-II test) or of at least 7% (Type-IIA test), have stabilised a vehicle whose maximum
mass at the time of the test was not less than the maximum mass of the vehicle submitted for
approval;
1.3.2. It shall be verified in the above test that the rotational speed of the rotating parts of the
endurance braking system, when the vehicle submitted for approval reaches a road speed of
30 km/h, is such that the retarding torque is not less than that corresponding to the test
referred to in Paragraph 1.3.1. above.
1.4. The vehicle concerned is a trailer equipped with air operated S-cam or disc brakes which
satisfies the verification requirements of Appendix 2 to this Annex relative to the control of
characteristics compared to the characteristics given in a report of a reference axle test as
shown in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
2. The term "identical", as used in Paragraphs 1.1., 1.2. and 1.3. above, means identical as
regards the geometric and mechanical characteristics and the materials used for the
components of the vehicle referred to in those Paragraphs.

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 1
Table I
Axle 1
Axle 2
Axle 3
Axle 4
Mass per
axle
Axles of the vehicle
Braking
force
needed at
wheels
Speed
Mass per
axle
Reference axles
Braking
force
developed
at wheels
Speed
kg N km/h kg N km/h
Table II
Total mass of the vehicle submitted for approval................................................................................... kg
Braking force needed at wheels.............................................................................................................. N
Retarding torque needed at main shaft of endurance braking system ................................................ Nm
Retarding torque obtained at main shaft of endurance braking system (according to diagram) ......... Nm

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 2
ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES FOR TYPE-I AND TYPE-III TESTS FOR
TRAILER BRAKES
1. GENERAL
1.1. In accordance with Paragraph 1.4. of this Annex, the Type-I or Type-III test may be waived at
the time of type approval of the vehicle provided that the braking system components comply
with the requirements of this Appendix and that the resulting predicted braking performance
meets the requirements of this Regulation for the appropriate vehicle category.
1.2. Tests carried out in accordance with the methods detailed in this Appendix shall be deemed
to meet the above requirements.
1.2.1. Tests carried out according to with Paragraph 3.5.1. of this Appendix from and including
Supplement 7 to the 09 series of amendments, which were positive, are deemed to fulfil the
provisions of Paragraph 3.5.1. of this Appendix, as last amended. If use is made of this
alternative procedure, the test report shall make reference to the original test report from
which the test results are taken for the new updated report. However, new tests have to be
carried out to the requirements of the latest amended version of this Regulation.
1.3. Tests carried out in accordance with Paragraph 3.6. of this Appendix and the results reported
in Section 2 of Appendix 3 or Appendix 4 shall be acceptable as a means of proving
compliance with the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of this Regulation.
1.4. The adjustment of the brake(s) shall, prior to the Type-III test below, be set according to the
following procedures as appropriate:
1.4.1. In the case of air operated trailer brake(s), the adjustment of the brakes shall be such as to
enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the actuator
stroke shall be adjusted to:
s ≥ 1.1 × s
(the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the
manufacturer),
where:
s is the re-adjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of
the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. the stroke, where it starts to re-adjust
the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 100 kPa.
Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator
stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service.
From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 200 kPa,
50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator
pressure of ≥ 650 kPa.
1.4.2. In the case of hydraulically operated trailer disc brakes no setting requirements are deemed
necessary.

3. TEST METHODS
3.1. Track Tests
3.1.1. The brake performance tests should preferably be carried out on a single axle only.
3.1.2. The results of tests on a combination of axles may be used in accordance with Paragraph 1.1.
of this Annex provided that each axle contributes equal braking energy input during the drag
and hot brake tests.
3.1.2.1. This is ensured if the following are identical for each axle: braking geometry, lining, wheel
mounting, tyres, actuation and pressure distribution in the actuators.
3.1.2.2. The documented result for a combination of axles will be the average for the number of axles,
as though a single axle had been used.
3.1.3. The axle(s) should preferably be loaded with the maximum static axle load, though this is not
essential provided that due allowance is made during the tests for the difference in rolling
resistance caused by a different load on the test axle(s)
3.1.4. Allowance shall be made for the effect of the increased rolling resistance resulting from a
combination of vehicles being used to carry out the tests.

3.3. Rolling Road Dynamometer Tests
3.3.1. The axle should preferably be loaded with the maximum static axle mass though this is not
essential provided that due allowance is made during the tests for the difference in rolling
resistance caused by a different mass on the test axle.
3.3.2. Air cooling at a velocity and air flow direction simulating actual conditions may be used during
the heating runs, the speed of air flow being v = 0.33 v
where:
v = vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.
The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature.
3.3.3. The braking time shall be 1 second after a maximum build-up time of 0.6 second.
3.4. Test Conditions
3.4.1. The test brake(s) shall be instrumented so that the following measurements can be taken:
3.4.1.1. A continuous recording to enable the brake torque or force at the periphery of the tyre to be
determined.
3.4.1.2. A continuous recording of air pressure in the brake actuator.
3.4.1.3. Vehicle speed during the test.
3.4.1.4. Initial temperature on the outside of the brake drum or brake disc.
3.4.1.5. Brake actuator stroke used during Type-0 and Type-I or Type-III tests.
3.5. Test Procedures
3.5.1. Supplementary Cold Performance Test
The preparation of the brake shall be in accordance with Paragraph 4.4.2. of Annex 19 of this
Regulation.
In the case, that the verification of the brake factor B and brake threshold torque has been
carried out according to Paragraph 4.4.3. of Annex 19 of this Regulation, the bedding in
procedure for the supplementary cold performance test shall be identical with the procedure
used for the verification according to Paragraph 4.4.3. of Annex 19.
It is permissible to carry out the cold performance tests after the verification for the brake
factor B in accordance with Paragraph 4. of Annex 19 of this Regulation.
It is also permissible to carry out the two fade tests, Type-I and Type- III, one after the other.
Some brake applications according to Annex 19, Paragraph 4.4.2.6. may be done between
each of the fade tests, and between the verification and the cold performance tests. The
quantity of applications is to be declared by the brake manufacturer.

3.5.3.1.3. Rolling Road Dynamometer Test
For the bench test as in Annex 11. Appendix 2, Paragraph 3.3., the conditions shall be as
follows:
Number of brake applications
20
Duration of braking cycle
(braking time 25 s and recovery time 35 s)
60 s
Test speed
30 km/h
Braking rate
0.06
Rolling resistance
0.01
3.5.3.2. Not later than 60 seconds after the end of the Type-III test a hot performance test is carried
out in accordance with Paragraph 1.7.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. The brake actuator
pressure shall be that used during the Type-0 test.
3.6. Performance Requirements for Automatic Brake Adjustment Devices
3.6.1. The following requirements shall apply to an automatic brake adjustment device which is
installed on a brake, the performance of which is being verified according to the provisions of
this Appendix.
On completion of the tests defined in Paragraphs 3.5.2.4. (Type-I test) or 3.5.3.2. (Type-III
test) above, the requirements of Paragraph 3.6.3. below shall be verified.
3.6.2. The following requirements shall apply to an alternative automatic brake adjustment device
installed on a brake for which an Appendix 3 test report already exists.
3.6.2.1. Brake Performance
Following heating of the brake(s) carried out in accordance with the procedures defined in
Paragraphs 3.5.2. (Type-I test) or 3.5.3. (Type-III test), as appropriate, one of the following
provisions shall apply:
a) The hot performance of the service braking system shall be ≥ 80% of the prescribed
Type-0 performance; or
b) The brake shall be applied with a brake actuator pressure as used during the Type-0
test; at this pressure the total actuator stroke (s ) shall be measured and shall be
≤ 0.9 s value of the brake chamber.
s =
The effective stroke means the stroke at which the output thrust is 90% of the average
thrust (Th ) – see Paragraph 2 of Annex 11 – Appendix 2 to this Regulation.
3.6.2.2. On completion of the tests defined in Paragraph 3.6.2.1. above the requirements of
Paragraph 3.6.3. below shall be verified.

4. VERIFICATION
4.1. Verification of Components
The brake specification of the vehicle to be type approved shall be verified by satisfying each
of the following design criteria:
Item
4.1.1. (a) Brake drum cylindrical section
(b) Brake drum or brake disc material
(c) Brake drum or brake disc mass
4.1.2. (a) Proximity of wheel to outside surface
of brake drum or outside diameter
of brake disc (Dimension E)
(b) Part of brake drum or brake disc not
covered by wheel (Dimension F)
4.1.3. (a) Brake lining or brake pad material
(b) Brake lining or brake pad width
(c) Brake lining or brake pad thickness
(d) Brake lining or brake pad actual
surface area
(e) Brake lining or brake pad method of
attachment
4.1.4. Brake geometry (as in Figure 2A or 2B of
Appendix 3 as appropriate)
Criteria
No change allowed
No change allowed
May increase up to +20% from the reference drum or
disc mass
Tolerances to be determined by the Technical
Service conducting the tests
)
)
)
) No change allowed
)
)
No change allowed
4.1.5. Tyre rolling radius (R) May change subject to the requirements of
Paragraph 4.3.1.4. of this Appendix
4.1.6. (a) Average thrust (Th )
(b) Actuation stroke (s)
(c) Actuation lever length (l)
(d) Actuation pressure (p)
May change provided that the predicted performance
meets the requirements of Paragraph 4.3. of this
Appendix
4.1.7. Static mass (P) P shall not exceed P (see Paragraph 2)
4.2. Verification of Brake Energy Absorbed
4.2.1. The brake forces (T) for each subject brake (for the same control line pressure p ) necessary
to produce the drag force specified for both Type-I and Type-III test conditions shall not
exceed the values T as stated in Annex 11 - Appendix 3, Paragraphs 2.1. and 2.2., which
were taken as a basis for the test of the reference brake.

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 3
MODEL TEST REPORT FORM AS PRESCRIBED IN
PARAGRAPHS 3.7.1. AND 3.7.2. OF APPENDIX 2 TO THIS ANNEX
TEST REPORT NO. ...............................................
1. IDENTIFICATION
1.1. Axle:
1.2. Brake:
Manufacturer (name and address)
Make ......................................................................................................................................
Type ......................................................................................................................................
Model ......................................................................................................................................
Technically permissible axle load (P )................................................................................... daN
Manufacturer (name and address)
Make
......................................................................................................................................
Type
......................................................................................................................................
Model
......................................................................................................................................
Technically permissible brake input torque C
..........................................................................
Automatic adjustment device: integrated/non-integrated
Brake drum or brake disc :
Internal diameter of drum or outside diameter of disc ..............................................................
Effective radius .............................................................................................................................
Thickness ..................................................................................................................................
Mass .................................................................................................................................
Material .........................................................................................................................................
Brake lining or pad :
Manufacturer.................................................................................................................................
Type .................................................................................................................................
Identification (shall be visible when the lining/pad is mounted on the brake shoe/backing
plate).............................................................................................................................................
Width .................................................................................................................................
Thickness .................................................................................................................................
Surface area .................................................................................................................................
Method of attachment...................................................................................................................
Brake geometry, attach dimension drawing as follows:
Drum brakes see Figure 2A of this Appendix
Disc brakes see Figure 2B of this Appendix

2.2. In the case of vehicles of Category O :
Test type: 0 III
Annex 11, Appendix 2, Paragraph.: 3.5.1.2. 3.5.3.1. 3.5.3.2.
Test speed initial
km/h
final
km/h
Brake actuator pressure p
kPa
Number of brake applications

Duration of braking cycle
s
Brake force developed T
N
Brake efficiency T /9, 81P (P in kg)

Actuator stroke s
mm
Brake input torque
C
Nm
Brake input threshold torque C
Nm
2.3. This item is to be completed only when the brake has been subject to the test procedure
defined in Paragraph 4 of Annex 19 to this Regulation to verify the cold performance
characteristics of the brake by means of the brake factor (B ), where the brake factor is
defined as input to output amplification ratio of the brake.
2.3.1. Brake factor B : ............................................................................................................................
3. Performance of the automatic brake adjustment device (if applicable)
3.1. Free running according to Paragraph 3.6.3. of Annex 11, Appendix 2: yes/no
4. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Appendix 2 to
Annex 11 and where appropriate Paragraph 4, of Annex 19 to ECE Regulation No. 13, as last
amended by the ….. series of amendments.
60



20
60



60


Technical service
carrying out the test
Signed:....................................
Date:.....................................
5. Approval Authority
Signed:....................................
Date:.....................................
6. At the end of test defined in Paragraph 3.6 of Annex 11, Appendix 2, the requirements of
Paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of Regulation No. 13 were deemed to be fulfilled/not fulfilled
Signed:....................................
Date:.....................................

B
(mm)
D
(mm)
E
(mm)
F
(mm)
Re
(mm)
Figure 1B

le
(mm)
ee
(mm)
de
(mm)
xe
(mm)
re
(mm)
be
(mm)
Fe
(cm )
Figure 2B

2.1.2. Free running according to Paragraph 3.6.3. of Annex 11, Appendix 2: yes/no
3.
NAME OF TECHNICAL SERVICE/TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITY
CONDUCTING THE
TEST
4. DATE OF TEST:
5. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 11,
Appendix 2, Paragraph 3.6.2 to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the ….. series of
amendments.
6. At the end of test defined in Item 5 above the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of
Regulation No. 13 were deemed to be fulfilled/not fulfilled
7. Technical service carrying out the test
Signed:....................................
Date:.....................................
8. Approval Authority
Signed:....................................
Date:.....................................

2.1.7. Lengths: unit specified in each case.
2.2. Symbols valid for all types of brakes (see Figure 1 of Appendix 1 to this Annex)
2.2.1. G : Trailer's technically permissible "maximum mass" as declared by the manufacturer;
2.2.2.
G' :
Trailer's "maximum mass" capable of being braked by the control device, as declared
by the manufacturer;
2.2.3.
G :
Trailer's "maximum mass" capable of being braked by joint operation of all of the
trailer's brakes
G = n . G ;
2.2.4.
G
: Fraction of trailer's permissible "maximum mass" capable of being braked by one
brake, as declared by the manufacturer;
2.2.5. B*: Required braking force;
2.2.6. B: Required braking force taking account of rolling resistance;
2.2.7. D*: Permissible thrust on coupling;
2.2.8. D: Thrust on coupling;
2.2.9. P': Control device output force;
2.2.10.
K:
Supplementary force of control device, conventionally designated by the force D
corresponding to the point of intersection with the axis of the abscissae of the
extrapolated curve expressing P' in terms of D, measured with the device in the
mid-travel position (see Figures 2 and 3 of Appendix 1 to this Annex);
2.2.11.
K :
Force threshold of control device, i.e., the maximum thrust on the coupling head which
can be applied for a short period of time without generating an output force from the
control device. The Symbol K is conventionally applied to the force measured when
the coupling head begins to be pushed home at a speed of 10 to 15 mm/s, the control
device transmission being uncoupled;
2.2.12.
D :
The maximum force applied to the coupling head when it is being pushed home at a
speed of s mm/s ± 10%, the transmission being uncoupled;
2.2.13.
D :
The maximum force applied to the coupling head when it is being pulled at a speed of
s mm/s ± 10% out of the position of maximum compression, the transmission being
uncoupled;
2.2.14. η : Efficiency of inertia control device;
2.2.15. η : Efficiency of transmission system;
2.2.16. η : Overall efficiency of control device and transmission η = η . η ;
2.2.17. s: Travel of control in millimetres;

2.2.26.
M:
Maximum braking torque resulting from the maximum permissible travel s or the
maximum permissible fluid volume V when the trailer moves rearward (including rolling
resistance = 0.01·g·G
);
2.2.27. s: Maximum permissible travel at the brake control lever when the trailer moves rearward;
2.2.28.
V:
Maximum permissible fluid volume absorbed by one braking wheel when the trailer
moves rearward;
2.3. Symbols valid for mechanical-transmission braking systems (see Figure 5 of Appendix 1 to
this Annex);
2.3.1.
i
:
Reduction ratio between travel of coupling head and travel of lever at output side of
control device;
2.3.2.
i
:
Reduction ratio between travel of lever at output side of control device and travel of
brake lever (gearing down of transmission);
2.3.3. i : Reduction ratio between travel of coupling head and travel of brake lever
i = i .i
2.3.4.
i :
Reduction ratio between travel of brake lever and lift (application travel) at brake-shoe
centre (see Figure 4 of Appendix 1 to this Annex);
2.3.5. P: Force applied to the brake control lever; (see Figure 4 of Appendix 1 to this Annex);
2.3.6.
P :
Brake-retraction force when the trailer moves forward; i.e., in the graph of M = f(P), the
value of the force P at the point of intersection of the extrapolation of this function with
the abscissa (see Figure 6 of Appendix 1 to this Annex);
2.3.6.1.
P :
Brake-retraction force when the trailer moves rearward (see Figure 6 of Appendix 1 to
this Annex);
2.3.7. P*: Force applied to the brake control lever to produce the braking force B*;
2.3.8. P : Test force according to Paragraph 6.2.1;
2.3.9. ρ: Characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves forward as defined from:
M = ρ (P − P )
2.3.9.1. ρ : Characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves rearward as defined from:
M = ρ (P − P )

2.5.6. p _min: Pressure applied to the brake at which the overload protector is activated
(according to Paragraph 6.2.2.1);
2.5.7. p _max: Maximum hydraulic pressure (when the coupling head is pushed fully home) which
is applied by the overload protector to the brake actuator (according to
Paragraph 6.2.2.3);
2.5.8.
P
:
Minimum test brake force in the case when an overload protector is fitted
(according to Paragraph 6.2.2.2);
2.5.9.
p
:
Minimum test brake pressure in the case when an overload protector is fitted
(according to Paragraph 6.2.2.2)
3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1. The transmission of force from the coupling head to the trailer's brakes shall be effected
either by rod linkage or by one or more fluids. However, a sheathed cable (Bowden cable)
may provide part of the transmission; this part shall be as short as possible.
3.2. All bolts at joints shall be adequately protected. In addition, these joints shall be either
self-lubricating or readily accessible for lubrication.
3.3. Inertia braking devices shall be so arranged that in the case when the coupling head travels
to its fullest extent, no part of the transmission seizes, undergoes permanent distortion, or
breaks. This shall be checked by uncoupling the end of the transmission from the brake
control levers.
3.4. The inertia braking system shall allow the trailer to be reversed with the towing vehicle without
imposing a sustained drag force exceeding 0.08 g.G . Devices used for this purpose shall act
automatically and disengage automatically when the trailer moves forward.
3.5. Any special device incorporated for the purpose of Paragraph 3.4. of this Annex shall be such
that the parking performance when facing up a gradient shall not be adversely affected.
3.6. Inertia braking systems may incorporate overload protectors. They shall not be activated at a
force of less than D = 1.2·D* (when fitted at the control device) or at a force of less than
P = 1.2·P* or at a pressure of less than p = 1.2·p* (when fitted at the wheel brake) where
the force P* or the pressure p* corresponds to a braking force of B* = 0.5·g·G .
4. REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROL DEVICES
4.1. The sliding members of the control device shall be long enough to enable the full travel to be
used even when the trailer is coupled.
4.2. The sliding members must be protected by a bellows or some equivalent device. They shall
either be lubricated or be constructed of self-lubricating materials. The surfaces in frictional
contact shall be made of a material such that there is neither electrochemical torque nor any
mechanical incompatibility liable to cause the sliding members to seize.
4.3. The stress threshold (K ) of the control device shall be not less than 0.02g G' and not more
than 0.04 g G' .

5.4.3. The spare travel of the master cylinder s", as referred to in Paragraph 2.2.19. of this Annex.
5.4.4. Surface area F of the piston in the master cylinder.
5.4.5. Stroke s of the master cylinder (in millimetres).
5.4.6. Spare travel s" of the master cylinder (in millimetres).
5.5. In the case of inertia braking system on multi-axled trailers with pivoted drawbar, the loss of
travel s referred to in Paragraph 9.4.1. of this Annex should be measured.
6. REQUIREMENTS FOR BRAKES
6.1. In addition to the brakes to be checked, the manufacturer shall submit to the Technical
Service conducting the tests, drawings of the brakes showing the type, dimensions and
material of the essential components and the make and type of the linings. In the case of
hydraulic brakes, these drawings shall show the surface area F of the brake cylinders. The
manufacturer shall also specify the braking torque M* and the mass G defined in
Paragraph 2.2.4. of this Annex.
6.2. Testing Conditions
6.2.1. In the case when an overload protector is neither fitted nor intended to be fitted within the
inertia (overrun) braking system, the wheel brake shall be tested with the following test forces
or pressures:
P = 1.8 P* or p = 1.8 p* and M = 1.8 M* as appropriate.
6.2.2. In the case when an overload protector is fitted or intended to be fitted within the inertia
(overrun) braking system, the wheel brake shall be tested with the following test forces or
pressures:
6.2.2.1. The minimum design values for overload protector shall be specified by the manufacturer and
shall not be less than
P = 1.2 P* or p = 1.2 p*
6.2.2.2. The ranges of minimum test force P or minimum test pressure p and the minimum test
torque M are:
P = 1.1 to 1.2 P* or p = 1.1 to 1.2 p* and
M = 1.1 to 1.2 M*
6.2.2.3. The maximum values (P or p ) for the overload protector shall be specified by the
manufacturer and shall not be more than P or p respectively.

7.4.3.3. Maximum braking torque M up to the maximum permissible fluid volume V when the trailer
moves rearward (see Figure 7 of Appendix 1 to this Annex).
7.4.3.4. Maximum permissible fluid volume V absorbed by one braking wheel when the trailer moves
rearward (see Figure 7 of Appendix 1).
7.4.4. Surface area F of the piston in the brake cylinder.
7.5. Alternative Procedure for the Type-I Test
7.5.1. The Type-I test according to Annex 4, Paragraph 1.5 does not have to be carried out on a
vehicle submitted for type approval, if the braking system components are tested on an inertia
test bench to meet the prescriptions of Annex 4, Paragraphs 1.5.2 and 1.5.3.
7.5.2. The alternative procedure for the Type-I test shall be carried out in accordance with the
provisions laid down in Annex 11, Appendix 2, Paragraph 3.5.2 (in analogy also applicable for
disc brakes).
8. TEST REPORTS
Applications for the approval of trailers equipped with inertia braking systems shall be
accompanied by the test reports relating to the control device and the brakes and the test
report on the compatibility of the inertia type control device, the transmission device and the
brakes of the trailer, these reports including at least the particulars prescribed in
Appendices 2, 3, and 4 to this Annex.
9. COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN THE CONTROL DEVICE AND THE BRAKES OF A VEHICLE
9.1. A check shall be made on the vehicle to verify in the light of the characteristics of the control
device (Appendix 2), the characteristics of the brakes (Appendix 3), and the trailer
characteristics referred to in Paragraph 4 of Appendix 4 to this Annex, whether the trailer's
inertia braking system meets the prescribed requirements.
9.2. General Checks for All Types of Brakes
9.2.1. Any parts of the transmission not checked at the same time as the control device or the
brakes shall be checked on the vehicle. The results of the check shall be entered in
Appendix 4 to this Annex (e.g., i and η ).
9.2.2. Mass
9.2.2.1. The maximum mass G of the trailer shall not exceed the maximum mass G' for which the
control device is authorised.
9.2.2.2. The maximum mass G of the trailer shall not exceed the maximum mass G which can be
braked by joint operation of all of the trailer's brakes.
9.2.3. Forces
9.2.3.1. The force threshold K shall not be below 0.02 g·G and not above 0.04 g·G .
9.2.3.2. The maximum insertion force D may not exceed 0.10 g·G in trailers with rigid drawbar and
0.067 g·G in multi-axled trailers with pivoted drawbar.

9.4.3. The following inequalities shall be applied to check whether control travel is adequate;
9.4.3.1. In mechanical-transmission inertia braking systems:
i

s
s'
⋅ i
9.4.3.2. In hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems:
i
F

2s
s'
⋅ nF
⋅ i'
9.5. Additional Checks
9.5.1. In mechanical-transmission inertia braking systems a check shall be made to verify that the
rod linkage by which the forces are transmitted from the control device to the brakes is
correctly fitted.
9.5.2. In hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems a check shall be made to verify that the
travel of the master cylinder is not less than s/i . A lower level shall not be permitted.
9.5.3. The general behaviour of the vehicle when braking shall be the subject of a road test carried
out at different road speeds with different levels of brake effort and rates of
application. Self-excited, undamped oscillations shall not be permitted.
10. GENERAL COMMENTS
The above requirements apply to the most usual embodiments of mechanical-transmission or
hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems where, in particular, all of the trailer's wheels
are equipped with the same type of brake and the same type of tyre. For checking less usual
embodiments, the above requirements shall be adapted to the circumstances of the particular
case.

η
P' X
= ⋅
D − K
1
i
Figure 2
Mechanical-Transmission
(See Paragraphs 2.2.10. and 5.3.2. of this Annex)
η
Px
=
D − K
F

i
Figure 3
Hydraulic-Transmission
(See Paragraphs 2.2.10. and 5.4.2. of this Annex)

i
=
1 − 1'
2 − 2'
i
2
=
3


2'
3'
1.2 Control Device 1.3 Transmission 1.4 Brakes
Figure 5
Mechanical-Transmission Braking System
(See Paragraph 2.3. of this Annex)

Figure 8
Hydraulic-Transmission Braking System
(See Paragraph 2 of this Annex)

9.2.
Supplementary force K =........................................................................................................... N
9.3.
Maximum compressive force D =............................................................................................. N
9.4.
Maximum tractive force D = ..................................................................................................... N
9.5.
Force threshold K =.................................................................................................................. N
9.6.
Loss of travel and spare travel:
Where the position of the drawing device has an effect s
=.............................................. mm
With a hydraulic-transmission device s" = s" · i =........................................................... mm
9.7. Effective (useful) travel of control s' =..................................................................................... mm
9.8. An overload protector according to Paragraph 3.6 of this Annex is provided/not provided
9.8.1. If the overload protector is fitted before the transmission lever of the control device
9.8.1.1. Threshold force of the overload protector
D =........................................................................................................................................... N
9.8.1.2. Where the overload protector is mechanical
max. force which the inertia control device can develop
P' /i = P = ................................................................................................................... N
9.8.1.3. Where the overload protector is hydraulic
the pressure which the inertia control device can develop
p' /i = p = ............................................................................................................... N/cm
9.8.2. If the overload protector is fitted after the transmission lever of the control device
9.8.2.1. Threshold force on the overload protector
Where the overload protector is mechanical D .i =........................................................... N
Where the overload protector is hydraulic D .i = ................................................................ N
9.8.2.2. Where the overload protector is mechanical
max force which the inertia control device can develop
P' = P = ........................................................................................................................ N
9.8.2.3. Where the overload protector is hydraulic
the pressure which the inertia control device can develop
p' = p = .................................................................................................................. N/cm
10.
The control device described above complies/does not comply
with the requirements of
Paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 of this Annex.
Date ..............................................................................................................................................
Signature ......................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 12 - APPENDIX 3
TEST REPORT ON THE BRAKE
1. Manufacturer.................................................................................................................................
2. Make .............................................................................................................................................
3. Type..............................................................................................................................................
4. Permissible 'maximum mass' per wheel G =......................................................................... kg
5. Braking torque M* (as specified by the manufacturer according to Paragraph 2.2.23 of this
Annex) = ................................................................................................................................. Nm
6. Dynamic tyre rolling radius:
R = ............................... m; R = ................................................................................ m
7. Brief description
(List of plans and dimensioned drawings)
8. Diagram showing principle of brake
9. Test result:
Mechanical brake
Hydraulic brake
9.1.
Reduction ratio
9.1.A.
Reduction ratio
i =......................................
i' =.........................................
9.2. Lift (application travel) s = mm 9.2.A. Lift (application travel) s =.... m
9.3. Prescribed lift (prescribed.. 9.3.A. Prescribed lift (prescribed
(application travel) s = ..........mm application travel) s = mm
9.4.
Retraction force .................
9.4.A.
Retraction pressure
P = ....................................N
p = ................................. N/cm
9.5.
Coefficient (characteristic) .
9.5.A.
Coefficient (characteristic)
ρ =......................................m
ρ'=.......................................... m
9.6.
An overload protector according to
9.6.A.
An overload protector according to
Paragraph 3.6. of this Annex is/is not
Paragraph 3.6. of this Annex is/is
provided
not provided
9.6.1.
Braking torque activating the
9.6.1.A.
Braking torque activating the
overload protector
overload protector
M = .............................Nm
M =........................................... Nm

10. The above brake does/does not conform to the requirements of Paragraphs 3 and 6 of the
testing conditions for vehicles fitted with inertia braking systems described in this Annex.
The brake may/may not be used for an inertia braking system without an overload
protector.
Date ..............................................................................................................................................
Signature ......................................................................................................................................
11. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with relevant provisions
of Annex 12 to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the ….. series of amendments.
Technical Service
carrying out the test
Date ..............................................................................................................................................
Signature ......................................................................................................................................
12. Approval Authority
Date ..............................................................................................................................................
Signature ......................................................................................................................................

4.9. Required braking force B* = 0.50 g·G =................................................................................... N
4.10. Brake force B = 0.49 g·G = ...................................................................................................... N
5. COMPATIBILITY - TEST RESULTS
5.1. Force threshold 100 . K /(g.G )=..................................................................................................
(shall be between 2 and 4)
5.2. Maximum compressive force 100 . D /(g·G ) =............................................................................
(shall not exceed 10 for trailers with rigid drawbar or 6.7 for multi-axled trailers with pivoted
drawbar)
5.3. Maximum tractive force 100 . D /(g.G ) =.....................................................................................
(shall be between 10 and 50)
5.4. Technically permissible maximum mass for inertia control device
G' =.......................................................................................................................................... kg
(shall not be less than G )
5.5. Technically permissible maximum mass for all of trailer's brakes
G = n . G =............................................................................................................................ kg
(shall not be less than G )
5.6. Braking torque of the brakes
n . M*/(B . R) =..............................................................................................................................
(shall not be less than 1.0)
5.6.1.
An overload protector within the meaning of Paragraph 3.6. of this Annex is/is not
fitted on
the inertia control device/on the brakes
5.6.1.1. Where the overload protector is mechanical on the inertia control device
n . P*/(i . η . P' ) =................................................................................................................
(shall not be less than 1.2)
5.6.1.2. Where the overload protector is hydraulic on the inertia control device
p*/p' = .......................................................................................................................................
(shall not be less than 1.2)
5.6.1.3. If the overload protector is on the inertia control device:
threshold force D /D* =................................................................................................................
(shall not be less than 1.2)
5.6.1.4. If the overload protector is fitted on the brake:
threshold torque n . M /(B . R) = .................................................................................................
(shall not be less than 1.2)

5.8.6. Braking torque when the trailer moves rearward including rolling resistance
0.08·g·G ·R = ......................................................................................................................... Nm
(shall not be greater than: n · M )
6.
The inertia braking system described above complies/does not comply
with the
requirements of Paragraphs 3 to 9 of this Annex.
Signature ......................................................................................................................................
Date ..............................................................................................................................................
7. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with relevant provisions
of Annex 12 to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the ….. series of amendments.
Technical service
carrying out the test
Signature ......................................................................................................................................
Date ..............................................................................................................................................
8. Approval Authority
Signature ......................................................................................................................................
Date ..............................................................................................................................................

3. TYPES OF ANTI-LOCK SYSTEMS
3.1. A power-driven vehicle is deemed to be equipped with an anti-lock system within the meaning
of Paragraph 1 of Annex 10 to this Regulation, if one of the following systems is fitted:
3.1.1. Category 1 Anti-lock System
A vehicle equipped with a Category 1 anti-lock system shall meet all the relevant
requirements of this Annex.
3.1.2. Category 2 Anti-lock System
A vehicle equipped with a Category 2 anti-lock system shall meet all the relevant
requirements of this Annex, except those of Paragraph 5.3.5.
3.1.3. Category 3 Anti-lock System
A vehicle equipped with a Category 3 anti-lock system shall meet all the relevant
requirements of this Annex, except those of Paragraphs 5.3.4. and 5.3.5. On such vehicles,
any individual axle (or bogie) which does not include at least one directly controlled wheel
must fulfil the conditions of adhesion utilisation and the wheel-locking sequence of Annex 10
to this Regulation, with regard to the braking rate and the load respectively. These
requirements may be checked on high- and low-adhesion road surfaces (about 0.8 and
0.3 maximum) by modulating the service braking control force.
3.2. A trailer is deemed to be equipped with an anti-lock system within the meaning of
Paragraph 1 of Annex 10 to this Regulation when at least two wheels on opposite sides of the
vehicle are directly controlled and all remaining wheels are either directly or indirectly
controlled by the anti-lock system. In the case of full trailers, at least two wheels on one front
axle and two wheels on one rear axle are directly controlled with each of these axles having
at least one independent modulator and all remaining wheels are either directly or indirectly
controlled. In addition, the anti-lock equipped trailer shall meet one of the following
conditions:
3.2.1. Category A Anti-lock System
A trailer equipped with a Category A anti-lock system shall meet all the relevant requirements
of this Annex.
3.2.2. Category B Anti-lock System
A trailer equipped with a Category B anti-lock system shall meet all the relevant requirements
of this Annex, except Paragraph 6.3.2.

4.5.2. An optical warning signal shall inform the driver that the anti-lock system has been
disconnected or the control mode changed; the yellow anti-lock failure warning signal
specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. may be used for this purpose. The warning signal may
be constant or flashing;
4.5.3. The anti-lock system shall automatically be reconnected/returned to on-road mode when the
ignition (start) device is again set to the "ON" (run) position;
4.5.4. The vehicle user's handbook provided by the manufacturer should warn the driver of the
consequences of manual disconnection or mode change of the anti-lock system;
4.5.5. The device referred to in Paragraph 4.5. above may, in conjunction with the towing vehicle,
disconnect/change the control mode of the anti-lock system of the trailer. A separate device
for the trailer alone is not permitted.
4.6. Vehicles equipped with an integrated endurance braking system shall also be equipped with
an anti-lock braking system acting at least on the service brakes of the endurance braking
system's controlled axle and on the endurance braking system itself, and shall fulfil the
relevant requirements of this Annex.
5. SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES
5.1. Energy Consumption
Power-driven vehicles equipped with anti-lock systems must maintain their performance when
the service braking control device is fully applied for long periods. Compliance with this
requirement shall be verified by means of the following tests:
5.1.1. Test Procedure
5.1.1.1. The initial-energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the
manufacturer. This level shall be at least such as to ensure the efficiency prescribed for
service braking when the vehicle is laden.
The energy storage device(s) for pneumatic auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
5.1.1.2. From an initial speed of not less than 50 km/h, on a surface with a coefficient of adhesion of
0.3 or less , the brakes of the laden vehicle shall be fully applied for a time t, during which
time the energy consumed by the indirectly controlled wheels shall be taken into
consideration and all directly controlled wheels shall remain under control of the anti-lock
system.
5.1.1.3. The vehicle's engine shall then be stopped or the supply to the energy transmission storage
device(s) cut off.
5.1.1.4. The service braking control device shall then be fully actuated four times in succession with
the vehicle stationary.
5.1.1.5. When the control device is applied for the fifth time, it shall be possible to brake the vehicle
with at least the performance prescribed for secondary braking of the laden vehicle.

5.2.2. The adhesion utilisation ε shall be measured on road surfaces with a coefficient of adhesion
of 0.3 or less , and of about 0.8 (dry road), with an initial speed of 50 km/h. To eliminate the
effects of differential brake temperatures it is recommended that z be determined prior to
the determination of k.
5.2.3. The test procedure to determine the coefficient of adhesion (k) and the formulae for
calculation of the adhesion utilisation (ε) shall be those laid down in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
5.2.4. The utilisation of adhesion by the anti-lock system shall be checked on complete vehicles
equipped with anti-lock systems of Categories 1 or 2. In the case of vehicles equipped with
Category 3 anti-lock systems, only the axle(s) with at least one directly controlled wheel shall
satisfy this requirement.
5.2.5. The condition ε ≥ 0.75 shall be checked with the vehicle both laden and unladen.
The laden test on the high adhesion surface may be omitted if the prescribed force on the
control device does not achieve full cycling of the anti-lock system.
For the unladen test, the control force may be increased up to 100 daN if no cycling is
achieved with its full force value . If 100 daN is insufficient to make the system cycle, then
this test may be omitted. For air braking systems the air pressure may not be increased
above the cut-out pressure for the purpose of this test.
5.3. Additional Checks
The following additional checks shall be carried out, engine disconnected, with the vehicle
laden and unladen:
5.3.1. The wheels directly controlled by an anti-lock system shall not lock when the full force is
suddenly applied on the control device, on the road surfaces specified in Paragraph 5.2.2. of
this Annex, at an initial speed of 40 km/h and at a high initial speed as indicated on the table
below:
High-adhesion surface
Low-adhesion surface
Vehicle category
Maximum test speed
All categories except N , N laden
0.8 v
≤ 120 km/h
N , N laden
0.8 v
≤ 80 km/h
N
0.8 v
≤ 120 km/h
M , M , N except tractors for semi-trailers
0.8 v
≤ 80 km/h
N , and N tractors for semi-trailers
0.8 v
≤ 70 km/h

6. SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING TRAILERS
6.1. Energy Consumption
Trailers equipped with anti-lock systems shall be so designed that, even after the service
braking control device has been fully applied for some time, the vehicle retains sufficient
energy to bring it to a halt within a reasonable distance.
6.1.1. Compliance with the above requirement shall be checked by the procedure specified below,
with the vehicle unladen, on a straight and level road with a surface having a good coefficient
of adhesion and with the brakes adjusted as closely as possible and with the
proportioning/load-sensing valve (if fitted) held in the "laden" position throughout the test.
6.1.2. In the case of compressed-air braking systems, the initial energy level in the energy
transmission storage device(s) shall be equivalent to a pressure of 800 kPa at the coupling
head of the trailer's supply line.
6.1.3. With an initial vehicle speed of at least 30 km/h the brakes shall be fully applied for a time
t = 15 s, during which all wheels shall remain under control of the anti-lock system. During
this test, the supply to the energy transmission storage device(s) shall be cut off.
If the time t = 15 s cannot be completed in a single braking phase, further phases may be
used. During these phases no fresh energy shall be supplied to the energy transmission
storage device(s) and, as from the second phase, the additional energy consumption for filling
the actuators is to be taken into account, e.g. by the following test procedure.
The pressure in the reservoir(s) when starting the first phase is to be that stated in
Paragraph 6.1.2. of this Annex. At the beginning of the following phase(s) the pressure in the
reservoir(s) after application of the brakes shall be not less than the pressure in the
reservoir(s) at the end of the preceding phase.
At the subsequent phase(s), the only time to be taken into account is from the point at which
the pressure in the reservoir(s) is equal to that at the end of the preceding phase.
6.1.4. At the end of the braking, with the vehicle stationary, the service braking control device shall
be fully actuated four times. During the fifth application, the pressure in the operating circuit
shall be sufficient to provide a total braking force at the periphery of the wheels equal to not
less than 22.5% of the maximum stationary wheel load and without causing an automatic
application of any braking system not being under the control of the anti-lock system.
6.2. Utilisation of Adhesion
6.2.1. Braking systems equipped with an anti-lock system shall be deemed acceptable when the
condition ε ≥ 0.75 is satisfied, where ε represents the adhesion utilised, as defined in
Paragraph 2 of Appendix 2 to this Annex. This condition shall be verified with the vehicle
unladen, on a straight and level road with a surface having a good coefficient of
adhesion.

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 1
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
TABLE: SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
SYMBOL
E
E
ε
Wheelbase
NOTES
distance between king-pin and centre of axle or axles of semi-trailer (or distance between
drawbar coupling and centre of axle or axles of centre-axle trailer)
the adhesion utilised of the vehicle: quotient of the maximum braking rate with the
anti-lock system operative (z ) and the coefficient of adhesion (k)
ε the ε-value measured on axle i (in the case of a power-driven vehicle with a Category 3
anti-lock system)
ε
the ε-value on the high-adhesion surface
ε
F
F
the ε-value on the low-adhesion surface
force [N]
braking force of the trailer with the anti-lock system inoperative
F maximum value of F
F value of F with only axle i of the trailer braked
F
F
F
F
braking force of the trailer with the anti-lock system operative
total normal reaction of road surface on the unbraked and non-driven axles of the vehicle
combination under static conditions
total normal reaction of road surface on the unbraked and driven axles of the vehicle
combination under static conditions
normal reaction of road surface under dynamic conditions with the anti-lock system
operative
F F on axle i in case of power-driven vehicles or full trailers
F
F
normal reaction of road surface on axle i under static conditions
total normal static reaction of road surface on all wheels of power-driven (towing) vehicle
F total normal static reaction of road surface on the unbraked and non-driven axles of the
power-driven vehicle
F total normal static reaction of road surface on the unbraked and driven axles of the powerdriven
vehicle

SYMBOL
TABLE: SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
NOTES
z braking rate z of the vehicle combination, with the trailer only braked and the anti-lock
system operative
z maximum value of z
z maximum value of z with only axle i of the trailer braked
z
mean braking rate
z maximum value of z
z z of the power-driven vehicle on a "split surface"
z
braking rate z of the trailer with the anti-lock system inoperative
z z of the trailer obtained by braking all the axles, the towing vehicle unbraked and its
engine disengaged
z z on the surface with the high coefficient of adhesion
z z on the surface with the low coefficient of adhesion
z z on the split-surface
z z on the surface with the high coefficient of adhesion
z z on the surface with the low coefficient of adhesion
z maximum value of z
z maximum value of z
z maximum value of z

1.1.8. For example, in the case of a two-axle rear-wheel drive vehicle, with the front axle (1) being
braked, the coefficient of adhesion (k) is given by:
k
z ⋅ P ⋅ g − 0.015 ⋅ F
=
h
F + ⋅ z ⋅ P ⋅ g
E
1.1.9. One coefficient will be determined for the front axle k and one for the rear axle k .
1.2. Determination of the Adhesion Utilised (ε)
1.2.1. The adhesion utilised (ε) is defined as the quotient of the maximum braking rate with the
anti-lock system operative (z ) and the coefficient of adhesion (k ) i.e.,
ε =
z
k
1.2.2. From an initial vehicle speed of 55 km/h, the maximum braking rate (z ) shall be measured
with full cycling of the anti-lock braking system and based on the average value of three tests,
as in Paragraph 1.1.3. of this Appendix, using the time taken for the speed to reduce from
45 km/h to 15 km/h, according to the following formula:
0.849
z =
t
1.2.3. The coefficient of adhesion k shall be determined by weighting with the dynamic axle loads.
k
k
=
⋅ F
+ k
P ⋅ g
⋅ F
where:
F
= F
h
+ ⋅ z
E
⋅ P ⋅ g
F
= F
h
− ⋅ z
E
⋅ P ⋅ g
1.2.4. The value of ε shall be rounded to two decimal places.
1.2.5. In the case of a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock system of Categories 1 or 2, the value of
z will be based on the whole vehicle, with the anti-lock system operative, and the adhesion
utilised (ε) is given by the same formula quoted in Paragraph 1.2.1. of this Appendix.

2.1.3. A number of tests at increments of line pressure shall be carried out to determine the
maximum braking rate of the vehicle combination (z ) with the trailer only braked. During
each test, a constant input force shall be maintained and the braking rate will be determined
by reference to the time taken (t) for the speed to reduce from 40 km/h to 20 km/h using the
formula:
2.1.3.1. Wheel lock may occur below 20 km/h.
0.566
z =
t
2.1.3.2.
Starting from the minimum measured value of t, called t
, then select three values of t
comprised within t
and 1.05 t
and calculate their arithmetical mean value t , then
calculate
0.566
z =
t
If it is demonstrated that for practical reasons the three values defined above cannot be
obtained, then the minimum time t may be utilised.
2.1.4. The adhesion utilised (ε) shall be calculated by means of the formula:
ε =
z
k
The k value has to be determined according to Paragraph 2.2.3. of this Appendix for full
trailers or Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix for semi-trailers respectively.
2.1.5. If ε > 1.00 the measurements of coefficients of adhesion shall be repeated. A tolerance of
10% is accepted.
2.1.6. The maximum braking rate (z ) shall be measured with full cycling of the anti-lock braking
system and the towing vehicle unbraked, based on the average value of three tests, as in
Paragraph 2.1.3. of this Appendix.
2.2. Full Trailers
2.2.1. The measurement of k (with the anti-lock system being disconnected, or inoperative, between
40 km/h and 20 km/h) will be performed for the front and the rear axles.
For one front axle i:
F
= z
(F
+ F
) − 0.01F
− 0.015 F
F
= F
+
z
(F
⋅ h
+ g ⋅ P ⋅ h
E
) − F
⋅ h
k
F
=
F

2.3.2.
The measurement of z
(with the anti-lock system operative) shall be carried out with all
wheels fitted.
F
= z
⋅ (F
+ F
) − F
F
= F
F

⋅ h
+ z
⋅ g ⋅ P ⋅ (h
E
− h
)
Z
F
=
F
z is to be determined on a surface with a high coefficient of adhesion and, for vehicles with
a Category A anti-lock system, also on a surface with a low coefficient of adhesion.

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 4
METHOD OF SELECTION OF THE LOW-ADHESION SURFACES
1. Details of the coefficient of adhesion of the surface selected, as defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.2.
of this Annex, shall be given to the Technical Service.
1.1. These data shall include a curve of the coefficient of adhesion versus slip (from 0 to 100%
slip) for a speed of approximately 40 km/h.
1.1.1. The maximum value of the curve will represent k and the value at 100% slip will represent
k .
1.1.2. The ratio R shall be determined as the quotient of the k and k
k
R =
k
1.1.3. The value of R shall be rounded to one decimal place.
1.1.4. The surface to be used shall have a ratio R between 1.0 and 2.0.
2. Prior to the tests, the Technical Service shall ensure that the selected surface meets the
specified requirements and shall be informed of the following:
(a) Test method to determine R,
(b) Type of vehicle (power-driven vehicle, trailer, . . .),
(c)
Axle load and tyres (different loads and different tyres have to be tested and the results
shown to the Technical Service which will decide if they are representative for the
vehicle to be approved).
2.1. The value of R shall be mentioned in the test report.
The calibration of the surface has to be carried out at least once a year with a representative
vehicle to verify the stability of R.

2.6. A dummy socket shall be provided for the plug.
2.7. A tell-tale shall be provided at the control device, lighting up at any brake application and
indicating the proper functioning of the trailer electrical braking system.
3. PERFORMANCE
3.1. Electrical braking systems shall respond at a deceleration of the tractor/trailer combination of
not more than 0.4 m/s .
3.2. The braking effect may commence with an initial braking force, which shall not be higher than
10% of the (sum of the) maximum stationary axle load(s) nor higher than 13% of the (sum of
the) stationary axle load(s) of the unladen trailer.
3.3. The braking forces may also be increased in steps. At higher levels of the braking forces than
those referred to in Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex these steps shall not be higher than 6% of
the (sum of the) maximum stationary axle load(s) nor higher than 8% of the (sum of the)
stationary axle load(s) of the unladen trailer.
However, in the case of single-axle trailers having a maximum mass not exceeding 1.5 t, the
first step shall not exceed 7% of the (sum of the) maximum stationary axle load(s) of the
trailer. An increase of 1% of this value is permitted for the subsequent steps (example: first
step 7%, second step 8%, third step 9%, etc; any further step should not exceed 10%). For
the purpose of these provisions a two-axle trailer having a wheelbase shorter than 1 m will be
considered as a single axle trailer.
3.4. The prescribed braking force of the trailer of at least 50% of the maximum total axle load shall
be attained - with maximum mass - in the case of a mean fully developed deceleration of the
tractor/trailer combination of not more than 5.9 m/s with single-axle trailers and of not more
than 5.6 m/s with multi-axle trailers. Trailers with close-coupled axles where the axle spread
is less than 1 m are also considered as single-axle trailers within the meaning of this
provision. Moreover, the limits as defined in the Appendix to this Annex shall be observed. If
the braking force is regulated in steps, they shall lie within the range shown in the Appendix to
this Annex.
3.5. The test shall be carried out with an initial speed of 60 km/h.
3.6. Automatic braking of the trailer shall be provided in accordance with the conditions of
Paragraph 5.2.2.9. of this Regulation. If this automatic braking action requires electrical
energy, a trailer braking force of at least 25% of the maximum total axle load shall be
achieved for at least 15 minutes to satisfy the abovementioned conditions.

ANNEX 15
INERTIA DYNAMOMETER TEST METHOD FOR BRAKE LININGS
1. GENERAL
1.1. The procedure described in this Annex may be applied in the event of a modification of
vehicle type resulting from the fitting of brake linings of another type to vehicles which have
been approved in accordance with this Regulation.
1.2. The alternative types of brake linings shall be checked by comparing their performance with
that obtained from the brake linings with which the vehicle was equipped at the time of
approval and conforming to the components identified in the relevant information document, a
model of which is given in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
1.3. The Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests may at its discretion require
comparison of the performance of the brake linings to be carried out in accordance with the
relevant provisions contained in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
1.4. Application for approval by comparison shall be made by the vehicle manufacturer or by his
duly accredited representative.
1.5. In the context of this Annex, "vehicle" shall mean the vehicle-type approved according to this
Regulation and for which it is requested that the comparison shall be considered satisfactory.
2. TEST EQUIPMENT
2.1. A dynamometer having the following characteristics shall be used for the tests:
2.1.1. It shall be capable of generating the inertia required by Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex, and
have the capacity to meet the requirements prescribed by Paragraphs 1.5., 1.6. and 1.7. of
Annex 4 to this Regulation with respect to Type-I, Type-II and Type-III tests.
2.1.2. The brakes fitted shall be identical with those of the original vehicle-type concerned.
2.1.3. Air cooling, if provided, shall be in accordance with Paragraph 3.4. of this Annex.
2.1.4. The instrumentation for the test shall be capable of providing at least the following data:
2.1.4.1. A continuous recording of disc or drum rotational speed;
2.1.4.2. Number of revolutions completed during a stop, to a resolution not greater than one eighth of
a revolution;
2.1.4.3. Stop time;
2.1.4.4. A continuous recording of the temperature measured in the centre of the path swept by the
lining or at mid-thickness of the disc or drum or lining;
2.1.4.5. A continuous recording of brake application control line pressure or force;
2.1.4.6. A continuous recording of brake output torque.

4.3. Type-0 Cold Performance Test
4.3.1. Three brake applications shall be made when the initial temperature is below 100° C. The
temperature shall be measured in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 2.1.4.4. of this
Annex.
4.3.2. In the case of brake linings intended for use on vehicles of Categories M , M and N, brake
applications shall be made from an initial rotational speed equivalent to that given in
Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation, and the brake shall be applied to achieve a
mean torque equivalent to the deceleration prescribed in that Paragraph. In addition, tests
shall also be carried out at several rotational speeds, the lowest being equivalent to 30% of
the maximum speed of the vehicle and the highest being equivalent to 80% of that speed.
4.3.3. In the case of brake linings intended for use on vehicles of Category O, brake applications
shall be made from an initial rotational speed equivalent to 60 km/h, and the brake shall be
applied to achieve a mean torque equivalent to that prescribed in Paragraph 3.1. of Annex 4
to this Regulation. A supplementary cold performance test from an initial rotational speed
equivalent to 40 km/h shall be carried out for comparison with the Type-I test results as
described in Paragraph 3.1.2.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.3.4. The mean braking torque recorded during the above cold performance tests on the linings
being tested for the purpose of comparison shall, for the same input measurement, be within
the test limits ± 15% of the mean braking torque recorded with the brake linings conforming to
the component identified in the relevant application for vehicle type approval.
4.4. Type-I Test (Fade Test)
4.4.1. With Repeated Braking
4.4.1.1. Brake linings for vehicles of Categories M , M and N shall be tested according to the
procedure given in Paragraph 1.5.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.4.2. With Continuous Braking
4.4.2.1. Brake linings for trailers (Category O) shall be tested in accordance with Paragraph 1.5.2. of
Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.4.3. Hot Performance
4.4.3.1. On completion of the tests required under Paragraphs 4.4.1. and 4.4.2. of this Annex, the hot
braking performance test specified in Paragraph 1.5.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation shall be
carried out.
4.4.3.2. The mean braking torque recorded during the above hot performance tests on the linings
being tested for the purpose of comparison shall, for the same input measurement, be within
the test limits ± 15% of the mean braking torque recorded with the brake linings conforming to
the component identified in the relevant application for vehicle type approval.

ANNEX 16 – (RESERVED)

3.2. Checking Procedure
3.2.1. Confirm that the manufacturer's/supplier's information document demonstrates compliance
with the provisions of ISO 11992 with respect to the physical layer, data link layer and
application layer.
3.2.2. Check the following, with the simulator connected to the motor vehicle via the ISO 7638
interface and whilst all trailer messages relevant to the interface are being transmitted:
3.2.2.1. Control line signalling:
3.2.2.1.1. The parameters defined in EBS 12 Byte 3 of ISO 11992-2:2003 shall be checked against
the specification of the vehicle as follows:
Control Line Signalling
Service braking demand generated from one electrical circuit 00
Service braking demand generated from two electrical circuits 01
EBS 12 Byte 3
Bits 1 − 2 Bits 5 − 6
Vehicle is not equipped with a pneumatic control line 00
Vehicle is equipped with a pneumatic control line 01
3.2.2.2. Service/Secondary brake demand:
3.2.2.2.1. The parameters defined in EBS 11 of ISO 11992-2:2003 shall be checked as follows:
Test condition
Service brake pedal and secondary brake control
released
Byte
Reference
Electric control
line signal value
3 − 4 0
Service brake pedal fully applied
3 − 4
33280 to 43520
(650 to 850 kPa)
Secondary brake fully applied
3 − 4
33280 to 43520
(650 to 850 kPa)
3.2.2.3. Failure warning:
3.2.2.3.1. Simulate a permanent failure in the communication line to Pin 6 of the ISO 7638 connector
and check that the yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. of this
Regulation is displayed.

4.1.5. Include a facility to measure brake system response time in accordance with
Paragraph 3.5.2. of Annex 6 to this Regulation.
4.2. Checking Procedure
4.2.1. Confirm that the manufacturer's/supplier's Information Document demonstrates
compliance with the provisions of ISO 11992:2003 with respect to the physical layer, data
link layer and application layer.
4.2.2. Check the following, with the simulator connected to the trailer via the ISO 7638 interface
and whilst all towing vehicle messages relevant to the interface are being transmitted:
4.2.2.1. Service brake system function:
4.2.2.1.1. The trailer response to the parameters defined in EBS 11 of ISO 11992-2:2003 shall be
checked as follows:
The pressure in the supply line at the start of each test shall be ≥ 700 kPa and the vehicle
shall be laden (the loading condition may be simulated for the purpose of this check).
4.2.2.1.1.1. For trailers equipped with pneumatic and electric control lines:
both control lines shall be connected
both control lines shall be signalled simultaneously
the simulator shall transmit message Byte 3, Bits 5 − 6
of EBS 12 set to 01 to indicate to the trailer that a pneumatic control line should be
connected
Parameters to be checked:
Message Transmitted
by the Simulator
Byte
Reference
Digital
Demand value
3 − 4 0 0 kPa
3 − 4 33280
(650 kPa)
Pressure at the Brake Chambers
As defined in the vehicle manufacturer's brake calculation
4.2.2.1.1.2. Trailers equipped with pneumatic and electric control lines or an electric control line only:
Only the electric control line shall be connected
The simulator shall transmit the following messages:
Byte 3, Bits 5 − 6 of EBS 12 set to 00 to indicate to the trailer that a pneumatic control line
is not available, and Byte 3, Bits 1 − 2 of EBS 12 set to 01 to indicate to the trailer that the
electric control line signal is generated from two electric circuits.

The following shall be checked:
Test condition
With no faults present in the
trailer braking system
Introduce a failure in the electric
control transmission of the trailer
braking system that prevents at
least 30% of the prescribed
braking performance from being
maintained
Braking system response
Check that the braking system is communicating with
the simulator and that Byte 4, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 is
set to 00 .
Check that Byte 4, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 is set to 01
Or
The data communications to the simulator has been
terminated
4.2.2.2. Failure Warning
4.2.2.2.1. Check that the appropriate warning message or signal is transmitted under the following
conditions:
4.2.2.2.1.1. Where a permanent failure within the electric control transmission of the trailer braking
system which precludes the service braking performance being met, simulate such a
failure and check that Byte 2, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted by the trailer is set to 01 . A
signal should also be transmitted via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638 connector (yellow warning).
4.2.2.2.1.2. Reduce the voltage on Pins 1 and 2 of the ISO 7638 connector to below a value
nominated by the manufacturer which precludes the service braking system performance
from being fulfilled and check that Byte 2, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted by the trailer
are set to 01 . A signal should also be transmitted via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638 connector
(yellow warning).
4.2.2.2.1.3. Check compliance with the provisions of Paragraph 5.2.2.16. of this Regulation by
isolating the supply line. Reduce the pressure in the trailer pressure storage system to the
valve nominated by the manufacturer. Check that Byte 2, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted
by the trailer is set to 01 and that Byte 1, Bits 7 − 8 of EBS 23 is set to 00. A signal
should also be transmitted via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638 connector (yellow warning).
4.2.2.2.1.4. When the electrical part of the braking equipment is first energised check that Byte 2,
Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted by the trailer is set to 01 . After the braking system has
checked that no defects that require identification by the red warning signal are present
the above message should be set to 00 .
4.2.2.3. Response Time Checking
4.2.2.3.1. Check that, with no faults present, the braking system response time requirements defined
in Paragraph 3.5.2. of Annex 6 to this Regulation are met.

ANNEX 18
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS TO BE APPLIED TO THE SAFETY ASPECTS
OF COMPLEX ELECTRONIC VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
This Annex defines the special requirements for documentation, fault strategy and verification
with respect to the safety aspects of Complex Electronic Vehicle Control Systems
(Paragraph 2.3 below) as far as this Regulation is concerned.
This Annex may also be called, by special Paragraphs in this Regulation, for safety related
functions which are controlled by electronic system(s).
This Annex does not specify the performance criteria for "The System" but covers the
methodology applied to the design process and the information which shall be disclosed to
the Technical Service, for Type Approval purposes.
This information shall show that "The System" respects, under normal and fault conditions, all
the appropriate performance requirements specified elsewhere in this Regulation.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Annex,
2.1. "Safety concept" is a description of the measures designed into the system, for example
within the electronic units, so as to address system integrity and thereby ensure safe
operation even in the event of an electrical failure.
The possibility of a fall-back to partial operation or even to a back-up system for vital vehicle
functions may be a part of the safety concept.
2.2. "Electronic control system" means a combination of units, designed to co-operate in the
production of the stated vehicle control function by electronic data processing.
Such systems, often controlled by software, are built from discrete functional components
such as sensors, electronic control units and actuators and connected by transmission
links. They may include mechanical, electro-pneumatic or electro-hydraulic elements.
"The System", referred to herein, is the one for which type approval is being sought.
2.3. "Complex electronic vehicle control systems" are those electronic control systems which
are subject to a hierarchy of control in which a controlled function may be over-ridden by a
higher level electronic control system/function.
A function which is over-ridden becomes part of the complex system.
2.4. "Higher-level control" systems/functions are those which employ additional processing
and/or sensing provisions to modify vehicle behaviour by commanding variations in the
normal function(s) of the vehicle control system.
This allows complex systems to automatically change their objectives with a priority which
depends on the sensed circumstances.

3.2.2. A list of all output variables which are controlled by "The System" shall be provided and an
indication given, in each case, of whether the control is direct or via another vehicle
system. The range of control (Paragraph 2.7) exercised on each such variable shall be
defined.
3.2.3. Limits defining the boundaries of functional operation (Paragraph 2.8) shall be stated where
appropriate to system performance.
3.3. System Layout and Schematics
3.3.1. Inventory of Components
A list shall be provided, collating all the units of "The System" and mentioning the other
vehicle systems which are needed to achieve the control function in question.
An outline schematic showing these units in combination, shall be provided with both the
equipment distribution and the interconnections made clear.
3.3.2. Functions of the Units
The function of each unit of "The System" shall be outlined and the signals linking it with other
units or with other vehicle systems shall be shown. This may be provided by a labelled block
diagram or other schematic, or by a description aided by such a diagram.
3.3.3. Interconnections
Interconnections within "The System" shall be shown by a circuit diagram for the electrical
transmission links, by an optical-fibre diagram for optical links, by a piping diagram for
pneumatic or hydraulic transmission equipment and by a simplified diagrammatic layout for
mechanical linkages.
3.3.4. Signal Flow and Priorities
There shall be a clear correspondence between these transmission links and the signals
carried between units.
Priorities of signals on multiplexed data paths shall be stated, wherever priority may be an
issue affecting performance or safety as far as this Regulation is concerned.
3.3.5. Identification of Units
Each unit shall be clearly and unambiguously identifiable (e.g. by marking for hardware and
marking or software output for software content) to provide corresponding hardware and
documentation association.
Where functions are combined within a single unit or indeed within a single computer, but
shown in multiple blocks in the block diagram for clarity and ease of explanation, only a single
hardware identification marking shall be used.
The manufacturer shall, by the use of this identification, affirm that the equipment supplied
conforms to the corresponding document.

3.4.4. The documentation shall be supported, by an analysis which shows, in overall terms, how the
system will behave on the occurrence of any one of those specified faults which will have a
bearing on vehicle control performance or safety.
This may be based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), a Fault Tree Analysis
(FTA) or any similar process appropriate to system safety considerations.
The chosen analytical approach(es) shall be established and maintained by the manufacturer
and shall be made open for inspection by the technical service at the time of the type
approval.
3.4.4.1. This documentation shall itemise the parameters being monitored and shall set out, for each
fault condition of the type defined in Paragraph 3.4.4 above, the warning signal to be given to
the driver and/or to service/technical inspection personnel.
4. VERIFICATION AND TEST
4.1. The functional operation of "The System", as laid out in the documents required in
Paragraph 3, shall be tested as follows:
4.1.1. Verification of the Function of "The System"
As the means of establishing the normal operational levels, verification of the performance of
the vehicle system under non-fault conditions shall be conducted against the manufacturer's
basic benchmark specification unless this is subject to a specified performance test as part of
the approval procedure of this or another Regulation.
4.1.2. Verification of the Safety Concept of Paragraph 3.4
The reaction of "The System" shall, at the discretion of the type approval authority, be
checked under the influence of a failure in any individual unit by applying corresponding
output signals to electrical units or mechanical elements in order to simulate the effects of
internal faults within the unit.
4.1.2.1. The verification results shall correspond with the documented summary of the failure analysis,
to a level of overall effect such that the safety concept and execution are confirmed as being
adequate.

2.2.3. For each pressure increment the corresponding average thrust (Th ) and the effective
stroke (s ) will be determined as per Appendix 7 of this Annex.
2.3. Verification
2.3.1. With reference to Appendix 1 of this Annex, Paragraphs 3.1., 3.2., 3.3. and 3.4., a minimum
of 6 samples are to be tested, with a verification report being issued, providing that the
requirements of Paragraphs 2.3.2., 2.3.3. and 2.3.4. below are satisfied.
2.3.2. With respect to the verification of average thrust (Th ) – f(p), a graph defining the
acceptable performance variation shall be constructed following the model shown in
Diagram 1, which is based on the manufacturers declared thrust to pressure relationship.
The manufacturer shall also define the category of trailer for which the brake chamber may
be used and the corresponding tolerance band applied.
2.3.3. It shall be verified that the pressure (p ) required to produce a pushrod stroke of 15 mm
from the zero datum position with a tolerance of ± 10 kPa by following one of the following
test procedures:
2.3.3.1. Utilizing the declared function of thrust (Th ) – f(p) the brake chamber threshold pressure
(p ) shall be calculated when Th = 0. It shall then be verified that when this threshold
pressure is applied a pushrod stroke as defined in Paragraph 2.3.3. above is produced.
2.3.3.2. The manufacturer shall declare the brake chamber threshold pressure (p ) and it shall be
verified that when this pressure is applied the pushrod stroke defined in Paragraph 2.3.3.
above is produced.
2.3.4. With respect to the verification of effective stroke (sp) – f(p), the measured value shall not
be less than –4% of the s characteristics at the manufacturer's declared pressure range.
This value shall be recorded and specified in Paragraph 3.3.1. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
Outside of this pressure range the tolerance may exceed –4%.
Diagram 1

3.3.2. The test results recorded shall be reported on a form, a model of which is shown in
Appendix 4 to this Annex, and shall be included with the verification report detailed within
Paragraph 3.4.
3.4. Verification Report:
3.4.1. The manufacturer's declared performance characteristics, verified by the test results
recorded in accordance with Paragraph 3.3.2., shall be reported on a form, a model of which
is shown in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
4. COLD PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR TRAILER BRAKES
4.1. General:
4.1.1. This procedure covers the testing of the "cold" performance characteristics of air operated
S cam and disc brakes fitted to trailers.
4.1.2. The performance characteristics declared by the manufacturer shall be used for all
calculations relating to the braking compatibility requirements of Annex 10 and to Type-0
cold service braking and parking braking performance requirements of Annex 20.
4.2. Brake Factor and Brake Threshold Torque
4.2.1. The preparation of the brake shall be in accordance with Paragraph 4.4.2. of this Annex.
4.2.2. The brake factor is the resultant amplification factor achieved through the friction forces
generated by the individual components comprising the brake assembly, and is expressed
as a ratio between the output torque and the input torque. This brake factor is denoted by
the Symbol B and shall be verified for each of the lining or pad materials specified in
Paragraph 4.3.1.3.
4.2.3. The brake threshold torque shall be expressed in a manner that remains valid for variations
of brake actuation and is denoted by the Symbol C .
4.2.4. The values of B shall remain valid for variations of the following parameters:
4.2.4.1. Mass per brake up to that defined in Paragraph 4.3.1.5.
4.2.4.2. Dimensions and characteristics of external components used to actuate the brake.
4.2.4.3. Wheel size/tyre dimensions.
4.3. Information Document
4.3.1. The brake manufacturer shall provide the Technical Service with at least the following
information:
4.3.1.1. A description of the brake type, model, size etc.
4.3.1.2. Details of the brake geometry

4.4.2.6. Make 20 brake applications from an initial speed of 60 km/h an input to the brake equal to
0.3 TR/Test Mass. The initial temperature at the lining/drum or pad/disc interface shall not
exceed 150° C before each brake application.
4.4.2.7. Carry out a performance check as follows:
4.4.2.7.1. Calculate the input torque to produce theoretical performance values equivalent to 0.2, 0.35
and 0.5 ± 0.05 TR/Test Mass.
4.4.2.7.2. Once the input torque value has been determined for each braking rate, this value shall
remain constant throughout each and subsequent brake applications (e.g. constant
pressure).
4.4.2.7.3. Make a brake application with each of the input torques determined in Paragraph 4.4.2.7.1.
from an initial speed of 60 km/h. The initial temperature at the lining/drum or pad/disc
interfaces shall not exceed 100° C before each application.
4.4.2.8. Repeat the procedures defined in Paragraphs 4.4.2.6. and 4.4.2.7.3. above, where
Paragraph 4.4.2.6. is optional, until the performance of five consecutive non monotonic
measurements at the 0.5 TR/(Test Mass) constant input value has stabilised within a
tolerance of minus 10% of the maximum value.
4.4.2.9. If the manufacturer can demonstrate by field test results, that the brake factor after this
bedding in state is different from the brake factor which has developed on the road,
additional conditioning is permissible.
The maximum brake temperature, measured at the lining/drum or pad/disc interface, during
this additional bedding in procedure shall not exceed 500° C in the case of drum brakes and
700° C in the case of disc brakes.
This field test shall be an endurance run with the same type and model of brake as that to
be recorded in the Annex 11, Appendix 3 report. The results of at least 3 tests in
accordance with Paragraph 4.4.3.4. of Annex 19 conducted under the conditions of the
laden Type-0 test, during the field test, shall be the basis for determining whether further
conditioning is permissible. The brake tests shall be documented as prescribed in
Appendix 8 of this Annex.
The details of any additional conditioning shall be recorded and appended to the brake
factor B in Paragraph 2.3.1. of Annex 11, Appendix 3, by specifying for instance the
following test parameters:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Brake actuator pressure, the brake input torque or the brake torque of the brake
application;
Speed at the beginning and the end of the brake application;
Time in the case of a constant speed;
Temperature at the beginning and the end of the brake application or the duration of
the brake cycle.
4.4.2.10. In the case of this procedure being carried out on an inertia dynamometer or rolling road,
unlimited use of cooling air is permitted.

4.5.1.9. The final speed v shall be determined in accordance with Annex 11, Appendix 2,
Paragraph 3.1.5.
4.5.1.10. The braking performance of the axle under test shall be determined by calculating the
deceleration determined from a direct measurement of velocity and distance between 0.8 v
and v , where v shall not be less than 0.1 v . This shall be deemed to be equivalent to the
mean fully developed deceleration (MFDD) as defined in Annex 4 above.
4.5.2. Inertia Dynamometer Test
4.5.2.1. The test shall be carried out on a single brake assembly.
4.5.2.2. The test machine shall be capable of generating the inertia required by Paragraph 4.5.2.5.
of this Annex.
4.5.2.3. The test machine shall be calibrated for speed and brake output torque within an accuracy
of 2%.
4.5.2.4. The instrumentation for the test shall be capable of providing at least the following data:
4.5.2.4.1. A continuous recording of brake application pressure or force.
4.5.2.4.2. A continuous recording of brake output torque.
4.5.2.4.3. A continuous recording of the temperature measured at the lining/drum or pad/disc
interface.
4.5.2.4.4. Speed during the test.

4.5.3. Rolling Road Test
4.5.3.1. The test will be carried out on single axle with one or two brakes.
4.5.3.2. The test machine shall have a calibrated means of imposing load to simulate the required
mass for the brake(s) to be tested.
4.5.3.3. The test machine shall be calibrated for speed and brake torque within an accuracy of 2%
taking into account the internal friction characteristics. The dynamic rolling radius of the tyre
(R) shall be determined by measuring the rotational speed of the rolling road and the
unbraked wheels of the axle under test at a speed equivalent to 60 km/h, and calculated by
the formula
R = R
n
n
where:
R = radius of the rolling road
n = rolling road (rotational) speed
n = rotational speed of the unbraked wheels of the axle
4.5.3.4. Cooling air at ambient temperature may be used, flowing at a velocity not exceeding 0.33 v
over the brake(s).
4.5.3.5. The brake(s) shall be closely adjusted at the start of the test.
4.5.3.6. The brake input for the purpose of calculating the brake threshold torque shall be
determined by gradually applying brake(s) until the onset of brake torque generation is
observed.
4.5.3.7. The brake performance shall be determined by measuring the brake force at the periphery
of the tyre calculated to braking rate, taking into account the rolling resistance. The rolling
resistance of the loaded axle will be determined by measuring the force at the periphery of
the tyre at a speed of 60 km/h.
The average brake output torque (M ) shall be based on the measured values between the
moment the application pressure/force reaches its asymptotic value from the onset of
pressure rise at the brake input device and when the energy input has reached the value
W that is defined in Paragraph 4.5.3.8.
4.5.3.8. For determining the braking rate an energy input W equivalent to the kinetic energy of the
corresponding mass for the brake under test when braked from 60 km/h to standstill, shall
be taken into account.
where:
W
= ∫ F ⋅ v ⋅ dt

5.3.1.4. Load sensing device: The utilisation of adhesion shall be determined with the load sensing
valve set to laden and unladen conditions. In all cases the requirements of Paragraph 2.7.
of Annex 13 to this Regulation shall apply.
5.3.1.5. Brake actuation: differentials in the level of actuation shall be recorded for evaluation during
the tests to determine the utilisation of adhesion. Results obtained from tests for one trailer
may be applied to other trailers of the same type.
5.3.2. For each type of trailer under test, documentation showing brake compatibility as defined in
Annex 10 to this Regulation (Diagrams 2 and 4) shall be made available to demonstrate
conformity.
5.3.3. For the purpose of the approval, semi-trailers and centre axle trailers shall be deemed to be
of the same vehicle type.
5.4. Test Schedule
5.4.1. The following tests shall be conducted by the Technical Service on the vehicle(s) defined in
Paragraph 5.3. of this Annex for each ABS configuration taking into consideration the
application list defined in Paragraph 2.1. of Appendix 5 to this Annex. However, worst case
cross referencing may eliminate certain tests. If worst case testing is actually used, this
should be stated in the test report.
5.4.1.1. Utilisation of adhesion - Tests shall be carried out according to the procedure defined in
Paragraph 6.2. of Annex 13 to this Regulation for each ABS configuration and trailer type,
as defined in the manufacturer's information document (see Paragraph 2.1. of Appendix 5 to
this Annex).
5.4.1.2. Energy consumption
5.4.1.2.1. Axle loading - The trailer(s) to be tested shall be loaded so that the axle load is
2 500 kg ± 200 kg or 35% ± 200 kg of the permissible static axle load whichever is the
lower.
5.4.1.2.2. It shall be ensured that "full-cycling" of the anti-lock braking system can be achieved
throughout the dynamic tests defined in Paragraph 6.1.3. of Annex 13 to this Regulation.
5.4.1.2.3. Energy consumption test - The test shall be carried out according to the procedure defined
in Paragraph 6.1. of Annex 13 to this Regulation for each ABS configuration.
5.4.1.2.4. To enable trailers submitted for approval to be checked for conformity to the anti-lock
energy consumption requirements (see Paragraph 6.1. of Annex 13), the following checks
shall be carried out:

5.4.1.5.1. When the axle bogie passes from a high adhesion surface (k ) to a low adhesion surface
(k ) where k ≥ 0.5 and k /k ≥ 2, with a control pressure at the coupling head of 650 kPa,
the directly controlled wheels shall not lock. The running speed and the instant of applying
the trailer brakes is so calculated that with the anti-lock braking system full cycling on the
high adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other being made at
approximately 80 km/h and at 40 km/h.
5.4.1.5.2. When the trailer passes from a low adhesion surface (k ) to a high adhesion surface (k )
where k ≥ 0.5 and k /k ≥ 2, with a control pressure at the coupling head of 650 kPa, the
pressure at the brake chambers shall rise to an appropriate high value within a reasonable
time and the trailer shall not deviate from its initial course. The running speed and the
instant of applying the brakes is so calculated that, with the anti-lock braking system full
cycling on the low adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other occurs at
approximately 50 km/h.
5.4.1.6. Documentation relating to the controller(s) shall be made available as required by
Paragraph 5.1.5. of the Regulation and Paragraph 4.1. of Annex 13 to this Regulation,
including Footnote .
5.5. Approval Report
5.5.1. An approval report shall be produced, the content of which is defined in Appendix 6 to this
Annex.

ANNEX 19 - APPENDIX 1
MODEL VERIFICATION REPORT FORM FOR DIAPHRAGM BRAKE CHAMBERS
Report No .......................
1. Identification
1.1.
Manufacturer: (Name and address)
1.2.
Make:
1.3.
Type:
1.4.
Part number:
2. Operating conditions:
2.1. Maximum working pressure:
3. Performance characteristics declared by the manufacturer:
3.1.
Maximum stroke (s
) at 6 500 kPa
3.2.
Average thrust (Th ) - f(p)
3.3.
Effective stroke (s ) - f(p)
3.3.1.
Pressure range over which the above effective stroke is valid: (see Paragraph 2.3.4. of
Annex 19)
3.4.
Pressure required to produce a push rod stroke of 15 mm (p ) based on Th – f(p) or declared
value.
4. Scope of application
The brake chamber may be used on trailers of Category O and O ................................ yes/no
The brake chamber may be used on trailers of Category O only ..................................... yes/no
5. Name of Technical Service/Approval Authority conducting the test: .........................................
6. Date of test: ...........................................................................................................................
7. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 19 to
Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the …. series of amendments.
:
Technical Service conducting the test
Signed .................................. Date: .....................................

ANNEX 19 - APPENDIX 2
MODEL REFERENCE RECORD OF TEST RESULTS
FOR DIAPHRAGM BRAKE CHAMBERS
Report No .......................
1. Record of test results for part number.................................
Pressure
p - (kPa)
Average thrust
Th - (N)
Effective stroke
s - (mm)

ANNEX 19 - APPENDIX 4
MODEL REFERENCE RECORD OF TEST RESULTS
FOR SPRING BRAKES
Report No .......................
1. Record of test results for part number.................................
Stroke
s - (mm)
Thrust
Th - (N)
Release pressure (at 10 mm stroke).............................
kPa

3.2. Controller(s)
General description and function
Identification (e.g. part number(s))
Safety aspects of controller(s)
Additional features (e.g. retarder control, automatic configuration, variable parameters,
diagnostics)
3.3. Modulator(s)
General description and function
Identification (e.g. part number(s))
Limitations (e.g. maximum delivery volumes to be controlled)
3.4. Electrical Equipment
Circuit diagram(s)
Powering methods
Warning lamp sequence(s)
3.5. Pneumatic Circuits
Braking schematics covering the ABS configurations as applied to the trailer types defined in
Paragraph 2.1. above.
Limitations on tube sizes and associated lengths that have an effect on system performance
(e.g. between modulator and brake chamber)
3.6. Electro Magnetic Compatibility
3.6.1. Documentation demonstrating compliance with the provisions of Paragraph 4.4. of Annex 13 to
this Regulation.

3.3.8. Functional checks of optional power connections:
3.3.9. Electro-magnetic compatibility
4. Limits of installation.
4.1. Relationship of tyre circumference to the resolution of the exciter:
4.2. Tolerance on tyre circumference between one axle and another fitted with the same exciter:
4.3. Suspension type:
4.4. Differential(s) in brake input torque within the trailer bogie:
4.5. Wheel base of full trailer:
4.6. Brake type:
4.7. Tube sizes and lengths
4.8. Load sensing device application:
4.9. Warning lamp sequence:
4.10. System configurations and applications that comply with the Category A requirements.
4.11. Other recommendations/limitations (e.g. location of sensors, modulator(s), lift axle(s), steering
axle(s)):
5. Date of test:
This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 19 to
Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the …. series of amendments.
Technical Service
conducting the test
Signed:............................... Date: .....................................
6. Approval Authority
Signed:............................... Date: .....................................
Attachment: Manufacturer's information document

SYMBOL
Th
TR
v
v
v
W
Z
Spring thrust of the spring brake
DEFINITION
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of trailer or semi-trailer
Rolling road linear speed
Initial speed, when braking starts
Speed at end of braking
Energy input, equivalent to the kinetic energy of the corresponding mass for the brake
under test when braked from 60 km/h to standstill
Braking rate of vehicle

1.6. Test vehicle data
Towing vehicle:
Identification − No. ...............................................................................................................
Load on each axle ................................................................................................................
Trailer:
Identification − No. ...............................................................................................................
Category:
O / O / O
full trailer / semi trailer / central axle trailer
Number of axles ...................................................................................................................
Tyres/rims:
.....................................................................................................................
Twin / single
Dynamic rolling radius R laden ............................................................................................
Load on each axle ................................................................................................................
2. TEST DATA AND RESULTS
2.1. Field test:
General description covering: distance travelled, time duration and location
......................................................................................................................................................
2.2.
Braking test:
2.2.1.
Test track information ..................................................................................................................
2.2.2.
Test procedure .............................................................................................................................
2.3. Test results:
Brake factor
Test 1 ...........................................................................................................................
Date of Test 1 ...............................................................................................................
Test 2 ...........................................................................................................................
Date of Test 2 ...............................................................................................................
Test 3 ...........................................................................................................................
Date of Test 3 ...............................................................................................................
Diagrams

3. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE TYPE-0 SERVICE
BRAKING COLD PERFORMANCE
3.1. To demonstrate compliance with the Type-0 service braking cold performance it shall be
verified, by calculation, that the "subject trailer" has sufficient brake force (TR) available to
achieve the prescribed service braking performance and that there is sufficient adhesion
available on a dry road surface (assumed to have a coefficient of adhesion of 0.8) to utilise
this brake force.
3.2. Verification
3.2.1. The requirements of Annex 4, Paragraph 1.2.7. and 3.1.2. (cold performance requirement
and achievement without wheel lock, deviation or abnormal vibration) are considered to be
satisfied by the subject trailer if it meets the verification criteria described in the following
Paragraphs, in both the laden and unladen conditions:
3.2.1.1. The wheelbase of the subject trailer shall not be less than 0.8 times the reference trailer
wheelbase.
3.2.1.2. Any difference in the brake input torque between one axle and another within a bogie of the
"subject trailer" shall not differ from that of the "reference trailer".
3.2.1.3. The number and arrangement of axles i.e. lifting, steering etc. of the "subject trailer" shall
not differ from that of the reference trailer.
3.2.1.4. The percentage distribution of the laden static axle load of the subject trailer shall not differ
from that of the reference trailer by more than 10%.
3.2.1.5. For semi trailers, a graph, in accordance with Appendix 2, shall be constructed and, from
this graph, it shall be verified that:
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (1) shall not be below Line (3)), and
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (2) shall not be below Line (3)).
3.2.1.6. For centre axle trailers, a graph, in accordance with Appendix 3, shall be constructed and,
from this graph, it shall be verified that:
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (1) shall not be below Line (3)), and
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (2) shall not be below Line (3)).
3.2.1.7. For full trailers, a graph, in accordance with Appendix 4, shall be constructed and, from this
graph, it shall be verified that:
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (1) shall not be below Line (2)), and
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (4) shall not be below Line (3)), and
TR ≥ TR (i.e. Line (6) shall not be below Line (5)).

4.2.2.2. In the case of centre axle trailers:
4.2.2.2.1. Facing uphill
N
⎛ tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜P
+
cosP
E



N
N =
i
4.2.2.2.2. Facing downhill
N
⎛ tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜P

cosP
E



N
N =
i
4.2.2.3. In the case of semi-trailers:
4.2.2.3.1. Facing uphill
N
⎛ P × E tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜P
− +
cosP
E
E



N
N =
i
4.2.2.3.2. Facing downhill
N
⎛ P × E tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜P
− −
cosP
E
E



N
N =
i
4.3. Verification
4.3.1. The parking brake performance of the trailer shall be verified using the following formulae:
⎛ ∑A


+ ∑B
P

+ 0.01⎟

× 100 ≥ 18%
and
⎛ ∑A


+ ∑B
P

+ 0.01
⎟ × 100 ≥ 18%


7. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE ANTI-LOCK BRAKING
PERFORMANCE
7.1. General
7.1.1. Testing of a trailer in accordance with Annex 13 to this Regulation may be waived at the
time of type approval of the trailer provided that the anti-lock braking system (ABS) complies
with the requirements of Annex 19 to this Regulation.
7.2. Verification
7.2.1. Verification of components and installation
The specification of the ABS installed on the trailer to be type approved shall be verified by
satisfying each of the following criteria:
7.2.1.1. (a) Sensor(s)
(b) Controller(s)
(c) Modulator(s)
Paragraph
7.2.1.2. Tube size(s) and lengths
(a) Reservoir supply to modulator(s)
Minimum inside diameter
Maximum overall length
(b) Modulator delivery to brake chambers
Inside diameter
Maximum overall length
CRITERIA
No change allowed
No change allowed
No change allowed
May be increased
May be reduced
No change allowed
May be reduced
7.2.1.3. Warning signal sequence No change allowed
7.2.1.4.
Differentials in brake input torque within a bogie
Only approved differentials (if any)
permitted
7.2.1.5. For other limitations refer to Paragraph 4 of the
test report as described in Appendix 6 of Annex 19
to this Regulation
7.3. Verification of Reservoir Capacity
Installation to be within the scope of
the limitations defined – No
deviations allowed
7.3.1. As the range of braking systems and auxiliary equipment used on trailers is diverse it is not
possible to have a table of recommended reservoir capacities. To verify that adequate
storage capacity is installed, testing may be conducted according to Paragraph 6.1. of
Annex 13 to this Regulation or by the procedure defined below:

8.1.3. Static Energy Consumption
8.1.3.1. The Technical Service shall verify that the subject trailer conforms to the requirements of
Annex 7 and Annex 8 as appropriate.
8.1.4. Service Brake Function
8.1.4.1. The Technical Service shall verify that there are no abnormal vibrations during braking.
8.1.5. Parking Brake Function
8.1.5.1. The Technical Service shall apply and release the park brake to ensure correct function.
8.1.6. Emergency/Automatic Braking Function
8.1.6.1. The Technical Service shall verify that the subject trailer complies with the requirements of
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. of this Regulation.
8.1.7. Vehicle and Component Identification Verification
8.1.7.1. The Technical Service shall check the subject trailer against the details contained in the
type approval certificate.
8.1.8. Additional Checks
8.1.8.1. The Technical Service may request additional checks to be carried out, if necessary.

LADEN
UNLADEN
h
h1.W1 + h2.W2 + h3.W3
=
P
h
h1.W1 + h4.W2 + h5.W4
=
P
NOTES:
(1) For flat bed type trailers, a maximum height of 4 m shall be used.
(2) For trailers where the exact centre of gravity height of the payload is not known, it shall be taken
as 0.3 times the inside dimensions of the body.
(3) For trailers with air suspension, the value of s shall be taken as zero.
(4) For semi-trailers and centre axle trailers, replace P with PR wherever it occurs.

ANNEX 20 - APPENDIX 3
VERIFICATION GRAPH FOR PARAGRAPH 3.2.1.6. - CENTRE AXLE TRAILERS
= TR
, when p = 650 kPa and supply line = 700 kPa.
= F
. 0.8 = TR
= 0.5. F = TR
where:
F
= F
( TR h ) + P g Z ( h − h )

E
( )
the value of z being calculated using the following formula:
NOTES:
F
z = 0.45 − 0.01



⎟ + 0.01
⎝ (P + 7000) g ⎠
(1) The value of 7 000 above represents the mass of a towing vehicle with no trailer attached.
(2) For the purpose of these calculations, closely spaced axles (having an axle spread of less than
2 m) may be treated as one axle.

ANNEX 20 - APPENDIX 5
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
SYMBOL
A T when T ≤ 0.8 N for front axles, or
0.8 N when T > 0.8 N for front axles
B T when T ≤ 0.8 N for rear axles, or
0.8 N when T > 0.8 N for rear axles
A T when T ≤ 0.8 N for front axles, or
0.8 N when T > 0.8 N for front axles
B T when T ≤ 0.8 N for rear axles, or
0.8 N when T > 0.8 N for rear axles
B
C
E
E
E
F
F
Brake factor
DEFINITION
Threshold camshaft input torque (minimum camshaft torque necessary to produce a
measurable brake torque)
Wheelbase
Distance between the coupling support leg or landing legs to the centre of the axle(s) of a
centre axle trailer or semi-trailer
Distance between king-pin and centre of axle or axles of semi-trailer
Force (N)
Total normal static reaction of road surface on front axle(s)
F Total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on front axle(s)
F
Total normal static reaction of road surface on rear axle(s)
F Total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on rear axle(s)
F
Total normal static reaction of road surface on all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer
F Total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer
g Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s )
h
h
h
i
i
i
l
n
Height above ground of centre of gravity
Height of fifth wheel coupling (king pin)
Height of centre of gravity of trailer
Axle index
Number of front axles
Number of rear axles
Lever length
Number of spring brake actuators per axle

SYMBOL
TR
TR
TR
TR
DEFINITION
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer at which the
limit of adhesion is reached
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the front axle(s) at which the limit of
adhesion is reached
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the rear axle(s) at which the limit of
adhesion is reached
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer required to
achieve the prescribed performance
TR
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the front axle(s) required to achieve the
prescribed performance
TR
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the rear axle(s) required to achieve the
prescribed performance
z
Braking rate of the vehicle combination, with the trailer only braked
cos P Cosine of angle subtended by slope of 18% and horizontal plane = 0.98418
tan P Tangent of angle subtended by slope of 18% and horizontal plane = 0.18
Braking - Vehicle Categories M, N and O.