Regulation No. 140-00 Proposal

Name:Regulation No. 140-00 Proposal
Description:Regulation on Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems - Proposal.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Passenger Cars with Regard to Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems - Proposal.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2016-04-07
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:27
Information:Published as Regulation No. 140-00
Vehicle Types:Car, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Drafts and Proposals (Historical)
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Keywords:

vehicle, esc, approval, system, regulation, paragraph, steering, test, type, requirements, control, stability, wheel, lateral, paragraphs, means, simulation, rate, yaw, angle, annex, position, manufacturer, mass, data, maximum, tell-tale, mode, vehicles, ignition, series, speed, electronic, acceleration, technical, time, conditions, run, velocity, locking, tests, function, braking, performance, granted, number, driver, tool, model, steer

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2016/62
PROPOSAL FOR A NEW REGULATION ON
ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC)
(ECE 140-00)
ADOPTED AT THE 169 SESSION – JUNE 2016
PROVISIONAL DATE OF ENTRY INTO FORCE: JANUARY 22, 2017

PROPOSAL FOR A NEW REGULATION ON
ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC)
(ECE 140-00)
1. SCOPE
1.1.
This Regulation applies to the approval of vehicles of Category M and N
with regard to
their electronic stability control system.
1.2. This Regulation does not cover:
1.2.1. Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25km/h;
1.2.2. Vehicles fitted for invalid drivers.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to electronic
stability control.
2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects
as:
2.2.1. The Manufacturer's Trade Name or Mark;
2.2.2. Vehicle features which significantly influence the performances of the Electronic Stability
Control system (e.g. maximum mass, centre of gravity position, track width, distance
between axles, tyres dimension and the design of the braking system);
2.2.3. The Design of the Electronic Stability Control system.
2.3. "Maximum mass" means the maximum mass stated by the vehicle manufacturer to be
technically permissible (this mass may be higher than the "permissible maximum mass" laid
down by the national administration).
2.4. "The distribution of mass among the axles" means the distribution of the effect of the
gravity on the mass of the vehicle and/or its contents among the axles.
2.5. "Wheel/axle load" means the vertical static reaction (force) of the road surface in the
contact area on the wheel/wheels of the axle.
2.6. "Ackerman steer angle" means the angle whose tangent is the wheelbase divided by the
radius of the turn at a very low speed.

3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to ESC shall be submitted by the
vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the under-mentioned documents in triplicate and by the following
particulars:
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in Paragraph 2.2. above.
The numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and the engine type shall be
specified;
3.2.2. A List of the Components, Duly Identified, Constituting the ESC System;
3.2.3. A diagram of the assembled ESC system and an indication of the position of its components
on the vehicle;
3.2.4. Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified.
3.3. A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the
Technical Service conducting the approval tests.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the
requirements of Paragraphs 5., 6. and 7. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be
granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved, its first two digits shall
indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type with regard to
electronic stability control.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement which apply this
Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation and of
a summary of the information contained in the documents referred to in
Paragraphs 3.2.1. to 3.2.4. above, the drawings supplied by the applicant for approval being
in a format not exceeding A4 (210 × 297mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate
scale.

5.4. The effectiveness of the ESC shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields.
This shall be demonstrated by fulfilling the technical requirements and respecting the
transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10 by applying:
(a)
(b)
The 03 series of amendments for vehicles without a coupling system for charging the
Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries);
The 04 series of amendments for vehicles with a coupling system for charging the
Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries).
5.5. The assessment of the safety aspects of ESC, with respect to its direct effect on the braking
system, shall be included in the overall safety assessment of the braking system as
specified in Regulation No. 13-H requirements associated with complex electronic control
systems. This is deemed to be fulfilled on the presentation of a Regulation No. 13-H
certificate which includes the ESC system to be approved.
5.6. Provisions for the Periodic Technical Inspection of ESC Systems
5.6.1. It shall be possible at a periodic technical inspection to confirm the correct operational status
by visual observation of the warning signals following a power-on.
5.6.2. At the time of type approval, the means implemented to protect against simple unauthorized
modification of the operation of the warning signals shall be confidentially outlined.
Alternatively, this protection requirement is fulfilled when a secondary means of checking
the correct operational status is available.
6. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Each vehicle submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation shall be equipped with an
Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system that:
6.1.
Is capable of applying braking torques individually to all four wheels
and has a control
algorithm that utilizes this capability;
6.2. Is operational over the full speed range of the vehicle, during all phases of driving including
acceleration, coasting, and deceleration (including braking), except:
6.2.1. When the driver has disabled ESC;
6.2.2. When the vehicle speed is below 20km/h;
6.2.3. While the initial start-up self-test and plausibility checks are completed, not to exceed two
minutes when driven under the conditions of Paragraph 9.10.2.;
6.2.4. When the vehicle is being driven in reverse.
6.3. Remains capable of activation even if the antilock braking system or traction control system
is also activated.

7.2. The yaw rate measured 1.75s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input shall not
exceed twenty per cent of the first peak value of yaw rate recorded after the steering wheel
angle changes sign (between first and second peaks) during the same test run.
7.3. The lateral displacement of the vehicle centre of gravity with respect to its initial straight path
shall be at least 1.83 m for vehicles with a GVM of 3,500kg or less, and 1.52m for vehicles
with a maximum mass greater than 3,500kg when computed 1.07s after the Beginning of
Steer (BOS). BOS is defined in Paragraph 9.11.6.
7.3.1. The computation of lateral displacement is performed using double integration with respect
to time of the measurement of lateral acceleration at the vehicle centre of gravity, as
expressed by the formula:
Lateral Displacement = ∫∫ ay
dt
An alternative measuring method may be allowed for type approval testing, provided it
demonstrates at least an equivalent level of precision as the double integration method.
7.3.2. Time t = 0 for the integration operation is the instant of steering initiation, known as the
Beginning of Steer (BOS). BOS is defined in Paragraph 9.11.6.
7.4. ESC Malfunction Detection
The vehicle shall be equipped with a tell-tale that provides a warning to the driver of the
occurrence of any malfunction that affects the generation or transmission of control or
response signals in the vehicle's electronic stability control system.
7.4.1. The ESC Malfunction Tell-tale:
7.4.1.1. Shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121;
7.4.1.2. Except as provided in Paragraph 7.4.1.3., the ESC malfunction tell-tale shall illuminate when
a malfunction exists and shall remain continuously illuminated under the conditions specified
in Paragraph 7.4. for as long as the malfunction exists, whenever the ignition locking system
is in the "On" ("Run") position;
7.4.1.3. Except as provided in Paragraph 7.4.2., each ESC malfunction tell-tale shall be activated as
a check of lamp function either when the ignition locking system is turned to the "On"
("Run") position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition locking system is in a
position between "On" ("Run") and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a check
position;
7.4.1.4. Shall extinguish at the next ignition cycle after the malfunction has been corrected in
accordance with Paragraph 9.10.4.;
7.4.1.5. May also be used to indicate the malfunction of related systems/functions, including traction
control, trailer stability assist, corner brake control, and other similar functions that use
throttle and/or individual torque control to operate and share common components with
ESC.

7.5.4. A control for another system that has the ancillary effect of placing the ESC system in a
mode in which it no longer satisfies the performance requirements of Paragraphs 7., 7.1.,
7.2. and 7.3. need not be identified by the "ESC Off" symbol of Paragraph 7.5.2.
7.6. ESC Off Tell-tale
If the manufacturer elects to install a control to turn off or reduce the performance of the
ESC system under Paragraph 7.5., the tell-tale requirements of Paragraphs 7.6.1. to 7.6.4.
shall be met in order to alert the driver to the inhibited or reduced state of ESC system
functionality. This requirement does not apply for the driver-selected mode referred to in
Paragraph 7.5.1.2.
7.6.1. The vehicle manufacturer shall provide a tell-tale indicating that the vehicle has been put
into a mode that renders it unable to satisfy the requirements of Paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2.
and 7.3., if such a mode is provided.
7.6.2. The "ESC Off" Tell-tale:
7.6.2.1. Shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.
7.6.2.2. Shall remain continuously illuminated for as long as the ESC is in a mode that renders it
unable to satisfy the requirements of Paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3;
7.6.2.3. Except as provided in Paragraphs 7.6.3. and 7.6.4. each "ESC Off" tell-tale shall be
activated as a check of lamp function either when the ignition locking system is turned to the
"On" ("Run") position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition locking system is
in a position between "On" ("Run") and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a
check position.
7.6.2.4. Shall extinguish after the ESC system has been returned to the manufacturer’s original
default mode.
7.6.3. The "ESC Off" tell-tale need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.
7.6.4. The requirement of Paragraph 7.6.2.3. of this section does not apply to tell-tales shown in a
common space.
7.6.5. The manufacturer may use the "ESC Off" tell-tale to indicate an ESC level of function other
than the manufacturer’s original default mode even if the vehicle would meet
Paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. of this section at that level of ESC function.
7.7. ESC System Technical Documentation
The documentation package shall, as confirmation that the vehicle is equipped with an ESC
system that meets the definition of an "ESC System" as in Paragraph 2.7. to this Regulation,
include the vehicle manufacturer's documentation as specified in Paragraphs 7.7.1. to 7.7.4.
below.
7.7.1. System diagram identifying all ESC system hardware. The diagram shall identify those
components that are used to generate brake torques at each wheel, determine vehicle yaw
rate, estimated side-slip or the side-slip derivative and driver steering inputs.

8.3.3. Tyres. The tyres are inflated to the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation
pressure(s) e.g. as specified on the vehicle's placard or the tyre inflation pressure label.
Tubes may be installed to prevent tyre de-beading.
8.3.4. Outriggers. Outriggers may be used for testing if deemed necessary for test drivers' safety.
In this case, the following applies for vehicles with a Static Stability Factor (SSF) ≤ 1.25:
8.3.4.1. Vehicles with a mass in running order under 1,588kg shall be equipped with "lightweight"
outriggers. Lightweight outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 27kg and a
maximum roll moment of inertia of 27kg·m .
8.3.4.2. Vehicles with a mass in running order between 1,588kg and 2,722kg shall be equipped with
"standard" outriggers. Standard outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 32kg
and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 35.9kg·m .
8.3.4.3. Vehicles with a mass in running order equal to or greater than 2,722kg shall be equipped
with "heavy" outriggers. Heavy outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 39kg
and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 40.7kg·m .
8.3.5. Automated steering machine. A steering robot programmed to execute the required steering
pattern shall be used in Paragraphs 9.5.2., 9.5.3., 9.6. and 9.9. The steering machine shall
be capable of supplying steering torques between 40 to 60Nm. The steering machine shall
be able to apply these torques when operating with steering wheel velocities up to 1,200°/s.
9. TEST PROCEDURE
9.1. Inflate the vehicles' tyres to the manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure(s) e.g.
as provided on the vehicle's placard or the tyre inflation pressure label.
9.2. Tell-tale bulb check. With the vehicle stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock"
or "Off" position, switch the ignition to the "On" ("Run") position or, where applicable, the
appropriate position for the lamp check. The ESC malfunction tell-tale shall be illuminated
as a check of lamp function, as specified in Paragraph 7.4.1.3., and if equipped, the "ESC
Off" tell-tale shall also be illuminated as a check of lamp function, as specified in
Paragraph 7.6.2.3. The tell-tale bulb check is not required for a tell-tale shown in a common
space as specified in Paragraphs 7.4.3. and 7.6.4.
9.3. "ESC Off" control check. For vehicles equipped with an "ESC Off" control, with the vehicle
stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off" position, switch the ignition
locking system to the "On" ("Run") position. Activate the "ESC Off" control and verify that the
"ESC Off" tell-tale is illuminated, as specified in Paragraph 7.6.2. Turn the ignition locking
system to the "Lock" or "Off" position. Again, switch the ignition locking system to the "On"
("Run") position and verify that the "ESC Off" tell-tale has extinguished indicating that the
ESC system has been restored as specified in Paragraph 7.5.1.
9.4. Brake Conditioning
Condition the vehicle brakes in the manner described in Paragraphs 9.4.1. to 9.4.4.
9.4.1. Ten stops are performed from a speed of 56km/h, with an average deceleration of
approximately 0.5g.

9.9. Sine with Dwell Test of Oversteer Intervention and Responsiveness
The vehicle is subjected to two series of test runs using a steering pattern of a sine wave at
0.7Hz frequency with a 500ms delay beginning at the second peak amplitude as shown in
Figure 2 (the Sine with Dwell tests). One series uses anticlockwise steering for the first half
cycle, and the other series uses clockwise steering for the first half cycle. The vehicle is
allowed to cool-down between each test runs for a period of 1.5 to 5min, with the vehicle
stationary.
Figure 2
Sine with Dwell
9.9.1. The steering motion is initiated with the vehicle coasting in high gear at 80 ± 2km/h.
9.9.2. The steering amplitude for the initial run of each series is 1.5 A, where A is the steering
wheel angle determined in Paragraph 9.6.1.
9.9.3. In each series of test runs, the steering amplitude is increased from run to run, by 0.5 A,
provided that no such run will result in a steering amplitude greater than that of the final run
specified in Paragraph 9.9.4.
9.9.4. The steering amplitude of the final run in each series is the greater of 6.5 A or 270°,
provided the calculated magnitude of 6.5 A is less than or equal to 300°. If any 0.5 A
increment, up to 6.5 A, is greater than 300°, the steering amplitude of the final run shall be
300°.
9.9.5. Upon completion of the two series of test runs, post processing of yaw rate and lateral
acceleration data is done as specified in Paragraph 9.11.

9.11.5. Lateral acceleration, yaw rate and steering wheel angle data channels are zeroed utilizing a
defined "zeroing range." The methods used to establish the zeroing range are defined in
Paragraphs 9.11.5.1. and 9.11.5.2.
9.11.5.1. Using the steering wheel rate data calculated using the methods described in
Paragraph 9.11.4., the first instant that the steering wheel rate exceeds 75°/s is identified.
From this point, steering wheel rate shall remain greater than 75°/s for at least 200ms. If the
second condition is not met, the next instant that the steering wheel rate exceeds 75°/s is
identified and the 200ms validity check applied. This iterative process continues until both
conditions are ultimately satisfied.
9.11.5.2. The "zeroing range" is defined as the 1.0s time period prior to the instant the steering wheel
rate exceeds 75°/s (i.e. the instant the steering wheel velocity exceeds 75°/s defines the
end of the "zeroing range").
9.11.6. The Beginning of Steer (BOS) is defined as the first instance when the filtered and zeroed
steering wheel angle data reaches -5° (when the initial steering input is anticlockwise) or +5°
(when the initial steering input is clockwise) after a time defining the end of the "zeroing
range." The value for time at the BOS is interpolated.
9.11.7. The Completion of Steer (COS) is defined as the time the steering wheel angle returns to
zero at the completion of the Sine with Dwell steering manoeuvre. The value for time at the
zero degree steering wheel angle is interpolated.
9.11.8. The second peak yaw rate is defined as the first local yaw rate peak produced by the
reversal of the steering wheel. The yaw rates at 1.000 and 1.750s after COS are determined
by interpolation.
9.11.9. Determine lateral velocity by integrating corrected, filtered and zeroed lateral acceleration
data. Zero lateral velocity at the BOS point. Determine lateral displacement by integrating
zeroed lateral velocity. Zero lateral displacement at the BOS point. The lateral displacement
measurement is made at 1.07s after BOS point and is determined by interpolation.
10. MODIFICATION OF VEHICLE TYPE OR ESC SYSTEM AND EXTENSION OF
APPROVAL
10.1. Every modification to an existing vehicle type shall be notified to the Type Approval
Authority which approved the vehicle type.
The Authority shall then either:
(a)
(b)
Decide, in consultation with the manufacturer, that a new type-approval is to be
granted; or
Apply the procedure contained in Paragraph 10.1.1. (Revision) and, if applicable, the
procedure contained in Paragraph 10.1.2. (Extension).

12. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
12.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with.
12.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval
it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying
this Regulation by means of a copy of the communication form conforming to the model in
Annex 1 to this Regulation.
13. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that Authority shall inform thereof the
other Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of copies of a
communication form conforming to the model in Annex 5 to this Regulation.
14. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING APPROVAL
TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible
for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and
to which forms, certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued
in other countries, are to be sent.

11. If applicable, maximum mass of trailer which may be coupled .................................................
11.1. Unbraked trailer .........................................................................................................................
12. Tyre dimension ..........................................................................................................................
13. Maximum design speed ............................................................................................................
14. Brief description of braking equipment .....................................................................................
15. Mass of vehicle when tested: .....................................................................................................
20. (Reserved)
Axle No. 1
Axle No. 2
Total
Load
(kg)
21. The ESC system has been tested according to and fulfils the requirements of this
Regulation ................................................................................................................... Yes / No
or: The vehicle stability function has been tested according to and fulfils the requirements of
Annex 21 to Regulation No. 13 ................................................................................... Yes / No
23. Vehicle submitted for approval on [date] ..................................................................................
24. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval.............................................................
25. Date of report issued by that Service ........................................................................................
26. Number of report issued by that Service ..................................................................................
27. Approval granted / refused / extended / withdrawn
28. Position of approval mark on the vehicle ..................................................................................
29. Place .........................................................................................................................................
30. Date ...........................................................................................................................................
31. Signature ...................................................................................................................................
32. The summary referred to in Paragraph 4.3. of this Regulation is annexed to this
communication

ANNEX 3
USE OF THE DYNAMIC STABILITY SIMULATION
The effectiveness of the electronic stability control system may be determined by computer
simulation.
1. Use of the Simulation
1.1. The vehicle stability function shall be demonstrated by the vehicle manufacturer to the Type
Approval Authority or Technical Service by simulating the dynamic manoeuvres of
Paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation.
1.2. The simulation shall be a means whereby the vehicle stability performance shall be
demonstrated with:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The yaw rate, one second after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input (time
T + 1);
The yaw rate, 1.75s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input;
The lateral displacement of the vehicle centre of gravity with respect to its initial
straight path.
1.3. The simulation shall be carried out with a validated modelling and simulation tool and using
the dynamic manoeuvres of Paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation under the test conditions of
Paragraph 8. of this Regulation.
The method by which the simulation tool is validated is given in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Yaw velocity (dΨ/dt);
Roll velocity (dφ/dt);
Pitch velocity (dθ/dt);
Roll angle (φ);
Pitch angle (θ).
2.2. The objective is to show that the simulated vehicle behaviour and operation of the vehicle
stability function is comparable with that seen in practical vehicle tests.
2.3. The simulator shall be deemed to be validated when its output is comparable to the practical
test results produced by a given vehicle type during the dynamic manoeuvres of
Paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation. The relationship of activation and sequence of the vehicle
stability function in the simulation and in the practical vehicle test shall be the means of
making the comparison.
2.4. The physical parameters that are different between the reference vehicle and simulated
vehicle configurations shall be modified accordingly in the simulation.
2.5. A simulator test report shall be produced, a model of which is defined in Annex 5 to this
Regulation, and a copy attached to the vehicle approval report.

5. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 4 to
Regulation No. [XXX].
Technical Service conducting the test ...................................................................................
Signed: ..................................... Date: ..................................................................
Approval Authority ..................................................................................................................
Signed: ..................................... Date: ..................................................................
Regulation on Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems - Proposal.