Regulation No. 140-00

Name:Regulation No. 140-00
Description:Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems - Passenger Cars.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Passenger Cars with Regard to Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2017-01-31
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:28
Vehicle Types:Car, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Braking, Electrical and Electronic
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.2/Add.139
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
January 31, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 140-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO
ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC) SYSTEMS
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments Date of Entry into Force: 22.01.17

REGULATION
1. Scope
REGULATION NO. 140-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF PASSENGER CARS
WITH REGARD TO ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC) SYSTEMS
2. Definitions
3. Application for Approval
4. Approval
5. General Requirements
6. Functional Requirements
7. Performance Requirements
8. Test Conditions
9. Test Procedure
CONTENTS
10. Modification of Vehicle Type or ESC System and Extension of Approval
11. Conformity of Production
12. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
13. Production Definitively Discontinued
14. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests,
and of Type Approval Authorities
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
Annex 3
Annex 4
Annex 5
Communication
Arrangements of Approval Marks
Use of the Dynamic Stability Simulation
Dynamic Stability Simulation Tool and its Validation
Vehicle Stability Function Simulation Tool Test Report

2.7. "Electronic Stability Control (ESC) System" means a system that has all of the following
attributes:
2.7.1. That improves vehicle directional stability by at least having the ability to automatically
control individually the braking torques of the left and right wheels on each axle to induce
a correcting yaw moment based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison
with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver;
2.7.2. That is computer controlled with the computer using a closed-loop algorithm to limit vehicle
oversteer and to limit vehicle understeer based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour
in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver;
2.7.3. That has a means to determine directly the value of the vehicle's yaw rate and to estimate
its side-slip or side-slip derivative with respect to time;
2.7.4. That has a means to monitor driver steering inputs; and
2.7.5. That has an algorithm to determine the need, and a means to modify propulsion torque, as
necessary, to assist the driver in maintaining control of the vehicle.
2.8. "Lateral acceleration" means the component of the acceleration vector of a point in the
vehicle perpendicular to the vehicle x axis (longitudinal) and parallel to the road plane.
2.9. "Oversteer" means a condition in which the vehicle's yaw rate is greater than the yaw rate
that would occur at the vehicle's speed as a result of the Ackerman steer angle.
2.10. "Side-slip or side-slip angle" means the arctangent of the ratio of the lateral velocity to the
longitudinal velocity of the centre of gravity of the vehicle.
2.11. "Understeer" means a condition in which the vehicle's yaw rate is less than the yaw rate
that would occur at the vehicle's speed as a result of the Ackerman steer angle.
2.12. "Yaw rate" means the rate of change of the vehicle's heading angle measured in
degrees/second of rotation about a vertical axis through the vehicle's centre of gravity.
2.13. "Peak braking coefficient (PBC)": means the measure of tyre to road surface friction
based on the maximum deceleration of a rolling tyre.
2.14. "Common space" means an area on which more than one tell-tale, indicator, identification
symbol, or other message may be displayed but not simultaneously.
2.15. "Static stability factor" means one-half the track width of a vehicle divided by the height of
its centre of gravity, also expressed as SSF = T/2H, where: T = track width (for vehicles with
more than one track width the average is used; for axles with dual wheels, the outer wheels
are used when calculating "T") and H = height of the center of gravity of the vehicle.

4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation,
an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval, and of
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other regulations,
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above, need not be repeated; in such
a case, the regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the
regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted
approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol
prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.
4.8. Annex 1 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1. Vehicles equipped with an ESC shall meet the functional requirements specified in
Paragraph 6. and the performance requirements in Paragraph 7. under the test procedures
specified in Paragraph 9. and under the test conditions specified in Paragraph 8. of this
Regulation.
5.1.1. As an alternative to the requirements of Paragraph 5.1., vehicles of Categories M and N
with a mass in running order of more than 1,735kg may be equipped with a vehicle stability
function which includes roll-over control and directional control and meets the technical
requirements and transitional provisions of Regulation No. 13, Annex 21. These vehicles do
not need to meet the functional requirements specified in Paragraph 6. and the performance
requirements specified in Paragraph 7. under the test procedures specified in Paragraph 9.
and under the test conditions specified in Paragraph 8. of this Regulation.
5.2. The ESC shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to enable the vehicle in normal
use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this
Regulation.
5.3. In particular, the ESC shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be able to resist the
corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed.

7. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
During each test performed under the test conditions of Paragraph 8. and the test procedure
of Paragraph. 9.9., the vehicle with the ESC system engaged shall satisfy the directional
stability criteria of Paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2., and it shall satisfy the responsiveness criterion
of Paragraph 7.3. during each of those tests conducted with a commanded steering wheel
angle of 5A or greater but limited as per Paragraph 9.9.4., where A is the steering wheel
angle computed in Paragraph 9.6.1.
Where a vehicle has been physically tested in accordance with Paragraph 8., the
compliance of versions or variants of that same vehicle type may be demonstrated by a
computer simulation, which respects the test conditions of Paragraph 8. and the test
procedure of Paragraph 9.9. The use of the simulator is defined in Annex 1 to this
Regulation.
7.1. The yaw rate measured 1s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input (time T + 1
in Figure 1) shall not exceed 35% of the first peak value of yaw rate recorded after the
steering
ψ
wheel angle changes sign (between first and second peaks)
( & in Figure 1) during the same test run.
Figure 1
Steering Wheel Position and Yaw Velocity
Information Used to Assess Lateral Stability

7.4.2. The ESC malfunction tell-tale need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.
7.4.3. The requirement of Paragraph 7.4.1.3. does not apply to tell-tales shown in a common
space.
7.4.4. The manufacturer may use the ESC malfunction tell-tale in a flashing mode to indicate ESC
intervention and/or the intervention of ESC-related systems (as listed in Paragraph 7.4.1.5.)
7.5. ESC Off and Other System Controls
The manufacturer may include an "ESC Off" control, which shall be illuminated when the
vehicle's headlamps are activated, and which has a purpose to place the ESC system in a
mode in which it will no longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 7., 7.1.,
7.2. and 7.3. Manufacturers may also provide controls for other systems that have an
ancillary effect upon ESC operation. Controls of either kind that place the ESC system in a
mode in which it may no longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 7., 7.1.,
7.2. and 7.3. are permitted, provided that the system also meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 7.5.1., 7.5.2. and 7.5.3.
7.5.1. The vehicle's ESC system shall always return to the manufacturer's original default mode
that satisfies the requirements of Paragraphs 6. and 7. at the initiation of each new ignition
cycle, regardless of what mode the driver had previously selected. However, the vehicle's
ESC system need not return to a mode that satisfies the requirements of Paragraphs 7.
through 7.3. at the initiation of each new ignition cycle if:
7.5.1.1. The vehicle is in a four-wheel drive configuration which has the effect of locking the drive
gears at the front and rear axles together and providing an additional gear reduction
between the engine speed and vehicle speed of at least 1.6, selected by the driver for
low-speed, off-road driving; or
7.5.1.2. The vehicle is in a four-wheel drive configuration selected by the driver that is designed for
operation at higher speeds on snow-, sand-, or dirt-packed roads and that has the effect of
locking the drive gears at the front and rear axles together, provided that in this mode the
vehicle meets the stability performance requirements of Paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. under the
test conditions specified in Paragraph 8. However, if the system has more than one ESC
mode that satisfies the requirements of Paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. within the drive
configuration selected for the previous ignition cycle, the ESC shall return to the
manufacturer's original default ESC mode for that drive configuration at the initiation of each
new ignition cycle.
7.5.2. A control, whose only purpose is to place the ESC system in a mode in which it will no
longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3., shall fulfil
the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.
7.5.3. A control for an ESC system whose purpose is to place the ESC system in different modes,
at least one of which may no longer satisfy the performance requirements of
Paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2., and 7.3., shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of
Regulation No. 121.
Alternatively, in the case where the ESC system mode is controlled by a multi-functional
control, the driver display shall identify clearly to the driver the control position for this mode
using the "off" symbol for electronic stability control system as defined in
Regulation No. 121.

7.7.2. A brief written explanation sufficient to describe the ESC system's basic operational
characteristics. This explanation shall include the outline description of the system's
capability to apply braking torques at each wheel and how the system modifies propulsion
torque during ESC system activation, and show that the vehicle yaw rate is directly
determined even under the conditions where no wheel speed information is available. The
explanation shall also specify the vehicle speed range and the driving phases (acceleration,
deceleration, coasting, during activation of the ABS or traction control) under which the ESC
system can activate.
7.7.3. Logic diagram. This diagram supports the explanation provided under Paragraph 7.7.2.
7.7.4. Understeer information. An outline description of the pertinent inputs to the computer that
control ESC system hardware and how they are used to limit vehicle understeer.
8. TEST CONDITIONS
8.1. Ambient Conditions
8.1.1. The ambient temperature is between 0°C and 45°C.
8.1.2. The maximum wind speed is no greater than 10m/s for vehicles with SSF > 1.25, and 5m/s
for vehicles with SSF ≤ 1.25.
8.2. Road Test Surface
8.2.1. Tests are conducted on a dry, uniform, solid-paved surface. Surfaces with irregularities and
undulations, such as dips and large cracks, are unsuitable.
8.2.2. The road test surface has a nominal peak braking coefficient (PBC) of 0.9, unless
otherwise specified, when measured using either:
8.2.2.1. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1136 standard reference test tyre,
in accordance with ASTM Method E1337-90, at a speed of 40mph; or
8.2.2.2. The k-test method specified in Appendix 2 to Annex 6 of Regulation No. 13-H.
8.2.3. The test surface has a consistent slope between level and 1%.
8.3. Vehicle Conditions
8.3.1. The ESC System is Enabled for all Testing.
8.3.2. Vehicle mass. The vehicle is loaded with the fuel tank filled to at least 90% of capacity, and
a total interior load of 168kg comprised of the test driver, approximately 59kg of test
equipment (automated steering machine, data acquisition system and the power supply for
the steering machine), and ballast as required to make up for any shortfall in the weight of
test drivers and test equipment. Where required, ballast shall be placed on the floor behind
the passenger front seat or if necessary in the front passenger foot well area. All ballast
shall be secured in a way that prevents it from becoming dislodged during testing.

9.4.2. Immediately following the series of ten 56km/h stops, three additional stops are performed
from 72km/h at higher deceleration.
9.4.3. When executing the stops in Paragraph 9.4.2., sufficient force is applied to the brake pedal
to bring the vehicle's antilock braking system (ABS) into operation for a majority of each
braking event.
9.4.4. Following completion of the final stop in 9.4.2., the vehicle is driven at a speed of 72km/h for
5min to cool the brakes.
9.5. Tyre Conditioning
Condition the tyres using the procedure of Paragraphs 9.5.1. to 9.5.3. to wear away mould
sheen and achieve operating temperature immediately before beginning the test runs of
Paragraphs 9.6. and 9.9.
9.5.1. The test vehicle is driven around a circle 30m in diameter at a speed that produces a lateral
acceleration of approximately 0.5 to 0.6g for three clockwise laps followed by three
anticlockwise laps.
9.5.2. Using a sinusoidal steering pattern at a frequency of 1Hz, a peak steering wheel angle
amplitude corresponding to a peak lateral acceleration of 0.5 to 0.6g, and a vehicle speed of
56km/h, the vehicle is driven through four passes performing 10 cycles of sinusoidal
steering during each pass.
9.5.3. The steering wheel angle amplitude of the final cycle of the final pass shall be twice that of
the other cycles. The maximum time permitted between each of the laps and passes is
5min.
9.6. Slowly Increasing Steer Procedure
The vehicle is subjected to two series of runs of the slowly increasing steer test using a
constant vehicle speed of 80 ± 2km/h and a steering pattern that increases by 13.5°/s until a
lateral acceleration of approximately 0.5g is obtained. Three repetitions are performed for
each test series. One series uses anticlockwise steering, and the other series uses
clockwise steering. The maximum time permitted between each test run is 5min.
9.6.1. From the slowly increasing steer tests, the quantity "A" is determined. "A" is the steering
wheel angle in degrees that produces a steady state lateral acceleration (corrected using
the methods specified in Paragraph 9.11.3.) of 0.3g for the test vehicle. Utilizing linear
regression, A is calculated, to the nearest 0.1°, from each of the six slowly increasing steer
tests. The absolute value of the six A values calculated is averaged and rounded to the
nearest 0.1° to produce the final quantity, A, used below.
9.7. After the quantity A has been determined, without replacing the tyres, the tyre conditioning
procedure described in Paragraph 9.5. is performed again immediately prior to conducting
the Sine with Dwell test of Paragraph 9.9. Initiation of the first Sine with Dwell test series
shall begin within 2h after completion of the slowly increasing steer tests of Paragraph 9.6.
9.8. Check that the ESC system is enabled by ensuring that the ESC malfunction and "ESC Off"
(if provided) tell-tales are not illuminated.

9.10. ESC Malfunction Detection
9.10.1. Simulate one or more ESC malfunction(s) by disconnecting the power source to any ESC
component, or disconnecting any electrical connection between ESC components (with the
vehicle power off). When simulating an ESC malfunction, the electrical connections for the
tell-tale lamp(s) and/or optional ESC system control(s) are not to be disconnected.
9.10.2. With the vehicle initially stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off"
position, switch the ignition locking system to the "Start" position and start the engine. Drive
the vehicle forward to obtain a vehicle speed of 48 ± 8km/h. 30s, at the latest, after the
engine has been started and within the next 2min at this speed, conduct at least one left and
one right smooth turning manoeuvre without losing directional stability and one brake
application. Verify that the ESC malfunction indicator illuminates in accordance with
Paragraph 7.4. by the end of these manoeuvres.
9.10.3. Stop the vehicle, switch the ignition locking system to the "Off" or "Lock" position. After a
5min period, switch the vehicle's ignition locking system to the "Start" position and start the
engine. Verify that the ESC malfunction indicator again illuminates to signal a malfunction
and remains illuminated as long as the engine is running or until the fault is corrected.
9.10.4. Switch the ignition locking system to the "Off" or "Lock" position. Restore the ESC system to
normal operation, switch the ignition system to the "Start" position and start the engine.
Re-perform the manoeuvre described in Paragraph 9.10.2. and verify that the tell-tale has
extinguished within this time or immediately afterwards.
9.11. Post Data Processing – Calculations for Performance Metrics
Yaw rate and lateral displacement measurements and calculations shall be processed
utilizing the techniques specified in Paragraphs 9.11.1. to 9.11.8.
9.11.1. Raw steering wheel angle data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a
cut-off frequency of 10Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing
static pre-test data.
9.11.2. Raw yaw rate data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a cut-off
frequency of 6Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing static
pre-test data.
9.11.3. Raw lateral acceleration data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a
cut-off frequency of 6Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing
static pre-test data. The lateral acceleration data at the vehicle centre of gravity is
determined by removing the effects caused by vehicle body roll and by correcting for sensor
placement via the use of coordinate transformation. For data collection, the lateral
accelerometer shall be located as close as possible to the position of the vehicle's
longitudinal and lateral centres of gravity.
9.11.4. Steering wheel velocity is determined by differentiating the filtered steering wheel angle
data. The steering wheel velocity data is then filtered with a moving 0.1s running average
filter.

10.1.1. Revision
10.1.2. Extension
When particulars recorded in the information documents have changed and the Type
Approval Authority considers that the modifications made are unlikely to have appreciable
adverse effects and that in any case the foot controls still meet the requirements, the
modification shall be designated a "revision".
In such a case, the Type Approval Authority shall issue the revised pages of the information
documents as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of the
modification and the date of re-issue. A consolidated, updated version of the information
documents, accompanied by a detailed description of the modification, shall be deemed to
meet this requirement.
The modification shall be designated an "extension" if, in addition to the change of the
particulars recorded in the information documents,
(a)
(b)
(c)
Further inspections or tests are required; or
Any information on the communication document (with the exception of its
attachments) has changed; or
Approval to a later series of amendments is requested after its entry into force.
10.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alteration, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement
applying this Regulation. In addition, the index to the information documents and to the test
reports, attached to the communication document of Annex 1, shall be amended accordingly
to show the date of the most recent revision or extension.
10.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a serial number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
11. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) with the following requirements:
11.1. A vehicle approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type
approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 5., 6. and 7. above.
11.2. The Type Approval Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the
conformity control methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of
these verifications shall be once every two years.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
Issued by:
Name of administration
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
Concerning:
Approval granted
Approval extended
Approval refused
Approval withdrawn
Production definitively discontinued
of a vehicle type with regard to ESC, pursuant to Regulation No. 140
Approval No. ............................................................ Extension No. .....................................................
1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle ................................................................................................
2. Vehicle type ....................................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address .................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative ...............................................
5. Mass of vehicle ..............................................................................................................................
5.1. Maximum mass of vehicle ..............................................................................................................
5.2. Minimum mass of vehicle ...............................................................................................................
6. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value) ......................................................................
8. Engine type ....................................................................................................................................
9. Number and ratios of gears ............................................................................................................
10. Final drive ratio(s) ..........................................................................................................................

ANNEX 2
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
Model A
(See Paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in Belgium (E 6) with regard to the Electronic Stability Control pursuant to Regulation No. XXX. The first
two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the
requirements of Regulation No. XXX in its original form.
Model B
(See Paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in Belgium (E 6) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 140 and 24 . (In the case of the latter Regulation the
corrected absorption coefficient is 1.30m ). The approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the
respective approvals were given, Regulation No. 140 was in its original form and Regulation No. 24
included the 02 series of amendments.

ANNEX 4
DYNAMIC STABILITY SIMULATION TOOL AND ITS VALIDATION
1. SPECIFICATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL
1.1. The simulation method shall take into account the main factors which influence the directional
and roll motion of the vehicle. A typical model may include the following vehicle parameters in
an explicit or implicit form:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Axle/wheel;
Suspension;
Tyre;
Chassis/vehicle body;
Power train/driveline, if applicable;
Brake system;
Pay load.
1.2. The Vehicle Stability Function shall be added to the simulation model by means of:
(a)
(b)
A subsystem (software model) of the simulation tool; or
The electronic control box in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration.
2. VALIDATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL
2.1. The validity of the applied modelling and simulation tool shall be verified by means of
comparisons with practical vehicle tests. The tests utilised for the validation shall be the
dynamic manoeuvres of Paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation.
During the tests, the following motion variables, as appropriate, shall be recorded or calculated
in accordance with ISO 15037 Part 1:2005: General conditions for passenger cars or
Part 2:2002: General conditions for heavy vehicles and buses (depending on the vehicle
category):
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Steering-wheel angle (δH);
Longitudinal velocity (vX);
Sideslip angle (β) or lateral velocity (vY);(optional);
Longitudinal acceleration (aX); (optional);
Lateral acceleration (aY);

ANNEX 5
VEHICLE STABILITY FUNCTION SIMULATION TOOL TEST REPORT
Test Report Number: ......................................................................................................................................
1. IDENTIFICATION
1.1. Name and address of the simulation tool manufacturer ................................................................
1.2. Simulation tool identification: name/model/number (hardware and software) ...............................
2. SCOPE OF APPLICATION
2.1. Vehicle type: ...................................................................................................................................
2.2. Vehicle configurations: ...................................................................................................................
3. VERIFYING VEHICLE TEST
3.1. Description of vehicle(s): .................................................................................................................
3.1.1. Vehicle(s) identification: make/model/VIN .....................................................................................
3.1.2. Vehicle description, including suspension/wheels, engine and drive line, braking system(s),
steering system, with name/model/number identification: .............................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
3.1.3. Vehicle data used in the simulation (explicit): .................................................................................
3.2. Description of location(s), road/test area surface conditions, temperature and date(s): ................
3.3. Results with the vehicle stability function switched on and off, including the motion variables
referred to in Annex 4, Paragraph 2.1. as appropriate: .................................................................
4. SIMULATION RESULTS
4.1. Vehicle parameters and the values used in the simulation that are not taken from the actual test
vehicle (implicit): .............................................................................................................................
4.2. Yaw stability and lateral displacement according to Paragraphs 7.1. to 7.3. of this Regulation: ..

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems - Passenger Cars.