Regulation No. 13-11

Name:Regulation No. 13-11
Description:Braking - Vehicle Categories M, N and O.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicles of Categories M, N and O with Regards to Braking.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1970-06-01
Amendment Level:11 Series, Supplement 14
Number of Pages:309
Vehicle Types:Bus, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Trailer
Subject Categories:Braking, Steering, Wheels and Tyres
Available on InterRegs.NET

Our online subscription service, offering immediate access to our extensive library of global vehicle regulations, standards and legislation. A fully searchable, accurate, user-friendly resource for consolidated regulations that are updated quickly and frequently.

Tell me more | Already a subscriber

Available on SelectRegs.com

Our fast and easy means of purchasing up-to-date global vehicle and component standards and regulations on a pay-as-you-go basis. Pay securely by credit card and your documents are delivered directly and immediately to your computer as PDF files.

Tell me more | Go straight to site

Keywords:

braking, vehicle, brake, system, test, annex, control, paragraph, trailer, axle, regulation, pressure, service, performance, type, requirements, vehicles, energy, appendix, device, case, line, force, maximum, brakes, equipped, function, speed, defined, electric, approval, manufacturer, trailers, tests, systems, mass, category, signal, prescribed, anti-lock, conditions, transmission, warning, failure, time, part, means, wheels, information, report

Text Extract:

All InterRegs documents are formatted as PDF files and contain the full text, tables, diagrams and illustrations of the original as issued by the national government authority. We do not re-word, summarise, cut or interpret the regulatory documents. They are consolidated, published in English, and updated on a regular basis. The following text extract indicates the scope of the document, but does not represent the actual PDF content.

E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.12/Rev.8/Amend.4
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
February 22, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 13-11
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M, N AND O WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
Incorporating:
11 series of amendments including Erratum
Date of Entry into Force: 11.07.08
Corr. 1 (French version only)
Corr. 2 of 17.09.09 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.06.09
Supplement 1 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Supplement 2 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09
Supplement 3 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 17.03.10
Corr. 3 to Revision 6 of the Regulation
Dated: 11.11.09
Supplement 4 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.12.10
Corr. 1 to Supplement 4 to the 11 series of amendments
Dated: 23.12.10
Supplement 5 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 30.01.11
Revision 7 of the Regulation
Date of Entry into Force: 04.08.11
Supplement 6 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11
Supplement 7 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11
Supplement 8 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.04.12
Supplement 9 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.11.12
Corr. 1 to Revision 7 of the Regulation
Dated: 13.03.13
Supplement 10 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.02.14
Supplement 11 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.10.14
Supplement 12 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.06.15
Supplement 13 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.10.15
Supplement 14 to the 11 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.02.17

REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions
REGULATION NO. 13-11
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF
CATEGORIES M, N AND O WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
3. Application for Approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications
6. Tests
Contents
7. Modification of Vehicle Type or Braking System and Extension of Approval
8. Conformity of Production (COP)
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10. Production Definitely Discontinued
11. Names and addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests and of
Type Approval Authorities
12. Transitional Provisions
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
– Braking Equipment, Devices, Methods and Conditions not Covered by this Regulation
– Communication
Appendix 1 – List of Vehicle Data for the Purpose of Regulation No. 90 Approvals
Appendix 2 – Type Approval Certificate concerning the Vehicle Braking
Equipment
Annex 3
Annex 4
– Arrangements of Approval Marks
– Braking Tests and Performance of Braking Systems
Appendix – Procedure for Monitoring the State of Battery Charge
Annex 5
– Additional provisions applicable to certain vehicles as specified in the ADR

Annex 14 –
Test Conditions for Trailers with Electrical Braking Systems
Appendix

Compatibility of the Braking Rate of the Trailer and the Mean Fully
Developed Deceleration of the Tractor/Trailer Combination (Trailer
Laden and Unladen)
Annex 15 –
Annex 16 –
Annex 17 –
Annex 18 –
Annex 19 –
Inertia Dynamometer Test Method for Brake Linings
Compatibility between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with Respect to ISO 11992 Data
Communications
Test Procedure to Assess the Functional Compatibility of Vehicles Equipped with Electric
Control Lines
Special Requirements to be Applied to the Safety Aspects of Complex Electronic Vehicle
Control Systems
Performance Testing of Braking System Components
Part 1:
Part 2:
Performance Testing of Trailer Braking Components
Performance Testing of Motor Vehicle Braking Components
Appendix 1 – Model Verification Report Form for Diaphragm Brake Chambers
Appendix 2

Model Reference Record of Test Results for Diaphragm Brake
Chambers
Appendix 3 – Model Verification Report Form for Spring Brakes
Appendix 4 – Model Reference Record of Test Results for Spring Brakes
Appendix 5 – Trailer Anti-lock Braking System Information Document
Appendix 6 – Trailer Anti-lock Braking System Test Report
Appendix 7 – Vehicle (Trailer) Stability Function Information Document
Appendix 8 – Vehicle (Trailer) Stability Function Test Report
Appendix 9 – Symbols and Definitions
Appendix 10

Field Test Documentation Form as Prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.2.9
to this Annex
Appendix 11 – Vehicle (Motor Vehicle) Stability Function Information Document
Appendix 12 – Vehicle (Motor Vehicle) Stability Function Test Report

1. SCOPE
REGULATION NO. 13-11
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF
CATEGORIES M, N AND O WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
1.1. This Regulation applies to vehicles of Categories M , M , N and O with regard to
braking .
1.2. This Regulation does not cover:
1.2.1. Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25km/h;
1.2.2. Trailers which may not be coupled to power-driven vehicles with a design speed
exceeding 25km/h;
1.2.3. Vehicles fitted for invalid drivers;
1.3. Subject to the applicable provisions of this Regulation, the equipment, devices, methods
and conditions enumerated in Annex 1 are not covered by this Regulation.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking;
2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential
respects as:
2.2.1. In the case of power-driven vehicle,
2.2.1.1. The vehicle category, (see Paragraph 1.1. above);
2.2.1.2. The maximum mass, as defined in Paragraph 2.16. below;
2.2.1.3. The distribution of mass among the axles;
2.2.1.4. The maximum design speed;
2.2.1.5. A different type of braking equipment, with more particular reference to the presence or
otherwise of equipment for braking a trailer, or any presence of an electric regenerative
braking system;
2.2.1.6. The number and arrangement of the axles;
2.2.1.7. The engine type;

2.6. "Brake" means the part in which the forces opposing the movement of the vehicle
develop. It may be a friction brake (when the forces are generated by friction between two
parts of the vehicle moving relatively to one another); an electrical brake (when the forces
are generated by electro-magnetic action between two parts of the vehicle moving
relatively to but not in contact with one another); a fluid brake (when the forces are
generated by the action of a fluid situated between two parts of the vehicle moving
relatively to one another); or an engine brake (when the forces are derived from an
artificial increase in the braking action, transmitted to the wheels, of the engine);
2.7. "Different types of braking systems" means systems which differ in such essential
respects as:
2.7.1. Components having different characteristics;
2.7.2. A component made of materials having different characteristics, or a component differing
in shape or size;
2.7.3. A different assembly of the components;
2.8. "Component of a braking system" means one of the individual parts which, when
assembled, constitute the braking system;
2.9. "Continuous braking" means the braking of a combination of vehicles through an
installation having the following characteristics:
2.9.1. A single control which the driver actuates progressively, by a single movement, from his
driving seat;
2.9.2. The energy used for braking the vehicles constituting the combination is furnished by the
same source (which may be the muscular energy of the driver);
2.9.3. The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the
constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions;
2.10. "Semi-continuous braking" means the braking of a combination of vehicles through an
installation having the following characteristics:
2.10.1. A single control which the driver actuates progressively, by a single movement, from his
driving seat;
2.10.2. The energy used for braking the vehicles constituting the combination is furnished by two
different sources (one of which may be the muscular energy of the driver);
2.10.3. The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the
constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions;
2.11. "Automatic braking" means braking of the trailer or trailers occurring automatically in the
event of separation of components of the combination of coupled vehicles, including such
separation through the breakage of a coupling, the effectiveness of the braking of the
remainder of the combination not being thereby destroyed;
2.12. "Inertia (or overrun) braking" means braking by utilising the forces generated by the
trailer's moving up on the towing vehicle;

2.21. "Electric regenerative braking" means a braking system which, during deceleration,
provides for the conversion of vehicle kinetic energy into electrical energy.
2.21.1. "Electric regenerative braking control" means a device which modulates the action of
the electric regenerative braking system.
2.21.2. "Electric regenerative braking system of Category A" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is not part of the service braking system.
2.21.3. "Electric regenerative braking systems of Category B" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is part of the service braking system.
2.21.4. "Electric state of charge" means the instantaneous ratio of electric quantity of energy
stored in the traction battery relative to the maximum quantity of electric energy which
could be stored in this battery.
2.21.5. "Traction battery" means an assembly of accumulators constituting the storage of energy
used for powering the traction motor(s) of the vehicle.
2.22. "Hydraulic braking system with stored energy" means a braking system where energy
is supplied by a hydraulic fluid under pressure, stored in one or more accumulators fed
from one or more pressure pumps, each fitted with a means of limiting the pressure to a
maximum value. This value shall be specified by the manufacturer;
2.23. "Simultaneous lockup of the front and rear wheels" refers to the condition when the
time interval between the first occurrence of lockup of the last (second) wheel on the rear
axle and the first occurrence of lockup on the last (second) wheel on the front axle is less
than 0.1s.
2.24. "Electric control line" means the electrical connection between two vehicles which
provides the braking control function to a towed vehicle within a combination. It comprises
the electrical wiring and connector and includes the parts for data communication and the
electrical energy supply for the trailer control transmission.
2.25. "Data communication" means the transfer of digital data under the rules of a protocol.
2.26. "Point-to-point" means a topology of a communication network with only two units. Each
unit has an integrated termination resistor for the communication line.
2.27. "Coupling force control" means a system/function to balance automatically the braking
rate of towing vehicle and trailer.
2.28. "Nominal value" definitions for braking reference performance are required to put a value
on the transfer function of the braking system, relating output to input for vehicles
individually and when used in combination.
2.28.1. "Nominal value" is defined, for a power-driven vehicle, as the characteristic which can be
demonstrated at Type Approval and which relates the braking rate of the vehicle on its
own to the level of the braking input variable.
2.28.2. "Nominal value" is defined, for a trailer, as the characteristic which can be demonstrated
at Type Approval and which relates the braking rate to the coupling head signal.

2.38. "Axle group" means multiple axles where the axle spread between one axle and its
adjacent axle is equal to or less than 2.0m. Where the axle spread between one axle and
its adjacent axle is greater than 2.0m, each individual axle shall be considered as an
independent axle group.
2.39. "Character of the vehicle" means a descriptive term for a vehicle – tractor for
semi-trailer, truck, bus, semi-trailer, full trailer, centre-axle trailer.
2.40. "Brake electric/electronic interface" means the part of a separable electrical/electronic
connection between the towing vehicle and the towed vehicle which is dedicated to the
braking system.
2.41. "Automated connector" means a system through which the electric and pneumatic
connection, between the towing vehicle and towed vehicle is made automatically without
direct intervention of a human operator.
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking shall be submitted by
the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the under-mentioned documents in triplicate and by the
following particulars:
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in Paragraph 2.2.
above. The numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and, in the case of
power-driven vehicles, the engine type shall be specified;
3.2.2. A list of the components, duly identified, constituting the braking system;
3.2.3. A diagram of assembled braking system and an indication of the position of its
components on the vehicle;
3.2.4. Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified.
3.3. A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the
Technical Service conducting the approval tests.
3.4. The Type Approval Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for
ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.

5. SPECIFICATIONS
5.1. General
5.1.1. Braking System
5.1.1.1. The braking system shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to enable the vehicle in
normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the
provisions of this Regulation.
5.1.1.2. In particular, the braking system shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be able
to resist the corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed.
5.1.1.3. Brake linings shall not contain asbestos.
5.1.1.4. The effectiveness of the braking systems, including the electric control line, shall not be
adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields. This shall be demonstrated by fulfilling
the technical requirements and respecting the transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10
by applying:
(a)
(b)
The 03 series of amendments for vehicles without a coupling system for charging
the rechargeable energy storage system (traction batteries).
The 04 series of amendments for vehicles with a coupling system for charging the
rechargeable energy storage system (traction batteries).
5.1.1.5. A failure detection signal may interrupt momentarily (<10ms) the demand signal in the
control transmission, provided that the braking performance is thereby not reduced.
5.1.2. Functions of the Braking System
The braking system defined in Paragraph 2.3. of this Regulation shall fulfil the following
functions:
5.1.2.1. Service Braking System
The service braking system shall make it possible to control the movement of the vehicle
and to halt it safely, speedily and effectively, whatever its speed and load, on any up or
down gradient. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able
to achieve this braking action from his driving seat without removing his hands from the
steering control.
5.1.2.2. Secondary Braking System
The secondary braking system shall make it possible to halt the vehicle within a
reasonable distance in the event of failure of the service braking system. It shall be
possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able to obtain this braking
action from his driving seat while keeping at least one hand on the steering control. For the
purposes of these provisions it is assumed that not more than one failure of the service
braking system can occur at one time.

5.1.3.4.3. When the electric control signal has exceeded the equivalent of 100kPa for more than 1s,
the trailer shall verify that a pneumatic signal is present; should no pneumatic signal be
present, the driver shall be warned from the trailer by the separate yellow warning signal
specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. below.
5.1.3.5. A trailer may be equipped as defined in Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3., provided that it can only be
operated in conjunction with a power-driven vehicle with an electric control line which
satisfies the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.18.2. In any other case, the trailer, when
electrically connected, shall automatically apply the brakes or remain braked. The driver
shall be warned by the separate yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.
5.1.3.6.
(a)
The electric control line shall conform to ISO 11992-1 and 11992-2:2003 including
its amendment 1:2007 and be a point-to-point type using:
(i)
(ii)
The seven pin connector according to ISO 7638-1 or 7638-2:2003, or
In the case of systems where the connection of the electric control line is
automated, the automated connector shall, as a minimum, provide the same
number of pins as the abovementioned ISO 7638 connector and meet the
requirements specified in Annex 22 to this Regulation.
(b)
(c)
The data contacts of the ISO 7638 connector shall be used to transfer information
exclusively for braking (including ABS) and running gear (steering, tyres and
suspension) functions as specified in ISO 11992-2:2003 including its Amd.1:2007
The braking functions have priority and shall be maintained in the normal and failed
modes. The transmission of running gear information shall not delay braking
functions.
The power supply, provided by the ISO 7638 connector, shall be used exclusively
for braking and running gear functions and that required for the transfer of trailer
related information not transmitted via the electric control line. However, in all cases
the provisions of Paragraph 5.2.2.18 of this Regulation shall apply The power
supply for all other functions shall use other measures.
5.1.3.6.1. The support of messages defined within ISO 11992-2:2003 including Amd.1:2007 is
specified within Annex 16 to this Regulation for the towing vehicle and trailer as
appropriate.
5.1.3.6.2. The functional compatibility of towing and towed vehicles equipped with electric control
lines as defined above shall be assessed at the time of type approval by checking that the
relevant provisions of ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007
Parts 1 and 2 are fulfilled. Annex 17 of this Regulation provides an example of tests that
may be used to perform this assessment.
5.1.3.6.3. When a power-driven vehicle is equipped with an electric control line and electrically
connected to a trailer equipped with an electric control line, a continuous failure (>40ms)
within the electric control line shall be detected in the power-driven vehicle and shall be
signalled to the driver by the yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2.,
when such vehicles are connected via the electric control line.

5.1.4.2.2. In a braking system which incorporates a pressure modulation device as referred to in
Paragraph 7.2. of Annex 10, located in the pressure line upstream and downstream of this
device at the closest accessible position. If this device is pneumatically controlled an
additional test connection is required to simulate the laden condition. Where no such
device is fitted, a single pressure test connection, equivalent to the downstream connector
mentioned above, shall be provided. These test connections shall be so located as to be
easily accessible from the ground or within the vehicle.
5.1.4.2.3. At the closest readily accessible position to the least favourably placed energy storage
device within the meaning of Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 7, Section A.
5.1.4.2.4. In each independent circuit of the braking system so it is possible to check the input and
output pressure of the complete transmission line.
5.1.4.2.5. The pressure test connections shall comply with Clause 4 of ISO Standard 3583:1984.
5.1.4.3. The accessibility of required pressure test connections shall not be obstructed by
modifications and assembly of accessories or the vehicle body.
5.1.4.4. It shall be possible to generate maximum braking forces under static conditions on a
rolling road or roller brake tester.
5.1.4.5. Data for braking systems:
5.1.4.5.1. The data of the compressed-air braking system for the functional and efficiency test shall
be specified at the vehicle in a visible position in indelible form, or made freely available in
another way (e.g. handbook, electronic data record).
5.1.4.5.2. For vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems at least the following data are
required:
Pneumatic characteristic data:
Compressor/unloader valve
Max. cut-out pressure
= ........... kPa
Four-circuit protection valve
Trailer control valve or relay
emergency valve, as appropriate
Minimum design pressure in the service
braking system for calculation
Min. cut-in pressure
= ........... kPa
Static closing pressure = ........................ kPa
Corresponding delivery pressure for a control
pressure of 150kPa = ............................. kPa
Brake cylinder type
Service / Parking
Maximum stroke s = ............. mm
Lever length = ........................... mm
Axle(s)
/ / /
Notes:

5.2. Characteristics of Braking Systems
5.2.1. Vehicles of Categories M , M and N
5.2.1.1. The set of braking systems with which a vehicle is equipped shall satisfy the requirements
laid down for service, secondary and parking braking systems.
5.2.1.2. The systems providing service, secondary and parking braking may have common
components so long as they fulfil the following conditions:
5.2.1.2.1. There shall be at least two controls, independent of each other and readily accessible to
the driver from his normal driving position.
For all categories of vehicles, except M and M , every brake control (excluding an
endurance braking system control) shall be designed such that it returns to the fully off
position when released. This requirement shall not apply to a parking brake control (or that
part of a combined control) when it is mechanically locked in an applied position;
5.2.1.2.2. The control of the service braking system shall be independent of the control of the
parking braking system;
5.2.1.2.3. If the service braking system and the secondary braking system have the same control,
the effectiveness of the linkage between that control and the different components of the
transmission systems shall not be liable to diminish after a certain period of use;
5.2.1.2.4. If the service braking system and the secondary braking system have the same control,
the parking braking system shall be so designed that it can be actuated when the vehicle
is in motion. This requirement shall not apply if the vehicle's service braking system can be
actuated, even partially, by means of an auxiliary control;
5.2.1.2.5. Without prejudice to the requirements of Paragraph 5.1.2.3. of this Regulation, the service
braking system and the parking braking system may use common components in their
transmission(s), provided that in the event of a failure in any part of the transmission(s) the
requirements for secondary braking are still ensured;
5.2.1.2.6 In the event of breakage of any component other than the brakes (as defined in
Paragraph 2.6. of this Regulation) or the components referred to in Paragraph 5.2.1.2.8
below, or of any other failure of the service braking system (malfunction, partial or total
exhaustion of an energy reserve), the secondary braking system or that part of the service
braking system which is not affected by the failure, shall be able to bring the vehicle to a
halt in the conditions prescribed for secondary braking;
5.2.1.2.7 In particular, where the secondary braking system and the service braking system have a
common control and a common transmission:
5.2.1.2.7.1. If service braking is ensured by the action of the driver's muscular energy assisted by one
or more energy reserves, secondary braking shall, in the event of failure of that
assistance, be capable of being ensured by the driver's muscular energy assisted by the
energy reserves, if any, which are unaffected by the failure, the force applied to the control
not exceeding the prescribed maxima;

5.2.1.5.1. In the event of failure in any part of the transmission of a braking system, the feed to the
part not affected by the failure shall continue to be ensured if required for the purpose of
halting the vehicle with the degree of effectiveness prescribed for residual and/or
secondary braking. This condition shall be met by means of devices which can be easily
actuated when the vehicle is stationary, or by automatic means.
5.2.1.5.2. Furthermore, storage devices located down-circuit of this device shall be such that in the
case of a failure in the energy supply after four full-stroke actuations of the service brake
control, under the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 7 to this Regulation, it
is still possible to halt the vehicle at the fifth application, with the degree of effectiveness
prescribed for secondary braking.
5.2.1.5.3. However, for hydraulic braking systems with stored energy, these provisions can be
considered to be met provided that the requirements of Paragraph 1.2.2. of Part C of
Annex 7 to this Regulation, are satisfied.
5.2.1.6. The requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.2., 5.2.1.4. and 5.2.1.5. of this Regulation shall be
met without the use of any automatic device of a kind such that its ineffectiveness might
pass unnoticed through the fact that parts normally in a position of rest come into action
only in the event of failure in the braking system.
5.2.1.7. The service braking system shall act on all wheels of the vehicle and shall distribute its
action appropriately among the axles.
5.2.1.7.1. In the case of vehicles with more than two axles, in order to avoid wheel-locking or glazing
of the brake linings, the brake force on certain axles may be reduced to zero automatically
when carrying a much reduced load, provided that the vehicle meets all the performance
requirements prescribed in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
5.2.1.7.2. In the case of N Category vehicles with electric regenerative braking systems of
Category B, the braking input from other sources of braking, may be suitably phased to
allow the electric regenerative braking system alone to be applied, provided that both the
following conditions are met:
5.2.1.7.2.1. Intrinsic variations in the torque output of the electrical regenerative braking system
(e.g. as a result of changes in the electric state of charge in the traction batteries) are
automatically compensated by appropriate variation in the phasing relationship as long as
the requirements of one of the following Annexes to this Regulation are satisfied:
Annex 4, Paragraph 1.3.2, or
Annex 13, Paragraph 5.3 (including the case with the electric motor engaged), and
5.2.1.7.2.2. Wherever necessary, to ensure that braking rate remains related to the driver's braking
demand, having regard to the available tyre/road adhesion, braking shall automatically be
caused to act on all wheels of the vehicle.

5.2.1.11. Wear of the brakes shall be capable of being easily taken up by means of a system of
manual or automatic adjustment. In addition, the control and the components of the
transmission and of the brakes shall possess a reserve of travel and, if necessary, suitable
means of compensation such that, when the brakes become heated, or the brake linings
have reached a certain degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate
adjustment being necessary.
5.2.1.11.1. Wear adjustment shall be automatic for the service brakes. However, the fitting of
automatic brake adjustment devices is optional for off road vehicles of Categories N and
N and for the rear brakes of vehicles of Category N . Brakes equipped with automatic
brake adjustment devices shall, after heating followed by cooling, be capable of free
running as defined in Paragraph 1.5.4. of Annex 4 following the Type-I test also defined in
that Annex.
5.2.1.11.2. Checking the wear of the service brake friction components.
5.2.1.11.2.1. It shall be possible to easily assess this wear on service brake linings from the outside or
underside of the vehicle, without the removal of the wheels, by the provision of appropriate
inspection holes or by some other means. This may be achieved by utilising simple
standard workshop tools or common inspection equipment for vehicles.
Alternatively, a sensing device per wheel (twin wheels are considered as a single wheel),
which will warn the driver at his driving position when lining replacement is necessary is
acceptable. In the case of an optical warning, the yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. below may be used.
5.2.1.11.2.2. Assessment of the wear condition of the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums may only
be performed by direct measurement of the actual component or examination of any brake
disc or drum wear indicators, which may necessitate some level of disassembly.
Therefore, at the time of type approval, the vehicle manufacturer shall define the following:
(a) The method by which wear of the friction surfaces of drums and discs may be
assessed, including the level of disassembly required and the tools and process
required to achieve this.
(b) Information defining the maximum acceptable wear limit at the point at which
replacement becomes necessary.
This information shall be made freely available e.g. vehicle handbook or electronic data
record.
5.2.1.12. In hydraulic-transmission braking systems, the filling ports of the fluid reservoirs shall be
readily accessible; in addition, the receptacles containing the reserve fluid shall be so
designed and constructed that the level of the reserve fluid can be easily checked without
the receptacles having to be opened. If this latter condition is not fulfilled, the red warning
signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. shall draw the driver's attention to any fall in the
level of reserve fluid liable to cause a failure of the braking system. The type of fluid to be
used in the hydraulic transmission braking systems shall be identified by the symbol in
accordance with Figure 1 or 2 of Standard ISO 9128:2006. The symbol shall be affixed in
a visible position in indelible form within 100mm of the filling ports of the fluid reservoirs;
additional information may be provided by the manufacturer.

5.2.1.16. The pneumatic/hydraulic auxiliary equipment shall be supplied with energy in such a way
that during its operation, the prescribed deceleration values can be reached and that even
in the event of damage to the source of energy the operation of the auxiliary equipment
cannot cause the reserves of energy feeding the braking systems to fall below the level
indicated in Paragraph 5.2.1.13. above.
5.2.1.17. If the trailer is of Category O or O , the service braking system shall be of the continuous
or semi-continuous type.
5.2.1.18. In the case of a vehicle authorised to tow a trailer of Category O or O , its braking
systems shall satisfy the following conditions:
5.2.1.18.1. When the towing vehicle's secondary braking system comes into action, there shall also
be a graduated braking action in the trailer;
5.2.1.18.2. In the event of failure of the towing vehicle's service braking system, where that system
consists of at least two independent parts, the part or parts not affected by the failure shall
be capable of partially or fully actuating the brakes of the trailer. It shall be possible to
graduate this braking action. If this operation is achieved by a valve which is normally at
rest, then such a valve may only be incorporated if its correct functioning can easily be
checked by the driver, either from within the cab or from outside the vehicle, without the
use of tools;
5.2.1.18.3. In the event of a failure (e.g. breakage or leak) in one of the pneumatic connecting lines,
interruption or defect in the electric control line, it shall nevertheless be possible for the
driver, fully or partially, to actuate the brakes of the trailer by means either of the service
braking control or of the secondary braking control or of the parking braking control, unless
the failure automatically causes the trailer to be braked with the performance prescribed in
Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
5.2.1.18.4. The automatic braking in Paragraph 5.2.1.18.3. above shall be considered to be met when
the following conditions are fulfilled:
5.2.1.18.4.1. When the designated brake control of those controls mentioned in Paragraph 5.2.1.18.3.
above, is fully actuated, the pressure in the supply line shall fall to 150kPa within the
following two seconds; in addition, when the brake control is released, the supply line shall
be re-pressurised.
5.2.1.18.4.2. When the supply line is evacuated at the rate of at least 100kPa per second the automatic
braking of the trailer shall start to operate before the pressure in the supply line falls to
200kPa.
5.2.1.18.5. In the event of a failure in one of the control lines connecting two vehicles equipped
according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., the control line not affected by the failure shall
automatically ensure the braking performance prescribed for the trailer in Paragraph 3.1 of
Annex 4.

5.2.1.24. Additional requirements for vehicles of Categories M , N and Category N <5t equipped
with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A.
5.2.1.24.1. The electric regenerative braking shall only be actuated by the accelerator control and/or
the gear selector neutral position for vehicles of Category N .
5.2.1.24.2. In addition, for vehicles of Categories M and N (<5t), the electric regenerative braking
control can be a separate switch or lever.
5.2.1.24.3. The requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.25.6. and 5.2.1.25.7. also apply to Category A
regenerative braking systems.
5.2.1.25. Additional requirements for vehicles of Categories M , N and Category N <5t fitted with
an electric regenerative braking system of Category B:
5.2.1.25.1. It shall not be possible to disconnect, partially or totally, one part of the service braking
system other than by automatic means. This should not be construed as a departure from
the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.10.
5.2.1.25.2. The service braking system shall have only one control device.
5.2.1.25.3. For vehicles fitted with electric regenerative braking system of both categories, all the
relevant prescriptions shall apply except Paragraph 5.2.1.24.1.
In this case, the electric regenerative braking may be actuated by the accelerator control
and/or the gear selector neutral position for vehicles of Category N .
Additionally, the action on the service braking control shall not reduce the above braking
effect generated by the release of accelerator control.
5.2.1.25.4. The service braking system shall not be adversely affected by the disengagement of the
motor(s) or by the gear ratio used.
5.2.1.25.5. If the operation of the electric component of braking is ensured by a relation established
between the information coming from the control of the service brake and the braking force
at the respective wheels, a failure of this relation leading to the modification of the braking
distribution among the axles (Annex 10 or 13, whichever is applicable) shall be signalled to
the driver by an optical warning signal at the latest at the moment when the control is
actuated and this signal shall remain lit as long as this defect exists and that the vehicle
control switch (key) is in the "ON" position.
5.2.1.25.6. The operation of the electric regenerative braking shall not be adversely affected by
magnetic or electric fields.
5.2.1.25.7. For vehicles equipped with an anti-lock device, the anti-lock device shall control the
electric regenerative braking system.

5.2.1.26.3. Auxiliary equipment may be supplied with energy from the electric transmission of the
parking braking system provided that the supply of energy is sufficient to allow the
actuation of the parking braking system in addition to the vehicle electrical load under
non-fault conditions. In addition, where the energy reserve is also used by the service
braking system, the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.27.7. shall apply.
5.2.1.26.4. After the ignition/start switch which controls the electrical energy for the braking equipment
has been switched off and/or the key removed, it shall remain possible to apply the
parking braking system, whereas releasing shall be prevented.
5.2.1.27. Special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control
transmission.
5.2.1.27.1. With the parking brake released, the service braking system shall be able to generate a
static total braking force at least equivalent to that required by the prescribed Type-0 test,
even when the ignition/start switch has been switched off and/or the key has been
removed. In the case of power-driven vehicles authorised to tow trailers of Category O or
O , such vehicles shall provide a full control signal for the service braking system of the
trailer. It should be understood that sufficient energy is available in the energy
transmission of the service braking system.
5.2.1.27.2. In the case of a single temporary failure (<40ms) within the electric control transmission,
excluding its energy supply, (e.g. non-transmitted signal or data error) there shall be no
distinguishable effect on the service braking performance.
5.2.1.27.3. A failure within the electric control transmission , not including its energy reserve, that
affects the function and performance of systems addressed in this Regulation shall be
indicated to the driver by the red or yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraphs 5.2.1.29.1.1. and 5.2.1.29.1.2., respectively, as appropriate. When the
prescribed service braking performance can no longer be achieved (red warning signal),
failures resulting from a loss of electrical continuity (e.g. breakage, disconnection) shall be
signalled to the driver as soon as they occur, and the prescribed residual braking
performance shall be fulfilled by operating the service braking control in accordance with
Paragraph 2.4, of Annex 4 to this Regulation. These requirements shall not be construed
as a departure from the requirements concerning secondary braking.
5.2.1.27.4. A power-driven vehicle, electrically connected to a trailer via an electric control line, shall
provide a clear warning to the driver whenever the trailer provides the failure information
that the stored energy in any part of the service braking system on the trailer falls below
the warning level, as specified in Paragraph 5.2.2.16. below. A similar warning shall also
be provided when a continuous failure (>40ms) within the electric control transmission of
the trailer, excluding its energy reserve, precludes achievement of the prescribed service
braking performance of the trailer, as specified in Paragraph 5.2.2.15.2.1. below. The red
warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. shall be used for this purpose.

5.2.1.27.10. In the case of a failure in the electric control transmission of a trailer, electrically connected
via an electric control line only, according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3., braking of the trailer
shall be ensured according to Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.1. This shall be the case whenever the
trailer provides the "supply line braking request" signal via the data communication part of
the electric control line or in the event of the continuous absence of this data
communication. This Paragraph shall not apply to power-driven vehicles which cannot be
operated with trailers connected via an electric control line only, as described in
Paragraph 5.1.3.5.
5.2.1.28. Special requirements for coupling force control.
5.2.1.28.1. Coupling force control shall only be permitted in the towing vehicle.
5.2.1.28.2. The action of the coupling force control shall be to reduce the difference between the
dynamic braking rates of towing and towed vehicles. The operation of the coupling force
control shall be checked at the time of type approval. The method by which this check is
carried out shall be agreed between the vehicle manufacturer and the technical service
with the method of assessment and results being appended to the type approval report.
5.2.1.28.2.1. The coupling force control may control the braking rate T /P , and/or the brake demand
value(s) for the trailer. In the case of a towing vehicle equipped with two control lines
according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. above, both signals shall be subject to similar control
adjustments.
5.2.1.28.2.2. The coupling force control shall not prevent the maximum possible braking pressure(s)
from being applied.
5.2.1.28.3. The vehicle shall fulfil the laden compatibility requirements of Annex 10, but to achieve the
objectives of Paragraph 5.2.1.28.2. the vehicle may deviate from these requirements when
the coupling force control is in operation.
5.2.1.28.4. A coupling force control failure shall be detected and indicated to the driver by a yellow
warning signal such as that specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. In the event of a failure
the relevant requirements of Annex 10 shall be fulfilled.

Diagram 2
Tractive Units for Semi-trailers
5.2.1.28.6. A coupling force control system shall control only the coupling forces generated by the
service braking system of the motor vehicle and the trailer. Coupling forces resulting from
the performance of endurance braking systems shall not be compensated by the service
braking system of either the motor vehicle or trailer. It is considered that endurance
braking systems are not part of the service braking systems.
5.2.1.29. Brake failure and defect warning signal
The general requirements for optical warning signals whose function is to indicate to the
driver certain specified failures (or defects) within the braking equipment of the
power-driven vehicle or, where appropriate, its trailer, are set out in the following
sub-paragraphs. Other than as described in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.6. below, these signals
shall be used exclusively for the purposes prescribed by this Regulation.
5.2.1.29.1. Power-driven vehicles shall be capable of providing optical brake failure and defect
warning signals, as follows:
5.2.1.29.1.1. A red warning signal, indicating failures defined elsewhere in this Regulation within the
vehicle braking equipment which preclude achievement of the prescribed service braking
performance and/or which preclude the functioning of at least one of two independent
service braking circuits.

5.2.1.29.6. Non-specified failures (or defects), or other information concerning the brakes and/or
running gear of the power-driven vehicle, may be indicated by the yellow signal specified
in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. above, provided that all the following conditions are fulfilled:
5.2.1.29.6.1. The vehicle is stationary;
5.2.1.29.6.2. After the braking equipment is first energised and the signal has indicated that, following
the procedures detailed in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.5. above, no specified failures (or defects)
have been identified; and
5.2.1.29.6.3. Non-specified faults or other information shall be indicated only by the flashing of the
warning signal. However, the warning signal shall be extinguished by the time when the
vehicle first exceeds 10km/h.
5.2.1.30. Generation of a braking signal to illuminate stop lamps.
5.2.1.30.1. Activation of the service braking system by the driver shall generate a signal that will be
used to illuminate the stop lamps.
5.2.1.30.2. Requirements for vehicles that utilise electronic signalling to control initial application of
the service braking system, and equipped with endurance braking and/or regenerative
braking system of Category A:
Deceleration by the Endurance Braking and/or Regenerative Braking System
≤1.3m/s
May generate the signal
>1.3m/s
Shall generate the signal
5.2.1.30.3. In the case of vehicles equipped with a braking system of a specification different to that
defined in Paragraph 5.2.1.30.2 above, the operation of the endurance braking system
and/or regenerative braking system of Category A may generate the signal irrespective of
the deceleration produced.
5.2.1.30.4. The signal shall not be generated when retardation is produced by the natural braking
effect of the engine alone.
5.2.1.30.5. Activation of the service braking system by "automatically commanded braking" shall
generate the signal mentioned above. However, when the retardation generated is less
than 0.7m/s , the signal may be suppressed.
5.2.1.30.6. Activation of part of the service braking system by "selective braking" shall not generate
the signal mentioned above.
5.2.1.30.7. In the case of vehicles equipped with an electric control line the signal shall be generated
by the motor vehicle when a message "illuminate stop lamps" is received via the electric
control line from the trailer.

5.2.2. Vehicles of Category O
5.2.2.1. Trailers of Category O need not be equipped with a service braking system; however, if a
trailer of this category is equipped with a service braking system, it shall satisfy the same
requirements as a trailer of Category O .
5.2.2.2. Trailers of Category O shall be equipped with a service braking system either of the
continuous or semi-continuous or of the inertia (overrun) type. The latter type shall be
permitted only for centre-axle trailers. However, electrical braking systems conforming to
the requirements of Annex 14 to this Regulation shall be permitted.
5.2.2.3. Trailers of Categories O and O shall be equipped with a service braking system of the
continuous or semi-continuous type.
5.2.2.4. The service braking system:
5.2.2.4.1. Shall act on all the wheels of the vehicle;
5.2.2.4.2. Shall distribute its action appropriately among the axles;
5.2.2.4.3. Shall contain in at least one of the air reservoirs a device for draining and exhausting in an
adequate and easily accessible position.
5.2.2.5. The action of the service braking system shall be distributed between the wheels of one
and the same axle symmetrically in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.
Compensation and functions such as anti-lock, which may cause deviations from this
symmetrical distribution, shall be declared.
5.2.2.5.1. Compensation by the electric control transmission for deterioration or defect within the
braking system shall be indicated to the driver by means of the separate yellow optical
warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. This requirement shall apply for all
conditions of loading when compensation exceeds the following limits:
5.2.2.5.1.1. A difference in transverse braking pressures on any axle of:
(a) 25% of the higher value for vehicle decelerations ≥2m/s ,
(b)
A value corresponding to 25% at 2m/s for decelerations below this rate.
5.2.2.5.1.2. An individual compensating value on any axle of:
(a)
(b)
>50% of the nominal value for vehicle decelerations ≥2m/s
A value corresponding to 50% of the nominal value at 2m/s for decelerations below
this rate.
5.2.2.5.2. Compensation as defined above, is permitted only when the initial brake application is
made at vehicle speeds greater than 10km/h.

5.2.2.8.2.2. Assessment of the wear condition of the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums may only
be performed by direct measurement of the actual component or examination of any brake
disc or drum wear indicators, which may necessitate some level of disassembly.
Therefore, at the time of type approval, the vehicle manufacturer shall define the following:
(a)
(b)
The method by which wear of the friction surfaces of drums and discs may be
assessed, including the level of disassembly required and tools and process
required to achieve this.
Information defining the maximum acceptable wear limit at the point at which
replacement becomes necessary.
This information shall be made freely available e.g. vehicle handbook or electronic data
record.
5.2.2.9. The braking systems shall be such that the trailer is stopped automatically if the coupling
separates while the trailer is in motion.
5.2.2.10. On every trailer which is required to be equipped with a service braking system, parking
braking must be assured even when the trailer is separated from the towing vehicle. The
parking braking device shall be capable of being actuated by a person standing on the
ground; however, in the case of a trailer used for the carriage of passengers, this brake
shall be capable of being actuated from inside the trailer.
5.2.2.11. If the trailer is fitted with a device enabling compressed-air actuation of the braking system
other than the parking braking system to be cut out, the first-mentioned system shall be so
designed and constructed that it is positively restored to the position of rest not later than
on resumption of the supply of compressed-air to the trailer.
5.2.2.12. Trailers of Categories O and O shall satisfy the conditions specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. An easily accessible pressure test connection is required
downstream of the coupling head of the control line.
5.2.2.12.1. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line and electrically connected to a
towing vehicle with an electric control line the automatic braking action specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. may be suppressed as long as the pressure in the compressed air
reservoirs of the trailer is sufficient to ensure the braking performance specified in
Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
5.2.2.13. Trailers of Category O shall be equipped with an anti-lock braking system in accordance
with the requirements of Annex 13 to this Regulation. Trailers of Category O shall be
equipped with an anti-lock braking system in accordance with the Category A
requirements of Annex 13 to this Regulation.

5.2.2.16. When the stored energy in any part of the service braking system of a trailer equipped with
an electric control line and electrically connected to a towing vehicle with an electronic
control line falls to the value determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.2.2.16.1. below,
a warning shall be provided to the driver of the towing vehicle. The warning shall be
provided by activation of the red signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. and the trailer
shall provide the failure information via the data communication part of the electric control
line. The separate yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. shall also be
activated via Pin 5 of the electrical connector conforming to ISO 7638:2003 , to indicate
to the driver that the low-energy situation is on the trailer.
5.2.2.16.1. The low energy value referred to in Paragraph 5.2.2.16. above shall be that at which,
without re-charging of the energy reservoir and irrespective of the load condition of the
trailer, it is not possible to apply the service braking control a fifth time after four full-stroke
actuations and obtain at least 50% of the prescribed performance of the service braking
system of the relevant trailer.
5.2.2.17. Trailers equipped with an electric control line and O and O Category trailers equipped
with an anti-lock system, shall be fitted with either one or both of the following, for the
electric control transmission:
(a)
A special electrical connector for the braking system and/or anti-lock system,
conforming to ISO 7638:2003. .
(b) An automated connector meeting the requirements specified in Annex 22.
Failure warning signals required from the trailer by this Regulation shall be activated via
the above connectors. The requirement to be applied to trailers with respect to the
transmission of failure warning signals shall be those, as appropriate, which are prescribed
for motor vehicles in Paragraphs 5.2.1.29.4., 5.2.1.29.5. and 5.2.1.29.6. of this Regulation.
Trailers equipped with an ISO 7638:2003 connector as defined above shall be marked in
indelible form to indicate the functionality of the braking system when the ISO 7638:2003
connector is connected and disconnected.
The marking is to be positioned so that it is visible when connecting the pneumatic and
electrical interface connections.
5.2.2.17.1. Trailers equipped with a vehicle stability function as defined in Paragraph 2.34 of this
Regulation shall in the event of a failure or defect within the trailer stability function indicate
the failure or defect by the separate yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. above via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638:2003 connector.
The warning signal shall be constant and remain displayed as long as the failure or defect
persists and the ignition (start) switch is in the "on" (run) position.

5.2.2.21. In addition to the requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.1.18.4.2 and 5.2.1.21 above, the brakes
of the trailer may also be applied automatically when this is initiated by the trailer braking
system itself following the evaluation of on-board generated information.
5.2.2.22. Activation of the service braking system.
5.2.2.22.1. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line the message "illuminate stop
lamps" shall be transmitted by the trailer via the electric control line when the trailer
braking system is activated during "automatically commanded braking" initiated by the
trailer. However, when the retardation generated is less than 0.7m/s , the signal may be
suppressed.
5.2.2.22.2. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line the message "illuminate stop
lamps" shall not be transmitted by the trailer via the electrical control line during "selective
braking" initiated by the trailer.
5.2.2.23. Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 12.3. of this Regulation, all vehicles of
Categories O and O having no more than 3 axles and equipped with air suspension
shall be equipped with a vehicle stability function. This shall include at least roll-over
control and meet the technical requirements of Annex 21 to this Regulation.
6. TESTS
Braking tests which the vehicles submitted for approval are required to undergo, and the
braking performance required, are described in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
7. MODIFICATION OF VEHICLE TYPE OR BRAKING SYSTEM AND EXTENSION OF
APPROVAL
7.1. Every modification of the vehicle type or of its braking equipment with regard to the
characteristics in Annex 2 to this Regulation shall be notified to the Type Approval
Authority which approved the vehicle type. That department may then either:
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect
and that in any case the vehicle still meets the requirements; or
7.1.2. Require a further report from the Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests.
7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by
the procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above, to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation.
7.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series
number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension and inform thereof
the other Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement by means of a communication form
conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.

9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with.
9.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an
approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation by means of a copy of a communication form conforming to the
model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved
in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof
the other Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means a
communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING
APPROVAL TESTS AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued
in other countries are to be sent.
12. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
12.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 11 series of amendments (July 11, 2008),
no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type
approvals under this Regulation as amended by the 11 series of amendments.
12.2. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant approvals only if the vehicle type
to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 11 series of
amendments.
Notwithstanding the above requirements, compliance with the requirements of
Supplement 7 to the 11 series of amendments shall not be required for all new type
approvals before October 28, 2014.
12.3. As from the application dates shown in the following table in respect of the 11 series of
amendments to this Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not be
obliged to accept, a vehicle type approved to the 10 series of amendments to this
Regulation.

12.4. Notwithstanding the requirements of Paragraph 12.3, until October 24, 2016, no
Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to accept a vehicle type approval
which does not meet the requirements of Supplement 2 to the 11 series of amendments to
this Regulation.
12.5. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type
approvals for existing types which have been granted according to the basis of the
requirement that existed at the time of the original approval.
12.6. Notwithstanding the transitional provisions above, Contracting Parties whose application of
this Regulation comes into force after the date of entry into force of the most recent series
of amendments are not obliged to accept approvals which were granted in accordance
with any of the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.
12.7. As from 24 months after the entry into force of Supplement 12 to the 11 series of
amendments, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant Type Approvals to
vehicle types only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this
Regulation as amended by supplement 12 to the 11 series of amendments.

ANNEX 2
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with regard to braking pursuant to Regulation No. 13.
Approval No. .................................................. Extension No: ...........................................
1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ..............................................................................................
2. Vehicle category: ..........................................................................................................................
3. Vehicle type: .................................................................................................................................
4. Manufacturer's name and address: ..............................................................................................
5. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: .............................................
......................................................................................................................................................
6. Mass of vehicle:
6.1. Maximum mass of vehicle: ...........................................................................................................
6.2. Minimum mass of vehicle: ............................................................................................................
7. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): ....................................................................

13.
Mass of vehicle when tested: Unladen (kg) Laden (kg)
King pin / supporting load
Axle No. 1
Axle No. 2
Axle No. 3
Axle No. 4
TOTAL
14. Results of the tests and vehicle characteristics:
TEST RESULTS
Test speed
(km/h)
Measured
performance
Measured force
applied to
control
(daN)
14.1. Type-0 tests,
engine
disconnected:
service braking
secondary braking
14.2. Type-0 tests,
engine
connected:
service braking in accordance
with Paragraph 2.1.1. of Annex 4
with repeated braking
14.3. Type-I tests:
with continuous braking
free running, in accordance with
Annex 4, Paragraph 1.5.4.5
Annex 4, Paragraph 1.7.3.7
14.4. Type-II or II-A
tests, as
appropriate,
service braking
14.5. Type-III test free running, in accordance with
Annex 4, Paragraph 1.7.3.
14.6.
Braking system(s) used during the Type-II/IIA
test: ..................................................................
14.7.
Reaction time and dimensions of flexible pipes:
14.7.1.
Reaction time at the brake actuator:........................................................................................... s
14.7.2.
Reaction time at the control line coupling head: ......................................................................... s

14.15. The vehicle is equipped with an automated connector: yes/no
14.15.1. If yes, does the automated connector fulfil the requirements of Annex 22: yes/no
14.15.2. The automated connector is of category A/B/C/D
15. Additional information for use with the Annex 20 alternative type approval procedure.
15.1. Description of suspension: ...........................................................................................................
15.1.1. Manufacturer: ................................................................................................................................
15.1.2. Make: ............................................................................................................................................
15.1.3. Type: .............................................................................................................................................
15.1.4. Model: ...........................................................................................................................................
15.2. Wheelbase of vehicle tested: ........................................................................................................
15.3. Actuation differential (if any) within axle group: ............................................................................
16. Trailer approved utilising Annex 20 procedure: ............................................................. Yes/No
(If yes, Appendix 2 to this Annex shall be completed)
17. Vehicle submitted for approval on: ...............................................................................................
18. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: .....................................................
19. Date of report issued by that service: ...........................................................................................
20. Number of report issued by that service: ......................................................................................
21. Approval granted/refused/extended/withdrawn
22. Position of approval mark on the vehicle: .....................................................................................
23. Place: ............................................................................................................................................
24. Date: .............................................................................................................................................
25. Signature: .....................................................................................................................................
26. The summary referred to in Paragraph 4.3. of this Regulation is annexed to this
communication.

11. Specification of brake ...................................................................................................................
11.1 Disc brake type (e.g. number of pistons with diameter(s), ventilated or solid disc) .....................
......................................................................................................................................................
11.2. Drum brake type (e.g. duo servo, with piston size and drum dimensions)...................................
......................................................................................................................................................
11.3. In the case of compressed air brake systems, e.g. type and size of chambers, levers, etc ........
12. Master cylinder type and size .......................................................................................................
13. Booster type and size ...................................................................................................................

ANNEX 3
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
Model A
(See Paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulation No. 13 under approval
number 112439. This number indicates that the approval was given in accordance with the requirements
of Regulation No. 13 with the 10 series of amendments incorporated. For vehicles of Categories M and
M , this mark means that that type of vehicle has undergone the Type-II test.
Model B
(See Paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulation No. 13. For vehicles of
Categories M and M , this mark means that the type of vehicle has undergone the Type-IIA test.

ANNEX 4
BRAKING TESTS AND PERFORMANCE OF BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. BRAKING TESTS
1.1. General
1.1.1. The performance prescribed for braking systems is based on the stopping distance and/or the
mean fully developed deceleration. The performance of a braking system shall be determined
by measuring the stopping distance in relation to the initial speed of the vehicle and/or by
measuring the mean fully developed deceleration during the test.
1.1.2. The stopping distance shall be the distance covered by the vehicle from the moment when
the driver begins to actuate the control of the braking system until the moment when the
vehicle stops; the initial speed shall be the speed at the moment when the driver begins to
actuate the control of the braking system; the initial speed shall not be less than 98% of the
prescribed speed for the test in question.
The mean fully developed deceleration (d ) shall be calculated as the deceleration averaged
with respect to distance over the interval v to v , according to the following formula:
d
v
=
25.92
− v
( ) [ m / s ]
s − s
where:
v = initial vehicle speed in km/h,
v = vehicle speed at 0.8v in km/h,
v = vehicle speed at 0.1v in km/h,
s = distance travelled between v and v in metres,
s = distance travelled between v and v in metres.
The speed and the distance shall be determined using instrumentation having an accuracy of
±1% at the prescribed speed for the test. The mean fully developed deceleration may be
determined by other methods than the measurement of speed and distance; in this case, the
accuracy of the mean fully developed deceleration shall be within ±3%.
1.2. For the approval of any vehicle, the braking performance shall be measured during road tests
conducted in the following conditions:
1.2.1. The vehicle's condition as regards mass shall be as prescribed for each type of test and be
specified in the test report;
1.2.2. The test shall be carried out at the speeds prescribed for each type of test; if the maximum
design speed of a vehicle is lower than the speed prescribed for a test, the test shall be
performed at the vehicle's maximum speed;

1.3.2.1. In the case of a braking system according to Paragraph 5.2.1.7.2, where the braking for a
particular axle (or axles) is comprised of more than one source of braking torque, and any
individual source can be varied with respect to the other(s), the vehicle shall satisfy the
requirements of Annex 10, or alternatively, Annex 13 under all relationships permitted by its
control strategy.
1.4. Type-0 Test (Ordinary Performance Test with Brakes Cold)
1.4.1. General
1.4.1.1. The brakes shall be cold; a brake is deemed to be cold when the temperature measured on
the disc or on the outside of the drum is below 100°C.
1.4.1.2. The test shall be conducted in the following conditions:
1.4.1.2.1. The vehicle shall be laden, the distribution of its mass among the axles being that stated by
the manufacturer; where provision is made for several arrangements of the load on the axles
the distribution of the maximum mass among the axles shall be such that the load on each
axle is proportional to the maximum permissible load for each axle. In the case of tractors for
semi-trailers, the load may be re-positioned approximately half-way between the kingpin
position resulting from the above loading conditions and the centreline of the rear axle(s),
1.4.1.2.2. Every test shall be repeated on the unladen vehicle. In the case of a power-driven vehicle
there may be, in addition to the driver, a second person on the front seat who is responsible
for noting the results of the test;
In the case of a tractor for a semi-trailer, the unladen tests will be conducted with the vehicle
in its solo condition, including a mass representing the fifth wheel. It will also include a mass
representing a spare wheel, if this is included in the standard specification of the vehicle,
In the case of a vehicle presented as a bare chassis-cab, a supplementary load may be
added to simulate the mass of the body, not exceeding the minimum mass declared by the
manufacturer in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
In the case of a vehicle equipped with an electric regenerative braking system, the
requirements depend on the category of this system:
Category A: Any separate electric regenerative braking control which is provided, shall not
be used during the Type-0 tests.
Category B:
The contribution of the electric regenerative braking system to the braking force
generated shall not exceed that minimum level guaranteed by the system
design.

1.4.4.2. With the exception of cases according to Paragraphs 1.4.4.3. and 1.4.4.4. of this Annex, it is
necessary for the determination of the braking rate of the trailer to measure the braking rate of
the towing vehicle plus the trailer and the thrust on the coupling. The towing vehicle has to
meet the requirements laid down in Annex 10 to this Regulation with regard to the relationship
between the ratio T /P and the pressure p . The braking rate of the trailer is calculated
according to the following formula:
where:
Z = braking rate of the trailer,
Z = Z +
Z = braking rate of the towing vehicle plus the trailer,
D
=
thrust on the coupling,
(tractive force:
+ D),
(compressive force:
– D)
D
P
P
=
total normal static reaction between road surface and wheels of trailer
(Annex 10).
1.4.4.3. If a trailer has a continuous or semi-continuous braking system where the pressure in the
brake actuators does not change during braking despite the dynamic axle load shifting and in
the case of semi-trailers the trailer alone may be braked. The braking rate of the trailer is
calculated according to the following formula:
where:
P + P
( Z − R) ⋅
R
Z =
+
P
R = rolling resistance value = 0.01
P
=
total normal static reaction between road surface and wheels of towing vehicles
for trailers (Annex 10)
1.4.4.4. Alternatively, the evaluation of the braking rate of the trailer may be done by braking the trailer
alone. In this case the pressure used shall be the same as that measured in the brake
actuators during the braking of the combination.
1.5. Type-I Test (Fade Test)
1.5.1. With Repeated Braking
1.5.1.1. The service braking systems of all power-driven vehicles shall be tested by successively
applying and releasing the brakes a number of times, the vehicle being laden, in the
conditions shown in the table below:

1.5.1.7. In the case of vehicles equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices the adjustment of
the brakes shall, prior to the Type-I test above, be set according to the following procedures
as appropriate:
1.5.1.7.1. In the case of vehicles equipped with air operated brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall
be such as to enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the
actuator stroke shall be adjusted to
s ≥ 1.1 × s
(the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the manufacturer)
where:
s is the re-adjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of
the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. the stroke, where it starts to readjust
the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 15% of the brake
system operating pressure but not less than 100kPa.
Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator
stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service.
From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 30% of the
brake system operating pressure but not less than 200kPa, 50 times in succession. This shall
be followed by a single brake application with an actuator pressure of ≥650kPa.
1.5.1.7.2. In the case of vehicles equipped with hydraulically operated disc brakes no setting
requirements are deemed necessary.
1.5.1.7.3. In the case of vehicles equipped with hydraulically operated drum brakes the adjustment of
the brakes shall be as specified by the manufacturer.
1.5.1.8. For vehicles equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of Category B, the
condition of the vehicle batteries at the start of the test, shall be such that the braking force
contribution provided by the electric regenerative braking system does not exceed the
minimum guaranteed by the system design.
This requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the batteries are at one of the state of charge
conditions listed in the fourth clause of Paragraph 1.4.1.2.2 above.
1.5.2. With Continuous Braking
1.5.2.1. The service brakes of Categories O and O (when the O trailer has not passed alternatively
the Type-III test according to Paragraph 1.7 of this Annex) shall be tested in such a manner
that, the vehicle being laden, the energy input to the brakes is equivalent to that recorded in
the same period of time with a laden vehicle driven at a steady speed of 40km/h on a 7%
down-gradient for a distance of 1.7km.
1.5.2.2. The test may be carried out on a level road, the trailer being drawn by a towing vehicle; during
the test, the force applied to the control shall be adjusted so as to keep the resistance of the
trailer constant (7% of the maximum total stationary axle load of the trailer). If the power
available for hauling is insufficient, the test can be conducted at a lower speed but over a
greater distance as shown in the table below:

1.5.4. Free Running Test
In the case of motor vehicles equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices, the brakes
after completing the tests defined in Paragraph 1.5.3. above will be allowed to cool to a
temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤ 100°C) and it shall be verified that the
vehicle is capable of free running by fulfilling one of the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
Wheels are running freely (i.e. may be rotated by hand)
It is ascertained that when the vehicle is driven at a constant speed of v = 60km/h with
the brakes released the asymptotic temperatures shall not exceed a drum/disc
temperature increase of 80°C, then the residual brake moments are regarded as
acceptable.
1.6. Type-II Test (Downhill Behaviour Test)
1.6.1. Laden power-driven vehicles must be tested in such a manner that the energy input is
equivalent to that recorded in the same period of time with a laden vehicle driven at an
average speed of 30km/h on a 6% down-gradient for a distance of 6km, with the appropriate
gear engaged and the endurance braking system, if the vehicle is equipped with one, being
used. The gear engaged shall be such that the speed of the engine (min ) does not exceed
the maximum value prescribed by the manufacturer.
1.6.2. For vehicles in which the energy is absorbed by the braking action of the engine alone, a
tolerance of ± 5km/h on the average speed shall be permitted, and the gear enabling the
speed to be stabilised at the value closest to 30km/h on the 6% down-gradient shall be
engaged. If the performance of the braking action of the engine alone is determined by a
measurement of deceleration, it shall be sufficient if the mean deceleration measured is at
least 0.5m/s .
1.6.3. At the end of the test, the hot performance of the service braking system shall be measured in
the same conditions as for the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected (the temperature
conditions may be different). This hot performance shall give a stopping distance not
exceeding the following values and a mean fully developed deceleration not less than the
following values, using a control force not exceeding 70daN,
Category M
Category N
0.15v + (1.33 v /130) (the second term corresponds to a mean fully
developed deceleration d = 3.75m/s ),
0.15v + (1.33 v /115) (the second term corresponds to a mean fully
developed deceleration d = 3.3m/s ).
1.6.4. Vehicles cited in Paragraphs 1.8.1.1., 1.8.1.2. and 1.8.1.3. below shall satisfy the Type-IIA
test described in Paragraph 1.8. below instead of the Type-II test.

The speed at the end of braking (Annex 11, Appendix 2, Paragraph 3.1.5.):
v
= v

P
+ P
+ P
/ 4
P
+ P
+ P
where:
z = braking rate of the trailer
z = braking rate of the vehicle combination (motor vehicle and trailer)
R = rolling resistance value = 0.01
P
=
total normal static reaction between the road surface and the wheels of towing
vehicle for trailer (kg)
P
=
total normal static reaction between the road surface and the wheels of
trailer (kg)
P = part of the mass of the trailer borne by the unbraked axle(s) (kg)
P = part of the mass of the trailer borne by the braked axle(s) (kg)
v = initial speed (km/h)
v = final speed (km/h)
1.7.2. Hot Performance
At the end of the test according to Paragraph 1.7.1., the hot performance of the service
braking system shall be measured under the same conditions as for the Type-0 test with,
however, different temperature conditions and starting from an initial speed of 60km/h. The
hot brake-force at the periphery of the wheels shall then not be less than 40% of the
maximum stationary wheel load, and not less than 60% of the figure recorded in the Type-0
test at the same speed.
1.7.3. Free Running Test
After completing the tests defined in Paragraph 1.7.2, above, the brakes will be allowed to
cool to a temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤ 100°C) and it shall be verified that
the trailer is capable of free running by fulfilling one of the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
Wheels are running freely (i.e. may be rotated by hand)
It is ascertained that when the trailer is driven at a constant speed of v = 60km/h with
the brakes released the asymptotic temperatures shall not exceed a drum/disc
temperature increase of 80°C, then the residual brake moments are regarded as
acceptable.

2. PERFORMANCE OF BRAKING SYSTEMS OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M , M
AND N
2.1. Service Braking System
2.1.1. The service brakes of vehicles of Categories M , M and N shall be tested under the
conditions shown in the following table:
Type-0 test
with engine
disconnected
Type-0 test
with engine
connected
Category
M
M
N
N
N
Type of test
0-I
0-I-II
or IIA
0-I
0-I
0-I-II
v
60km/h
60km/h
80km/h
60km/h
60km/h
s ≤
0.15 v +
v
130
d ≥
v = 0.80v
but not
exceeding
s ≤
5.0m/s
100km/h
90km/h
120km/h
100km/h
90km/h
0.15 v +
v
103 ⋅ 5
d ≥
F ≤
4.0m/s
70daN
where:
v = prescribed test speed, in km/h
s = stopping distance, in metres,
d = mean fully developed deceleration, in m/s
F = force applied to foot control, in daN
v = maximum speed of the vehicle, in km/h
2.1.2. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorised to tow an unbraked trailer, the minimum
performance prescribed for the corresponding power-driven vehicle category (for the Type-0
test with engine disconnected) shall be attained with the unbraked trailer coupled to the
power-driven vehicle and with the unbraked trailer laden to the maximum mass declared by
the power-driven vehicle manufacturer.
The combination performance shall be verified by calculations referring to the maximum
braking performance actually achieved by the power-driven vehicle alone (laden) during the
Type-0 test with the engine disconnected, using the following formula (no practical tests with
a coupled unbraked trailer are required):

2.2.6. For vehicles employing electric regenerative braking systems, the braking performance shall
additionally be checked under the two following failure conditions:
2.2.6.1. For a total failure of the electric component of the service braking output.
2.2.6.2. In the case where the failure condition causes the electric component to deliver its maximum
braking force.
2.3. Parking Braking System
2.3.1. The parking braking system shall, even if it is combined with one of the other braking
systems, be capable of holding the laden vehicle stationary on an 18% up or down-gradient.
2.3.2. On vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorised, the parking braking system of the
towing vehicle shall be capable of holding the combination of vehicles stationary on a 12% up
or down-gradient.
2.3.3. If the control is manual, the force applied to it shall not exceed 60daN.
2.3.4. If it is a foot control, the force exerted on the control shall not exceed 70daN.
2.3.5. A parking braking system which has to be actuated several times before it attains the
prescribed performance is admissible.
2.3.6. To check compliance with the requirement specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.2.4. of this
Regulation, a Type-0 test shall be carried out with the engine disconnected, at an initial test
speed of 30km/h. The mean fully developed deceleration on application of the control of the
parking braking system and the deceleration immediately before the vehicle stops shall not be
less than 1.5m/s . The test shall be carried out with the laden vehicle.
The force exerted on the braking control device shall not exceed the specified values.
2.4. Residual Braking After Transmission Failure
2.4.1. The residual performance of the service braking system, in the event of failure in a part of its
transmission, shall give a stopping distance not exceeding the following values and a mean
fully developed deceleration not less than the following values, using a control force not
exceeding 70daN, when checked by the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected from the
following initial speeds for the relevant vehicle category:
Stopping distance (m) and mean fully developed deceleration (d ) [m/s ]
Vehicle v Stopping dist. d
Stopping dist.
Category [km/h] LADEN [m] [m/s ] UNLADEN [m]
d [m/s ]
M
60
0.15v + (100/30).(v /130)
1.5
0.15v + (100/25).(v /130)
1.3
M
60
0.15v + (100/30).(v /130)
1.5
0.15v + (100/30).(v /130)
1.5
N
70
0.15v + (100/30).(v /115)
1.3
0.15v + (100/25).(v /115)
1.1
N
50
0.15v + (100/30).(v /115)
1.3
0.15v + (100/25).(v /115)
1.1
N
40
0.15v + (100/30).(v /115)
1.3
0.15v + (100/30).(v /115)
1.3
2.4.2. The residual braking effectiveness test shall be conducted by simulating the actual failure
conditions in the service braking system.

3.1.3.2. If the trailer is fitted with a compressed air braking system, the pressure in the control line
shall not exceed 650kPa and the pressure in the supply line shall not exceed 700kPa during
the brake test. The test speed is 60km/h.
3.1.3.3. In addition, the vehicles shall undergo the Type-III test.
3.1.3.4. In the Type-III test of a semi-trailer, the mass braked by the latter's axle(s) shall correspond to
the maximum axle load(s).
3.2. Parking Braking System
3.2.1. The parking braking system with which the trailer is equipped shall be capable of holding the
laden trailer stationary, when separated from the towing vehicle, on an 18% up or
down-gradient. The force applied to the control device shall not exceed 60daN.
3.3. Automatic Braking System
3.3.1. The automatic braking performance in the event of a failure, as described in
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.3. of this Regulation, when testing the laden vehicle from a speed of
40km/h, shall not be less than 13.5% of the maximum stationary wheel load. Wheel-locking at
performance levels above 13.5% is permitted.
4. RESPONSE TIME
4.1. Where a vehicle is equipped with a service braking system which is totally or partially
dependent on a source of energy other than the muscular effort of the driver, the following
requirements shall be satisfied:
4.1.1. In an emergency manoeuvre, the time elapsing between the moment when the control device
begins to be actuated and the moment when the braking force on the least favourably placed
axle reaches the level corresponding to the prescribed performance shall not exceed 0.6s.
4.1.2. In the case of vehicles fitted with compressed-air braking systems, the requirements of
Paragraph 4.1.1. above are considered to be satisfied if the vehicle complies with the
provisions of Annex 6 to this Regulation.
4.1.3. In the case of vehicles fitted with hydraulic braking systems, the requirements of
Paragraph 4.1.1. above are considered to be satisfied if, in an emergency manoeuvre, the
deceleration of the vehicle or the pressure at the least favourable brake cylinder, reaches a
level corresponding to the prescribed performance within 0.6s.

ANNEX 5
ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN VEHICLES
AS SPECIFIED IN THE ADR
1. SCOPE
This Annex applies to certain vehicles which are subject to Section 9.2.3 of Annex B to the
European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
(ADR).
2. REQUIREMENTS
2.1. General Provisions
Power-driven vehicles and trailers intended for use as transport units for dangerous goods
shall fulfil all relevant technical requirements of this Regulation. In addition, the following
technical provisions shall apply as appropriate.
2.2. Anti-lock Braking System of Trailers
2.2.1. Trailers of Category O shall be equipped with Category A anti-lock systems as defined in
Annex 13 of this Regulation.
2.3. Endurance Braking System
2.3.1. Power-driven vehicles having a maximum mass exceeding 16t or authorised to tow a trailer of
Category O shall be fitted with an endurance braking system according to Paragraph 2.15. of
this Regulation which complies with the following requirements:
2.3.1.1. The endurance braking control configurations shall be from a type described in
Paragraphs 2.15.2.1 to 2.15.2.3 of this Regulation.
2.3.1.2. In the case of an electrical failure of the anti-lock system, integrated or combined endurance
braking systems shall be switched off automatically.
2.3.1.3. The effectiveness of the endurance braking system shall be controlled by the anti-lock braking
system such that the axle(s) braked by the endurance braking system cannot be locked by
that system at speeds above 15km/h. However, this requirement shall not apply to that part of
the braking system constituted by the natural engine braking.
2.3.1.4. The endurance braking system shall comprise several stages of effectiveness, including a low
stage appropriate for the unladen condition. Where the endurance braking system of a powerdriven
vehicle is constituted by its engine, the different gear ratios shall be considered to
provide the different stages of effectiveness.
2.3.1.5. The performance of the endurance braking system shall be such that it fulfils the
requirements of Paragraph 1.8 of Annex 4 to this Regulation (Type-II A test), with a laden
vehicle mass comprising the laden mass of the motor vehicle and its authorised maximum
towed mass, but not exceeding a total of 44t.
2.3.2. If a trailer is equipped with an endurance braking system it shall fulfil the requirements of
Paragraphs 2.3.1.1 to 2.3.1.4 above as appropriate.

ANNEX 6
METHOD OF MEASURING THE RESPONSE TIME ON VEHICLES
EQUIPPED WITH COMPRESSED-AIR BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
1.1. The response times of the service braking system shall be determined on the stationary
vehicle, the pressure being measured at the intake to the cylinder of the least favourably
placed brake. In the case of vehicles fitted with combined compressed-air/hydraulic braking
systems, the pressure may be measured at the opening of the least favourably placed
pneumatic unit. For vehicles equipped with load sensing valves, these devices shall be set in
the "laden" position.
1.2. During the test, the stroke of the brake cylinders of the various axles shall be that required for
brakes adjusted as closely as possible.
1.3. The response times determined in accordance with the provisions of this Annex shall be
rounded to the nearest tenth of a second. If the figure representing the hundredth is five or
more, the response time shall be rounded up to the next higher tenth.
2. POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES
2.1. At the beginning of each test, the pressure in the energy storage device shall be equal to the
pressure at which the governor restores the feed to the system. In systems not equipped with
a governor (e.g., pressure-limited compressors) the pressure in the energy storage device at
the beginning of each test shall be 90% of the pressure specified by the manufacturer and
defined in Paragraph 1.2.2.1. of Part A of Annex 7 to this Regulation, used for the tests
prescribed in this Annex.
2.2. The response times as a function of the actuating time (t ) shall be obtained by a succession
of full actuations, beginning with the shortest possible actuating time and increasing to a time
of about 0.4s. The measured values shall be plotted on a graph.
2.3. The response time to be taken into consideration for the purpose of the test is that
corresponding to an actuating time of 0.2s. This response time can be obtained from the
graph by interpolation.
2.4. For an actuating time of 0.2s, the time elapsing from the initiation of the braking system
control actuation to the moment when the pressure in the brake cylinder reaches 75% of its
asymptotic value shall not exceed 0.6s.

3. TRAILERS
3.1. The trailer's response times shall be measured without the power-driven vehicle. To replace
the power-driven vehicle, it is necessary to provide a simulator to which the coupling heads of
the supply line, the pneumatic control line and/or the connector of the electric control line are
connected.
3.2. The pressure in the supply line shall be 650kPa.
3.3. The simulator for pneumatic control lines shall have the following characteristics:
3.3.1. It shall have a reservoir with a capacity of 30l which shall be charged to a pressure of 650kPa
before each test and which shall not be recharged during each test. At the outlet of the
braking control device, the simulator shall incorporate an orifice with a diameter of from 4.0 to
4.3mm inclusive. The volume of the pipe measured from the orifice up to and including the
coupling head shall be 385 ± 5 cm (which is deemed to be equivalent to the volume of a pipe
2.5m long with an internal diameter of 13mm and under a pressure of 650kPa). The control
line pressures referred to in Paragraph 3.3.3. of this Annex shall be measured immediately
downstream of the orifice.
3.3.2. The braking system control shall be so designed that its performance in use is not affected by
the tester.
3.3.3. The simulator shall be set, e.g. through the choice of orifice in accordance with
Paragraph 3.3.1. of this Annex in such a way that, if a reservoir of 385cm ± 5cm is joined to
it, the time taken for the pressure to increase from 65 to 490kPa (10 and 75% respectively of
the nominal pressure of 650kPa) shall be 0.2s ± 0.01s. If a reservoir of 1155cm ± 15 cm is
substituted for the above-mentioned reservoir, the time taken for the pressure to increase
from 65 to 490kPa without further adjustment shall be 0.38s ± 0.02s. Between these two
pressure values, the pressure shall increase in an approximately linear way.
These reservoirs shall be connected to the coupling head without using flexible pipes. The
connection between the reservoirs and the coupling head shall have an internal diameter of
not less than 10mm.
The setting shall be carried out using a coupling head arrangement that is representative of
the type fitted to the trailer for which type approval is sought.
3.3.4. The diagrams in the Appendix to this Annex give an example of the correct configuration of
the simulator for setting and use.
3.4. The simulator for checking the response to signals transmitted via the electric control line
shall have the following characteristics:
3.4.1. The simulator shall produce a digital demand signal in the electric control line according to
ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007 and shall provide the appropriate information to the
trailer via Pins 6 and 7 of the ISO 7638:2003 connector. For the purpose of response time
measurement the simulator may at the manufacturer's request transmit to the trailer
information that no pneumatic control line is present and that the electric control line demand
signal is generated from two independent circuits (see Paragraphs 6.4.2.2.24. and 6.4.2.2.25.
of ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007).
3.4.2. The braking system control shall be so designed that its performance in use is not affected by
the tester.

ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX
EXAMPLE OF SIMULATOR
(See Annex 6, Paragraph 3)
1. Setting the simulator

3. Example of a simulator for electric control lines
ECL = electric control line corresponding to ISO 7638
SIMU = simulator of Byte 3, 4 of EBS 11 according to ISO 11992-2-2003 including its
Amd 1-2007 with output signals at start, 65kPa and 650kPa.
A = supply connection with shut-off valve
C2 = pressure switch to be connected to the brake actuator of the trailer, to operate at
75% of the asymptotic pressure in the brake actuator CF
CF = brake cylinder
M = pressure gauge
PP = pressure test connection
TA = coupling head, supply line
VRU = emergency relay valve

1.3. Trailers
1.3.1. The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) with which trailers are equipped shall be such
that, after eight full-stroke actuations of the towing vehicle's service braking system, the
energy level supplied to the operating members using the energy does not fall below a level
equivalent to one-half of the figure obtained at the first brake application and without actuating
either the automatic or the parking braking system of the trailer.
1.3.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
1.3.2.1. The pressure in the energy storage devices at the beginning of each test shall be 850kPa;
1.3.2.2. The supply line shall be stopped; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary
equipment shall be isolated;
1.3.2.3. The energy storage devices shall not be replenished during the test;
1.3.2.4. At each brake application, the pressure in the pneumatic control line shall be 750kPa.
1.3.2.5. At each brake application, the digital demand value in the electric control line shall be
corresponding to a pressure of 750kPa.
2. CAPACITY OF ENERGY SOURCES
2.1. General
The compressors shall meet the requirements set forth in the following Paragraphs.
2.2. Definitions
2.2.1. "p " is the pressure corresponding to 65% of the pressure p defined in Paragraph 2.2.2.
below.
2.2.2. "p " is the value specified by the manufacturer and referred to in Paragraph 1.2.2.1. above.
2.2.3. "t " is the time required for the relative pressure to rise from 0 to p , and "t " is the time
required for the relative pressure to rise from 0 to p .
2.3. Conditions of Measurement
2.3.1. In all cases, the speed of the compressor shall be that obtained when the engine is running at
the speed corresponding to its maximum power or at the speed allowed by the governor.
2.3.2. During the tests to determine the time t and the time t , the energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
2.3.3. If it is intended to attach a trailer to a power-driven vehicle, the trailer shall be represented by
an energy storage device whose maximum relative pressure p (expressed in kPa/100) is that
which can be supplied through the towing vehicle's supply circuit and whose volume V,
expressed in litres, is given by the formula p × V = 20 R (R being the permissible maximum
mass, in t, on the axles of the trailer).

B. VACUUM BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. CAPACITY OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES (ENERGY RESERVOIRS)
1.1. General
1.1.1. Vehicles on which operation of the braking system requires the use of a vacuum shall be
equipped with energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of a capacity meeting the
requirements of Paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this Annex (Part B).
1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if
the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible to achieve
a braking performance at least equal to that prescribed for the secondary braking system.
1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of Paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this Annex, the
brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible.
1.2. Power-Driven Vehicles
1.2.1. The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of power-driven vehicles shall be such that it
is still possible to achieve the performance prescribed for the secondary braking system:
1.2.1.1. After eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control where the energy
source is a vacuum pump; and
1.2.1.2. After four full-stroke actuations of the service brake control where the energy source is the
engine.
1.2.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
1.2.2.1. The initial energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the
manufacturer. It shall be such as to enable the prescribed performance of the service
braking system to be achieved and shall correspond to a vacuum not exceeding 90% of the
maximum vacuum furnished by the energy source;
1.2.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition any energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated;
1.2.2.3. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorised to tow a trailer, the supply line shall be
stopped and an energy storage device of 0.5l capacity shall be connected to the control line.
After the test referred to in Paragraph 1.2.1. above, the vacuum level provided at the control
line shall not have fallen below a level equivalent to one-half of the figure obtained at the first
brake application.

C. HYDRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEMS WITH STORED ENERGY
1. CAPACITY OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES (ENERGY ACCUMULATORS)
1.1. General
1.1.1. Vehicles on which operation of the braking system requires the use of stored energy provided
by hydraulic fluid under pressure shall be equipped with energy storage devices (energy
accumulators) of a capacity meeting the requirements of Paragraph 1.2. of this Annex
(Part C).
1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if
the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible with the
service braking system control to achieve a braking performance at least equal to that
prescribed for the secondary braking system.
1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of Paragraphs 1.2.1., 1.2.2. and 2.1. of this
Annex, the brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible and, for Paragraph 1.2.1., the rate
of full-stroke actuations must be such as to provide an interval of at least 60s between each
actuation.
1.2. Power-Driven Vehicles
1.2.1. Power-driven vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy shall
meet the following requirements:
1.2.1.1. After eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control, it shall still be possible
to achieve, on the ninth application, the performance prescribed for the secondary braking
system.
1.2.1.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
1.2.1.2.1. Testing shall commence at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but is not
higher than the cut-in pressure;
1.2.1.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
1.2.2. Power-driven-vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy which
cannot meet the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.1.5.1. of this Regulation shall be deemed to
satisfy that Paragraph if the following requirements are met:
1.2.2.1. After any single transmission failure it shall still be possible after eight full-stroke actuations of
the service braking system control, to achieve, at the ninth application, at least the
performance prescribed for the secondary braking system or, where secondary performance
requiring the use of stored energy is achieved by a separate control, it shall still be possible
after eight full-stroke actuations to achieve, at the ninth application, the residual performance
prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.4. of this Regulation.

1. DEFINITION
ANNEX 8
PROVISIONS RELATING TO SPECIFIC CONDITIONS FOR
SPRING BRAKING SYSTEMS
1.1. "Spring braking systems" are braking systems in which the energy required for braking is
supplied by one or more springs acting as an energy storage device (energy accumulator)
1.1.1. The energy necessary to compress the spring in order to release the brake is supplied and
controlled by the "control" actuated by the driver (see definition in Paragraph 2.4. of this
Regulation).
1.2. "Spring compression chamber" means the chamber where the pressure variation that
induces the compression of the spring is actually produced.
1.3. If the compression of the springs is obtained by means of a vacuum device, "pressure" shall
mean negative pressure everywhere in this Annex.
2. GENERAL
2.1. A spring braking system shall not be used as a service braking system. However, in the event
of a failure in a part of the transmission of the service braking system, a spring braking
system may be used to achieve the residual performance prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.4. of
this Regulation provided that the driver can graduate this action. In the case of power-driven
vehicles, with the exception of tractors for semi-trailers meeting the requirements specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.4.1 of this Regulation, the spring braking system shall not be the sole source
of residual braking. Vacuum spring braking systems shall not be used for trailers.
2.2. A small variation in any of the pressure limits which may occur in the spring compression
chamber feed circuit shall not cause a significant variation in the braking force.
2.3. The following requirements shall apply to power-driven vehicles equipped with spring brakes:
2.3.1. The feed circuit to the spring compression chamber shall either include an own energy
reserve or shall be fed from at least two independent energy reserves. The trailer supply line
may be branched from this feed line under the condition that a pressure drop in the trailer
supply line shall not be able to apply the spring brake actuators.
2.3.2. Auxiliary equipment may only draw its energy from the feed line for the spring brake actuators
under the condition that its operation, even in the event of damage to the energy source,
cannot cause the energy reserve for the spring brake actuators to fall below a level from
which one release of the spring brake actuators is possible.
2.3.3. In any case, during re-charging of the braking system from zero pressure, the spring brakes
shall remain fully applied irrespective of the position of the control device until the pressure in
the service braking system is sufficient to ensure at least the prescribed secondary braking
performance of the laden vehicle, using the service braking system control.
2.3.4. Once applied, the spring brakes shall not release unless there is sufficient pressure in the
service braking system to at least provide the prescribed residual braking performance of the
laden vehicle by application of the service braking control.

3. AUXILIARY RELEASE SYSTEM
3.1. A spring braking system shall be so designed that, in the event of a failure in that system, it is
still possible to release the brakes. This may be achieved by the use of an auxiliary release
device (pneumatic, mechanical, etc.).
Auxiliary release devices using an energy reserve for releasing shall draw their energy from
an energy reserve which is independent from the energy reserve normally used for the spring
braking system. The pneumatic or hydraulic fluid in such an auxiliary release device may act
on the same piston surface in the spring compression chamber which is used for the normal
spring braking system under the condition that the auxiliary release device uses a separate
line. The junction of this line with the normal line connecting the control device with the spring
brake actuators shall be at each spring brake actuator immediately before the port to the
spring compression chamber, if not integrated in the body of the actuator. This junction shall
include a device which prevents an influence of one line on the other. The requirements of
Paragraph 5.2.1.6. of this Regulation also apply to this device.
3.1.1. For the purposes of the requirement of Paragraph 3.1. above, components of the braking
system transmission shall not be regarded as subject to failure if under the terms of
Paragraph 5.2.1.2.7. of this Regulation they are not regarded as liable to breakage, provided
that they are made of metal or of a material having similar characteristics and do not undergo
significant distortion in normal braking.
3.2. If the operation of the auxiliary device referred to in Paragraph 3.1. above requires the use of
a tool or spanner, the tool or spanner shall be kept on the vehicle.
3.3. Where an auxiliary release system utilizes stored energy to release the spring brakes the
following additional requirements shall apply:
3.3.1. Where the control of the auxiliary spring brake release system is the same as that used for
the secondary/parking brake, the requirements defined in Paragraph 2.3 above shall apply in
all cases.
3.3.2. Where the control for the auxiliary spring brake release system is separate to the
secondary/parking brake control, the requirements defined in Paragraph 2.3 above shall apply
to both control systems. However, the requirements of Paragraph 2.3.4 above shall not apply
to the auxiliary spring brake release system. In addition the auxiliary release control shall be
located so that it is protected against application by the driver from the normal driving
position.
3.4. If compressed air is used in the auxiliary release system, the system should be activated by a
separate control, not connected to the spring brake control.

ANNEX 10
DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING AMONG THE AXLES OF VEHICLES AND REQUIREMENTS
FOR COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN TOWING VEHICLES AND TRAILERS
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Vehicles of Categories M , M , N, O , O and O shall meet all the requirements of this Annex.
If a special device is used, this shall operate automatically.
However, vehicles in the above Categories which are equipped with an anti-lock braking
system and fulfil the relevant requirements of Annex 13, shall also fulfil all the relevant
requirements of this Annex with the following exceptions:
(a) Compliance with the adhesion utilization requirements associated with Diagrams 1A,
1B or 1C, as appropriate, is not required.
(b)
In the case of towing vehicles and trailers, equipped with a compressed air braking
system, compliance with the unladen compatibility requirements associated with
Diagrams 2, 3 or 4, as appropriate, is not required. However, for all load conditions, a
braking rate shall be developed between a pressure of 20kPa and 100kPa or the
equivalent digital demand value at the coupling head of the control line(s).
1.1.1. Where a vehicle is installed with an endurance braking system the retarding force shall not be
taken into consideration when determining the vehicle performance with respect to the
provisions of this Annex.
1.2. The requirements relating to the diagrams specified in Paragraphs 3.1.5., 3.1.6., 4.1., 5.1. and
5.2. of this Annex, are valid both for vehicles with a pneumatic control line according to
Paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation and for vehicles with an electric control line according
to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. of this Regulation. In both cases, the reference value (abscissa of the
diagrams) will be the value of the transmitted pressure in the control line:
(a)
(b)
for vehicles equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation, this will be
the actual pneumatic pressure in the control line (p );
for vehicles equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. of this Regulation, this will be
the pressure corresponding to the transmitted digital demand value in the electric
control line, according to ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its
Amd.1:2007.
Vehicles equipped according to Paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. of this Regulation (with both pneumatic
and electric control lines) shall satisfy the requirements of the diagrams related to both control
lines. However, identical braking characteristic curves related to both control lines are not
required.

2. SYMBOLS
i = axle index (i = 1, front axle; i = 2, second axle; etc.)
P = normal reaction of road surface on axle i under static conditions
N = normal reaction of road surface on axle i under braking
T = force exerted by the brakes on axle i under normal braking conditions on the road
f = T /N , adhesion utilised by axle i
J = deceleration of vehicle
g = acceleration due to gravity: g = 9.81m/s
z = braking rate of vehicle = J/g
P = mass of vehicle
h
=
height above ground of centre of gravity specified by the manufacturer and agreed
by the Technical Services conducting the approval test
E = wheelbase
k = theoretical coefficient of adhesion between tyre and road
K = correction factor: semi-trailer laden
K = correction factor: semi-trailer unladen
T =
sum of braking forces at the periphery of all wheels of towing vehicles for trailers
P
= total normal static reaction of road surface on wheels of towing vehicles for trailers

3.1.2.3. For all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30 in the case of vehicles of other categories;
This condition is also considered satisfied if, for braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the
adhesion utilisation curves for each axle are situated between two lines parallel to the line of
ideal adhesion utilisation given by the equation k = z ± 0.08 as shown in Diagram 1B of this
Annex and the adhesion utilisation curve for the rear axle for braking rates z ≥0.3 complies
with the relation
z ≥ 0.3 + 0.74 (k - 0.38).
3.1.3. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorised to tow trailers of Category O or O fitted with
compressed-air braking systems.
3.1.3.1. When tested with the energy source stopped, the supply line blocked off, a reservoir of 0.5l
capacity connected to the pneumatic control line, and the system at cut-in and cut-out
pressures, the pressure at full application of the braking control shall be between 650 and
850kPa at the coupling heads of the supply line and the pneumatic control line, irrespective of
the load condition of the vehicle.
3.1.3.2. For vehicles equipped with an electric control line; a full application of the control of the
service braking system shall provide a digital demand value corresponding to a pressure
between 650 and 850kPa (see ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its
Amd.1:2007).
3.1.3.3. These values shall be demonstrably present in the power-driven vehicle when uncoupled
from the trailer. The compatibility bands in the diagrams specified in Paragraphs 3.1.5., 3.1.6.,
4.1., 5.1. and 5.2. of this Annex, should not be extended beyond 750kPa and/or the
corresponding digital demand value (see ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its
Amd.1:2007).
3.1.3.4. It shall be ensured that at the coupling head of the supply line, a pressure of at least 700kPa
is available when the system is at cut-in pressure. This pressure shall be demonstrated
without applying the service brakes.
3.1.4. Verification of the requirements of Paragraphs 3.1.1. and 3.1.2.
3.1.4.1. In order to verify the requirements of Paragraphs 3.1.1. and 3.1.2. of this Annex, the
manufacturer shall provide the adhesion utilisation curves for the front and rear axles
calculated by the formulae:
f
T
=
N
=
P
T
h
+ z ⋅ ⋅ P ⋅ g
E
f
T
=
N
=
P
T
h
− z ⋅ ⋅ P ⋅ g
E
The curves shall be plotted for both the following load conditions:

3.1.6. Tractors for Semi-trailers
3.1.6.1. Tractors with unladen semi-trailer. An unladen combination is understood to be a tractor in
running order, with the driver on board, coupled to an unladen semi-trailer. The dynamic load
of the semi-trailer on the tractor shall be represented by a static mass P mounted at the fifth
wheel coupling equal to 15% of the maximum mass on the coupling. The braking forces shall
continue to be regulated between the state of the "tractor with unladen semi-trailer" and that
of the "tractor alone"; the braking forces relating to the "tractor alone" shall be verified.
3.1.6.2. Tractors with laden semi-trailer. A laden combination is understood to be a tractor in running
order, with the driver on board, coupled to a laden semi-trailer. The dynamic load of the
semi-trailer on the tractor shall be represented by a static mass P mounted at the fifth wheel
coupling equal to:
where:
P = P (1 + 0.45z)
P represents the difference between the maximum laden mass of the tractor and its
unladen mass.
For h the following value shall be taken:
h
h =
× P
+ h
P
× P
where:
h
h
P
is the height of the centre of gravity of the tractor;
is the height of the coupling on which the semi-trailer rests;
is the unladen mass of the tractor alone
and:
P = P
+ P
P
=
+ P
g
3.1.6.3. In the case of a vehicle fitted with a compressed-air braking system, the permissible
relationship between the braking rate T /P and the pressure p shall be within the areas
shown on Diagram 3 of this Annex for all pressures between 20 and 750kPa.
3.2. Vehicles with More Than Two Axles.
The requirements of Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex shall apply to vehicles with more than
two axles. The requirements of Paragraph 3.1.2. of this Annex with respect to wheel lock
sequence shall be considered to be met if, in the case of braking rates between 0.15 and
0.30, the adhesion utilised by at least one of the front axles is greater than that utilised by at
least one of the rear axles.

5.2. For Centre-axle Trailers Fitted with Compressed-air Braking Systems:
5.2.1. The permissible relationship between the braking rate T /P and the pressure p shall lie
within two areas derived from Diagram 2 of this Annex, by multiplying the vertical scale by
0.95. This requirement shall be met at all pressures between 20 and 750kPa, in both the
laden and unladen states of load.
5.2.2. If the requirements of Paragraph 3.1.2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation cannot be satisfied
due to lack of adhesion, then the centre-axle trailer shall be fitted with an anti-lock system
complying with Annex 13 to this Regulation.
6. REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET IN CASE OF FAILURE OF THE BRAKING DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
When the requirements of this Annex are fulfilled by means of a special device
(e.g. controlled mechanically by the suspension of the vehicle), or if the vehicle is equipped
with such a special device, it shall be possible, in the event of the failure of its control, to stop
the vehicle under the conditions specified for secondary braking in the case of power-driven
vehicles; for those power-driven vehicles authorised to tow a trailer fitted with compressed-air
braking systems, it shall be possible to achieve a pressure at the coupling head of the control
line within the range specified in Paragraph 3.1.3. of this Annex. In the event of failure of the
control of the device on trailers, a service braking performance of at least 30% of that
prescribed for the vehicle in question shall be attained.
7. MARKINGS
7.1. Vehicles, which meet the requirements of this Annex by means of a device mechanically
controlled by the suspension of the vehicle or if the vehicle is equipped with such a device,
shall be marked to show the useful travel of the device between the positions corresponding
to vehicle unladen and laden states, respectively, and any further information to enable the
setting of the device to be checked.
7.1.1. When a brake load sensing device is controlled via the suspension of the vehicle by any other
means, the vehicle shall be marked with information to enable the setting of the device to be
checked.
7.2. When the requirements of this Annex are met by means of a device which modulates the air
pressure in the brake transmission, the vehicle shall be marked to show the axle loads at the
ground, the nominal outlet pressures of the device and an inlet pressure of not less than 80%
of the maximum design inlet pressure, as declared by the vehicle manufacturer, for the
following states of load:
7.2.1. Technically permissible maximum axle load for the axle(s) which control(s) the device;
7.2.2. Axle load(s) corresponding to the unladen mass of the vehicle in running order as stated in
Paragraph 13 of Annex 2 to this Regulation;
7.2.3. The axle load(s) approximating to the vehicle with proposed bodywork in running order where
the axle load(s) mentioned in Paragraph 7.2.2. of this Annex relate(s) to the vehicle chassis
with cab;
7.2.4. The axle load(s) designated by the manufacturer to enable the setting of the device to be
checked in service if this is (these are) different from the loads specified in Paragraphs 7.2.1.
to 7.2.3. of this Annex.

Diagram 1B
Vehicles other than those of Category N and Full Trailers
(see Paragraphs 3.1.2.3. and 5.1.1.2. of this Annex)
Note:
The lower limit k = z - 0.08 is not applicable for the adhesion utilisation of the rear axle.

Diagram 2
Towing Vehicles and Trailers
(except tractors for semi-trailers and semi-trailers)
(see-Paragraph 3.1.5.1. of this Annex)
Note:
The relationships required by the diagram shall apply progressively for intermediate states of
loading between the laden and the unladen states and shall be achieved by automatic
means.

Diagram 4A
Semi -Trailers
(see Paragraph 4 of this Annex)
Note:
The relation between the braking rate T /P and the control line pressure for the laden and
unladen conditions is determined as follows:
The factors K (laden), K (unladen) are obtained by reference to Diagram 4B. To determine
the areas corresponding to the laden and unladen conditions, the values of the ordinates of
the upper and lower limits of the hatched area in Diagram 4A are multiplied by the factors K
and K respectively.

EXPLANATORY NOTE ON THE USE OF DIAGRAM 4B
1. Formula from which Diagram 4B is derived:
⎡ 0.7 P
K = ⎢1.7

⎣ P




⎢1.35

⎢⎣
0.96
E

⎜1.0
+

g . P ⎞⎤
⎟⎥
P ⎠⎥⎦



⎤ h − 1.0
⎥ ⎢
⎦ ⎣ 2.5
⎡ ⎤
( h − 1.2) ⎟ − 1.0 −
⎥ ⎦
P
P
2. Description of method of use with practical example.
2.1. The broken lines shown on Diagram 4B refer to the determination of the factors K and K for
the following vehicle, where:
Laden
Unladen
P 24t (240kN) 4.2t (42kN)
P 150kN 30kN
P 150kN 150kN
h 1.8m 1.4m
E 6.0m 6.0m
In the following Paragraphs the figures in parentheses relate only to the vehicle being used
for the purpose of illustrating the method of using Diagram 4B.
2.2. Calculation of ratios
(a)
⎡g . P⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ P ⎦
laden (= 1.6)
(b)
⎡g . P⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ P ⎦
unladen (= 1.4)
(c)
⎡ P

⎣P



unladen (= 0.2)
2.3. Determination of the correction factor when laden, K :
(a)
Start at the appropriate value of h (h = 1.8m);
(b) Move horizontally to the appropriate g · P/P line (g · P/P = 1.6);
(c)
Move vertically to the appropriate E line (E = 6.0m);
(d) Move horizontally to the K scale; K is the laden correction factor required (K = 1.04).

ANNEX 11
CASES IN WHICH TYPE-I AND/OR TYPE-II (OR TYPE-IIA) OR TYPE-III TESTS
DO NOT HAVE TO BE CARRIED OUT
1. Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests need not be performed on a vehicle
submitted for approval in the following cases:
1.1. The vehicle concerned is a power-driven vehicle or a trailer which, as regards tyres, braking
energy absorbed per axle, and mode of tyre fitting and brake assembly, is identical with
respect to braking with a power-driven vehicle or a trailer which:
1.1.1. Has passed the Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test; and
1.1.2. Has been approved, with regard to the braking energy absorbed, for mass per axle not lower
than that of the vehicle concerned.
1.2. The vehicle concerned is a power-driven vehicle or a trailer whose axle or axles are, as
regards tyres, braking energy absorbed per axle, and mode of tyre fitting and brake assembly,
identical with respect to braking with an axle or axles which have individually passed the
Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test for masses per axle not lower than that of
the vehicle concerned, provided that the braking energy absorbed per axle does not exceed
the energy absorbed per axle in the reference test or tests carried out on the individual axle.
1.3. The vehicle concerned is equipped with an endurance braking system, other than the engine
brake, identical with an endurance braking system already tested under the following
conditions:
1.3.1. The endurance braking system shall, by itself, in a test carried out on a gradient of at least 6%
(Type-II test) or of at least 7% (Type-IIA test), have stabilised a vehicle whose maximum
mass at the time of the test was not less than the maximum mass of the vehicle submitted for
approval;
1.3.2. It shall be verified in the above test that the rotational speed of the rotating parts of the
endurance braking system, when the vehicle submitted for approval reaches a road speed of
30km/h, is such that the retarding torque is not less than that corresponding to the test
referred to in Paragraph 1.3.1. above.
1.4. The vehicle concerned is a trailer equipped with air operated S-cam or disc brakes which
satisfies the verification requirements of Appendix 2 to this Annex relative to the control of
characteristics compared to the characteristics given in a report of a reference axle test as
shown in Appendix 3 to this Annex.

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 1
Table I
Axle 1
Axle 2
Axle 3
Axle 4
Static mass
(P)
Axles of the vehicle
Braking
force
needed at
wheels
Speed
Test mass
(P )
Reference axles
Braking
force
developed
at wheels
Speed
kg N km/h kg N km/h
Table II
Total mass of the vehicle submitted for approval ................................................................................... kg
Braking force needed at wheels .............................................................................................................. N
Retarding torque needed at main shaft of endurance braking system ................................................ Nm
Retarding torque obtained at main shaft of endurance braking system (according to diagram)
.............................................................................................................................................................. Nm

1. GENERAL
ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 2
ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES FOR TYPE-I AND TYPE-III TESTS FOR
TRAILER BRAKES
1.1. In accordance with Paragraph 1.4. of this Annex, the Type-I or Type-III test may be waived at
the time of type approval of the vehicle provided that the braking system components comply
with the requirements of this Appendix and that the resulting predicted braking performance
meets the requirements of this Regulation for the appropriate vehicle category.
1.2. Tests carried out in accordance with the methods detailed in this Appendix shall be deemed
to meet the above requirements.
1.2.1. Tests carried out according to with Paragraph 3.5.1. of this Appendix from and including
Supplement 7 to the 09 series of amendments, which were positive, are deemed to fulfil the
provisions of Paragraph 3.5.1. of this Appendix, as last amended. If use is made of this
alternative procedure, the test report shall make reference to the original test report from
which the test results are taken for the new updated report. However, new tests have to be
carried out to the requirements of the latest amended version of this Regulation.
1.2.2. Tests carried out in accordance with this Appendix prior to Supplement 2 to the 11 series of
amendments to this Regulation which, together with any supporting data from the
vehicle/axle/brake manufacturer, provide sufficient information to meet the requirements of
Supplement 2 to the 11 series of amendments can be used for a new report or the extension
of an existing test report without the need to carry-out actual tests.
1.3. Tests carried out in accordance with Paragraph 3.6. of this Appendix and the results reported
in Section 2 of Appendix 3 or Appendix 4 to this Annex shall be acceptable as a means of
proving compliance with the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of this Regulation.
1.4. The adjustment of the brake(s) shall, prior to the Type-III test below, be set according to the
following procedures as appropriate:
1.4.1. In the case of air operated trailer brake(s), the adjustment of the brakes shall be such as to
enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the actuator
stroke shall be adjusted to:
S ≥ 1.1 × s
(the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the
manufacturer),
where:
s is the re-adjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of
the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. the stroke, where it starts to re-adjust
the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 100kPa.
Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator
stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service.
From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 200kPa,
50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator
pressure of ≥650kPa.

r = internal radius of brake drums or effective radius of brake discs
p = brake actuation pressure
Note: Symbols with the suffix "e" relate to the parameters associated with the reference brake
test and may be added to other symbols as appropriate.
2.2. Definitions
2.2.1. Mass of a Disc or Drum
2.2.1.1. The "declared mass" is the mass declared by the manufacturer which is a representative
mass for the brake identifier (see Paragraph 3.7.2.2 of this Appendix).
2.2.1.2. The "nominal test mass" is the mass which the manufacturer specifies for the disc or drum
with which the relevant test is carried out by the Technical Service.
2.2.1.3. The "actual test mass" is the mass measured by the Technical Service prior to the test.
2.2.2. "Brake Input Threshold Torque"
2.2.2.1. The brake input threshold torque "C " is the input torque necessary to produce a measurable
brake torque. This torque may be determined by extrapolation of measurements within a
range not exceeding 15% braking rate or other equivalent methods (e.g. Annex 10,
Paragraph 1.3.1.1).
2.2.2.2. The brake input threshold torque "C " is the brake input threshold torque declared by the
manufacturer which is a representative brake input threshold torque for the brake (see
Paragraph 3.7.2.2.1 of this Appendix) and is needed to produce Diagram 2 of
Annex 19 – Part 1.
2.2.2.3. The brake input threshold torque "C " is determined by the procedure as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.2.1 above, measured by the Technical Service at the end of the test.
2.2.3. "External Diameter of a Disc"
2.2.3.1. The "declared external diameter" is the external diameter of a disc declared by the
manufacturer which is a representative external diameter for the disc (see
Paragraph 3.7.2.2.1 of this Appendix).
2.2.3.2. The "nominal external diameter" is the external diameter which the manufacturer specifies
for the disc on which the relevant test is carried out by the Technical Service.
2.2.3.3. The "actual external diameter" is the external measured by the Technical Service prior to
the test.
2.2.4. The "effective length of the cam shaft" is the distance from the centre line of the S-cam to
the centre line of the operating lever.

3.1.5. The initial speed of the test shall be that prescribed. The final speed shall be calculated by the
following formula:
v
= v
P
P + P
+ P + P
where
v = initial speed (km/h)
v = final speed (km/h)
P = mass of the towing vehicle (kg) under test conditions
P = part of the mass of the trailer borne by the unbraked axle(s) (kg)
P = part of the mass of the trailer borne by the braked axle(s) (kg).
3.2. Inertia Dynamometer Tests
3.2.1. The test machine shall have a rotary inertia simulating that part of the linear inertia of the
vehicle mass acting upon one wheel, necessary for the cold performance and hot
performance tests, and capable of being operated at constant speed for the purpose of the
test described in Paragraphs 3.5.2. and 3.5.3. of this Appendix.
3.2.2. The test shall be carried out with a complete wheel, including the tyre, mounted on the
moving part of the brake, as it would be on the vehicle. The inertia mass may be connected to
the brake either directly or via the tyres and wheels.
3.2.3. Air cooling at a velocity and air flow direction simulating actual conditions may be used during
the heating runs, the speed of air flow being
where:
v = 0.33v
v = vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.
The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature.
3.2.4. Where the tyre rolling resistance is not automatically compensated for in the test, the torque
applied to the brake shall be modified by subtracting a torque equivalent to a rolling
resistance coefficient of 0.01.

3.5.1.1. This test is carried out at an initial speed equivalent to 40km/h in the case of Type-I test and
60km/h in the case of Type-III test in order to evaluate the hot braking performance at the end
of the Type-I and Type-III tests. The Type-I and/or Type-III fade test has/have to be done
immediately after this cold performance test.
3.5.1.2. Three brake applications are made at the same pressure (p) and at an initial speed equivalent
to 40km/h, (in the case of Type-I test) or 60km/h (in the case of Type-III test), with an
approximately equal initial brake temperature not exceeding 100°C, measured at the outside
surface of the drums or discs. The applications shall be at the brake actuator pressure
required to give a brake torque or force equivalent to a braking rate (z) of at least 50%. The
brake actuator pressure shall not exceed 650kPa, and the brake input torque (C) shall not
exceed the maximum permissible brake input torque (C ). The average of the three results
shall be taken as the cold performance.
3.5.2. Fade Tests (Type-I Test)
3.5.2.1. This test is carried out at a speed equivalent to 40km/h with an initial brake temperature not
exceeding 100°C, measured at the outside surface of the drum or brake disc.
3.5.2.2. A braking rate is maintained at 7%, including the rolling resistance (see Paragraph 3.2.4. of
this Appendix).
3.5.2.3. The test is made during 2min and 33s or during 1.7km at a vehicle speed of 40km/h. If the
test velocity cannot be achieved, then the duration of the test can be lengthened according to
Paragraph 1.5.2.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
3.5.2.4. Not later than 60s after the end of the Type-I test, a hot performance test is carried out in
accordance with Paragraph 1.5.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation at an initial speed equivalent
to 40km/h. The brake actuator pressure shall be that used during the Type-0 test.
3.5.3. Fade Test (Type-III Test)
3.5.3.1. Test methods for repeated braking
3.5.3.1.1. Track Tests (See Annex 4, Paragraph 1.7)
3.5.3.1.2. Inertia Dynamometer Test
For the bench test as in Annex 11, Appendix 2, Paragraph 3.2., the conditions may be as for
the road test according to Paragraph 1.7.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation with:
v
v =
2

3.6.3. Free Running Test
After completing the tests defined in Paragraphs 3.6.1. or 3.6.2. above, as applicable, the
brake(s) shall be allowed to cool to a temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤100°C)
and it should be verified that the trailer/wheel(s) is capable of free running by fulfilling one of
the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
Wheels are running freely (i.e. wheels can be rotated by hand).
It is ascertained that at a constant speed equivalent to v = 60km/h with the brake(s)
released the asymptotic temperature shall not exceed a drum/disc temperature
increase of 80°C, then this residual brake moment is regarded as acceptable.
3.7. Identification
3.7.1. The axle shall carry in a visible position at least the following identification information
grouped together, in any order, in a legible and indelible manner:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Axle manufacturer and/or make;
Axle identifier (see Paragraph 3.7.2.1 of this Appendix);
Brake identifier (see Paragraph 3.7.2.2 of this Appendix);
F identifier (see Paragraph 3.7.2.3 of this Appendix);
Base part of test report number (see Paragraph 3.9 of this Appendix).
An example is given below:
Axle Manufacturer and/or make ABC
ID1-XXXXXX
ID2-YYYYYY
ID3-11200
ID4-ZZZZZZZ
3.7.1.1. A non-integrated automatic brake adjustment device shall carry in a visible position at least
the following identification grouped together, in a legible and indelible manner:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Manufacturer and/or make;
Type;
Version.
3.7.1.2. The make and type of each brake lining shall be visible when the lining/pad is mounted on the
brake shoe/back plate in a legible and indelible manner.

3.7.2.2.1. Differences Allowed within the Same Brake Identifier
The same brake identifier may include different brake characteristics with regard to the
following criteria:
(a) Increase in maximum declared brake input torque C ;
(b) Deviation of declared brake disc and brake drum mass m : ±20%;
(c)
(d)
(e)
Method of attachment of the lining/pad on the brake shoe/back plate;
In the case of disc brakes, increase of maximum stroke capability of the brake;
Effective length of the cam shaft;
(f) Declared threshold torque C ;
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
±5mm from the declared external diameter of the disc;
Type of cooling of the disc (ventilated/non-ventilated);
Hub (with or without integrated hub);
Disc with integrated drum − with or without parking brake function;
Geometric relationship between disc friction surfaces and disc mounting;
Brake lining type;
Material variations (excluding changes in base material, see Paragraph 3.7.2.2) for
which the manufacturer confirms that such a material variation does not change the
performance with respect to the required tests;
Back plate and shoes.
3.7.2.3. F Identifier
The F identifier indicates the test axle load. It shall be an alphanumeric number consisting of
the four characters "ID3-" followed by the F value in daN, without the "daN" unit identifier.
3.7.2.4. Test Report Identifier
The test report identifier shall be an alphanumeric number consisting of the four characters
"ID4-" followed by the base part of the test report number.

Differences according to
Paragraph 3.7.2.2.1 above
Test criteria
(a) Increase in maximum declared brake
input torque C
(b) Deviation of declared brake disc and
brake drum mass m : ±20%
Change allowed without additional testing
CT: The lightest variant shall be tested if the nominal test mass
for a new variant deviates less than 5% from a previously
tested variant with a higher nominal value then the test of the
lighter version may be dispensed with.
The actual test mass of the test specimen may vary ±5% from
the nominal test mass.
(c) Method of attachment of the
lining/pad on the brake shoe/back
plate
(d) In the case of disc brakes, increase
of maximum stroke capability of the
brake
(e) Effective length of the cam shaft
(f) Declared threshold torque C
(g) °5mm from the declared external
diameter of the disc
(h) Type of cooling of the disc
(ventilated/non-ventilated)
The worst case specified by the manufacturer and agreed by
the Technical Services conducting the test
Change allowed without additional testing
The worst case is considered to be the lowest cam shaft
torsional stiffness and shall be verified by either:
(i) FT or
(ii) Change allowed without additional testing if by calculation
the influence with respect to stroke and braking force can
be shown. In this case the test report shall indicate the
following extrapolated values: s , C , T , T /F ,
It shall be checked that the brake performance remains within
the corridors of Diagram 2 of Annex 19 – Part 1.
The worst case test is considered the smallest diameter
The actual external diameter of the test specimen may vary
±1mm from the nominal external diameter specified by the axle
manufacturer.
Each type shall be tested
(i) Hub (with or without integrated hub) Each type shall be tested
(j) Disc with integrated drum − with or
without parking brake function
(k) Geometric relationship between disc
friction surfaces and disc mounting
(l) Brake lining type
Testing is not required for this feature
Testing is not required for this feature
Each type of brake lining

3.9.4. Information Document
An information document, provided by the axle or vehicle manufacturer, containing at least
the information defined in Appendix 5 to this Annex shall be part of the Test Report.
The information document shall identify, if applicable, the various variants of the brake/axle
equipment with respect to the essential criteria listed in Paragraph 3.7.2.2.1 above.
4. VERIFICATION
4.1. Verification of Components
The brake specification of the vehicle to be type approved shall comply with the requirements
laid down in Paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8 above.
4.2. Verification of Brake Energy Absorbed
4.2.1. The brake forces (T) for each subject brake (for the same control line pressure p ) necessary
to produce the drag force specified for both Type-I and Type-III test conditions shall not
exceed the values T as stated in Annex 11 - Appendix 3, Paragraphs 2.3.1. and 2.3.2., which
were taken as a basis for the test of the reference brake.
4.3. Verification of Hot Performance
4.3.1. The brake force (T) for each subject brake for a specified pressure (p) in the actuators and for
a control line pressure (p ) used during the Type-0 test of the subject trailer is determined as
follows:
4.3.1.1. The predicted actuator stroke (s) of the subject brake is calculated as follows:
s
s = l ⋅
l
This value shall not exceed s . Where s has been verified and reported in accordance with
the procedure defined in Item Paragraph 2 of Annex 19 – Part 1 to this Regulation and may
only be applied within the pressure range recorded in Paragraph 3.3.1 of the test report
defined in Appendix 1 of Annex 19.
4.3.1.2. The average thrust output (Th ) of the actuator fitted to the subject brake at the pressure
specified in Paragraph 4.3.1. above is measured.
4.3.1.3. The brake input torque (C) is then calculated as follows:
C shall not exceed C .
C = Th . l

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 3
MODEL TEST REPORT FORM AS PRESCRIBED IN
PARAGRAPH 3.9. OF APPENDIX 2 TO THIS ANNEX
TEST REPORT NO. .............................................
Base part: ID4-
.............................................
Suffix:
.............................................
1. GENERAL
1.1. Axle manufacturer (name and address): .....................................................................................
1.1.1. Make of axle manufacturer: .........................................................................................................
1.2. Brake manufacturer (name and address): ...................................................................................
1.2.1. brake identifier ID2-: ....................................................................................................................
1.2.2. Automatic brake adjustment device: integrated/non-integrated
1.3. Manufacturer's Information Document: .......................................................................................
2. TEST RECORD
The following data has to be recorded for each test:
2.1. Test code (see Paragraph 3.9.2. of Appendix 2 of this Annex): ..................................................
2.2. Test specimen: (precise identification of the variant tested related to the Manufacturer's
Information Document. See also Paragraph 3.9.2. of Appendix 2 of this Annex)
2.2.1. Axle
2.2.1.1. Axle identifier: ID1- ......................................................................................................................
2.2.1.2. Identification of tested axle: .........................................................................................................
2.2.1.3. Test axle load (F identifier): ID3- ......................................................................................... daN
2.2.2. Brake
2.2.2.1. Brake identifier: ID2- ....................................................................................................................
2.2.2.2. Identification of tested brake: .......................................................................................................
2.2.2.3. Maximum stroke capability of the brake : ..................................................................................
2.2.2.4. Effective length of the cam shaft : .............................................................................................
2.2.2.5. Material variation as per Paragraph 3.8 (m) of Appendix 2 of this Annex: ..................................

2.2.4.
Wheel(s) (dimensions see Figures 1A and 1B in Appendix 5 of this Annex)
2.2.4.1.
Reference tyre rolling radius (R ) at test axle load (F ): ..............................................................
2.2.4.2.
Data of the fitted wheel during testing:
Tyre size
Rim size
X (mm)
D (mm)
E (mm)
G (mm)
2.2.5. Lever length l : .............................................................................................................................
2.2.6. Brake actuator
2.2.6.1. Manufacturer: ...............................................................................................................................
2.2.6.2. Make: ...........................................................................................................................................
2.2.6.3. Type: ............................................................................................................................................
2.2.6.4. (Test) Identification number: ........................................................................................................
2.3. Test results (corrected to take account of rolling resistance of 0.01·F )
2.3.1. In the case of vehicles of Categories O and O where the O trailer has been subject to the
Type-I test:
Test type:

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 4
MODEL TEST REPORT FORM FOR AN ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC BRAKE ADJUSTMENT
DEVICE AS PRESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH 3.7.3. OF APPENDIX 2 TO THIS ANNEX
TEST REPORT NO. ...............................................
1. IDENTIFICATION
1.1. Axle:
1.2. Brake:
Make ......................................................................................................................................
Type ......................................................................................................................................
Model ......................................................................................................................................
Test axle load (F identifier): ID3- ......................................................................................... daN
Annex 11 Appendix 3 Test Report No. .........................................................................................
Make ......................................................................................................................................
Type ......................................................................................................................................
Model ......................................................................................................................................
Brake lining ...................................................................................................................................
Make/Type ....................................................................................................................................
1.3. Actuation:
Manufacturer .................................................................................................................................
Type (cylinder/diaphragm) ........................................................................................................
Model ............................................................................................................................................
Lever length l .......................................................................................................................... mm
1.4. Automatic Brake Adjustment Device:
Manufacturer (name and address) ...............................................................................................
Make .............................................................................................................................................
Type ..............................................................................................................................................
Version ..........................................................................................................................................
2. RECORD OF TEST RESULTS
2.1. Performance of the Automatic Brake Adjustment Device
2.1.1. Hot performance of service braking systems determined according to the test defined in
Paragraph 3.6.2.1. (a) of Annex 11, Appendix 2: ...................................................................... %
or
Actuator stroke s determined according to the test defined in Paragraph 3.6.2.1. (b) of
Annex 11, Appendix 2: ........................................................................................................... mm

1. GENERAL
ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 5
TRAILER AXLE AND BRAKE INFORMATION DOCUMENT WITH RESPECT
TO THE ALTERNATIVE TYPE I AND TYPE III PROCEDURE
1.1. Name and address of axle or vehicle manufacturer:
2. AXLE DATA
2.1. Manufacturer (name and address): .............................................................................................
2.2. Type/variant: ................................................................................................................................
2.3. Axle identifier: ID1- ......................................................................................................................
2.4. Test axle load (F ): ............................................................................................................... daN
2.5. Wheel and brake data according to the following Figures 1A and 1B
Figure 1A

3.1.5. Brake data according to the following Figures 2A and 2B:
Figure 2A

3.2.
Drum brake data
3.2.1.
Brake adjustment device (external/integrated): ...........................................................................
3.2.2.
Declared maximum brake input torque C
: ....................................................................... Nm
3.2.3.
Mechanical efficiency: η = ...........................................................................................................
3.2.4.
Declared brake input threshold torque C
: ....................................................................... Nm
3.2.5.
Effective length of the cam shaft: ......................................................................................... mm
3.3.
Brake drum
3.3.1.
Max diameter of friction surface (wear limit) ......................................................................... mm
3.3.2.
Base material: ..............................................................................................................................
3.3.3.
Declared mass: ....................................................................................................................... kg
3.3.4.
Nominal mass: ........................................................................................................................ kg
3.4.
Brake lining
3.4.1.
Manufacturer and address ...........................................................................................................
3.4.2.
Make ............................................................................................................................................
3.4.3.
Type .............................................................................................................................................
3.4.4.
Identification (type identification on lining) ...................................................................................
3.4.5.
Minimum thickness (wear limit) ............................................................................................ mm
3.4.6.
Method of attaching friction material to brake shoe: .....................................................................
3.4.6.1.
Worst case of attachment (in the case of more than one): ..........................................................
3.5.
Disc brake data
3.5.1.
Connection type to the axle (axial, radial, integrated, etc...): ......................................................
3.5.2.
Brake adjustment device (external/integrated): ...........................................................................
3.5.3.
Max. actuation stroke: .......................................................................................................... mm
3.5.4.
Declared maximum input force Th
: ............................................................................... daN
3.5.4.1.
C
= Th
· l : ................................................................................................................. Nm

ANNEX 12
CONDITIONS GOVERNING THE TESTING OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED
WITH INERTIA (OVERRUN) BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1.1. The inertia (overrun) braking system of a trailer comprises the control device, the
transmission and the wheel brakes, hereinafter called "brakes".
1.2. The control device is the aggregate of the components integral with the traction device
(coupling head).
1.3. The transmission is the aggregate of the components comprised between the last part of the
coupling head and the first part of the brake.
1.4. The "brake" is the part in which the forces opposing the movement of the vehicle develop.
The first part of the brake is either the lever actuating the brake cam or similar components
(mechanical-transmission inertia braking system), or the brake cylinder
(hydraulic-transmission inertia braking system).
1.5. Braking systems in which accumulated energy (e.g. electric, pneumatic or hydraulic energy) is
transmitted to the trailer by the towing vehicle and is controlled only by the thrust on the
coupling do not constitute inertia braking systems within the meaning of this Regulation.
1.6. Tests
1.6.1. Determination of Essential Components of the Brake.
1.6.2. Determination of essential components of the control device and verification of the latter's
conformity with the provisions of this Regulation.
1.6.3. Checking on the Vehicle:
(a)
(b)
The compatibility of the control device and the brake; and
The transmission.
2.
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1.
Units Used
2.1.1.
Mass:
kg;
2.1.2.
Force:
N;
2.1.3.
Acceleration due to gravity: g = 9.81m/s
2.1.4.
Torques and moments: Nm;
2.1.5.
Areas: cm ;
2.1.6.
Pressures: kPa;

2.2.18.
s':
Effective (useful) travel of control in millimetres, determined as required by
Paragraph 10.4 of this Annex;
2.2.19. s": Spare travel of master cylinder, measured in millimetres at coupling head;
2.2.19.1.
s
:
Stroke of the master cylinder in millimetres according to Figure 8 of Appendix 1 to this
Annex;
2.2.19.2. s" : Spare travel of the master cylinder in millimetres at piston rod according to Figure 8;
2.2.20.
s :
Loss of travel, i.e., travel in millimetres of the coupling head when the latter is so
actuated as to move from 300mm above to 300mm below the horizontal, the
transmission remaining stationary;
2.2.21. 2s : Brake-shoe lift (brake-shoe application travel), in millimetres, measured on diameter
parallel to applying device, the brakes not being adjusted during the test;
2.2.22.
2s
Minimum brake-shoe centre lift (minimum brake-shoe application travel), (in
millimetres) for wheel brakes with drum brakes
4
2s
= 2.4 + ⋅ 2r
1000
2r being the diameter of the brake drum in millimetres; (see Appendix 1, Figure 4, to
this Annex);
For wheel brakes with disc brakes with hydraulic transmission
where:
10. v 1
2s
= 1.1⋅
+ ⋅ 2r
F 1000
v = Fluid volume absorbed by one wheel brake at a pressure corresponding to
a braking force of 1.2 B*: = 0.6 . G and a max. tyre radius.
and
2r = Outer diameter of brake disc.
(v in cm , F in cm and r in mm)
2.2.23.
M*:
Braking torque as specified by the manufacturer in Paragraph 5 of Appendix 3. This
braking torque shall produce at least, the prescribed braking force B*;
2.2.23.1.
M :
Test braking torque in the case when no overload protector is fitted (according to
Paragraph 6.2.1 below);
2.2.24. R: Dynamic tyre rolling radius (m);
2.2.25. n: Number of brakes.

2.4. Symbols valid for hydraulic-transmission braking systems (see Figure 8 of Appendix 1 to this
Annex)
2.4.1.
i :
Reduction ratio between travel of coupling head and travel of piston in master
cylinder;
2.4.2.
i' :
Reduction ratio between travel of cylinder thrust point and lift (application travel) of
brake-shoe centre;
2.4.3.
F
:
Surface area of piston of one wheel cylinder for drum brake(s); for disc brake(s),
sum of the surface area of the calliper piston(s) on one side of the disc.
2.4.4. F : Surface area of piston in master cylinder;
2.4.5. p: Hydraulic pressure in brake cylinder;
2.4.6.
p :
Retraction pressure in the brake cylinder when the trailer moves forward; i.e., in
graph of M = f(p), the value of the pressure p at the point of intersection of the
extrapolation of this function with the abscissa (see Figure 7 of Appendix 1 to this
Annex);
2.4.6.1.
p :
Brake retraction pressure when the trailer moves rearward (see Figure 7 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex);
2.4.7. p*: Hydraulic pressure in the brake cylinder to produce the braking force B*;
2.4.8. p : Test pressure according to Paragraph 6.2.1:
2.4.9. ρ': Characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves forward as defined from:
M = ρ' (p − p )
2.4.9.1. ρ' : Characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves rearward as defined from:
M = ρ' (p − p )
2.5. Symbols with respect to the braking requirements relating to overload protectors
2.5.1.
D :
Application force at the input side of the control device, at which the overload
protector is activated;
2.5.2.
M :
Brake torque at which the overload protector is activated (as declared by the
manufacturer);
2.5.3.
M
:
Minimum test braking torque in the case when an overload protector is fitted
(according to Paragraph 6.2.2.2);
2.5.4.
P _min:
Force applied to the brake at which the overload protector is activated (according
to Paragraph 6.2.2.1);
2.5.5. P _max: Maximum force (when the coupling head is pushed fully home) which is applied by
the overload protector to the brake (according to Paragraph 6.2.2.3);

4.4. The maximum insertion force D may not exceed 0.10g·G' in trailers with rigid drawbars and
0.067g·G' in multi-axled trailers with pivoted drawbars.
4.5. The maximum tractive force D must be not less than 0.1g·G' and not more than 0.5g·G' .
5. TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS TO BE CARRIED OUT ON THE CONTROL DEVICES
5.1. Control devices submitted to the Technical Service conducting the tests shall be checked for
conformity with the requirements of Paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Annex.
5.2. The following shall be measured in respect of all types of brakes:
5.2.1. Travel s and effective travel s';
5.2.2. Supplementary force K;
5.2.3. Force threshold K ;
5.2.4. Insertion force D :
5.2.5. Tractive force D .
5.3. In the case of mechanical-transmission inertia braking systems, the following should be
determined:
5.3.1. The reduction ratio i measured at the mid-travel position of the control;
5.3.2. The control-device output force P' as a function of the thrust D on the drawbar.
The supplementary force K and the efficiency are derived from the representative curve
obtained from these measurements
η
=
1
i
P'

D − K
(see Figure 2 of Appendix 1 to this Annex)
5.4. In the case of hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems, the following should be
determined:
5.4.1. The reduction ratio i measured at the mid-travel position of the control;
5.4.2. The master cylinder output pressure p as a function of the thrust D on the drawbars and of the
surface area F of the master-cylinder piston, as specified by the manufacturer. The
supplementary force K and the efficiency are derived from the representative curve obtained
from these measurements
η
=
1 p.F

i D − K
(see Figure 3 of Appendix 1 to this Annex);

7. TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS TO BE CARRIED OUT ON THE BRAKES
7.1. Brakes and components submitted to the Technical Service conducting the tests shall be
tested for conformity with the requirements of Paragraph 6 of this Annex.
7.2. The following should be determined:
7.2.1. The minimum brake-shoe lift (minimum brake-shoe application travel) 2s ;
7.2.2. The brake-shoe centre lift (brake-shoe application travel) 2s (which shall be greater than
2s );
7.3. In the case of mechanical brakes, the following shall be determined:
7.3.1. Reduction ratio i (see Figure 4 of Appendix 1 to this Annex);
7.3.2. Force P* for braking torque M*;
7.3.3. Torque M* as a function of the force P* applied to the control lever in
mechanical-transmission systems.
The rotational speed of the braking surfaces shall correspond to an initial vehicle speed of
60km/h when the trailer moves forward and 6km/h when the trailer moves rearward. The
following shall be derived from the curve obtained from these measurements (see Figure 6 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex):
7.3.3.1. The brake-retraction force P and the characteristic value ρ when the trailer moves forward.
7.3.3.2. The brake-retraction force P and the characteristic value ρ when the trailer moves rearward.
7.3.3.3. Maximum braking torque M up to the maximum permissible travel s when the trailer moves
rearward (see Figure 6 of Appendix 1 to this Annex).
7.3.3.4. Maximum permissible travel at the brake control lever when the trailer moves rearward (see
Figure 6 of Appendix 1 to this Annex).
7.4. In the case of hydraulic brakes, the following should be determined:
7.4.1. Reduction ratio i ' (see Figure 8 of Appendix 1 to this Annex).
7.4.2. Pressure p* for braking torque M*.
7.4.3 Torque M* as a function of the pressure p* applied to the brake cylinder in hydraulic
transmission systems.
The rotational speed of the braking surfaces shall correspond to an initial vehicle speed of
60km/h when the trailer moves forward and 6km/h when the trailer moves rearward. The
following shall be derived from the curve obtained from these measurements (see Figure 7 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex):
7.4.3.1. The retraction pressure p and the characteristic ρ' when the trailer moves forward.
7.4.3.2. The retraction pressure p and the characteristic ρ' when the trailer moves rearward.

8.1.2. Drawing details are to be provided to demonstrate that the compensator articulation is
sufficient to ensure equal cable tension is applied to each of the rear cables. The
compensator needs to have sufficient distance across the width to facilitate the differential
travels left to right. The jaws of the yokes also need to be deep enough relative to their width
to make sure that they do not prevent articulation when the compensator is at an angle.
Differential travel at compensator (s ) shall be derived from:
Where:
S ≥ 1.2 · (S - S ')
S ' = S'/i
(travel at compensator - forward operation) and S = 2·S /i
S = S /i
(travel at compensator - rearward operation)
9. TEST REPORTS
Applications for the approval of trailers equipped with inertia braking systems shall be
accompanied by the test reports relating to the control device and the brakes and the test
report on the compatibility of the inertia type control device, the transmission device and the
brakes of the trailer, these reports including at least the particulars prescribed in
Appendices 2, 3, and 4 to this Annex.
10. COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN THE CONTROL DEVICE AND THE BRAKES OF A VEHICLE
10.1. A check shall be made on the vehicle to verify in the light of the characteristics of the control
device (Appendix 2), the characteristics of the brakes (Appendix 3), and the trailer
characteristics referred to in Paragraph 4 of Appendix 4 to this Annex, whether the trailer's
inertia braking system meets the prescribed requirements.
10.2. General Checks for All Types of Brakes
10.2.1. Any parts of the transmission not checked at the same time as the control device or the
brakes shall be checked on the vehicle. The results of the check shall be entered in
Appendix 4 to this Annex (e.g., i and η ).
10.2.2. Mass
10.2.2.1. The maximum mass G of the trailer shall not exceed the maximum mass G' for which the
control device is authorised.
10.2.2.2. The maximum mass G of the trailer shall not exceed the maximum mass G which can be
braked by joint operation of all of the trailer's brakes.
10.2.3. Forces
10.2.3.1. The force threshold K shall not be below 0.02g·G and not above 0.04g·G .
10.2.3.2. The maximum insertion force D may not exceed 0.10g·G in trailers with rigid drawbar and
0.067g·G in multi-axled trailers with pivoted drawbar.

10.4.3. The following inequalities shall be applied to check whether control travel is adequate;
10.4.3.1. In mechanical-transmission inertia braking systems:
i

s
s'
⋅ i
10.4.3.2. In hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems:
i
F

2s
s'
⋅ nF
⋅ i'
10.5. Additional Checks
10.5.1. In mechanical-transmission inertia braking systems a check shall be made to verify that the
rod linkage by which the forces are transmitted from the control device to the brakes is
correctly fitted.
10.5.2. In hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems a check shall be made to verify that the
travel of the master cylinder is not less than s/i . A lower level shall not be permitted.
10.5.3. The general behaviour of the vehicle when braking shall be the subject of a road test carried
out at different road speeds with different levels of brake effort and rates of application.
Self-excited, undamped oscillations shall not be permitted.
11. GENERAL COMMENTS
The above requirements apply to the most usual embodiments of mechanical-transmission or
hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems where, in particular, all of the trailer's wheels
are equipped with the same type of brake and the same type of tyre. For checking less usual
embodiments, the above requirements shall be adapted to the circumstances of the particular
case.

η
P' X
= ⋅
D − K
1
i
Figure 2
Mechanical-Transmission
(See Paragraphs 2.2.10. and 5.3.2. of this Annex)
η
Px
=
D − K
F

i
Figure 3
Hydraulic-Transmission
(See Paragraphs 2.2.10. and 5.4.2. of this Annex)

i
=
1 − 1'
2 − 2'
i
2
=
3


2'
3'
1.2 Control Device 1.3 Transmission 1.4 Brakes
Figure 5
Mechanical-Transmission Braking System
(See Paragraph 2.3. of this Annex)

ρ =
P
M

P
ρ
=
P
M
− P
Figure 6
Mechanical Brake
(See Paragraph 2 of this Annex)
M
ρ'
=
P − P
ρ'
=
P
M
− P
Figure 7
Hydraulic Brake
(See Paragraph 2 of this Annex)

ANNEX 12 - APPENDIX 2
TEST REPORT ON INERTIA-BRAKING SYSTEM CONTROL DEVICE
1. Manufacturer .................................................................................................................................
2. Make .............................................................................................................................................
3. Type ..............................................................................................................................................
4. Characteristics of trailers for which control device intended by manufacturer:
4.1. Mass G' = ................................................................................................................................ kg
4.2. Permissible static vertical force at towing-device head ..............................................................N
4.3. Trailer with rigid drawbar/multi-axled trailer with pivoted drawbar
5. Brief description
(List of attached plans and dimensioned drawings)
6. Diagram showing principle of control
7. Travel s = ................................................................................................................................ mm
8. Reduction ratio of control device:
8.1. With mechanical transmission device
i = from .......................................................... to ....................................................................
8.2. With hydraulic transmission device
i = from ........................................................ to ....................................................................
F = ..................................................................................................................................... cm
Travel of master cylinder s ................................................................................................... mm
Spare travel of master cylinder s"
: ....................................................................................... mm
9.
Test results:
9.1.
Efficiency
With mechanical transmission device
η = ............................................................................
With hydraulic transmission device
η = ............................................................................

11. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with relevant provisions
of Annex 12 to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the series of amendments.
Technical service carrying out the test
Signed: .................................... Date: .....................................
12. Approval Authority
Signed: .................................... Date: .....................................

9.7.
Force for M*
9.7.A.
Pressure for M*
P* = ............................... N
P* ........................................... N/cm
9.8.A.
9.9.A.
Surface area of wheel cylinder
F = ........................................... cm
Fluid volume absorption
(for disc brakes)
V = ........................................... cm
9.10. Service brake performance when the trailer moves rearwards (see Figures 6 and 7 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex)
9.10.1. Maximum Fig 6 braking torque M = ...................................................................................... Nm
9.10.1.A. Maximum Fig 7 braking torque M = ....................................................................................... Nm
9.10.2. Maximum permissible travel s = ........................................................................................... mm
9.10.2.A. Maximum permissible fluid volume absorbed V = ................................................................ cm
9.11. Further brake characteristics when the trailer moves rearwards (see Figures 6 and 7 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex)
9.11.1. Brake-retraction force P = .......................................................................................................N
9.11.1.A. Brake-retraction pressure p = .......................................................................................... N/cm
9.11.2. Brake characteristic ρ = ........................................................................................................... m
9.11.2.A. Brake characteristic ρ' = .......................................................................................................... m
9.12. Tests according to Paragraph 7.5 of this Annex (if applicable) (corrected to take account of
the rolling resistance corresponding to 0.01·g·G )
9.12.1. Brake test Type-0
Test speed = ........................................................................................................................ km/h
Braking ratio = .......................................................................................................................... %
Control force = ...........................................................................................................................N
9.12.2. Brake test Type-I
Test speed = ........................................................................................................................ km/h
Sustained braking ratio = .......................................................................................................... %
Braking time = ................................................................................................................. minutes
Hot performance = .................................................................................................................... %
(expressed as a % of the above Type-0 test result in Item 9.12.1)
Control force = ...........................................................................................................................N

ANNEX 12 - APPENDIX 4
TEST REPORT ON THE COMPATIBILITY OF THE INERTIA BRAKE CONTROL DEVICE,
THE TRANSMISSION AND THE BRAKES ON THE TRAILER
1. CONTROL DEVICE .....................................................................................................................
2. BRAKES
Described in the attached test report (see Appendix 2 to this Annex)
Reduction ratio selected:
i = .................................................... or i = ............................................................
(shall be within the limits specified in Paragraphs 8.1. or 8.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex)
Described in the attached test report (see Appendix 3 to this Annex)
3. TRANSMISSION DEVICES ON THE TRAILER
3.1. Brief description with diagram showing principle
3.2. Reduction ratio and efficiency of the mechanical-transmission device on the trailer
4. TRAILER
i = ..............................................................................................................................
η = .................................................................................................................................
4.1. Manufacturer .................................................................................................................................
4.2. Make .............................................................................................................................................
4.3. Type ..............................................................................................................................................
4.4. Type of drawbar connection: trailer with rigid drawbar/multi-axled trailer with pivoted
drawbar
4.5. Number of brakes n = ...................................................................................................................
4.6. Technically permissible maximum mass G = .......................................................................... kg
4.7. Dynamic tyre rolling radius R = ................................................................................................. m
4.8. Permissible thrust on coupling
D* = 0.10g·G = .......................................................................................................................N
or
D* = 0.067g·G = .....................................................................................................................N

5.7. Inertia braking system with mechanical transmission device
5.7.1. i = i . i = ........................................................................................................................
5.7.2. η = η . η = ........................................................................................................................
5.7.3.
(shall not be greater than i )
⎡B
⋅ R
⎢ + n ⋅P
⎣ p




1
( D − K)
⋅ η
. . . . .
5.7.4.
S
S'
⋅ i
=
. . . . . . . . .
(shall not be less than i )
5.7.5. Ratio s'/i = ..................................................................................................................................
when the trailer moves rearward (shall not be greater than: s )
5.7.6. Braking torque when the trailer moves rearward including rolling resistance
n · M = ................................................................................................................................... Nm
(shall not be greater than: 0.08·g·G ·R)
5.8. Inertia braking system with hydraulic transmission device
5.8.1. i /F = .........................................................................................................................................
5.8.2.
⎡B
⋅ R
⎢ + p
⎣ n ⋅ p'




1
( D * − K)
⋅ η
=
. . . . . . . .
(shall not be greater than i /F )
5.8.3.
2
s'
⋅ n ⋅ F
.i'
=
. . . . . . . .
(shall not be less than i /F )
(shall not be greater than travel of master cylinder actuator as specified in Paragraph 8.2. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex)
5.8.4. s/i = .............................................................................................................................................
(shall not be greater than travel of master cylinder actuator as specified in Paragraph 8.2. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex)
5.8.5. Ratio s'/F = ...............................................................................................................................
when the trailer moves rearward (shall not be greater than V )

1. GENERAL
ANNEX 13
TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR VEHICLES FITTED WITH ANTI-LOCK SYSTEMS
1.1. This Annex defines the required braking performance for road vehicles equipped with an
anti-lock braking system(s).
1.2. The anti-lock systems known at present comprise a sensor or sensors, a controller or
controllers and a modulator or modulators. Any device of a different design which may be
introduced in the future, or where an anti-lock braking function is integrated into another
system, shall be deemed to be an anti-lock braking system within the meaning of this Annex
and Annex 10 to this Regulation, if it provides performance equal to that prescribed by this
Annex.
2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. An "anti-lock system" is a part of a service braking system which automatically controls the
degree of slip, in the direction of rotation of the wheel(s), on one or more wheels of the vehicle
during braking.
2.2. "Sensor" means a component designed to identify and transmit to the controller the
conditions of rotation of the wheel(s) or the dynamic conditions of the vehicle.
2.3. "Controller" means a component designed to evaluate the data transmitted by the sensor(s)
and to transmit a signal to the modulator.
2.4. "Modulator" means a component designed to vary the braking force(s) in accordance with
the signal received from the controller.
2.5. "Directly controlled wheel" means a wheel whose braking force is modulated according to
data provided at least by its own sensor.
2.6. "Indirectly controlled wheel" means a wheel whose braking force is modulated according to
data provided by the sensor(s) of other wheel(s).
2.7. "Full cycling" means that the anti-lock system is repeatedly modulating the brake force to
prevent the directly controlled wheels from locking. Brake applications where modulation only
occurs once during the stop shall not be considered to meet this definition.
In the case of trailers with pneumatic braking systems, full cycling of the anti-lock braking
system is only assured when the pressure available at any brake actuator of a directly
controlled wheel is more than 100kPa above the maximum cycling pressure throughout a
given test. The supply pressure available may not be increased above 800kPa.

4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1. Failures within the electric control transmission of the anti-lock braking system that affects
the system with respect to the functional and performance requirements in this Annex, shall
be signalled to the driver by a specific optical warning signal. The yellow warning signal
specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. of this Regulation shall be used for this purpose.
4.1.1. Sensor anomalies, which cannot be detected under static conditions, shall be detected not
later than when the vehicle speed exceed 10km/h. However, to prevent erroneous fault
indication when a sensor is not generating a speed output, due to non-rotation of a wheel,
verification may be delayed but detected not later than when the vehicle speed exceeds
15km/h.
4.1.2. When the anti-lock braking system is energised with the vehicle stationary, electrically
controlled pneumatic modulator valve(s) shall cycle at least once.
4.2. Power-driven vehicles equipped with an anti-lock system and authorised to tow a trailer
equipped with such a system shall be fitted with a separate optical warning signal for the
anti-lock system of the trailer, meeting the requirements of Paragraph 4.1. of this Annex. The
separate yellow warning signals specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. of this Regulation shall be
used for this purpose, activated via Pin 5 of the electrical connector conforming to
ISO 7638:2003
4.3. In the event of failure as defined in Paragraph 4.1 above, the following requirements shall
apply:
Motor vehicles:
The residual braking performance shall be that prescribed for the vehicle
in question in the event of a failure of part of the transmission of the
service braking system as defined in Paragraph 5.2.1.4. of this
Regulation. This requirement shall not be construed as a departure from
the requirements concerning secondary braking.
Trailers: The residual braking performance shall be that defined in
Paragraph 5.2.2.15.2 of this Regulation.
4.4. The operation of the anti-lock system shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electrical
fields. This shall be demonstrated by compliance with Regulation No. 10 as required by
Paragraph 5.1.1.4 of the Regulation.

5.1.1.2. From an initial speed of not less than 50km/h, on a surface with a coefficient of adhesion of
0.3 or less , the brakes of the laden vehicle shall be fully applied for a time t, during which
time the energy consumed by the indirectly controlled wheels shall be taken into
consideration and all directly controlled wheels shall remain under control of the anti-lock
system.
5.1.1.3. The vehicle's engine shall then be stopped or the supply to the energy transmission storage
device(s) cut off.
5.1.1.4. The service braking control device shall then be fully actuated four times in succession with
the vehicle stationary.
5.1.1.5. When the control device is applied for the fifth time, it shall be possible to brake the vehicle
with at least the performance prescribed for secondary braking of the laden vehicle.
5.1.1.6. During the tests, in the case of a power-driven vehicle authorised to draw a trailer equipped
with a compressed-air braking system, the supply line shall be stopped and an energy
storage device of 0.5l capacity shall be connected to the pneumatic control line - if fitted - (in
accordance with Paragraph 1.2.2.3. of Part A of Annex 7 to this Regulation). When the brakes
are applied for the fifth time, as provided in Paragraph 5.1.1.5. above, the energy level
supplied to the pneumatic control line shall not be below half the level obtained at a full
application starting with the initial energy level.
5.1.2. Additional Requirements
5.1.2.1. The coefficient of adhesion of the road surface shall be measured with the vehicle under test,
by the method described in Paragraph 1.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex.
5.1.2.2. The braking test shall be conducted with the engine disconnected and idling, and with the
vehicle laden.
5.1.2.3. The braking time t shall be determined by the formula:
v
t = (but not less than 15s)
7
where t is expressed in seconds and v represents the maximum design speed of the
vehicle expressed in km/h, with an upper limit of 160km/h.
5.1.2.4. If the time t cannot be completed in a single braking phase, further phases may be used, up
to a maximum of four in all.

5.3. Additional Checks
The following additional checks shall be carried out, engine disconnected, with the vehicle
laden and unladen:
5.3.1. The wheels directly controlled by an anti-lock system shall not lock when the full force is
suddenly applied on the control device, on the road surfaces specified in Paragraph 5.2.2. of
this Annex, at an initial speed of 40km/h and at a high initial speed as indicated on the table
below:
High-adhesion surface
Low-adhesion surface
Vehicle category
Maximum test speed
All categories except N , N laden
0.8v
≤120km/h
N , N laden
0.8v
≤80km/h
N
0.8v
≤120km/h
M , M , N except tractors for semi-trailers
0.8v
≤80km/h
N , and N tractors for semi-trailers
0.8v
≤70km/h
5.3.2. When an axle passes from a high-adhesion surface (k ) to a low-adhesion surface (k ) where
k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, with the full force applied on the control device, the directly
controlled wheels shall not lock. The running speed and the instant of applying the brakes
shall be so calculated that, with the anti-lock system fully cycling on the high-adhesion
surface, the passage from one surface to the other is made at high and at low speed, under
the conditions laid down in Paragraph 5.3.1. of this Annex
5.3.3. When a vehicle passes from a low-adhesion surface (k )to a high-adhesion surface (k )
where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, with the full force applied on the control device, the
deceleration of the vehicle shall rise to the appropriate high value within a reasonable time
and the vehicle shall not deviate from its initial course. The running speed and the instant of
applying the brakes shall be so calculated that, with the anti-lock system fully cycling on the
low-adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other occurs at approximately
50km/h.
5.3.4. In the case of vehicles equipped with anti-lock systems of Categories 1 or 2, when the right
and left wheels of the vehicle are situated on surfaces with differing coefficients of adhesion
(k and k ), where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, the directly controlled wheels shall not lock when
the full force is suddenly applied on the control device at a speed of 50km/h.
5.3.5. Furthermore, laden vehicles equipped with anti-lock systems of Category 1 shall, under the
conditions of Paragraph 5.3.4. of this Annex satisfy the prescribed braking rate in Appendix 3
to this Annex.

6.1.4. At the end of the braking, with the vehicle stationary, the service braking control device shall
be fully actuated four times. During the fifth application, the pressure in the operating circuit
shall be sufficient to provide a total braking force at the periphery of the wheels equal to not
less than 22.5% of the maximum stationary wheel load and without causing an automatic
application of any braking system not being under the control of the anti-lock system.
6.2. Utilisation of Adhesion
6.2.1. Braking systems equipped with an anti-lock system shall be deemed acceptable when the
condition ε ≥0.75 is satisfied, where ε represents the adhesion utilised, as defined in
Paragraph 2 of Appendix 2 to this Annex. This condition shall be verified with the vehicle
unladen, on a straight and level road with a surface having a good coefficient of adhesion.
6.2.2. To eliminate the effects of differential brake temperatures, it is recommended to determine
z prior to the determination of k .
6.3. Additional Checks
6.3.1. At speeds exceeding 15km/h, the wheels directly controlled by an anti-lock system shall not
lock when the full force is suddenly applied on the control device of the towing vehicle. This
shall be checked, under the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex, at initial
speeds of 40km/h and 80km/h.
6.3.2. The provisions of this Paragraph shall only apply to trailers equipped with an anti-lock system
of Category A. When the right and left wheels are situated on surfaces which produce
differing maximum braking rates (z and z ), where
Z
ε
≥ 0.5
and
Z
Z
≥ 2
The directly controlled wheels shall not lock when the full force is suddenly applied on the
control device of the towing vehicle at a speed of 50km/h. The ratio z /z may be
ascertained by the procedure in Paragraph 2 of Appendix 2 of this Annex or by calculating the
ratio z /z . Under this condition the unladen vehicle shall satisfy the prescribed braking
rate in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
6.3.3. At vehicle speeds ≥15km/h the directly controlled wheels are permitted to lock for brief
periods, but at speeds <15km/h any locking is permissible. Indirectly controlled wheels are
permitted to lock at any speed but in all cases stability shall not be affected.

SYMBOL
F
F
TABLE: SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
DEFINITIONS
total normal static reaction of road surface on all wheels of trailer
total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on the axle(s) of semi-trailer or centre-axle
trailer
F 0.01 F + 0.015 F
G acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s )
H
h
h
h
K
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
P
height of centre of gravity specified by the manufacturer and agreed by the Technical
Service conducting the approval test
height of drawbar (hinge point on trailer)
height of fifth wheel coupling (king pin)
height of centre of gravity of the trailer
coefficient of adhesion between tyre and road
k-factor of one front axle
k-value determined on the high-adhesion surface
k-value determined on axle i for a vehicle with a Category 3 anti-lock system
k-value determined on the low-adhesion surface
value of adhesion for 100% slip
k-factor of the power-driven vehicle
maximum value of the curve "adhesion versus slip"
k-factor of one rear axle
k-factor of the trailer
mass of individual vehicle [kg]
R ratio of k to k
t
t
t
Z
Z
Z
time interval [s]
mean value of t
minimum value of t
braking rate
braking rate z of the vehicle with the anti-lock system operative
braking rate z of the vehicle combination, with the trailer only braked and the anti-lock
system inoperative

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 2
UTILIZATION OF ADHESION
1. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT FOR POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES
1.1. Determination of the Coefficient of Adhesion (k)
1.1.1. The coefficient of adhesion (k) shall be determined as the quotient of the maximum braking
forces without locking the wheels and the corresponding dynamic load on the axle being
braked.
1.1.2. The brakes shall be applied on only one axle of the vehicle under test, at an initial speed of
50km/h. The braking forces shall be distributed between the wheels of the axle to reach
maximum performance. The anti-lock system shall be disconnected, or inoperative, between
40km/h and 20km/h.
1.1.3. A number of tests at increments of line pressure shall be carried out to determine the
maximum braking rate of the vehicle (z ). During each test, a constant input force shall be
maintained and the braking rate will be determined by reference to the time taken (t) for the
speed to reduce from 40km/h to 20km/h using the formula:
0.566
z =
t
z is the maximum value of z; t is in seconds.
1.1.3.1. Wheel lock may occur below 20km/h.
1.1.3.2.
Starting from the minimum measured value of t, called t
, then select three values of t
comprised within t
and 1.05t
and calculate their arithmetical mean value t , then
calculate
0.566
z =
t
If it is demonstrated that for practical reasons the three values defined above cannot be
obtained, then the minimum time t may be utilised. However, the requirements of
Paragraph 1.3. below shall still apply.
1.1.4. The braking forces shall be calculated from the measured braking rate and the rolling
resistance of the unbraked axle(s) which is equal to 0.015 and 0.010 of the static axle load for
a driven axle and a non-driven axle, respectively.
1.1.5. The dynamic load on the axle shall be that given by the formulae in Annex 10 to this
Regulation.
1.1.6. The value of k shall be rounded to three decimal places.
1.1.7. Then, the test will be repeated for the other axle(s) as defined in Paragraphs 1.1.1. to 1.1.6.
above (for exemptions see Paragraphs 1.4. and 1.5. below).

1.2.6. In the case of a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock system of Category 3, the value of z will
be measured on each axle which has at least one directly controlled wheel. For example, for
a two-axle rear-wheel drive vehicle with an anti-lock system acting only on the rear axle (2),
the adhesion utilised (ε) is given by:
ε
z
=
k
(F
× P

× g −
h
× z
E
0.010 × F
× P × g)
This calculation shall be made for each axle having at least one directly controlled wheel.
1.3. If ε >1.00 the measurements of coefficients of adhesion shall be repeated. A tolerance of 10%
is accepted.
1.4. For power-driven vehicles equipped with three axles, any axles that are interconnected by
either suspension components and thereby react to weight transfer under braking or driveline
may be disregarded in establishing a k value for the vehicle.
1.5. For vehicles of Categories N and N with a wheelbase less than 3.80m and with h/E ≥0.25
the determination of the coefficient of adhesion for the rear axle will be omitted.
1.5.1. In that case the adhesion utilised (ε) is defined as the quotient of the maximum braking rate
with the anti-lock system operative (z ) and the coefficient of adhesion (k ) i.e.
ε =
z
k
2. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT FOR TRAILERS
2.1. General
2.1.1. The coefficient of adhesion (k) shall be determined as the quotient of the maximum braking
forces without locking the wheels and the corresponding dynamic load on the axle being
braked.
2.1.2. The brakes shall be applied on only one axle of the trailer under test, at an initial speed of
50km/h. The braking forces shall be distributed between the wheels of the axle to reach
maximum performance. The anti-lock system shall be disconnected or inoperative, between
40km/h and 20km/h.

For one rear axle i:
F
= z
× (F
+ F
) − 0.01F
− 0.015 F
F
= F

z
(F
× h
+ g × P × h
E
) − F
× h
k
F
=
F
2.2.2. The values of k and k will be rounded to three decimal places.
2.2.3. The coefficient of adhesion k shall be determined proportionally according to the dynamic
axle loads.
k
k
=
× F
+ k
P × g
× F
2.2.4. Measurement of z (with the anti-lock system operative)
Z
=
z
× (F
+ F
) − 0.01F
F
− 0.015 F
z is to be determined on a surface with a high coefficient of adhesion and, for vehicles with
a Category A anti-lock system, also on a surface with a low coefficient of adhesion.
2.3. Semi-trailers and Centre-axle Trailers
2.3.1. The measurement of k (with the anti-lock system being disconnected or inoperative, between
40km/h and 20km/h) shall be carried out with wheels fitted only on one axle, the wheels of the
other axle(s) are removed.
F
= Z
( F + F ) − F
F
= F
F

× h
+ z
E
× g × P × (h
− h
)
F
k =
F

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 3
PERFORMANCE ON DIFFERING ADHESION SURFACES
1. POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES
1.1. The prescribed braking rate referred to in Paragraph 5.3.5. of this Annex may be calculated
by reference to the measured coefficient of adhesion of the two surfaces on which this test is
carried out. These two surfaces shall satisfy the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 5.3.4. of
this Annex.
1.2. The coefficient of adhesion (k and k ) of the high- and low-adhesion surfaces, respectively,
shall be determined in accordance with the provisions in Paragraph 1.1. of Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
1.3. The braking rate (z ) for laden power-driven vehicles shall be:
z
4k
≥ 0.75
+ k
5
and z
≥ k
2. TRAILERS
2.1. The braking rate referred to in Paragraph 6.3.2. of this Annex may be calculated by reference
to the measured braking rates z and z on the two surfaces on which the tests are
carried out with the anti-lock system operative. These two surfaces shall satisfy the conditions
prescribed in Paragraph 6.3.2. of this Annex.
2.2. The braking rate z shall be:
z
0.75 4z
≥ ⋅
ε
+ z
5
and
z
>
z
ε
If ε >0.95, use ε = 0.95

ANNEX 14
TEST CONDITIONS FOR TRAILERS WITH ELECTRICAL BRAKING SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
1.1. For the purposes of the following provisions electrical braking systems are service braking
systems consisting of a control device, an electromechanical transmission device, and friction
brakes. The electrical control device regulating the voltage for the trailer shall be situated on
the trailer.
1.2. The electrical energy required for the electrical braking system is supplied to the trailer by the
towing vehicle.
1.3. Electrical braking systems shall be actuated by operating the service braking system of the
towing vehicle.
1.4. The nominal voltage rating shall be 12V.
1.5. The maximum current consumption shall not exceed 15A.
1.6. The electrical connection of the electrical braking system to the towing vehicle shall be
effected by means of a special plug and socket connection corresponding to ..., which shall
not be compatible with the sockets of the lighting equipment of the vehicle. The plug together
with the cable shall be situated on the trailer.
2. CONDITIONS CONCERNING THE TRAILER
2.1. If there is a battery on the trailer fed by the power supply unit of the towing vehicle, it shall be
separated from its supply line during service braking of the trailer.
2.2. With trailers whose unladen mass is less than 75% of their maximum mass, the braking force
shall be automatically regulated as a function of the loading condition of the trailer.
2.3. Electrical braking systems shall be such that even when the voltage in the connection lines is
reduced to a value of 7V, a braking effect of 20% of the (sum of the) maximum stationary axle
load(s) is maintained.
2.4. Control devices for regulating the braking force, which react to the inclination in the direction
of travel (pendulum, spring-mass-system, liquid-inertia-switch) shall, if the trailer has more
than one axle and a vertically adjustable towing device, be attached to the chassis. In the
case of single-axle trailers and trailers with close-coupled axles where the axle spread is less
than 1m, these control devices shall be equipped with a mechanism indicating its horizontal
position (e.g., spirit level) and shall be manually adjustable to allow the mechanism to be set
in the horizontal plane in line with the direction of travel of the vehicle.
2.5. The relay for actuating the braking current in accordance with Paragraph 5.2.1.19.2. of this
Regulation, which is connected to the actuating line, shall be situated on the trailer.

ANNEX 14 - APPENDIX
COMPATIBILITY OF THE BRAKING RATE OF THE TRAILER AND THE
MEAN FULLY DEVELOPED DECELERATION OF THE TRACTOR/TRAILER
COMBINATION (TRAILER LADEN AND UNLADEN)
Notes:
1. Limits indicated in the diagram refer to laden and unladen trailers. When the trailer unladen
mass exceeds 75% of its maximum mass, limits shall be applied only to "laden" conditions.
2. Limits indicated in the diagram do not affect the provisions of this Annex regarding the
minimum braking performances required. However, if braking performances obtained during
test - in accordance with provisions indicated in Paragraph 3.4. of this Annex - are greater
than those required, said performances shall not exceed the limits indicated in the above
diagram.
T = sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of trailer.
P = total normal static reaction of road surface on wheels of trailer.
d = mean fully developed deceleration of tractor/trailer combination.

3. TEST CONDITIONS
3.1. The dynamometer shall be set as close as possible, with ± 5% tolerance, to the rotary inertia
equivalent to that part of the total inertia of the vehicle braked by the appropriate wheel(s)
according to the following formula:
where
I = rotational inertia [kg·m ]
I = MR
R = dynamic tyre rolling radius [m]
M
=
that part of the maximum mass of the vehicle braked by the appropriate
wheel(s). In the case of a single-ended dynamometer, this part shall be
calculated from the design braking distribution in the case of vehicles of
Categories M , M and N when deceleration corresponds to the appropriate
value given in Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation; in the case of
vehicles of Category O (trailers) the value of M will correspond to the load on the
ground for the appropriate wheel when the vehicle is stationary and loaded to its
maximum mass.
3.2. The initial rotational speed of the inertia dynamometer shall correspond to the linear speed of
the vehicle as prescribed in Annex 4 to this Regulation and shall be based on the dynamic
rolling radius of the tyre.
3.3. Brake linings shall be at least 80% bedded and shall not have exceeded a temperature of
180°C during the bedding procedure, or alternatively, at the vehicle manufacturer's request,
be bedded in accordance with his recommendations.
3.4. Cooling air may be used, flowing over the brake in a direction perpendicular to its axis of
rotation. The velocity of the cooling air over the brake shall be
where:
v = 0.33v
v = vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.
The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature.
4. TEST PROCEDURE
4.1. Five sample sets of the brake lining shall be subjected to the comparison test; they shall be
compared with five sets of linings conforming to the original components identified in the
information document concerning the first approval of the vehicle type concerned.
4.2. Brake lining equivalence shall be based on a comparison of the results achieved using the
test procedures prescribed in this Annex and in accordance with the following requirements.

4.5. Type-II Test (Downhill Behaviour Test):
4.5.1. This test is required only if, on the vehicle-type in question, the friction brakes are used for the
Type-II test.
4.5.2. Brake linings for power-driven vehicles of Category M (except for those vehicles required to
undergo a Type-IIA test according to Paragraph 1.6.4. of Annex 4 to this Regulation) and
Category N , and trailers of Category O shall be tested according to the procedure set out in
Paragraph 1.6.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.5.3. Hot Performance
4.5.3.1. On completion of the test required under Paragraph 4.5.1. of this Annex, the hot performance
test specified in Paragraph 1.6.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation shall be carried out.
4.5.3.2. The mean braking torque recorded during the above hot performance tests on the linings
being tested for the purpose of comparison shall, for the same input measurement, be within
the test limits ± 15% of the mean braking torque recorded with the brake linings conforming to
the component identified in the relevant application for vehicle type approval.
4.6. Type-III Test (Fade Test)
4.6.1. Test with Repeated Braking
4.6.1.1. Brake linings for trailers of Category O , shall be tested according to the procedure given in
Paragraphs 1.7.1. and 1.7.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.6.2. Hot Performance
4.6.2.1. On completion of the tests required under Paragraphs 4.6.1. and 4.6.2. of this Annex, the hot
braking performance test specified in Paragraph 1.7.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation shall be
carried out.
4.6.2.2. The mean braking torque during the above hot performance tests on the linings being tested
for the purpose of comparison shall, for the same input measurement, be within the test limits
± 15% of the mean braking torque recorded with the brake linings conforming to the
component identified in the relevant application for vehicle type approval.
5. INSPECTION OF BRAKE LININGS
5.1. Brake linings shall be visually inspected on completion of the above tests to check that they
are in satisfactory condition for continued use in normal service.

2.1.2. Messages transmitted from the trailer to the towing vehicle:
Function/Parameter
ISO 11992-2:2003
Reference
Regulation No. 13
Reference
VDC Active/passive
EBS21 Byte 2
Bit 1-2
Vehicle electrical supply sufficient/insufficient EBS22 Byte 2
Bit 1-2
Red warning signal request EBS22 Byte 2
Bit 3-4
Supply line braking request EBS22 Byte 4
Bit 3-4
Stop lamps request EBS22 Byte 4
Bit 5-6
Vehicle pneumatic supply sufficient/insufficient EBS23 Byte 1
Bit 7-8
Annex 21,
Paragraph 2.1.6.
Regulation No. 13,
Paragraph 5.2.2.20.
Regulation No. 13,
Paragraphs 5.2.2.15.2.1,
5.2.2.16 and 5.2.2.20.
Regulation No. 13,
Paragraph 5.2.2.15.2.
Regulation No. 13,
Paragraph 5.2.2.22.1.
Regulation No. 13,
Paragraph 5.2.2.16.
2.2. When the trailer transmits the following messages, the towing vehicle shall provide a warning
to the driver:
Function/Parameter
ISO 11992-2:2003
Reference
Driver Warning Required
VDC Active/Passive
EBS21 Byte 2
Bit 1-2
Red warning signal request EBS22 Byte 2
Bit 3-4
Annex 21,
Paragraph 2.1.6.
Regulation No. 13,
Paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1.
2.3. The following messages defined in ISO 11992-2:2003 including Amd.1:2007 shall be
supported by the towing vehicle or trailer:
2.3.1. Messages transmitted from the towing vehicle to the trailer:
No messages currently defined.

2.4.2. Messages transmitted from the trailer to the towing vehicle:
Function/Parameter
ISO 11992-2:2003
Reference
Support of side or axle wise brake force distribution EBS21 Byte 2, Bit 3-4
Wheel based vehicle speed EBS21 Byte 3-4
Lateral acceleration EBS21 Byte 8
Vehicle ABS active/passive EBS22 Byte 1, Bit 1-2
Amber warning signal request EBS22 Byte 2, Bit 5-6
Vehicle type EBS22 Byte 3, Bit 5-6
Loading ramp approach assistance EBS22 Byte 4, Bit 1-2
Axle load sum EBS22 Byte 5-6
Tyre pressure sufficient/insufficient EBS23 Byte 1, Bit 1-2
Brake lining sufficient/insufficient EBS23 Byte 1, Bit 3-4
Brake temperature status EBS23 Byte 1, Bit 5-6
Tyre/wheel identification (pressure) EBS23 Byte 2
Tyre/wheel identification (lining) EBS23 Byte 3
Tyre/wheel identification (temperature) EBS23 Byte 4
Tyre pressure (actual tyre pressure) EBS23 Byte 5
Brake lining EBS23 Byte 6
Brake temperature EBS23 Byte 7
Brake cylinder pressure first axle left wheel EBS25 Byte 1
Brake cylinder pressure first axle right wheel EBS25 Byte 2
Brake cylinder pressure second axle left wheel EBS25 Byte 3
Brake cylinder pressure second axle right wheel EBS25 Byte 4
Brake cylinder pressure third axle left wheel EBS25 Byte 5
Brake cylinder pressure third axle right wheel EBS25 Byte 6
ROP (Roll Over Protection) system enabled/disabled EBS25 Byte 7, Bit 1-2
YC (Yaw Control) system enabled/disabled EBS25 Byte 7, Bit 3-4
Traction help RGE21 Byte 1, Bit 5-6

ANNEX 17
TEST PROCEDURE TO ASSESS THE FUNCTIONAL COMPATIBILITY
OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH ELECTRIC CONTROL LINES
1. GENERAL
1.1. This Annex defines a procedure that may be used to check towing and towed vehicles
equipped with an electric control line against the functional and performance requirements
referred to in Paragraph 5.1.3.6.1. of this Regulation. Alternative procedures may be used
at the discretion of the Technical Service if an equivalent level of checking integrity can be
established.
1.2. The references to ISO 7638 within this Annex apply to ISO 7638-1:2003 for 24V
applications and ISO 7638-2:2003 for 12V applications.
2. INFORMATION DOCUMENT
2.1. The vehicle manufacturer/system supplier shall supply to the Technical Service an
Information Document that contains at least the following:
2.1.1. A schematic of the vehicle braking system;
2.1.2. Evidence that the interface, including the physical layer, data link layer and the application
layer and the respective position of supported messages and parameters, complies with
ISO 11992;
2.1.3. A list of supported messages and parameters; and
2.1.4. The specification of the motor vehicle with respect to the number of control circuits that
signal the pneumatic and/or electric control lines.
3. TOWING VEHICLES
3.1. ISO 11992 Trailer Simulator
The simulator shall:
3.1.1. Have a connector meeting ISO 7638:2003 (7 pin) to connect to the vehicle under test. Pins
6 and 7 of the connector shall be used to transmit and receive messages complying with
ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd-1:2007;
3.1.2. Be capable of receiving all of the messages transmitted by the motor vehicle to be type
approved and be capable of transmitting all trailer messages defined within
ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd-1:2007;
3.1.3. Provide a direct or indirect readout of messages, with the parameters in the data field
shown in the correct order relative to time; and
3.1.4. Include a facility to measure coupling head response time in accordance with
Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6 to this Regulation.

3.2.2.3.2. Simulate a permanent failure in the communication line to Pin 7 of the ISO 7638 connector
and check that the yellow warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. of this
Regulation is displayed.
3.2.2.3.3. Simulate message EBS 22, Byte 2 with Bits 3 − 4 set to 01 and check that the red
warning signal specified in Paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. of this Regulation is displayed.
3.2.2.4. Supply line braking request:
For power-driven vehicles which can be operated with trailers connected via an electric
control line only:
Only the electric control line shall be connected.
Simulate message EBS 22, Byte 4 with Bits 3 − 4 set to 01 and check that when the
service brake, secondary brake or parking brake is fully actuated the pressure in the
supply line falls to 150kPa within the following two seconds.
Simulate a continuous absence of data communication and check that when the service
brake, secondary brake or parking brake is fully actuated the pressure in the supply line
falls to 150kPa within the following two seconds.
3.2.2.5. Response time:
3.2.2.5.1. Check that, with no faults present, the control line response requirements defined in
Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6 to this Regulation are met.
3.2.2.6. Illumination of Stop Lamps
Simulate message EBS 22 Byte 4 Bits 5 to 6 set to 00 and check that the stop lamps are
not illuminated.
Simulate message EBS 22 Byte 4 Bits 5 to 6 set to 01 and check that the stop lamps are
illuminated.
3.2.2.7. Intervention of Trailer Stability Function
Simulate message EBS 21 Byte 2 Bits 1 to 2 set to 00 and check that the driver warning
defined in Paragraph 2.1.6 of Annex 21 is not illuminated.
Simulate message EBS 21 Byte 2 Bits 1 to 2 set to 01 and check that the driver warning
defined in Paragraph 2.1.6 of Annex 21 is illuminated.
3.2.3. Additional Checks
3.2.3.1. At the discretion of the Technical Service the checking procedures defined above may be
repeated with the non-braking functions relevant to the interface in different states or
switched off.
3.2.3.2. Paragraph 2.4.1 of Annex 16 defines additional messages that shall under specific
circumstances be supported by the towing vehicle. Additional checks may be carried out to
verify the status of supported messages to ensure the requirements of
Paragraph 5.1.3.6.2 of the Regulation are fulfilled.

4.2.2.1.1.1. For trailers equipped with pneumatic and electric control lines:
both control lines shall be connected
both control lines shall be signalled simultaneously
the simulator shall transmit message Byte 3, Bits 5 − 6
of EBS 12 set to 01 to indicate to the trailer that a pneumatic control line should be
connected
Parameters to be checked:
Message Transmitted
by the Simulator
Pressure at the Brake Chambers
Byte
Reference
Digital
Demand
value
3 − 4 0 0kPa
3 − 4 33280
(650kPa)
As defined in the vehicle manufacturer's brake calculation
4.2.2.1.1.2. Trailers equipped with pneumatic and electric control lines or an electric control line only:
Only the electric control line shall be connected
The simulator shall transmit the following messages:
Byte 3, Bits 5 − 6 of EBS 12 set to 00 to indicate to the trailer that a pneumatic control line
is not available, and Byte 3, Bits 1 − 2 of EBS 12 set to 01 to indicate to the trailer that the
electric control line signal is generated from two electric circuits.
Parameters to be checked:
Message Transmitted
by the Simulator
Pressure at the Brake Chambers
Byte
Reference
Digital
Demand
value
3 − 4 0 0kPa
3 − 4 33280
(650kPa)
As defined in the vehicle manufacturer's brake calculation

The following shall be checked:
Test condition
With no faults present in the
trailer braking system
Introduce a failure in the electric
control transmission of the trailer
braking system that prevents at
least 30% of the prescribed
braking performance from being
maintained
Braking system response
Check that the braking system is communicating with
the simulator and that Byte 4, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 is
set to 00 .
Check that Byte 4, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 is set to 01
Or
The data communications to the simulator has been
terminated
4.2.2.2. Failure Warning
4.2.2.2.1. Check that the appropriate warning message or signal is transmitted under the following
conditions:
4.2.2.2.1.1. Where a permanent failure within the electric control transmission of the trailer braking
system which precludes the service braking performance being met, simulate such a
failure and check that Byte 2, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted by the trailer is set to 01 . A
signal should also be transmitted via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638 connector (yellow warning).
4.2.2.2.1.2. Reduce the voltage on Pins 1 and 2 of the ISO 7638 connector to below a value
nominated by the manufacturer which precludes the service braking system performance
from being fulfilled and check that Byte 2, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted by the trailer
are set to 01 . A signal should also be transmitted via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638 connector
(yellow warning).
4.2.2.2.1.3. Check compliance with the provisions of Paragraph 5.2.2.16. of this Regulation by
isolating the supply line. Reduce the pressure in the trailer pressure storage system to the
valve nominated by the manufacturer. Check that Byte 2, Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted
by the trailer is set to 01 and that Byte 1, Bits 7 − 8 of EBS 23 is set to 00. A signal should
also be transmitted via Pin 5 of the ISO 7638 connector (yellow warning).
4.2.2.2.1.4. When the electrical part of the braking equipment is first energised check that Byte 2,
Bits 3 − 4 of EBS 22 transmitted by the trailer is set to 01 . After the braking system has
checked that no defects that require identification by the red warning signal are present
the above message should be set to 00 .
4.2.2.3. Response Time Checking
4.2.2.3.1. Check that, with no faults present, the braking system response time requirements defined
in Paragraph 3.5.2. of Annex 6 to this Regulation are met.

ANNEX 18
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS TO BE APPLIED TO THE SAFETY ASPECTS
OF COMPLEX ELECTRONIC VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
This Annex defines the special requirements for documentation, fault strategy and verification
with respect to the safety aspects of Complex Electronic Vehicle Control Systems
(Paragraph 2.3 below) as far as this Regulation is concerned.
This Annex may also be called, by special Paragraphs in this Regulation, for safety related
functions which are controlled by electronic system(s).
This Annex does not specify the performance criteria for "The System" but covers the
methodology applied to the design process and the information which shall be disclosed to
the Technical Service, for Type Approval purposes.
This information shall show that "The System" respects, under normal and fault conditions, all
the appropriate performance requirements specified elsewhere in this Regulation.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Annex,
2.1. "Safety concept" is a description of the measures designed into the system, for example
within the electronic units, so as to address system integrity and thereby ensure safe
operation even in the event of an electrical failure.
The possibility of a fall-back to partial operation or even to a back-up system for vital vehicle
functions may be a part of the safety concept.
2.2. "Electronic control system" means a combination of units, designed to co-operate in the
production of the stated vehicle control function by electronic data processing.
Such systems, often controlled by software, are built from discrete functional components
such as sensors, electronic control units and actuators and connected by transmission links.
They may include mechanical, electro-pneumatic or electro-hydraulic elements.
"The System", referred to herein, is the one for which type approval is being sought.
2.3. "Complex electronic vehicle control systems" are those electronic control systems which
are subject to a hierarchy of control in which a controlled function may be over-ridden by a
higher level electronic control system/function.
A function which is over-ridden becomes part of the complex system.
2.4. "Higher-level control" systems/functions are those which employ additional processing
and/or sensing provisions to modify vehicle behaviour by commanding variations in the
normal function(s) of the vehicle control system.
This allows complex systems to automatically change their objectives with a priority which
depends on the sensed circumstances.

3.2.2. A list of all output variables which are controlled by "The System" shall be provided and an
indication given, in each case, of whether the control is direct or via another vehicle system.
The range of control (Paragraph 2.7) exercised on each such variable shall be defined.
3.2.3. Limits defining the boundaries of functional operation (Paragraph 2.8 above) shall be stated
where appropriate to system performance.
3.3. System Layout and Schematics
3.3.1. Inventory of Components
A list shall be provided, collating all the units of "The System" and mentioning the other
vehicle systems which are needed to achieve the control function in question.
An outline schematic showing these units in combination, shall be provided with both the
equipment distribution and the interconnections made clear.
3.3.2. Functions of the Units
The function of each unit of "The System" shall be outlined and the signals linking it with other
units or with other vehicle systems shall be shown. This may be provided by a labelled block
diagram or other schematic, or by a description aided by such a diagram.
3.3.3. Interconnections
Interconnections within "The System" shall be shown by a circuit diagram for the electrical
transmission links, by an optical-fibre diagram for optical links, by a piping diagram for
pneumatic or hydraulic transmission equipment and by a simplified diagrammatic layout for
mechanical linkages.
3.3.4. Signal Flow and Priorities
There shall be a clear correspondence between these transmission links and the signals
carried between units.
Priorities of signals on multiplexed data paths shall be stated, wherever priority may be an
issue affecting performance or safety as far as this Regulation is concerned.
3.3.5. Identification of Units
Each unit shall be clearly and unambiguously identifiable (e.g. by marking for hardware and
marking or software output for software content) to provide corresponding hardware and
documentation association.
Where functions are combined within a single unit or indeed within a single computer, but
shown in multiple blocks in the block diagram for clarity and ease of explanation, only a single
hardware identification marking shall be used.
The manufacturer shall, by the use of this identification, affirm that the equipment supplied
conforms to the corresponding document.

3.4.4. The documentation shall be supported, by an analysis which shows, in overall terms, how the
system will behave on the occurrence of any one of those specified faults which will have a
bearing on vehicle control performance or safety.
This may be based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), a Fault Tree Analysis
(FTA) or any similar process appropriate to system safety considerations.
The chosen analytical approach(es) shall be established and maintained by the manufacturer
and shall be made open for inspection by the technical service at the time of the type
approval.
3.4.4.1. This documentation shall itemise the parameters being monitored and shall set out, for each
fault condition of the type defined in Paragraph 3.4.4 above, the warning signal to be given to
the driver and/or to service/technical inspection personnel.
4. VERIFICATION AND TEST
4.1. The functional operation of "The System", as laid out in the documents required in
Paragraph 3, shall be tested as follows:
4.1.1. Verification of the Function of "The System"
As the means of establishing the normal operational levels, verification of the performance of
the vehicle system under non-fault conditions shall be conducted against the manufacturer's
basic benchmark specification unless this is subject to a specified performance test as part of
the approval procedure of this or another Regulation.
4.1.2. Verification of the Safety Concept of Paragraph 3.4 above
The reaction of "The System" shall, at the discretion of the type approval authority, be
checked under the influence of a failure in any individual unit by applying corresponding
output signals to electrical units or mechanical elements in order to simulate the effects of
internal faults within the unit.
4.1.2.1. The verification results shall correspond with the documented summary of the failure analysis,
to a level of overall effect such that the safety concept and execution are confirmed as being
adequate.

2.2.3. For each pressure increment the corresponding average thrust (Th ) and the effective
stroke (s ) will be determined as per Appendix 9 of this Annex.
2.3. Verification
2.3.1. With reference to Appendix 1 of this Annex, Paragraphs 3.1., 3.2., 3.3. and 3.4., a minimum
of 6 samples are to be tested, with a verification report being issued, providing that the
requirements of Paragraphs 2.3.2., 2.3.3. and 2.3.4. below are satisfied.
2.3.2. With respect to the verification of average thrust (Th ) – f(p), a graph defining the
acceptable performance variation shall be constructed following the model shown in
Diagram 1, which is based on the manufacturers declared thrust to pressure relationship.
The manufacturer shall also define the category of trailer for which the brake chamber may
be used and the corresponding tolerance band applied.
2.3.3. It shall be verified that the pressure (p ) required to produce a pushrod stroke of 15mm
from the zero datum position with a tolerance of ±10kPa by following one of the following
test procedures:
2.3.3.1. Utilizing the declared function of thrust (Th ) – f(p) the brake chamber threshold pressure
(p ) shall be calculated when Th = 0. It shall then be verified that when this threshold
pressure is applied a pushrod stroke as defined in Paragraph 2.3.3. above is produced.
2.3.3.2. The manufacturer shall declare the brake chamber threshold pressure (p ) and it shall be
verified that when this pressure is applied the pushrod stroke defined in Paragraph 2.3.3.
above is produced.
2.3.4. With respect to the verification of effective stroke (sp) – f(p), the measured value shall not
be less than –4% of the s characteristics at the manufacturer's declared pressure range.
This value shall be recorded and specified in Paragraph 3.3.1. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
Outside of this pressure range the tolerance may exceed –4%.
Diagram 1

3.3.2. The test results recorded shall be reported on a form, a model of which is shown in
Appendix 4 to this Annex, and shall be included with the verification report detailed within
Paragraph 3.4 below.
3.4. Verification Report:
3.4.1. The manufacturer's declared performance characteristics, verified by the test results
recorded in accordance with Paragraph 3.3.2 above, shall be reported on a form, a model of
which is shown in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
4. COLD PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR TRAILER BRAKES
4.1. General:
4.1.1. This procedure covers the testing of the "cold" performance characteristics of air operated
S cam and disc brakes fitted to trailers.
4.1.2. The performance characteristics declared by the manufacturer shall be used for all
calculations relating to the braking compatibility requirements of Annex 10 and to the Type-0
cold service braking and parking braking performance requirements of Annex 20.
4.2. Brake Factor and Brake Threshold Torque
4.2.1. The preparation of the brake shall be in accordance with Paragraph 4.4.2. of this Annex.
4.2.2. The brake factor is determined by using the following formula:
B
=
Δ Output torque
Δ Input torque
and shall be verified for each of the lining or pad materials specified in Paragraph 4.3.1.3
below.
4.2.3. The brake threshold torque shall be expressed in a manner that remains valid for variations
of brake actuation and is denoted by the Symbol C .
4.2.4. The values of B shall remain valid for variations of the following parameters:
4.2.4.1. Mass per brake up to that defined in Paragraph 4.3.1.5 below.
4.2.4.2. Dimensions and characteristics of external components used to actuate the brake.
4.2.4.3. Wheel size/tyre dimensions.
4.3. Information Document
4.3.1. The brake manufacturer shall provide the Technical Service with at least the following
information:
4.3.1.1. A description of the brake type, model, size etc.
4.3.1.2. Details of the brake geometry

4.4.2.6. Make 20 brake applications from an initial speed of 60km/h an input to the brake equal to
0.3 TR/Test Mass. The initial temperature at the lining/drum or pad/disc interface shall not
exceed 150°C before each brake application.
4.4.2.7. Carry out a performance check as follows:
4.4.2.7.1. Calculate the input torque to produce theoretical performance values equivalent to 0.2, 0.35
and 0.5 ± 0.05 TR/Test Mass.
4.4.2.7.2. Once the input torque value has been determined for each braking rate, this value shall
remain constant throughout each and subsequent brake applications (e.g. constant
pressure).
4.4.2.7.3. Make a brake application with each of the input torques determined in Paragraph 4.4.2.7.1.
from an initial speed of 60km/h. The initial temperature at the lining/drum or pad/disc
interfaces shall not exceed 100°C before each application.
4.4.2.8. Repeat the procedures defined in Paragraphs 4.4.2.6. and 4.4.2.7.3. above, where
Paragraph 4.4.2.6. is optional, until the performance of five consecutive non monotonic
measurements at the 0.5 TR/(Test Mass) constant input value has stabilised within a
tolerance of minus 10% of the maximum value.
4.4.2.9. If the manufacturer can demonstrate by field test results, that the brake factor after this
bedding in state is different from the brake factor which has developed on the road,
additional conditioning is permissible.
The maximum brake temperature, measured at the lining/drum or pad/disc interface, during
this additional bedding in procedure shall not exceed 500°C in the case of drum brakes and
700°C in the case of disc brakes.
This field test shall be an endurance run with the same type and model of brake as that to
be recorded in the Annex 11, Appendix 3 test report. The results of at least 3 tests in
accordance with Paragraph 4.4.3.4 below conducted under the conditions of the laden
Type-0 test, during the field test, shall be the basis for determining whether further
conditioning is permissible. The brake tests shall be documented as prescribed in
Appendix 8 of this Annex.
The details of any additional conditioning shall be recorded and appended to the brake
factor B in Paragraph 2.3.1. of Annex 11, Appendix 3, by specifying for instance the
following test parameters:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Brake actuator pressure, the brake input torque or the brake output torque of the
brake application;
Speed at the beginning and the end of the brake application;
Time in the case of a constant speed;
Temperature at the beginning and the end of the brake application or the duration of
the brake cycle.
4.4.2.10. In the case of this procedure being carried out on an inertia dynamometer or rolling road,
unlimited use of cooling air is permitted.

4.5.1.9. The final speed v shall be determined in accordance with Annex 11, Appendix 2,
Paragraph 3.1.5.
4.5.1.10. The braking performance of the axle under test shall be determined by calculating the
deceleration determined from a direct measurement of velocity and distance between 0.8v
and v , where v shall not be less than 0.1v . This shall be deemed to be equivalent to the
mean fully developed deceleration (MFDD) as defined in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.5.2. Inertia Dynamometer Test
4.5.2.1. The test shall be carried out on a single brake assembly.
4.5.2.2. The test machine shall be capable of generating the inertia required by Paragraph 4.5.2.5.
of this Annex.
4.5.2.3. The test machine shall be calibrated for speed and brake output torque within an accuracy
of 2%.
4.5.2.4. The instrumentation for the test shall be capable of providing at least the following data:
4.5.2.4.1. A continuous recording of brake application pressure or force.
4.5.2.4.2. A continuous recording of brake output torque.
4.5.2.4.3. A continuous recording of the temperature measured at the lining/drum or pad/disc
interface.
4.5.2.4.4. Speed during the test.

4.5.3. Rolling Road Test
4.5.3.1. The test will be carried out on single axle with one or two brakes.
4.5.3.2. The test machine shall have a calibrated means of imposing load to simulate the required
mass for the brake(s) to be tested.
4.5.3.3. The test machine shall be calibrated for speed and brake torque within an accuracy of 2%
taking into account the internal friction characteristics. The dynamic rolling radius of the tyre
(R) shall be determined by measuring the rotational speed of the rolling road and the
unbraked wheels of the axle under test at a speed equivalent to 60km/h, and calculated by
the formula
R = R
n
n
where:
R = radius of the rolling road
n = rolling road (rotational) speed
n = rotational speed of the unbraked wheels of the axle
4.5.3.4. Cooling air at ambient temperature may be used, flowing at a velocity not exceeding 0.33v
over the brake(s).
4.5.3.5. The brake(s) shall be closely adjusted at the start of the test.
4.5.3.6. The brake input for the purpose of calculating the brake threshold torque shall be
determined by gradually applying brake(s) until the onset of brake torque generation is
observed.
4.5.3.7. The brake performance shall be determined by measuring the brake force at the periphery
of the tyre calculated to braking rate, taking into account the rolling resistance. The rolling
resistance of the loaded axle will be determined by measuring the force at the periphery of
the tyre at a speed of 60km/h.
The average brake output torque (M ) shall be based on the measured values between the
moment the application pressure/force reaches its asymptotic value from the onset of
pressure rise at the brake input device and when the energy input has reached the value
W that is defined in Paragraph 4.5.3.8 below.
4.5.3.8. For determining the braking rate an energy input W equivalent to the kinetic energy of the
corresponding mass for the brake under test when braked from 60km/h to standstill, shall be
taken into account.
where:
W
= ∫ F ⋅ v ⋅ dt

5. ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEMS (ABS)
5.1. General
5.1.1. This Paragraph defines the procedure to determine the performance of a trailer anti-lock
braking system.
5.1.2. Tests carried out on trailers of Category O will be deemed to cover the requirements for
trailers of O Category.
5.2. Information Document
5.2.1. The manufacturer of the ABS shall supply to the Technical Service an Information
Document of the system(s) requiring performance verification. This document shall contain
at least the information defined in Appendix 5 to this Annex.
5.3. Definition of Test Vehicles
5.3.1. Based on the information supplied in the information document, in particular the trailer
applications defined in Paragraph 2.1. of Appendix 5, the Technical Service shall carry out
tests on representative trailers having up to three axles and equipped with the respective
anti-lock braking system/configuration. Additionally, when selecting trailers for evaluation
consideration shall also be given to the parameters defined in the following Paragraphs.
5.3.1.1. Suspension type: the method of evaluating the performance of the anti-lock braking system
relative to the suspension type will be selected in the following way:
Semi-trailers: for each suspension group e.g. balanced mechanical etc. a representative
trailer shall be evaluated.
Full trailers: Evaluation to be carried out on a representative trailer equipped with any one
suspension type.
5.3.1.2. Wheelbase: for semi-trailers the wheelbase shall not be a limiting factor, but for full trailers
the shortest wheelbase shall be evaluated.
5.3.1.3. Brake type: approval shall be limited to S cam or disc brakes but should other types
become available then comparative testing may be required.
5.3.1.4. Load sensing device: The utilisation of adhesion shall be determined with the load sensing
valve set to laden and unladen conditions. In all cases the requirements of Paragraph 2.7. of
Annex 13 to this Regulation shall apply.
5.3.1.5. Brake actuation: differentials in the level of actuation shall be recorded for evaluation during
the tests to determine the utilisation of adhesion. Results obtained from tests for one trailer
may be applied to other trailers of the same type.
5.3.2. For each type of trailer under test, documentation showing brake compatibility as defined in
Annex 10 to this Regulation (Diagrams 2 and 4) shall be made available to demonstrate
conformity.
5.3.3. For the purpose of the approval, semi-trailers and centre axle trailers shall be deemed to be
of the same vehicle type.

5.4.1.2.4.2. With the load sensing valve set to the laden condition and the initial energy level set
according to Paragraph 6.1.2. of Annex 13 to this Regulation the energy storage device(s)
shall be isolated from further supply of air. The brakes shall be applied with a control
pressure of 650kPa at the coupling head and then released. Further applications shall be
made until the pressure in the brake chambers is the same as that obtained after completing
the tests defined in Paragraphs 6.1.3. and 6.1.4. of Annex 13 to this Regulation. The
number of equivalent brake applications (n ) shall be noted.
The equivalent number of static brake applications (n ) is to be recorded in the test report.
Where n = 1.2 . n and is to be rounded up to the nearest whole integer
5.4.1.3. Split Friction Test − Where an anti-lock braking system is to be defined as Category A
system then all such ABS configurations shall be subject to the performance requirements
of Paragraph 6.3.2. of Annex 13 to this Regulation.
5.4.1.4. Low and high speed performance
5.4.1.4.1. With the trailer set as for utilisation of adhesion evaluation, verification of the low and high
speed performance shall be carried out according to Paragraph 6.3.1. of Annex 13 to this
Regulation.
5.4.1.4.2. Where a tolerance exists between the number of exciter teeth and tyre circumference,
functional checks shall be carried out at the extremes of tolerance in accordance with
Paragraph 6.3. of Annex 13 to this Regulation. This may be achieved by utilising different
tyre sizes or by producing special exciters to simulate frequency extremes.
5.4.1.5. Additional checks
The following additional checks shall be carried out with the towing vehicle unbraked and
the trailer unladen.
5.4.1.5.1. When the axle or axle group passes from a high adhesion surface (k ) to a low adhesion
surface (k ) where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, with a control pressure at the coupling head of
650kPa, the directly controlled wheels shall not lock. The running speed and the instant of
applying the trailer brakes is so calculated that with the anti-lock braking system full cycling
on the high adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other being made at
approximately 80km/h and at 40km/h.
5.4.1.5.2. When the trailer passes from a low adhesion surface (k ) to a high adhesion surface (k )
where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, with a control pressure at the coupling head of 650kPa, the
pressure at the brake chambers shall rise to an appropriate high value within a reasonable
time and the trailer shall not deviate from its initial course. The running speed and the
instant of applying the brakes is so calculated that, with the anti-lock braking system full
cycling on the low adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other occurs at
approximately 50km/h.
5.4.1.6. Documentation relating to the controller(s) shall be made available as required by
Paragraph 5.1.5. of the Regulation and Paragraph 4.1. of Annex 13 to this Regulation,
including its Footnote.

6.5. Towing Vehicle
6.5.1. The towing vehicle used for evaluating the performance of the vehicle (trailer) stability
function shall have the necessary pneumatic and electrical connections and if the towing
vehicle is equipped with a vehicle stability function as defined in Paragraph 2.34. of this
Regulation that function shall be disabled.
6.6. Test Report
6.6.1. A test report shall be produced, the content of which shall be at least that defined in
Appendix 8 to this Annex.

(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)
(s)
Drive axles: to be taken into consideration with regard to the use (loss) of wheel
speed sensing in the determination of vehicle speed;
Lift axles: lift axle detection / control and lifted condition to be evaluated;
Engine management: communication compatibility to be evaluated;
Gearbox type (e.g. manual, automated manual, semi-automatic, automatic): to be
evaluated;
Drive train options (e.g. retarder): to be evaluated;
Differential type (e.g. standard or self-locking): to be evaluated;
Differential lock(s) (driver selected): to be evaluated;
Brake system type (e.g. air over hydraulic, full air): to be evaluated;
Brake type (disc, drum (single wedge, twin wedge, S-cam)): not a limiting factor,
however, should other types become available, then comparative testing may be
required;
Anti-lock braking configurations: to be evaluated;
Wheelbase: to be evaluated
In the case where vehicles conforming to the minimum and maximum wheelbases as
specified in the information document are not available at the time of testing,
minimum and maximum wheelbase verification may be carried-out using system
manufacturer test data for real vehicles with a wheelbase within 20% of the actual
minimum and maximum wheelbase vehicles being tested by the Technical Service;
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)
Wheel type (single or twin): to be covered in the system manufacturer's information
document;
Tyre type (e.g. structure, category of use, size): to be covered in the system
manufacturer's information document;
Track width: not a limiting factor – covered by variations in the centre of gravity
evaluation;
Suspension type (e.g. air, mechanical, rubber): to be evaluated;
Centre of gravity height: to be evaluated
In the case where vehicles conforming to the maximum centre of gravity height as
specified in the information document are not available at the time of testing,
maximum centre of gravity height verification may be carried-out utilising system
manufacturer's test data for real vehicles with a centre of gravity height within +20%
of the actual maximum centre of gravity height of the vehicles being tested by the
Technical Service;

1.1.4.1.7. Anti-lock Braking Configurations:
Each anti-lock braking configuration shall be tested on at least one vehicle.
If the vehicle stability function is hosted on different systems (e.g. ABS, EBS), tests shall be
carried-out on vehicles having the different hosting systems.
1.1.4.1.8. Suspension Type:
Vehicles shall be selected on the basis of the suspension type (e.g. air, mechanical, rubber)
of each axle or axle group.
1.1.4.1.9. Centre of Gravity Height:
Tests shall be carried-out on vehicles where it is possible to adjust the centre of gravity
height so as to demonstrate that the roll-over control is able to adapt to changes in the
centre of gravity height.
1.1.4.1.10. Lateral Acceleration Sensor Position:
The effect of the lateral acceleration sensor being installed in different positions on the same
vehicle shall be evaluated to confirm the installation envelop specified by the system
manufacturer.
1.1.4.1.11. Yaw Rate Sensor Position:
1.1.4.1.12. Loading:
The effect of the yaw rate sensor being installed in different positions on the same vehicle
shall be evaluated to confirm the installation envelop specified by the system manufacturer.
Vehicles shall be tested in both the laden and unladen/part laden conditions to demonstrate
that the vehicle stability function is able to adapt to differing conditions of load.
In the case of a semi-trailer tractor, tests shall be carried-out as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
With a coupled semi-trailer, in the laden and unladen/part laden conditions, in which
the roll-over control, if fitted, has been disabled.
In the solo condition (without a coupled semi-trailer or imposed load),
With a load simulating the laden condition (without a coupled semitrailer).
1.1.4.2. Evaluation of Buses
1.1.5. Test Report
As an alternative, in the case of buses, trucks having the same braking system type may be
used in the evaluation. However, at least one bus shall be included in the testing and the
subsequent report.
1.1.5.1. A test report shall be produced, the content of which shall be at least that defined in
Appendix 12 of this Annex.

5. Name of Technical Service/Approval Authority conducting the test: .............................................
6. Date of test: .....................................................................................................................................
7. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 19 to
Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the …. series of amendments.
Technical Service conducting the test
Signed .................................. Date: .....................................
8. Approval Authority
Signed: ................................. Date: .....................................
9. Test documents:
Appendix 2, .......................... , ..............................................

Report No .......................
ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 3
MODEL VERIFICATION REPORT FORM FOR SPRING BRAKES
1. Identification ....................................................................................................................................
1.1. Manufacturer: (Name and address) ................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
1.2. Make: .....................................................
1.3. Type: .....................................................
1.4. Part number: ..........................................
2. Operating conditions:
2.1. Maximum working pressure:
3. Performance characteristics declared by the manufacturer:
3.1. Maximum stroke (s ) ..........................
3.2. Spring thrust (Th ) - f(s) .........................
3.3. Release pressure (at 10mm stroke) ......
4. Date of test: ..............................................
5. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 19 to
Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the …. series of amendments.
Technical Service conducting the test
Signed: ................................. Date: .....................................
6. Approval Authority
Signed: ................................. Date: .....................................
7. Test documents:
Appendix 4, .......................... , .............................................. ,

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 5
TRAILER ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INFORMATION DOCUMENT
1. GENERAL
1.1. Name of Manufacturer
1.2. System Name
1.3. System Variations
1.4. System Configurations (e.g. 2S/1M, 2S/2M etc.)
1.5. Explanation of the Basic Function and/or Philosophy of the System
2. APPLICATIONS
2.1. List of trailer types and ABS configurations for which approval is required.
2.2. Schematic diagrams of the system configurations installed on the trailers defined in Item 2.1.
above with consideration given to the following parameters:
Sensor locations
Modulator locations
Lift axles
Steering axles
Tube: type - bore size(s) and lengths
2.3. Relationship of tyre circumference to the resolution of the exciter, including tolerances.
2.4. Tolerance of tyre circumference between one axle and another fitted with the same exciter.
2.5. Scope of application with respect to suspension type:
Air suspension:
Other suspensions:
Any type of balanced "trailing arm" air suspension
to be defined by manufacturer, model and type (balanced/unbalanced).
2.6. Recommendations on differential brake input torque (if any) in relation to the ABS configuration
and trailer axle group.
2.7. Additional information (if applicable) to the application of the anti-lock braking system.

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 6
TRAILER ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM TEST REPORT
Test Report No ...............
1.
Identification
1.1.
Manufacturing of the anti-lock braking system (name and address)
1.2.
System name/model
2.
System(s) and Installation(s) approved
2.1.
ABS configuration(s) approved (e.g. 2S/1M, 2S/2M etc.):
2.2.
Range of application (type of trailer and number of axles):
2.3.
Methods of powering:
ISO 7638, ISO 1185 etc.
2.4.
Identification of approved sensor(s), controller(s) and modulator(s):
2.5.
Energy consumption - equivalent number of static brake applications.
2.6.
Additional features e.g. retarder control, lift axle configuration etc.
3.
Test Data and Results
3.1.
Test vehicle data:
3.2.
Test surface information:
3.3.
Test results:
3.3.1.
Utilisation of adhesion:
3.3.2.
Energy consumption:
3.3.3.
Split friction test:
3.3.4.
Low speed performance:
3.3.5.
High-speed performance:
3.3.6.
Additional checks:
3.3.6.1.
Transition from high to low adhesion surfaces:
3.3.6.2.
Transition from low to high adhesion surfaces:
3.3.7.
Failure mode simulation:

1. GENERAL
ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 7
VEHICLE (TRAILER) STABILITY FUNCTION INFORMATION DOCUMENT
1.1. Name of manufacturer
1.2. System name
1.3. System variations
1.4. Control function (directional / roll-over / both) including an explanation of the basic function
and/or philosophy of the control
1.5. System configurations (where appropriate)
1.6. System identification
2. APPLICATIONS
2.1. List of trailer types and configurations for which approval is required
2.2. Schematic diagrams of the respective configurations installed on the trailers defined in
Item 2.1. above with consideration given to the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Lift axles
Steering axles
Anti-lock braking configurations
2.3. Scope of application with respect to suspension type:
(a)
(b)
Air suspension: any type of balanced "trailing arm" air suspension
Other suspensions: individually identified by manufacturer, model and type
(balanced/unbalanced).
2.4. Additional information (if applicable) to the application of the directional control and/or the
roll-over control function(s)
3. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
3.1. Sensors external to the controller
(a)
(b)
(c)
Function
Limitations on the location of the sensors
Identification, e.g. part numbers

Test Report No: .............................
1. IDENTIFICATION:
ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 8
VEHICLE (TRAILER) STABILITY FUNCTION TEST REPORT
1.1. Manufacturer of the vehicle stability function (name and address)
1.2. System name / model
1.3. Control function
2. SYSTEM(S) AND INSTALLATIONS APPROVED:
2.1. Anti-lock braking configurations (where appropriate)
2.2. Range of application (trailer type(s) and number of axles)
2.3. System identification
2.4. Additional features
3. TEST DATA AND RESULTS:
3.1. Test vehicle data (including the specification and functionality of the towing vehicle)
3.2. Test surface information
3.3. Additional Information
3.4. Demonstrative tests/simulations used for the purpose of evaluating the directional control and
the roll-over control as appropriate.
3.5. Test results
3.6. Assessment in accordance with Annex 18 to this Regulation
4. LIMITS OF INSTALLATION
4.1. Suspension type
4.2. Brake type
4.3. Location of components on the trailer
4.4. Anti-lock braking configurations
4.5. Other recommendations/limitations (e.g. lifting axles, steering axles, etc.)

SYMBOL
B
C
D
d
F
H
I
l
M
n
n
n
n
P
p
P
R
Ra
ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 9
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
DEFINITION
Brake factor (input torque to output torque amplification ratio)
Threshold input torque (minimum torque necessary to produce a measurable brake torque)
Outer tyre diameter (overall diameter of an inflated new tyre)
A conventional number denoting the nominal rim diameter and corresponding to the
diameter of the rim expressed either in inches or mm
Brake force
Nominal tyre section height (the distance equal to half the difference between the outer
diameter of the tyre and the nominal rim diameter)
Rotary inertia
Brake lever length of reference test trailer
Average brake output torque
Equivalent number of static brake applications for the purpose of type approval
Equivalent number of static applications obtained during testing
Rotational speed of the rolling road
Rotational speed of the unbraked wheels of the axle
Maximum technically permitted mass for the brake
Pressure
R Ratio of s /
R
S
s
The pressure in the brake chamber require to produce a pushrod stroke of 15mm from the
zero datum position
Dynamic tyre rolling radius (calculated using 0.485D)
Nominal aspect ratio of the tyre (one hundred times the number obtained by dividing the
number expressing the nominal section height of the tyre in mm by the number expressing
the nominal section width in mm)
Radius of the rolling road
Section width of the tyre (linear distance between the outsides of the sidewalls of an
inflated tyre, excluding elevations due to labelling (marking), decorations or protective
bands or ribs)
Actuator stroke (working stroke plus free stroke)
s Total actuator stroke
s Effective stroke (the stroke at which the output thrust is 90% of the average thrust Th )
S
Th
Brake chamber push rod travel of reference test trailer in mm
Average thrust (the average thrust is determined by integrating the values between ⅓ and
⅔ of the total stroke s )

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 10
FIELD TEST DOCUMENTATION FORM
AS PRESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH 4.4.2.9. TO THIS ANNEX
1. IDENTIFICATION
1.1. Brake:
Manufacturer ................................................................................................................................
Make ............................................................................................................................................
Type .............................................................................................................................................
Model ...........................................................................................................................................
Drum brake or disc brake
Data to identify the tested item ....................................................................................................
Technically permissible brake input torque C .........................................................................
Automatic brake adjustment device: integrated/non-integrated
1.2. Brake Drum or Brake Disc:
Internal diameter of drum or outside diameter of disc .................................................................
Effective radius .........................................................................................................................
Thickness .....................................................................................................................................
Mass ............................................................................................................................................
Material ........................................................................................................................................
Data to identify the tested item ....................................................................................................
1.3. Brake Lining or Pad:
Manufacturer ................................................................................................................................
Type .............................................................................................................................................
Identification .................................................................................................................................
Width ............................................................................................................................................
Thickness .....................................................................................................................................
Surface area ................................................................................................................................
Method of attachment ..................................................................................................................
Data to identify the tested item ....................................................................................................

2. TEST DATA AND RESULTS
2.1. Field Test:
General description covering: distance travelled, time duration and location
......................................................................................................................................................
2.2. Braking Test:
2.2.1. Test track information ..................................................................................................................
2.2.2. Test procedure .............................................................................................................................
2.3. Test Results:
Brake factor
Test 1 ...........................................................................................................................
Date of Test 1 ...............................................................................................................
Test 2 ...........................................................................................................................
Date of Test 2 ...............................................................................................................
Test 3 ...........................................................................................................................
Date of Test 3 ...............................................................................................................
Diagrams

2.4. Additional information (if applicable) to the application of the directional control and roll-over
control functions, for example:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Wheelbase, track, centre of gravity height
Wheel type (single or twin) and tyre type (e.g. structure, category of use, size)
Gearbox type (e.g. manual, automated manual, semi-automatic, automatic)
Drive train options (e.g. retarder)
Differential type/differential lock(s) (e.g. standard or self-locking, automatic or driver
selected)
Management of the engine or any other source(s) of motive power
Brake type
3. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION:
3.1. Sensors external to the controller
(a)
(b)
(c)
Function
Limitations on the location of the sensors
Identification (e.g. part numbers)
3.2. Controller(s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
General description and function
Functionality of internal sensors (if applicable)
Hardware identification (e.g. part numbers)
Software identification
Limitations on the location of the controller(s)
Additional features
3.3. Modulators
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
General description and function
Hardware identification (e.g. part numbers)
Software identification (if applicable)
Limitations

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 12
VEHICLE (MOTOR VEHICLE) STABILITY FUNCTION TEST REPORT
Test Report No.: .................
1.
IDENTIFICATION:
1.1.
Manufacturer of the vehicle stability function (name and address)
1.2.
Applicant (if different from the manufacturer)
1.3.
Systems
1.3.1.
System variants
1.3.2.
System options
1.3.2.1.
Control functions
2.
SYSTEM(S) AND INSTALLATIONS:
2.1.
Anti-lock braking configurations
2.2.
Vehicle applications
2.2.1.
Vehicle category (e.g. N , N , etc.)
2.2.2.
Character of the vehicle
2.2.3.
Vehicle configuration(s) (e.g. 4x2, 6x2, etc.)
2.2.4.
End of line programming
2.3.
System identification
2.4.
Functional description
2.4.1.
Directional control
2.4.2.
Roll-over control
2.4.3.
Low speed operation
2.4.4.
Off-road mode
2.4.5.
Drive train options
2.5.
Components
2.6.
Trailer detection and functionality
2.7.
Intervention warning

4.5. Additional steered axle
4.6. Additional recommendations and limitations
4.6.1. Brake system type
4.6.2. Management of the engine or other source(s) of motive power
4.6.3. Lift axles
5. TEST DATA AND RESULTS:
5.1. Test vehicle data (including the specification and functionality of any trailer(s) used during
the test(s))
5.2. Test surface information
5.2.1. High adhesion surface
5.2.2. Low adhesion surface
5.3. Measurement and data acquisition
5.4. Test conditions and procedures
5.4.1. Vehicle tests
5.4.1.1. Directional control
5.4.1.2. Roll-over control
5.5. Additional Information
5.6. Test results
5.6.1. Vehicle tests
5.6.1.1. Directional control
5.6.1.2. Roll-over control
5.7. Assessment in accordance with Annex 18 to this Regulation
5.8. Compliance with Regulation No. 10
6. Attachments :
7. Date of test:

ANNEX 20
ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR THE TYPE APPROVAL OF TRAILERS
1. GENERAL
1.1. This Annex defines an alternative procedure for type approving trailers, utilising information
from test reports issued in accordance with Annexes 11 and 19.
1.2. On completion of the verification procedures described in Paragraphs 3., 4., 5., 6., 7. and 8.
of this Annex, the Technical Service/Approval Authority shall issue an UN type approval
certificate conforming to the model specified in Annex 2, Appendix 1 to this Regulation.
1.3. For the purposes of the calculations defined within this Annex the centre of gravity height
shall be determined in accordance with the method defined in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
2. APPLICATION FOR TYPE APPROVAL
2.1. The application for UN type approval of a trailer type with regard to the braking equipment
shall be submitted by the trailer manufacturer. In support of the approval the trailer
manufacturer shall supply to the Technical Service at least the following:
2.1.1. A copy of the UN or EU Type Approval Certificate and an Information Document of a trailer
hereafter referred to as the "reference trailer" on which the service braking performance
comparison is to be based. This trailer will have been subject to the actual tests defined in
Annex 4 to this Regulation for the appropriate trailer or equivalent EU Directive. A trailer that
has been approved to the alternative procedure defined in this Annex shall not be used as a
reference trailer.
2.1.2. Copies of the Annex 11 and Annex 19 test reports.
2.1.3. A documentation package that contains the relevant verification information including the
relevant calculations, where appropriate, for the following:
Performance Requirements
Annex 20 Reference
Cold service braking performance 3.
Parking brake performance 4.
Automatic (emergency) brake performance 5.
Failure of braking distribution system 6.
Anti-lock braking 7.
Vehicle stability function 8.
Functional checks 9.
2.1.4. A trailer, representative of the trailer type to be approved hereafter referred to as the
"subject trailer".
2.2. The manufacturer of the "reference trailer" and "subject trailer" shall be the same.

4. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE PARKING BRAKE
PERFORMANCE
4.1. General
4.1.1. This procedure provides an alternative to physically testing trailers on a gradient and
ensures that trailers fitted with spring brake actuated parking mechanisms can meet the
prescribed parking brake performance. This procedure shall not be applied to trailers fitted
with parking mechanisms operated by means other than spring brakes. Such trailers shall
be subjected to the physical test prescribed in Annex 4.
4.1.2. The prescribed parking braking performance shall be demonstrated by calculation, using the
formulae contained in Paragraphs 4.2. and 4.3 below.
4.2. Parking Performance
4.2.1. The parking brake force at the periphery of the tyres of axle(s) braked by the spring brake
actuated parking mechanism shall be calculated using the following formula:
T = (Th × l − C ) × n × B /R
4.2.2. The normal reaction of the road surface on the axles of a stationary trailer facing uphill and
downhill on an 18% gradient shall be calculated using the following formulae:
4.2.2.1. In the case of full trailers:
4.2.2.1.1. Facing uphill
N
⎛ tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜PR

cosP
E



N
N
=
i
N
⎛ tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜PR
+
cosP
E



N
N =
i

4.2.2.3.2. Facing downhill
N
⎛ P × E tan P × h × P ⎞
=
⎜P
− −
cosP
E
E



N
N
=
i
4.3. Verification
4.3.1. The parking brake performance of the trailer shall be verified using the following formulae:
⎛ ∑A


+ ∑B
P

+ 0.01⎟

× 100 ≥ 18%
and
⎛ ∑A


+ ∑B
P

+ 0.01
⎟ × 100 ≥ 18%

5. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE EMERGENCY/AUTOMATIC
BRAKING PERFORMANCE
5.1. General
5.1.1. To demonstrate compliance with the automatic braking performance requirements, either a
comparison is made between the chamber pressure required to achieve the specified
performance and the asymptotic chamber pressure after disconnection of the supply line, as
defined in Paragraph 5.2.1 below, or it shall be verified that the brake force provided by the
axle(s) fitted with spring brakes is sufficient to achieve the specified performance, as defined
in Paragraph 5.2.2.
5.2. Verification
5.2.1. The requirements of Annex 4, Paragraph 3.3., are considered to be satisfied by a subject
trailer if the asymptotic chamber pressure (p ) after disconnection of the supply line is
greater than the chamber pressure (p ) to achieve a performance of 13.5% of the maximum
stationary wheel load. The supply line pressure being stabilised at 700kPa prior to
disconnection.
5.2.2. The requirements of Annex 4, Paragraph 3.3., are considered to be satisfied by a spring
brake equipped subject trailer if:
ΣT ≥ 0.135 (PR) (g)
where T is calculated in accordance with Paragraph 4.2.1 above.

7. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE ANTI-LOCK BRAKING
PERFORMANCE
7.1. General
7.1.1. Testing of a trailer in accordance with Annex 13 to this Regulation may be waived at the
time of type approval of the trailer provided that the anti-lock braking system (ABS) complies
with the requirements of Annex 19 to this Regulation.
7.2. Verification
7.2.1. Verification of Components and Installation
The specification of the ABS installed on the trailer to be type approved shall be verified by
satisfying each of the following criteria:
Paragraph
CRITERIA
7.2.1.1. (a) Sensor(s)
(b) Controller(s)
(c) Modulator(s)
No change allowed
No change allowed
No change allowed
7.2.1.2. Tube size(s) and lengths
(a) Reservoir supply to modulator(s)
Minimum inside diameter
Maximum overall length
May be increased
May be reduced
(b) Modulator delivery to brake chambers
Inside diameter
Maximum overall length
No change allowed
May be reduced
7.2.1.3. Warning signal sequence No change allowed
7.2.1.4. Differentials in brake input torque within an axle
group
7.2.1.5. For other limitations refer to Paragraph 4 of the
test report as described in Appendix 6 of Annex 19
to this Regulation
Only approved differentials (if any)
permitted
Installation to be within the scope of
the limitations defined – No
deviations allowed

7.4. Trailers with more than 3 axles may utilize the Annex 19 ABS test report provided the
following conditions are fulfilled:
7.4.1. Irrespective of trailer type at least one third of the axles in an axle group shall have all
wheels directly controlled, with the wheels on the remaining axles being indirectly
controlled .
7.4.2. Utilization of Adhesion: The minimum utilization of adhesion specified within Paragraph 6.2.
of Annex 13 to this Regulation is deemed to be achieved when following conditions are
fulfilled:
7.4.2.1. The relationship of the number of wheels directly or indirectly controlled by one or more
pressure modulators and the location of the directly controlled wheels within the axle group
shall correspond to those defined within Paragraph 2.2. of the Information Document
referred to in Paragraph 5.2. of Annex 19 – Part 1 to this Regulation;
7.4.2.2. The utilization of adhesion of the installed configuration is shown in the Test Report as
meeting the requirements of Paragraph 6.2. of Annex 13 to this Regulation.
7.4.3. Energy Consumption: The number of equivalent static brake applications defined within
Paragraph 2.5. of the Test Report may be used in conjunction with the verification
procedure of Paragraph 7.3. of this Annex. Alternatively the test procedure specified within
Paragraph 6.1. of Annex 13 to this Regulation may be used;
7.4.4. Low speed performance: Additional verification is not required;
7.4.5. High speed performance: Additional verification is not required;
7.4.6. Category A Performance: The split friction requirements specified within Paragraph 6.3.2.
of Annex 13 to this Regulation are deemed to be fulfilled when the number of wheels which
are subject to independent left/right control is equal to or greater than the number of wheels
controlled using "select low" axle control;
7.4.7. Surface transition performance: Additional verification not required;
7.4.8. Installation limitations: in all cases the following limitations shall apply:
7.4.8.1. Any installation limitations defined within Items 2.1. to 2.7. of the Information Document
referred to in Paragraph 5.2. of Annex 19 – Part 1 to this Regulation shall apply;
7.4.8.2. Only products identified and referenced in the Information Document and Test Report may
be installed;
7.4.8.3. The maximum delivery volume controlled by each pressure modulator shall not exceed the
volume specified within Paragraph 3.3. of the Information Document;
7.4.8.4. An axle with directly controlled wheels may only be lifted when any axle which is indirectly
controlled from this direct controlled axle is lifted in parallel;
7.4.8.5. All other installation limitations specified within Paragraph 4. of the Test Report shall apply.

9.1.3. Static Energy Consumption
9.1.3.1. The Technical Service shall verify that the subject trailer conforms to the requirements of
Annex 7 and Annex 8 as appropriate.
9.1.4. Service Brake Function
9.1.4.1. The Technical Service shall verify that there are no abnormal vibrations during braking.
9.1.5. Parking Brake Function
9.1.5.1. The Technical Service shall apply and release the park brake to ensure correct function.
9.1.6. Emergency/Automatic Braking Function
9.1.6.1. The Technical Service shall verify that the subject trailer complies with the requirements of
Paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. of this Regulation.
9.1.7. Vehicle and Component Identification Verification
9.1.7.1. The Technical Service shall check the subject trailer against the details contained in the
type approval certificate.
9.1.8. Vehicle Stability Function
9.1.8.1. For practical reasons verification of the vehicle stability function shall be limited to an
installation check as defined in Paragraph 8.2. above and observation of the correct warning
signal sequence to ensure no faults are present.
9.1.9. Additional Checks
9.1.9.1. The Technical Service may request additional checks to be carried out, if necessary.

LADEN
UNLADEN
h
h1 × W1 + h2 × W2 + h3 × W3
=
P
h
h1 × W1 + h4 × W2 + h5 × W4
=
P
NOTES:
(1) For flat bed type trailers, a maximum height of 4m shall be used.
(2) For trailers where the exact centre of gravity height of the payload is not known, it shall be taken
as 0.3 times the inside dimensions of the body.
(3) For trailers with air suspension, the value of s shall be taken as zero.
(4) For semi-trailers and centre axle trailers, replace P with PR wherever it occurs.

ANNEX 20 - APPENDIX 3
VERIFICATION GRAPH FOR PARAGRAPH 3.2.1.6. - CENTRE AXLE TRAILERS
= TR
, when p = 650kPa and supply line = 700kPa.
= F
× 0.8 = TR
= 0.5 × F = TR
where:
F
= F

( TR × h ) + P × g × Z ( h − h )
( )
E
the value of z being calculated using the following formula:
NOTES:
⎛ F ⎞
z =
+
⎝ (P + 7000) g ⎠
( 0.5 − 0.01) ⎜
⎟ 0. 01
(1) The value of 7 000 above represents the mass of a towing vehicle with no trailer attached.
(2) For the purpose of these calculations, closely spaced axles (having an axle spread of less than
2m) may be treated as one axle.

ANNEX 20 - APPENDIX 5
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
SYMBOL
A T when T ≤ 0.8 N for front axles, or
0.8 N when T >0.8 N for front axles
B T when T ≤ 0.8 N for rear axles, or
0.8 N when T >0.8 N for rear axles
A T when T ≤ 0.8 N for front axles, or
0.8 N when T >0.8 N for front axles
B T when T ≤ 0.8 N for rear axles, or
0.8 N when T >0.8 N for rear axles
B
C
E
E
E
F
F
Brake factor
DEFINITION
Threshold camshaft input torque (minimum camshaft torque necessary to produce a
measurable brake torque)
Wheelbase
Distance between the coupling support leg or landing legs to the centre of the axle(s) of a
centre axle trailer or semi-trailer
Distance between king-pin and centre of axle or axles of semi-trailer
Force (N)
Total normal static reaction of road surface on front axle(s)
F Total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on front axle(s)
F
Total normal static reaction of road surface on rear axle(s)
F Total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on rear axle(s)
F
Total normal static reaction of road surface on all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer
F Total normal dynamic reaction of road surface on all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer
g Acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s )
h
h
h
i
i
i
l
n
Height above ground of centre of gravity
Height of fifth wheel coupling (king pin)
Height of centre of gravity of trailer
Axle index
Number of front axles
Number of rear axles
Lever length
Number of spring brake actuators per axle

SYMBOL
TR
TR
TR
TR
DEFINITION
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer at which the
limit of adhesion is reached
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the front axle(s) at which the limit of
adhesion is reached
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the rear axle(s) at which the limit of
adhesion is reached
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the trailer or semi-trailer required to
achieve the prescribed performance
TR
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the front axle(s) required to achieve the
prescribed performance
TR
Sum of braking forces at periphery of all wheels of the rear axle(s) required to achieve the
prescribed performance
z
Braking rate of the vehicle combination, with the trailer only braked
cos P Cosine of angle subtended by slope of 18% and horizontal plane = 0.98418
tan P Tangent of angle subtended by slope of 18% and horizontal plane = 0.18

2. REQUIREMENTS
2.1. Power-driven Vehicles
2.1.1. Where a vehicle is equipped with a vehicle stability function as defined in Paragraph 2.4. of
this Regulation, the following shall apply:
In the case of directional control the function shall have the ability to automatically control
individually the speed of the left and right wheels on each axle or an axle of each axle group
by selective braking based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a
determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver.
In both cases, the function is not required:
(a) When the vehicle speed is below 20km/h;
(b) Until the initial start up self test and plausibility checks have been completed;
(c)
When the vehicle is being driven in reverse.
(d) When it has been automatically or manually disabled. In this case, the following
conditions shall apply as appropriate:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
When a vehicle is equipped with a means to automatically disable the vehicle
stability function to provide increased traction by modifying the functionality of
the drive train, the disablement and its re-instatement shall be automatically
linked to the operation which changes the functionality of the drive train;
When a vehicle is equipped with a means to manually disable the vehicle
stability function, the vehicle stability function shall be automatically reinstated at
the initiation of each new ignition cycle;
A constant optical warning signal shall inform the driver that the vehicle stability
function has been disabled. The yellow warning signal in Paragraph 2.1.5. below
may be used for this purpose. The warning signals specified in
Paragraph 5.2.1.29. of this Regulation shall not be used.

2.1.3. The vehicle stability function shall be demonstrated to the Technical Service by dynamic
manoeuvres on one vehicle which has the same vehicle stability function as the vehicle type
to be approved. This may be realized by a comparison of results obtained with the vehicle
stability function enabled and disabled for a given load condition. As an alternative to
carrying-out dynamic manoeuvres for other vehicles and other load conditions, fitted with the
same vehicle stability system, the results from actual vehicle tests or computer simulations
may be submitted.
As an alternative to the above, a test report conforming to Part 2, Paragraph 1.1. of Annex 19
may be used.
The use of the simulator is defined in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
The specification and validation of the simulator is defined in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
Until unified test procedures are agreed, the method by which this demonstration is carried
out shall be agreed between the vehicle manufacturer and the Technical Service and shall
include the critical conditions of directional control and rollover control as appropriate to the
vehicle stability function installed on the vehicle with the method of demonstration and results
being appended to the type approval report. This may be carried-out other than at the time of
type approval.
As a means of demonstrating the vehicle stability function any of the following dynamic
manoeuvres shall be used :
Reducing radius test
Step steer input test
Sine with dwell
J-turn
Directional Control
μ -split single lane change
Double lane change
Reversed steering test or "fish hook" test
Asymmetrical one period sine steer or pulse
steer input test
Roll-Over Control
Steady state circular test
J-turn
To demonstrate repeatability the vehicle will be subject to a second demonstration using the
selected manoeuvre(s).

2.2.2. To realise the functionality defined above a vehicle stability function shall include, in addition
to automatically commanded braking and where appropriate selective braking, at least the
following:
(a) The determination of actual trailer behaviour from values of the vertical force on the
tyre(s), or at least lateral acceleration and wheel speeds. Only on-board generated
information shall be used. If these values are not directly measured, the evidence of the
appropriate correlation with directly measured values under all driving conditions
(e.g. including driving in a tunnel) shall be shown to the technical service at the time of
type approval.
2.2.3. The vehicle stability function shall be demonstrated to the Technical Service by dynamic
manoeuvres on one vehicle which has the same vehicle stability function as the vehicle type
to be approved. This may be done by a comparison of results obtained with the vehicle
stability function enabled and disabled for a given load condition. As an alternative to
carrying-out dynamic manoeuvres for other vehicles and other load conditions, fitted with the
same vehicle stability system, the results from actual vehicle tests or computer simulations
may be submitted.
As an alternative to the above, a test report conforming to Part 1, Paragraph 6. of Annex 19
may be used.
The use of the simulator is defined in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
The specification and validation of the simulator is defined in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
Until unified test procedures are agreed, the method by which this demonstration is carried
out shall be agreed between the trailer manufacturer and the Technical Service and shall
include the critical conditions of roll-over control and directional control as appropriate to the
vehicle stability function installed on the trailer with the method of demonstration and results
being appended to the type approval report. This may be carried-out other than at the time of
type approval.

ANNEX 21 – APPENDIX 1
USE OF THE DYNAMIC STABILITY SIMULATION
The effectiveness of the directional and/or roll-over stability control function of power-driven vehicles and
trailers of Categories M, N and O, may be determined by computer simulation.
1. USE OF THE SIMULATION
1.1. The vehicle stability function shall be demonstrated by the vehicle manufacturer to the Type
Approval Authority or Technical Service with the same dynamic manoeuvre(s) as for the practical
demonstration in Paragraph 2.1.3. or 2.2.3. of this Annex.
1.2. The simulation shall be a means whereby the vehicle stability performance may be demonstrated
with the vehicle stability function enabled or disabled, and in the laden and unladen conditions.
1.3. The simulations shall be carried out with a validated modelling and simulation tool. The
verification shall be carried out using the same manoeuvre(s) as defined in Paragraph 1.1.
above.
The method by which the simulation tool is validated is given in Annex 21, Appendix 2.
1.3.1. A vehicle manufacturer using a validated simulation tool that was not directly validated by
themselves for a vehicle type-approval shall carry-out at least one confirmation test.
This confirmation test shall be conducted in conjunction with a Technical Service and shall be a
comparison between an actual vehicle test and a simulation using one of the manoeuvres as
defined in Paragraph 1.1. of this Appendix.
The confirmation test shall be repeated in the event of any change to the simulation tool.
The results of the confirmation test shall be attached to the type-approval documentation.
1.4. The availability of the simulation tool software, to the software version used, shall be maintained
for a period of not less than 10 years following the date of the approval of the vehicle.

1.2. The vehicle stability function shall be added to the simulation model by means of:
(a)
(b)
A subsystem (software model) of the simulation tool as software-in-the-loop, or
An actual electronic control unit in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration.
1.3. In the case of a trailer, the simulation shall be carried out with the trailer coupled to a
representative towing vehicle.
1.4. Vehicle Loading Condition
1.4.1. The simulation tool shall be able to take into account the laden and unladen conditions.
1.4.2. The simulation tool shall, as a minimum, meet the following criteria:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A fixed load;
A given mass;
A given mass distribution; and
A given height of the centre of gravity.
2. VALIDATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL
2.1. The validity of the applied modelling and simulation tool shall be verified by means of
comparisons with a practical vehicle test(s). The test(s) utilised for the validation shall be
those which, without control action, would result in loss of directional control (under-steer and
over-steer) and/or roll-over control as appropriate to the functionality of the stability control
function installed on a vehicle.
During the test(s) the following motion variables, as appropriate, shall be recorded or
calculated in accordance with ISO 15037 Part 1:2006: or Part 2:2002: as relevant:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Yaw velocity;
Lateral acceleration;
Wheel load or wheel lift;
Forward velocity;
Driver input.
2.2. The objective is to show that the simulated vehicle behaviour and operation of the vehicle
stability function is comparable with that seen in practical vehicle tests.
The ability of the simulation tool to be used with parameters that have not been validated by a
practical vehicle test shall be shown by conducting simulations with varied parameter values.
The results of these simulations shall be checked to be logical and similar in comparison to
the results of known practical vehicle tests.

ANNEX 21 – APPENDIX 3
VEHICLE STABILITY FUNCTION SIMULATION TOOL TEST REPORT
Test Report Number: .......................
1. IDENTIFICATION
1.1. Name and address of the simulation tool manufacturer
1.2. Simulation tool identification: name/model/number (hardware and software)
2. SIMULATION TOOL
2.1. Simulation method (general description, taking into account the requirements of
Paragraph 1.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex)
2.2. Hardware/software in the loop (see Paragraph 1.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex)
2.3. Vehicle loading conditions (see Paragraph 1.4 of Appendix 2 to this Annex)
2.4. Validation (see Paragraph 2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex)
2.5. Motion variables (see Paragraph 2.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex)
3. SCOPE OF APPLICATION
3.1. Vehicle category:
3.2. Character of the vehicle:
3.3. Vehicle configuration:
3.4. Steering axles:
3.5. Steering ratio:
3.6. Drive axles:
3.7. Lift axles:
3.8. Engine management:
3.9. Gearbox type:
3.10. Drive train options:
3.11. Differential type:
3.12. Differential lock(s):
3.13. Brake system type:

4.2. Description of test(s) including location(s), road/test area surface conditions, temperature
and date(s):
4.3. Results laden and unladen with the vehicle of stability function switched on and off,
including the motion variables referred to in Paragraph 2.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex , as
appropriate:
5. SIMULATION RESULTS
5.1. Vehicle parameters and the values used in the simulation that are not taken from the actual
test vehicle (implicit):
5.2. Results laden and unladen with the vehicle stability function switched on and off for each
test conducted under Paragraph 4.2. of this Appendix, including the motion variables
referred to in Paragraph 2.1.of Appendix 2 to this Annex, as appropriate:
6. CONCLUDING STATEMENT
The simulated vehicle behaviour and operation of the vehicle stability function is comparable
with that of practical vehicle tests.
Yes/No
7. LIMITING FACTORS
8. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Appendix 2 to
Annex 21 to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the ... series of Amendments.
Technical Service conducting the test
Signed: ........................................ Date: .....................................
Type Approval Authority

3. REQUIREMENTS
The brake electric/electronic interface of the automated connector shall achieve the same
functional requirements as specified for the ISO 7638 connector throughout this regulation
and its Annexes.
3.1. The contacts (pins and sockets) for the brake electric/electronic interface shall have the same
electrical characteristics and functionality as the ISO 7638 contacts.
3.1.1. The data contacts of the brake electric/electronic interface shall be used to transfer
information exclusively for braking (including ABS) and running gear (steering, tyres and
suspension) functions as specified in ISO 11992-2:2003 including its Amendment 1:2007.
The braking functions have priority and shall be maintained in the normal and failed modes.
The transmission of running gear information shall not delay braking functions.
3.1.2. The power supply, provided by the brake electric/electronic interface, shall be used
exclusively for braking and running gear functions and that required for the transfer of trailer
related information not transmitted via the electric control line. However, in all cases the
provisions of Paragraph 5.2.2.18. of this Regulation shall apply. The power supply for all other
functions shall use other measures.
3.2. In the case of semi-trailer combinations equipped with an automated connector the maximum
length of the cable for braking data communication shall be:
(a) Tractor: 21m;
(b) Semi-trailer: 19m;
in the running mode.
In all other cases the conditions of Paragraphs 5.1.3.6. and 5.1.3.8. of this Regulation apply
with respect to maximum cable lengths.
3.3. Vehicles being equipped with both a connector conforming to ISO 7638 and an automated
connector shall be built in such a way that only a single path is possible for the functioning of
the electric control transmission or in the transmission of information in accordance with
ISO 11992-2:2003 including Amendment 1:2007. See Appendix 1 to this Annex for examples.
In the case of automatic path selection the priority shall be given to the automated connector.
3.4. Any trailer equipped with an automated connector shall be equipped with a spring braking
system according to Annex 8 to this Regulation.
3.5. The manufacturer applying for type approval shall submit an information document describing
the functionality and any limitations in the use of the automated connector and any associated
equipment, including information about the category according to Paragraph 2. of this Annex.
In the case of automated connectors of Categories B and D, the means to identify the type of
automated connector shall also be described to ensure identification of compatibility.

ANNEX 22 – APPENDIX 1
EXAMPLES OF THE LAYOUT OF AN AUTOMATED CONNECTION BETWEEN VEHICLES
Automated connection and manual connection equipped vehicles: data bus requirements.
Diagrams for electrical connections show routing of signals of Pins 6 and 7 according to ISO 7638.
Legend
Electrical
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
I
II
III
IV
ISO 11992-2 node in tractor, e.g. ECU ABS/EBS
Tractor ISO 7638 socket
Tractor ISO 7638 plug for automated connector
Tractor part of automated connector
Trailer ISO 7638 plug for automated connector
Trailer ISO 7638 socket
Trailer part of automated connector
ISO 7638 coiled cable
ISO 7638 park socket
ISO 11992-2 node in trailer, e.g. ECU ABS/EBS
Cable from E1 to E2
Cable from E10 to E6
Cable from E5 to E7
Cable from E3 to E4
Pneumatic
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
Trailer control valve mounted on tractor
T-piece
Pneumatic coupling head on tractor (control and supply)
Tractor part of automated connector
Pneumatic coupling head on trailer (control and supply)
Pneumatic valve to seal the unused terminal (double check valve) (control and supply)
Trailer part of automated connector
Pneumatic coiled tube (control and supply)
Pneumatic park socket (control and supply)

II.
Only One Part of the Vehicle Combination is Equipped with an Automated Connection
Manual Mode A (Only the Tractor Equipped with Automated Connection)
Figure C
Point-to-point Connection ECU Tractor (E1) and ECU Trailer (E10) when the Fifth
Wheel is Closed. Coiled Cables Connected, Line E3 to E4 is not in use
Manual Mode B (Only the Semi-trailer Equipped with Automated Connection)
Figure D
Point-to-point Connection ECU Tractor (E1) and ECU Trailer (E10).
Coiled Cables Connected, Line E5 to E7 is not in use

ANNEX 22 – APPENDIX 2
Couplings of Category A shall conform with the relevant provisions of ISO 13044-2:2013 to ensure
compatibility of braking systems of tractor and semi-trailer.
To be defined at a later date.
ANNEX 22 - APPENDIX 3
(RESERVED)
Braking - Vehicle Categories M, N and O.