Regulation No. 15-04

Name:Regulation No. 15-04
Description:Positive and Compression-ignition Engines - Emission of Gaseous Pollutants - Power Measurement - Fuel Consumption.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicles Equipped with a Positive-Ignition Engine or with a Compression-ignition Engine with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants by the Engine - Method of Measuring the Power of Positive-ignition Engines - Method of Measuring the Fuel Consumption of Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1970-03-20
Amendment Level:04 Series, Corrigendum 1
Number of Pages:129
Information:Obsolete. Replaced by ECE Regulation No. 83.
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

test, vehicle, gas, type, speed, engine, air, paragraph, flow, pressure, annex, regulation, approval, temperature, exhaust, fuel, system, mass, power, pump, measured, conditions, reference, calibration, dynamometer, method, sampling, measurement, device, tests, manufacturer, sample, volume, kpa, vehicles, appendix, equipment, diluted, constant, cycle, bench, concentration, procedure, values, inertia, engines, dilution, load, setting, accuracy

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.14/Rev.3/Amend.1
June 1, 1984
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 15
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH A POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINE OR WITH A
COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION
OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE - METHOD OF MEASURING
THE POWER OF POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINES - METHOD OF MEASURING
THE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF VEHICLES
Incorporating:
04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.10.81
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.06.84
Corr. 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 21.10.88

REGULATION No. 15
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH
A POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINE OR WITH A COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE WITH
REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE - METHOD
OF MEASURING THE POWER OF POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINES - METHOD OF
MEASURING THE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF VEHICLES
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions
3. Application for Approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications and Tests
6. Modifications of the Vehicle Type
7. Extension of Approval
8. Conformity of Production
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10. Production Definitely Discontinued
CONTENTS
11. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Administrative Departments
12. Transitory Provisions
Tables of the Limit Values Prescribed by the Non-amended Version of the Regulation and by the 01, 02
and 03 Series of Amendments.
ANNEXES
Annex 1 — Essential Characteristics of the Engine and Information Concerning the Conduct of Tests
Annex 2 — Communication Concerning the Approval (or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval or Production
Definitely Discontinued) of a Vehicle Type with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants
by the Engine, Pursuant to Regulation No. 15
Annex 3 — Arrangements of the Approval Mark
Annex 4 — Type I Test (Verifying the Average Emission of Pollutants in a Congested Urban Area After a
Cold Start).

Appendix 1 ⎯ Breakdown of the Operating Cycle used for the Type I Test
Appendix 2 ⎯ Chassis Dynamometer with Fixed Load Curve
1. Definition of a Chassis Dynamometer
1.1.
Introduction
1.2.
Definition
2. Method of Calibrating the Roller Bench
2.1.
Introduction
2.2.
Calibrating the Power Indicator to 50 km/h as a Function of the Power Absorbed
2.3.
Calibration of the Power Indicator as a Function of the Absorbed Power for Other Speeds
2.4.
Verification of the Power-absorption Curve of the Roller Bench from a Reference Setting to a
Speed of 50 km/h
3. Setting of the Bench
3.1.
Vacuum Method
3.2.
Other Setting Methods
3.3.
Alternative Method
Appendix 3 — Resistance to Progress of a Vehicle —
Measurement Method in the Road —
Simulation on a Chassis Dynamometer
1. Object of the Methods
2. Definition of the Road
3. Atmospheric Conditions
3.1.
Wind
3.2.
Humidity
3.3.
Pressure - Temperature
4. Vehicle Preparation
4.1.
Running-in
4.2.
Verification
4.3.
Preparation for the Test
5. Methods
5.1.
Energy Variation During Coast-down Method
5.2.
Torque Measurement Method at Constant Speed
5.3.
Integrated Torque Over Variable Driving Pattern
5.4.
Method by Deceleration Measurement by Gyroscopic Platform

REGULATION No. 15
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH
A POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINE OR WITH A COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE WITH
REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE - METHOD
OF MEASURING THE POWER OF POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINES - METHOD OF
MEASURING THE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF VEHICLES
1. SCOPE
1.1. This Regulation applies to the emission of gaseous pollutants from all positive-ignition engined
vehicles and from compression-ignition engined vehicles of Category M and N . It does
not apply to ignition two-stroke engined vehicles, two-wheeled power-driven vehicles,
three-wheeled power-driven vehicles with an unladen weight of less than 400 kg and
two-wheeled or three-wheeled vehicles whose design speed does not exceed 50 km/h.
1.2. The secondary scope of this Regulation is:—
1.2.1. the ECE procedure to be applied when the power output of positive-ignition engines is to be
measured;
1.2.2. the ECE procedure to be applied when the fuel consumption of vehicles of Category M is to be
measured.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of a Vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to the limitation of
the emission of gaseous pollutants from the engine;
2.2. "Vehicle Type" means a category of power-driven vehicles which do not differ in such essential
respects as:—
2.2.1. the equivalent inertia determined in relation to the reference weight as prescribed in Annex 4,
Paragraph 5.1. to this Regulation, and
2.2.2. the engine and vehicle characteristics as defined in Annex 1, Items 1 to 6 and 8, and Annex 2 to
this Regulation;
2.3. "Reference Mass" means the "unladen mass" of the vehicle increased by a uniform figure of
100 kg;
2.3.1. "Unladen Mass" means the mass of the vehicle in running order without crew, passengers or
load, but with the fuel tank full and the usual set of tools and spare wheel on board, where
applicable;

Fuel Consumption
3.5. The manufacturer may request that a measurement of fuel consumption of the vehicle be
performed. In this case:—
3.5.1. the manufacturer shall complete Annex 1 of this Regulation with the information specifically
related to power measurement;
3.5.2. a vehicle corresponding, in all aspects, to the description reported in that Annex shall be
submitted to the technical service for tests prescribed in Annex 9 of this Regulation;
3.5.3. tests specified in Annex 9 of this Regulation are not considered as type approval tests and,
therefore, if these tests are requested it is not necessary to perform them at the same time as
tests referred to in Paragraph 5. of this Regulation.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present 04,
corresponding to the 04 series of amendments which entered into force on October 20, 1981)
shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be
communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form
conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation and of drawings and diagrams supplied
by the applicant for approval, in a format not exceeding A4 (210 x 297 mm) or folded to that
format and on an appropriate scale. There shall also be shown on an additional form, values
measured during Type I, II and III tests.
4.3.1. In the event of amendment to the present Regulation, for example, if new limit values are
prescribed, the Parties to the Agreement shall be informed which vehicle types already
approved comply with the new provisions.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval
form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation, an
international approval mark consisting of:—
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval,
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the
right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.

Reference mass
(rw)
(kg)
Carbon monoxide
g/test
Combined Emission of
Hydrocarbons and Oxides
of Nitrogen in g/test
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
<
<
<
<
<
<
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw







1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
58
67
76
84
93
101
110
19
20,5
22
23,5
25
26,5
28
5.2.1.1.4.1. Nevertheless, for each of the pollutants referred to in the foregoing paragraph, not more than
one of the three results obtained may exceed by not more than 10% the limit prescribed in that
paragraph for the vehicle concerned, provided the arithmetical mean of the three results is
below the prescribed limit. Where the prescribed limits are exceeded for more than one
pollutant (i.e. carbon monoxide and the combined mass of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides)
it shall be immaterial whether this occurs in the same test or in different tests.
5.2.1.1.4.2. The number of tests prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.4. above may, on the request of the
manufacturer, be increased to 10 tests provided that the arithmetic mean (x ) of the three
results performed for carbon monoxide and/or for the combined emissions of hydrocarbons
and of oxides of nitrogen falls between 100 and 110% of the limit. In this case, the decision,
after testing, shall depend exclusively on the average results obtained from all 10 tests (x < L).
5.2.1.1.5. The number of tests prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.4. above shall be reduced in the
conditions hereinafter defined, where V is the result of the first test and V the result of the
second test for each of the pollutants referred to in Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4. to this Regulation.
5.2.1.1.5.1. Only one test shall be performed if V readings of carbon monoxide as well as the combined
hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen reading are less than or equal to 0,70 L.
5.2.1.1.5.2. Only two tests shall be made if the results of both the carbon monoxide and the combined
value of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen are V ≤ 0,85 L, and if, at the same time, one of
these values is V > 0,70 L. In addition, the V readings of both the carbon monoxide
emissions and the combined emissions of hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen must satisfy the
requirement that V + V < 1,70 L; and V < L.

7. EXTENSION OF APPROVAL
7.1. Vehicle Types of Different Reference Weights
7.1.1. Approval of a vehicle type may under the following conditions be extended to vehicle types
which differ from the type approved only in respect of their reference weight.
7.1.1.1. Approval may be extended to vehicle types of a reference weight requiring merely the use of the
next higher or next lower equivalent inertia.
7.1.1.2. If the reference weight of the vehicle type for which extension of the approval is requested
requires the use of a flywheel of equivalent inertia higher than that used for the vehicle type
already approved, extension of the approval shall be granted.
7.1.1.3. If the reference weight of the vehicle type for which extension of the approval is requested
requires the use of a flywheel of equivalent inertia lower than that used for the vehicle type
already approved, extension of the approval shall be granted if the masses of the pollutants
obtained from the vehicle already approved are within the limits prescribed for the vehicle for
which extension of the approval is requested.
7.2. Vehicle Types with Different Over-all Gear Ratios
7.2.1. Approval granted to a vehicle type may under the following conditions be extended to vehicle
types differing from the type approved only in respect of their over-all transmission ratios;
7.2.1.1. For each of the transmission ratios used in the Type I Test, it shall be necessary to determine
the proportion
E =
V
− V
V
where V and V are respectively the speed at 1 000 r.p.m. of the engine of the vehicle type
approved and the speed of the vehicle type for which extension of the approval is requested.
7.2.2. If for each gear ratio E ≤ 8%, the extension shall be granted without repeating the Type I Tests.
7.2.3. If for at least one gear ratio E > 8% and if for each gear ratio E ≤ 13%, the Type I Tests shall be
repeated, but may be performed in a laboratory chosen by the manufacturer subject to the
approval of the Administration granting approval. The report of the tests shall be sent to the
recognised laboratory.
7.3. Vehicle Types of Different Reference Weights and Different Over-all Transmission Ratios
7.4. Note:
Approval granted to a vehicle type may be extended to vehicle types differing from the approved
type only in respect of their reference weight and their over-all transmission ratios, provided that
all the conditions prescribed in Paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. above are fulfilled.
When a vehicle type has been approved in accordance with the provisions of Paragraphs 7.1.
to 7.3. above, such approval may not be extended to other vehicle types.

8.3.1.2. If the vehicle taken from the series does not satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 8.3.1.1.
above, the manufacturer may ask for measurements to be performed on a sample of vehicles
taken from the series and including the vehicle originally taken. The manufacturer shall
determine the size n of the sample. Vehicles other than the vehicle originally taken shall be
subjected to a single Type I Test. The result to be taken into consideration for the vehicle taken
originally is the arithmetical mean of the three Type I Tests carried out on the vehicle. The
arithmetic mean (x) of the results obtained with the sample shall be determined for both the
carbon monoxide emission and for the combined emissions of hydrocarbons and oxides of
nitrogen. The production of the series shall then be deemed to conform if the following
condition is met:—
where
x + k.s ≤ L
"L" is the limit value laid down in Paragraph 8.3.1.1. for the emissions of carbon monoxide and
the combined emissions of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen;
"k" is a statistical factor depending on n and given in the following table:—
n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
k 0,973 0,613 0,489 0,421 0,376 0,342 0,317 0,296 0,279
n 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
k 0,265 0,253 0,242 0,233 0,224 0,216 0,210 0,203 0,198
0,860
If n ≥ 20 k =
n
8.3.2. In a Type II or Type III Test carried out on a vehicle taken from the series, the conditions laid
down in Paragraphs 5.2.1.2.2. and 5.2.1.3.2. above shall be complied with.
8.3.3. Notwithstanding the provisions of Annex 4, Paragraphs 3.1.1. to this Regulation, the technical
service responsible for verifying the conformity of production may, with the consent of the
manufacturer, carry out tests of Types I, II and III on vehicles which have been driven less than
3 000 km.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn
if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with or if the vehicle or
vehicles taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in Paragraph 8.3. above.
9.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation, by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the
signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".


12.4. For vehicles other than private (passenger) cars, and for vehicles equipped with an automatic
transmission, the limit values for nitrogen oxides given in the tables in Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4. and
8.3.1. of this Regulation (as amended by the 02 series of amendments) and multiplied by a
factor of 1,25 shall be applicable to vehicle types for which approval is granted on or after
March 1, 1977.
12.4.1. Approvals granted under Paragraph 12.4. above shall cease to be valid after March 1, 1979
unless the Contracting Party which has granted the approval notifies the other Contracting
Parties applying this Regulation that the vehicle type approved also meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4. and 8.3.1. of this Regulation, as amended by the 02 series of
amendments with respect to nitrogen oxides.
12.5. Subject to the requirements of Paragraphs 12.6. and 12.7. below, the limit values given in
Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4., 5.2.1.2.2. and 8.3.1. of this Regulation, as amended by the 03 series of
amendments, shall be applicable to all approvals granted on or after October 1, 1979.
12.5.1. Subject to the requirements of Paragraph 12.6.1. below, approvals granted under this
Regulation before October 1, 1979 shall cease to be valid as from that date unless they have
been granted in accordance with the requirements of the 03 series of amendments.
12.6. For private (passenger) cars equipped with automatic transmission, the limit values for nitrogen
oxides specified in Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4. and 8.3.1. of this Regulation, as amended by the
03 series of amendments, shall be multiplied by 1,25 for approvals granted before
October 1, 1981.
12.6.1. For passenger cars equipped with automatic transmission, approvals granted before
March 1, 1979 shall cease to be valid as from that date unless the nitrogen-oxide measurement
result on the basis of which each approval was granted is below the limit prescribed for the
corresponding class in Paragraphs 5.2.1.1. and 8.3.1. of the existing Regulation as amended by
the 02 series of amendments. Approvals granted before October 1, 1981 in respect of which
Paragraph 12.6. above has applied shall cease to be valid as from that date.
12.7. For vehicles other than private (passenger) cars, the limit values for nitrogen oxides shall
continue to be those given in Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4. and 8.3.1. of this Regulation as amended
by the 02 series of amendments, multiplied by 1,25.
12.8. The 04 series of amendments shall be applicable to:—
new vehicle type approval October 1, 1982;
vehicles first introduced into traffic, but already approved under the provisions of the 03 series of
amendments: October 1, 1985.
12.9. All vehicles other than passenger cars as well as all passenger cars designed to carry more
than six persons, and of a type certified after October 1, 1982, shall meet the combined
standards for hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen as given in the tables under
Paragraphs 5.2.1.1.4. and 8.3.1. of this Regulation multiplied by a factor of 1,25.

01 Series of Amendments — Table of Paragraph 5.2.1.1.4.
(Approval)
Reference Mass
(rw)
kilogrammes
Mass of Carbon Monoxide;
Grammes per Test
Mass of Hydrocarbons;
Grammes per Test
750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw








750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
80
87
94
107
122
135
149
162
176
6,8
7,1
7,4
8,0
8,6
9,2
9,7
10,3
10,9
01 Series of Amendments - Table of Paragraph 8.3.1.1.
(Conformity of Production)
Reference Mass
(rw)
kilogrammes
Mass of Carbon Monoxide;
Grammes per Test
L
Mass of Hydrocarbons;
Grammes per Test
L
750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw








750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
96
105
112
129
146
162
178
195
211
8,8
9,3
9,6
10,4
11,1
11,9
12,6
13,3
14,1

03 Series of Amendments - Table of Paragraph 5.2.1.1.4.
(Approval)
Reference Mass
(rw)
kilogrammes
Mass of
Carbon Monoxide
Grammes per Test
Mass of
Hydrocarbons;
Grammes per Test
Mass of Nitrogen Oxide
in NO Equivalent
Grammes per Test
750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw








750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
65
71
76
87
99
110
121
132
143
6,0
6,3
6,5
7,1
7,6
8,1
8,6
9,1
9,6
8,5
8,5
8,5
10,2
11,9
12,3
12,8
13,2
13,6
03 Series of Amendments - Table of Paragraph 8.3.1.1.
(Conformity of Production)
Reference Mass
(rw)
kilogrammes
Mass of
Carbon Monoxide
Grammes per Test
L
Mass of
Hydrocarbons;
Grammes per Test
L
Mass of Nitrogen Oxide
in NO Equivalent
Grammes per Test
L
750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw








750
850
1 020
1 250
1 470
1 700
1 930
2 150
78
85
91
104
119
132
145
158
172
7,8
8,2
8,5
9,2
9,9
10,5
11,2
11,8
12,5
10,2
10,2
10,2
12,2
14,3
14,8
15,4
15,8
16,3

P1.11.2.
Characteristics of air-cooling system
Blower: characteristics or make(s) and type(s)....................... drive ratio .........................................
Air ducting (standard production): ......................................................................................................
Temperature regulating system: yes/no Brief description .............................................................
P1.11.3.
Temperatures permitted by the manufacturer
P1.11.3.1. Liquid cooling:
Maximum temperature at engine outlet................................................................
P1.11.3.2. Air cooling:
Reference point .....................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point ............................................................
P1.11.3.3. Maximum outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler .........................................................................
P1.11.3.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point indicated in Annex 8 Paragraph 5.1.3.12.
.............................................................................................................................................................
P1.11.3.5. Fuel temperature:
min...............max ........................................................................................
P1.11.3.6. Lubricant temperature: min...............max ........................................................................................
1.12.
Supercharger: yes/no
Description of the system .........................................................................
1.13.
Intake system
Intake manifold:............. Description ..................................................................................................
Air filter:.......................... Make................. Type..................................................................................
Intake silencer: .............. Make................. Type..................................................................................
E1.14.
Device for recycling crank-case gases (description and diagrams)
2. ADDITIONAL ANTI-POLLUTION DEVICES (if any, and if not covered by another heading)
Description and diagrams...................................................................................................................
3. AIR INTAKE AND FUEL FEED
3.1. Description and diagrams of inlet pipes and their accessories (dash-pot, heating device,
additional air intakes, etc. ...................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................

3.2.2.3. Governor..............................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.1. Make....................................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.2. Type.....................................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.3. Cut-off point under load min .............................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.4. Maximum speed without load min ....................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.5. Idle speed............................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4. Cold start device .................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4.1. Make....................................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4.2. Type.....................................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4.3. System Description .............................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5. Starting aid ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5.1. Make....................................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5.2. Type.....................................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5.3. System description..............................................................................................................................
4. VALVE TIMING OR EQUIVALENT DATA
4.1. Maximum lift of valves, angles of opening and closing, or timing details of alternative distribution
systems, in relation to top dead centre...............................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
4.2. Reference and/or setting ranges ....................................................................................................
5. IGNITION
5.1. Ignition system type
5.1.1. Make....................................................................................................................................................
5.1.2. Type.....................................................................................................................................................
5.1.3. Ignition advance curve ....................................................................................................................
5.1.4. Ignition timing ..................................................................................................................................
5.1.5. Contact-point gap and dwell-angle

10.2.
Ignition Coil
10.2.1.
Make....................................................................................................................................................
10.2.2.
Type.....................................................................................................................................................
10.3.
Ignition Condenser
10.3.1.
Make....................................................................................................................................................
10.3.2.
Type.....................................................................................................................................................
P10.4.
P10.4.1.
P10.4.2.
Radio Interference Suppression Equipment
Make....................................................................................................................................................
Type.....................................................................................................................................................
11. Engine Performance (declared by manufacturer)
E11.1. Idle rpm ............................................................................................................................................
E11.2.
Carbon monoxide content by volume in the exhaust gas with the engine idling - per cent
(manufacturer standard)
.............................................................................................................................................................
E11.3. rpm at maximum power ..................................................................................................................
E11.4. Maximum power - kW (according to the method described in Annex 8
of this Regulation)
.............................................................................................................................................................
E12. Lubricant used.....................................................................................................................................
E12.1.
E12.2.
Make....................................................................................................................................................
Type.....................................................................................................................................................

8.4. Check of performances referred to in Annex 4, Paragraph 3.1.6., of this Regulation
.............................................................................................................................................................
9. Vehicle submitted for approval on ......................................................................................................
10. Technical service conducting approval tests .....................................................................................
11. Date of report issued by that service..................................................................................................
12. Number of report issued by that service ............................................................................................
13. Approval granted/refused
14.
Results of approval tests:
Inertia equivalent mass.............................................kg
Absorbed power P ...................................................kW at 50 km/h
Method of setting ......................................................
14.1. Test type I:
CO: . . g/test CH: . . g/test NO . . g/test
14.2. Test type II:
CO: . . Vol. %
at . . Idle r.p.m.
14.3. Test type III
15. Gas sampling system used: ...............................................................................................................
15.1. PDP/CVS
15.2. CFV/CVS
15.3. CFO/CVS
16. Position of approval mark on the vehicle ...........................................................................................
17. Place....................................................................................................................................................
18. Date: ....................................................................................................................................................
19. Signature: ............................................................................................................................................
20. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are annexed to this
communication:—
— 1 Copy of Annex 1 to this Regulation, duly completed and with the drawings and diagrams
referred to attached;
— 1 Photograph of the engine and its compartment.

ANNEX 4
TYPE I TEST
(Verifying the Average Emission of Pollutants in a Congested Urban Area after a Cold Start)
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex describes the procedure for the Type I Test defined in Paragraph 5.2.1.1. of the
Regulation.
2. OPERATING CYCLE ON THE CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
2.1. Description of the Cycle
The operating cycle on the chassis dynamometer shall be that indicated in the following table
and depicted in the graph in Appendix 1 to this Annex. The breakdown by operations is also
given in the table in the said Appendix.
2.2. General Conditions Under Which the Cycle is Carried Out
Preliminary testing cycles should be carried out if necessary to determine how best to actuate
the accelerator and brake controls so as to achieve a cycle approximating to the theoretical
cycle within the prescribed limits.
2.3. Use of the Gear-box
2.3.1. If the maximum speed which can be attained in first gear is below 15 km/h, the second, third
and fourth gears shall be used. The second, third and fourth gears may also be used when the
driving instructions recommend starting in second gear on level ground, or when first gear is
therein defined as a gear reserved for cross-country driving, crawling or towing.
2.3.2. Vehicles equipped with semi-automatic-shift gear-boxes shall be tested by using the gears
normally employed for driving, and the gear shift shall be used in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.
2.3.3. Vehicles equipped with automatic-shift gear-boxes shall be tested with the highest gear ("Drive")
engaged. The accelerator shall be used in such a way as to obtain the steadiest acceleration
possible, enabling the various gears to be engaged in the normal order. Furthermore, the
gear-change points shown in Appendix 1 to this Annex shall not apply; acceleration shall
continue throughout the period represented by the straight line connecting the end of each
period of idling with the beginning of the next following period of steady speed. The tolerances
given in Paragraph 2.4. below shall apply.

2.4. Tolerances
2.4.1. A tolerance of ± 1 km/h shall be allowed between the indicated speed and the theoretical
speed during acceleration, during steady speed, and during deceleration when the vehicle's
brakes are used. If the vehicle decelerates more rapidly without the use of the brakes, only
the provisions of Paragraph 6.5.3. below shall apply. Speed tolerances greater than those
prescribed shall be accepted during phase changes provided that the tolerances are never
exceeded for more than 0,5 s on any one occasion.
2.4.2. Time tolerances of ± 0,5 s. The above tolerances shall apply equally at the beginning and at
the end of each gear-changing period.
2.4.3. The speed and time tolerances shall be combined as indicated in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3. VEHICLE AND FUEL
3.1. Test Vehicle
3.1.1. The vehicle shall be presented in good mechanical condition. It shall have been run-in and
have been driven at least 3 000 km before the test.
3.1.2. The exhaust device shall not exhibit any leak likely to reduce the quantity of gas collected,
which quantity shall be that emerging from the engine.
3.1.3. The tightness of the admission system may be checked to ensure that carburation is not
affected by an accidental intake of air.
3.1.4. The settings of the engine and of the vehicle's controls shall be those prescribed by the
manufacturer. This requirement also applies, in particular, to the settings for idling (rotation
speed and carbon monoxide content of the exhaust gases), for the cold start device and for
the exhaust gas cleaning system.
3.1.5. The vehicle to be tested, or an equivalent vehicle, shall be fitted, if necessary, with a device to
permit the measurement of the characteristic parameters necessary for chassis dynamometer
setting, in conformity with Paragraph 4.1.1. of this Annex.
3.1.6. The laboratory may verify that the vehicle conforms to the performances stated by the
manufacturer, that it can be used for normal driving and, more particularly, that it is capable of
starting when cold and when hot.
3.1.7. A vehicle equipped with a catalytic converter shall be tested with the catalyst fitted, if the
vehicle manufacturer states that the vehicle so equipped and supplied with gasoline having a
lead content of up to 0,4 g/l is capable of complying with the provisions of this Regulation for
the catalyst life as defined by the car manufacturer.
3.2. Fuel
The appropriate reference fuel as defined in Annex 7 to this Regulation shall be used for
testing.

4.2. Exhaust Gas-sampling System
4.2.1. The exhaust gas-sampling system is designed to enable the measurement of the true mass
emissions of vehicle exhaust. The system that shall be used is the Constant Volume Sampler
system. This requires that the vehicle exhaust be continuously diluted with ambient air under
controlled conditions. In the Constant Volume Sampler concept of measuring mass
emissions, two conditions must be satisfied, the total volume of the mixture of exhaust and
dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned sample of the volume must be
collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentrations
corrected for the pollutant content of the ambient air, and totalised flow over the test period.
4.2.2. The flow through the system shall be sufficient to eliminate water condensation at all
conditions which may occur during a test, as defined in Appendix 5 to this Annex.
4.2.3. Figure 1 gives a schematic diagram of the general concept. Appendix 5 gives examples of
three types of Constant Volume Sampler system which will meet the requirements of this
Annex.
4.2.4. The gas and air mixture shall be homogeneous at point S2 of the sampling probe.
4.2.5. The probe shall extract a true sample of the diluted exhaust gases.
4.2.6. The system should be free of gas leaks. The design and materials shall be such that the
system does not influence the pollutant concentration in the diluted exhaust gas. Should any
component (heat exchanger, blower etc.) change the concentration of any pollutant gas in the
diluted gas then sampling for that pollutant shall be carried out before that component if the
problem cannot be corrected.
4.2.7. If the vehicle being tested is equipped with an exhaust pipe comprising several branches, the
connecting tubes shall be connected as near as possible to the vehicle.
4.2.8. Static pressure variations at the tailpipe(s) of the vehicle shall remain within ± 1,25 kPa of the
static pressure variations measured during the dynamometer driving cycle and with no
connection to the tailpipe(s). Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to
within ± 0,25 kPa will be used if a written request from a manufacturer to the Administration
granting the approval substantiates the need for the closer tolerance. The back-pressure
shall be measured in the exhaust pipe as near as possible to its end or in an extension having
the same diameter.
4.2.9. The various valves used to direct the exhaust gases shall be of a quick-adjustment,
quick-acting type.
4.2.10. The Gas Samples shall be collected in sample bags of adequate capacity. These bags shall
be made of such materials as will not change the pollutant gas by more than ± 2% after 20 m
of storage.

Figure 1
Diagram of Exhaust Gas Sampling System

4.4. Volume Measurement
4.4.1. The method of measuring total dilute exhaust volume incorporated in the Constant Volume
Sampler shall be such that measurement is accurate to ± 2%.
4.4.2. Constant Volume Sampler Calibration
4.5. Gases
The Constant Volume Sampler system volume measurement device shall be calibrated by a
method sufficient to ensure the prescribed accuracy and at a frequency sufficient to maintain
such accuracy.
An example of a calibration procedure which will give the required accuracy is given in
Appendix 6. The method shall utilise a flow metering device which is dynamic and suitable for
the high flow rate encountered in Constant Volume Sampler testing. The device shall be of
certified accuracy traceable to an approved national or international standard.
4.5.1. Pure Gases
The following pure gases shall be available, if necessary, for calibration and operation:—
Purified nitrogen (purity ≤ 1 ppm C ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO , ≤ 0,1 ppm NO);
Purified synthetic air (purity ≤ 1 ppm C ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO , ≤ 0,1 ppm NO);
Oxygen content between 18 and 21% vol;
Purified oxygen (purity ≥ 99,5% Vol O );
Purified hydrogen (and mixture containing hydrogen) (purity ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO ).
4.5.2. Calibration and Span Gases
Gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available:
Mixtures of:—
C H and purified synthetic air (see Paragraph 4.5.1. of this Annex);
CO and purified nitrogen;
CO and purified nitrogen;
NO and purified nitrogen
(the amount of NO contained in this calibration gas must not exceed 5% of the NO content);
The true concentration of a calibration gas shall be within ± 2% of the stated figure.
The concentrations specified in Appendix 6 to this Annex may also be obtained by means of a
gas divider, diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air. The accuracy of the mixing
device shall be such that the concentrations of the diluted calibration gases may be
determined within ± 2%.

5.2. Setting of Dynamometer
The load shall be adjusted according to methods described in Paragraph 4.1.4. above.
The method used and the values obtained (equivalent inertia - characteristic adjustment
parameter) shall be recorded in the test report.
5.3. Conditioning of Vehicle
5.3.1. Before the test, the vehicle shall be kept in a room in which the temperature remains relatively
constant between 20°C and 30°C. This conditioning shall be carried out for at least six hours
and shall continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, have reached the
temperature of the room to within ± 2°C.
At the request of the manufacturer, the test shall be carried out not later than 30 hours after
the vehicle has been run at its normal temperature.
5.3.2. The tyre pressure shall be the same as that indicated by the manufacturer and used for the
preliminary road test for brake adjustment.
The tyre pressures may be increased by up to 50% from the manufacturer's recommended
setting in the case of a two roll dynamometer. The actual pressure used shall be recorded in
the test report.
6. PROCEDURE FOR BENCH TESTS
6.1. Special Conditions for Carrying out the Cycle
6.1.1. During the test, the test cell temperature shall be between 20°C and 30°C. The absolute
humidity (H) of either the air in the test cell or the intake air of the engine shall be such that:—
5,5 ≤ H ≤ 12,2 gH O/kg dry air.
6.1.2. The vehicle shall be approximately horizontal during the test so as to avoid any abnormal
distribution of the fuel.
6.1.3. The test shall be carried out with the bonnet raised unless this is technically impossible. An
auxiliary ventilating device acting on the radiator (water-cooling) or on the air intake
(air-cooling) may be used if necessary to keep the engine temperature normal.
6.1.4. During the test the speed shall be recorded against time so that the correctness of the cycles
performed can be assessed.
6.2. Starting-up the Engine
6.2.1. The engine shall be started up by means of the devices provided for this purpose according to
the manufacturer's instructions, as incorporated in the drivers handbook of production
vehicles.
6.2.2. The engine shall be kept idling for a period of 40 s. The first cycle shall begin at the end of
the aforesaid period of 40 s at idle.

6.6. Steady Speeds
6.6.1. "Pumping" or the closing of the throttle shall be avoided when passing from acceleration to
the following steady speed.
6.6.2. Periods of constant speed shall be achieved by keeping the accelerator position fixed.
7. PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS
7.1. Sampling
7.2. Analysis
Sampling shall begin at the beginning of the test cycle as defined in Paragraph 6.2.2. of this
Annex and end at the end of the idling period after the fourth cycle.
7.2.1. The exhaust gases contained in the bag shall be analysed as soon as possible and in any
event not later than 20 m after the end of the test cycle.
7.2.2. Prior to each sample analysis the analyser range to be used for each pollutant shall be set to
zero with the appropriate zero gas.
7.2.3. The analysers shall then be set to the calibration curves by means of span gases of nominal
concentrations of 70 to 100% of the range.
7.2.4. The analysers zeros shall then be rechecked. If the reading differs by more than 2% of range
from that set in Paragraph 7.2.2. above the procedure shall be repeated.
7.2.5. The samples shall then be Analysed.
7.2.6. After the analysis zero and span points shall be rechecked using the same gases. If these
rechecks are within 2% of those in Paragraph 7.2.3. then the analysis shall be considered
acceptable.
7.2.7. At all points in this section the flow rates and pressures of the various gases must be the
same as those used during calibration of the analysers.
7.2.8. The figure adopted for the content of the gases in each of the pollutants measured shall be
that read off after stabilisation of the measuring device. Diesel Hydrocarbon mass emissions
shall be calculated from the integrated HFID reading, corrected for varying flow if necessary
as shown in Appendix 5 to this Annex.

ANNEX 4
APPENDIX 1
BREAKDOWN OF THE OPERATING CYCLE USED FOR THE TYPE I TEST
Time
Percentage
(1) Breakdown by Phases
Idling .......................................................................... 60 s
30,8 )
)
Idling, vehicle moving, clutch
)
35,4
engaged on one combination ..................................... 9 s
4,6 )
Gear-shift..................................................................... 8 s 4,1
Accelerations............................................................. 36 s 18,5
Steady-speed periods............................................... 57 s 29,2
Decelerations ............................................................ 25 s
12,8
-------
-------
195 s
100%
(2) Breakdown by Use of Gears
Idling .......................................................................... 60 s 30,8 )
)
Idling, vehicle moving, clutch ) 35,4
engaged on one combination ..................................... 9 s 4,6 )
Gear-shift..................................................................... 8 s 4,1
first gear................................................................ 24 s 12,3
second gear.......................................................... 53 s 27,2
third gear .............................................................. 41 s
21
-------
--------
195 s
100%
Average speed during test: 19 km/h Effective running time: 195 s
Theoretical distance covered per cycle: 1,013 km
Equivalent distance for the test (4 cycles); 4,052 km

ANNEX 4
APPENDIX 2
CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER WITH FIXED LOAD CURVE
1. DEFINITION OF A CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Definition
In the event that the total resistance to progress on the road cannot be reproduced on the
chassis dynamometer, between speeds of 10 and 50 km/h, it is recommended to use a chassis
dynamometer having the characteristics defined below.
1.2.1. The chassis dynamometer may have one or two rollers.
The front roller shall drive directly or indirectly, the inertial masses and the power absorption
device.
1.2.2. Having set the load at 50 km/h by one of the methods described in Paragraph 3. of this
Appendix, K can be determined from P = KV . The power absorbed (P ) by the brake and the
chassis internal frictional effects from the reference setting to a vehicle speed of 50 km/h are as
follows:—
If V > 12 km / h :
3
3
P = KV ± 5% KV ±
a
(without being negative)
If V ≤ 12 km / hr
Pawill
be between 0 and
P
a
=
3
KV
12
+
5%
3
KV
12
+
5%
5%
PV
50
PV
50
where K is a characteristic of the chassis dynamometer and PV50 is the power absorbed at
50 km/h.

2. METHOD OF CALIBRATING THE ROLLER BENCH
2.1. Introduction
This Appendix describes the method to be used to determine the power absorbed by a
dynamometric brake. The power absorbed comprises the power absorbed by frictional effects
and the power absorbed by the power-absorption device.
The dynamometer is brought into operation beyond the range of test speeds. The device used
for starting up the dynamometer is then disconnected: the rotational speed of the driven roller
decreases.
The kinetic energy of rollers is dissipated by the power-absorption unit and by the frictional
effects. This method disregards variations in the roller's internal frictional effects caused by
rollers with or without the vehicle. The frictional effects of the rear roller shall be disregarded
when this is free.
2.2. Calibrating the Power Indicator to 50 km/h as a Function of the Power Absorbed
The following procedure shall be used:—
2.2.1. Measure the rotational speed of the roller if this has not already been done. A fifth wheel, a
revolution counter or some other method may be used.
2.2.2. Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method of starting up the
dynamometer.
2.2.3. Use the fly-wheel or any other system of inertia simulation for the particular inertia class to be
used.
2.2.4. Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 50 km/h.
2.2.5. Note the power indicated (Pi).
2.2.6. Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 60 km/h.
2.2.7. Disconnect the device used to start up the dynamometer.
2.2.8. Note the time taken by the dynamometer to pass from a speed of 55 km/h to a speed of
45 km/h.
2.2.9. Set the power-absorption device at a different level.
2.2.10. The requirements of Paragraphs 2.2.4. to 2.2.9. above shall be repeated sufficiently often to
cover the range of road powers used.

2.4. Verification of the Power-absorption Curve of the Roller Bench from a Reference Setting to a
Speed of 50 km/h
2.4.1. Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method of starting up the
dynamometer.
2.4.2. Adjust the dynamometer to the absorbed power P , at 50 km/h.
2.4.3. Note the power absorbed at 40 - 30 - 20 km/h.
2.4.4. Draw the curve P (V) and verify that it corresponds to the prescriptions of Paragraph 1.2.2. of
this Appendix.
2.4.5. Repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 2.4.1. to 2.4.4. for other values of power P at 50 km/h and
for other values on inertias.
2.5. The same procedure will be used for force or torque calibration.
3. SETTING OF THE BENCH
3.1. Vacuum Method
3.1.1. Introduction
This method is not a preferred method and should be used only with fixed load curve shape
dynamometers for determination of load setting at 50 km/h and cannot be used for vehicles with
compression-ignition engines.
3.1.2. Test Instrumentation
3.1.3. Road Test
The vacuum (or absolute pressure) in the intake manifold vehicle shall be measured to an
accuracy of ± 0,25 kPa. It shall be possible to record continuously this reading or at intervals of
no more than 1 s. The speed shall be recorded continuously with a precision of ± 0,4 km/h.
3.1.3.1. Ensure that the requirements of Appendix 3, Paragraph 4, to this Annex are met.
3.1.3.2. Drive the vehicle at a steady speed of 50 km/h recording speed and vacuum (or absolute
pressure) within the requirement of Paragraph 3.1.2.
3.1.3.3. Repeat procedure of Paragraph 3.1.3.2. three times in each direction. All six runs must be
completed within four hours.
3.1.4. Data Reduction and Acceptance Criteria
3.1.4.1. Review results obtained in accordance with Paragraphs 3.1.3.2. and 3.1.3.3. (speed must not
be lower than 49,5 km/h or greater than 50,5 km/h for more than 1 s). For each run, read
vacuum level at 1 s intervals, calculate mean vacuum (v) and standard deviation(s) this
calculation shall consist of no less than 10 readings of vacuum.
3.1.4.2. The standard deviation shall not exceed 10% of mean (v) for each run.
3.1.4.3. Calculate the mean value (v) for the six runs (three runs in each direction).

ANNEX 4
APPENDIX 3
RESISTANCE TO PROGRESS OF A VEHICLE - MEASUREMENT METHOD
ON THE ROAD - SIMULATION ON A CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
1. OBJECT OF THE METHODS
The object of the methods defined below is to measure the resistance to progress of a vehicle
at stabilised speeds on the road and to simulate this resistance on a roller bench, in accordance
with Paragraph 4.1.4.1. of this Annex.
2. DEFINITION OF THE ROAD
The road shall be level and sufficiently long to enable the measurements specified below to be
made.
The slope shall be constant to within ± 0,1% and shall not exceed 1,5%.
3. ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
3.1. Wind
3.2. Humidity
Testing must be limited to wind speeds averaging less than 3 m/s with peak speeds less than
5 m/s. In addition, the vector component of the wind speed across the test road must be less
than 2 m/s. Wind velocity should be measured 0,7 m above the road surface.
The road shall be dry.
3.3. Pressure - Temperature
Air density at the time of the test shall not deviate by more than ± 7,5% from the reference
conditions.
P = 100 kPa - T = 293,2 K.
4. VEHICLE PREPARATION
4.1. Running In
The vehicle shall be in normal running order and adjustment after having been run-in for at least
3 000 km. The tyres shall be run in at the same time as the vehicle or shall have a tread depth
within 90 and 50% of the initial tread depth.

5.1.1.2.4. Make the same test in the opposite direction : t .
5.1.1.2.5. Take the average T of the two times t and t .
5.1.1.2.6. Repeat these tests several times such that the statistical accuracy (p) of the average
1
accuracy (p) of the average T = ∑ Ti is equal to or less than 2% (p ≤ 2%)
n
The statistical accuracy (p) is defined by:
p =
t
s
n
100
T
where:
t = coefficient given by the table below,
s = standard deviation,
n = number of tests.
s =

(Ti − T)
n − 1
n 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
t 3,2 2,8 2,6 2,5 2,4 2,3 2,3 2,2 2,2 2,2 2,2 2,2
t
n
1,6 1,25 1,06 0,94 0,85 0,77 0,73 0,66 0,64 0,61 0,59 0,57
5.1.1.2.7. Calculate the power by the formula:
M ⋅ V ⋅ ∆V
P =
500 T
where:
P is expressed in kW,
V
∆V
M
T
= speed of the test in m/s,
= speed deviation from speed V, in m/s.
= reference mass in kg,
= time in seconds.

5.2.2. On the bench
5.2.2.1. Measurement equipment and error
The equipment shall be identical to that used on the road.
5.2.2.2. Test procedure
5.2.2.2.1. Perform the operations specified in Paragraphs 5.1.2.2.1. to 5.1.2.2.4. above.
5.2.2.2.2. Perform the operations specified in Paragraphs 5.2.1.2.1. to 5.2.1.2.4. above.
5.2.2.2.3. Adjust the brake setting to meet the requirements of Paragraph 4.1.4.1. of this Annex.
5.3. Integrated Torque Over Variable Driving Pattern
5.3.1. This method is a non-obligatory complement to the constant speed method described in
Paragraph 5.2. above.
5.3.2. In this dynamic procedure, the mean torque value M is determined. This is accomplished by
integrating the actual torque values with respect to time during operation of the test vehicle
with a defined driving cycle. The integrated torque is then divided by the time difference.
The result is:
1
M =

M(t) ⋅ dt (with M(t) > 0)
t − t
M is calculated from six sets of results.
It is recommended that the sampling rate of M be not less than two samples per second.
5.3.3. Dynamometer setting
The dynamometer load is set by the method described in Paragraph 5.2. If M dynamometer
does not then match M road, the inertia setting shall be adjusted until the values are equal to
within ± 5%.
Note: This method can be used only for dynamometers with electrical inertia simulation or
fine adjustment.
5.3.4. Acceptance criteria
Standard deviation of six measurements must be less than or equal to 2% of the mean value.

5.4.1.2.6. Perform a sufficient number of test as specified in Paragraph 5.1.1.2.6 above replacing T by Γ
where:
Γ =
1
n
∑ Γ
5.4.1.2.7. Calculate the average force absorbed F = M ⋅ Γ.
where:
M = vehicle reference mass in kg.
Γ = average deceleration calculated beforehand.
5.4.2. Dynamometer Method
5.4.2.1. Measurement equipment and error
The measurement instrumentation of the dynamometer itself shall be used as defined in
Paragraph 2 of Appendix 2 to this annex.
5.4.2.2. Test procedure
5.4.2.2.1. Adjustment of the force on the rim at steady speed
On chassis dynamometer, the total resistance is of the type:
F = F + F , with
F = F ,
F = F - F
F is the force indicated on the force indicating device of the chassis dynamometer,
F is known,
F can be:
— measured on chassis dynamometer able to work as a generator.
The test vehicle, gearbox in neutral position, is driven by the chassis dynamometer at the test
speed; the rolling resistance of the driving axle is then measured on the force indicating
device of the chassis dynamometer;
— determined on chassis dynamometer unable to work as a generator.
For two-roller chassis dynamometers, the R value is the one which is determined
beforehand on the road.

ANNEX 4
APPENDIX 4
VERIFICATION OF INERTIAS OTHER THAN MECHANICAL
1. OBJECT
The method described in this Appendix makes it possible to check that the simulated total
inertia of the dynamometer is carried out satisfactorily in the running phase of the operating
cycle.
2. PRINCIPLE
2.1. Drawing up working equations
Since the bench is subjected to variations in the rotating speed of the roller(s), the force at the
surface of the roller(s) can be expressed by the formula:
F = I ⋅ γ = I ⋅ γ + F
where:
F = force at the surface of the roller(s),
I
=
total inertia of the bench (equivalent inertia of the vehicle: see table in
Paragraph 5.1, of this Annex)
I = inertia of the mechanical masses of the bench,
γ = tangential acceleration at roller surface,
F = inertia force.
The total inertia is expressed as follows:
I = I
F
+
γ
where:
I
F
γ
can be calculated or measured by traditional methods,
can be measured on the bench,
can be calculated from the peripheral speed of the rollers.
The total inertia "I" will be determined during an acceleration or deceleration test with values
higher than or equal to those obtained on an operating cycle.

5.3. Equilibrium of the forces of dynamometers with non-mechanically simulated inertias:
Ce = k
= k
Jr
Jr
dθ1
+ k
dt
dθ1
+ k
dt
⎛ dWe
⎜ JRe
⎜ dt
+
⎜ Re

(I
γ +
F ) r
+ k
C
Re
F


r ⎟ + k


r
F
r
In these formulae:
CR
=
engine torque on the road,
Cm
=
engine torque on the bench with mechanically simulated inertias,
Ce
=
engine torque on the bench with electrically simulated inertias,
Jr
=
moment of inertia of the vehicle transmission brought back to the driving wheels,
Jr
=
moment of inertia of the non-driving wheels,
JRm =
moment of inertia of the bench with mechanically simulated inertias,
JRe = moment of mechanical inertia of the bench with electrically simulated inertias,
M = mass of the vehicle on the road,
I = equivalent inertia of the bench with mechanically simulated inertias,
I = mechanical inertia of the bench with electrically simulated inertias,
F = resultant force at stabilized speed,
C = resultant torque from electrically simulated inertias,
F = resultant force from electrically simulated inertias,
dθ1
=
angular acceleration of the driving wheels,
dt
dθ2
=
angular acceleration of the non-driving wheels,
dt
dWm =
dt
dWe =
dt
angular acceleration of the mechanical bench,
angular acceleration of the electrical bench,

ANNEX 4
APPENDIX 5
DEFINITION OF GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. There are several types of collecting devices capable of meeting the requirements of
Paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Annex. Devices described in Paragraphs 3.1., 3.2. and 3.3 will be
considered if they meet the essential criteria for the variable dilution sampler (VDS) concept
specified in Paragraph 2.
1.2. The laboratory shall mention, in its communications, the system of sampling used when
performing the test.
2. CRITERIA FOR THE VARIABLE DILUTION SAMPLER FOR EXHAUST GAS POLLUTANT
MEASUREMENT
2.1. Scope
To specify the performance characteristics of an exhaust gas sampling system for use in the
measurement of the true mass emissions from vehicle exhaust in accordance with the test of
this Regulation. In the variable dilution sampler concept of measuring mass emissions three
conditions must be satisfied:
2.1.1. The vehicle exhaust must be continuously diluted with ambient air under specified conditions.
2.1.2. The total volume of the mixture of vehicle exhaust gas and dilution air must be accurately
measured.
2.1.3. A continuously proportional sample of diluted exhaust gas and dilution air must be collected for
analysis.
The mass emissions are determined from the aliquot sample concentrations and the total
volume measured over the test period. The sample concentrations are corrected for the
pollutant content of the ambient air.
2.2. Summary of Technique
Figure 1 gives a schematic diagram of the general concept.

2.2.1. The vehicle exhaust shall be diluted with sufficient ambient air such that water condensation
does not occur in the sampling and metering system.
2.2.2. The exhaust gas sampling system shall be such that the average volumetric concentrations of
the CO , CO, HC and NO constituents contained in the exhaust gas emitted during the vehicle
drive cycle can be measured.
2.2.3. The exhaust gas and air mixture shall be homogeneous at the sampling probe. (See
Paragraph 2.3.1.2.)
2.2.4. The probe shall extract a representative sample of the diluted exhaust gases.
2.2.5. The equipment shall permit the measurement of the total volume of the diluted exhaust gas of
the vehicle under test.
2.2.6. The system should be free of gas leaks. The design of and the materials used in the
construction of the VDS shall be such that the system does not influence the pollutant
concentration in the diluted exhaust gas. Should any component (heat exchanger, cyclonic
separator, blower, etc.) change the concentration of any pollutants in the diluted gas, then
sampling for that pollutant shall be carried out before that component if the problem cannot be
corrected.
2.2.7. If the vehicle being tested is equipped with multiple exhaust tail pipes, then they shall be
connected together using a collector manifold as near as possible to the vehicle.
2.2.8. The gas samples shall be collected in sample bags of adequate capacity such as not to impede
the sample flow during the sampling period. These bags shall be made of such materials as will
not change the pollutant gas concentrations (see Paragraph 2.3.4.4.1.).
2.2.9. The VDS shall be designed such that the exhaust gas can be collected without significant effect
on the vehicle tail pipe back pressure (see Paragraph 2.3.1.1.).
2.3. Special Specification
2.3.1. Exhaust Gas Collecion and Dilution
2.3.1.1. The connecting pipe between the vehicle tail pipe(s) and the mixing chamber shall be as short
as possible.
It shall in no case modify the static pressure at the tail pipe(s) of test vehicle by more than
± 0,75 kPa at 50km/h or ± 1,25 kPa throughout the test cycle when compared with static
pressures recorded without connections to the vehicle tail pipe.
The pressure shall be measured in the tail pipe, or in an extension of the same diameter, as
near as possible to its end. The pipe shall be as short as possible also in order to avoid deposit.
2.3.1.2. A mixing chamber in which the vehicle exhasut gas and dilution air are combined to form a
mixture at the section where the sample is taken. Homogenity within any cross-section of the
mixture at this point shall be within ± 2% of the mean at a minimum of at least 5 equally spaced
points across the diameter of the gas stream. Pressure in the mixing chamber shall be within
± 0,25 kPa of atmospheric pressure, to minimise effect on tail pipe conditions and limit pressure
drop across any dilution air conditioning unit.

2.3.4.3. Sampling Handling
2.3.4.3.1. Materials used in the sample handling should be such as not to affect the pollutant
concentration.
2.3.4.3.2. Filters may be fitted to extract particulates from the sample.
2.3.4.3.3. Pumps should be used to transport the sample to the collection bag(s).
2.3.4.3.4. Flow controllers and meters shall be used to control the required sample flow rates.
2.3.4.3.5. Gas-tight quick lock coupling elements may be used between the three-way valves and the
sampling bags, the coupling closing automatically on the sampling bag side. Other ways of
transporting the samples to the analyser may be used. (Three way stop cocks for instance).
2.3.4.3.6. The various valves used to direct the sample gases shall be a quick adjustment, quick acting
type.
2.3.4.4. Sample Storage
2.3.4.4.1. The gas samples shall be collected in sample bags of adequate capacity so as not to restrict the
sample flow. These bags shall be made of such material as will not change the sample gas
concentration by more than ± 2% after 20 minutes from the end of sampling.
2.4. Additional Sampling Equipment for Testing Diesel Engined Vehicles
2.4.1. A sample point downstream and close to the mixing chamber.
2.4.2. A heated sample line and probe.
2.4.3. A heated filter/pump (this may be adjacent to sample source).
2.4.4. A quick connector to allow the ambient air bag sample to be analysed.
2.4.5. All heated components will be maintained at 190 ± 10°C through the heated system.
2.4.6. If compensation for varying flow is not possible then a heat exchanger and temperature control
system as identified in Paragraph 2.3.3.1. will be required to ensure constant flow through the
system and thus proportional sample flow.
2.5. Calibration of the Flow Metering System
2.5.1. The VDS shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow meter and a restricting device. The flow
through the system shall be measured at various pressure settings: the control parameters of
the system shall be measured and related to the flows recorded. Any methods used should be
capable of calibrating the system to within 0,5% absolute.
2.5.2. Various types of flow meter may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi, laminar flow meter, calibrated
turbine meter provided that they are dynamic measurement systems that can meet the
requirements of the 04 series of amendments.

3.1.3.8. Another pressure gauge (G ) (accuracy and precision ± 0,4 kPa) fitted so that the differential
pressure between pump inlet and pump outlet can be registered.
3.1.3.9. Two sampling outlets (S and S ) for taking constant samples of the dilution air and of the
diluted exhaust-gas/air mixture.
3.1.3.10. A filter (F), to extract solid particles from the flows of gas collected for analysis.
3.1.3.11. Pumps (P), to collect a constant flow of the dilution air as well as of the diluted exhaust-gas/air
mixture during the test.
3.1.3.12. Flow controllers (N), to ensure a constant uniform flow of the gas samples taken during the
course of the test from sampling probes S and S ; and flow of the gas samples shall be such
that, at the end of each test the quantity of the samples is sufficient for analysis (~10 l/min).
3.1.3.13. Flow meters (FL), for adjusting and monitoring the constant flow of gas samples during the test.
3.1.3.14. Quick-acting valves (V), to divert a constant flow of gas samples into the sampling bags or to
the outside vent.
3.1.3.15. Gas-tight, quick-lock coupling elements (Q) between the quick-acting valves and the sampling
bags; the coupling shall close automatically on the sampling-bag side; as an atlernative, other
ways of transporting the samples to the analyser may be used (three-way stopcocks, for
instance).
3.1.3.16. Bags (B), for collecting samples of the diluted exhaust gas and of the dilution air during the test;
they shall be of sufficient capacity not to impede the sample flow; the bag material shall be
such as to affect neither the measurements themselves nor the chemical composition of the gas
samples (for instance: laminated polyethylene/polyamide films, or fluorinated
polyhydrocarbons).
3.1.3.17. A digital counter (C), to register the number of revolutions performed by the positive
displacement pump during the test.
3.1.4. Additional equipment required when testing diesel engined vehicles. To comply with the
requirements of Paragraphs 4.3.1.1. and 4.3.2. of this Annex the additional components within
the dotted lines in Figure 1 shall be used when testing diesel engined vehicles:-
Fh
S
Vh
Q
is a heated filter.
is a sample point close to the mixing chamber.
is a heated multiway valve.
is a quick connector to allow the ambient air sample BA to be analysed on the HFID.
HFID is a heated flame ionisation analyser.
R + I are a means of integrating and recording the instantaneous hydrocarbon concentrations.
Lh
is a heated sample line.
All heated components shall be maintained at 190 ± 10°C.

3.2. Critical-flow Venturi Dilution Device (CFV-CVS)
3.2.1. Using a critical-flow venturi in connection with the CVS sampling procedure is based on the
principles of flow mechanics for critical flow. The variable mixture flow rate of dilution and
exhaust gas is maintained at sonic velocity which is directly proportional to the square root of
the gas temperature. Flow is continually monitored, computed, and integrated over the test.
If an additional critical-flow sampling venturi is used, the proportionality of the gas samples
taken is ensured. As both pressure and temperature are equal at the two venturi inlets the
volume of the gas flow diverted for sampling is proportional to the total volume of diluted
exhaust gas mixture produced, and thus the requirements of this Annex are met.
3.2.2. Figure 2 is a schematic drawing of such a sampling system. Since various configurations can
produce accurate results, exact conformity with the drawings is not essential. Additional
components such as instruments, valve, solenoids, and switches may be used to provide
additional information and co-ordinate the functions of the component system.
3.2.3. The collecting equipment shall consist of:—
3.2.3.1. A filter (D) for the dilution air, which can be preheated if necessary; the filter shall consist of
activated charcoal sandwiched between layers of paper, and shall be used to reduce and
stabilise the hydrocarbon background emission of the dilution air.
3.2.3.2. A mixing chamber (M), in which exhaust gas and air are mixed homogeneously.
3.2.3.3. A cyclone separator (CS), to extract particles.
3.2.3.4. Two sampling probes (S and S ), for taking samples of the dilution air as well as of the diluted
exhaust gas.
3.2.3.5. A sampling critical flow venturi (SV) to take proportional samples of the diluted exhaust gas at
sampling probe S .
3.2.3.6. A filter (F), to extract solid particles from the gas flows diverted for analysis.
3.2.3.7. Pumps (P), to collect part of the flow of air and diluted exhaust gas in bags during the test.
3.2.3.8. A flow controller (N), to ensure a constant flow of the gas samples taken in the course of the test
from sampling probe S ; the flow of the gas samples shall be such that, at the end of the test,
the quantity of the samples is sufficient for analysis ( ~ 10 l/min).
3.2.3.9. A snubber (PS), in the sampling line.
3.2.3.10. Flow meters (FL), for adjusting and monitoring the flow of gas samples during tests.
3.2.3.11. Quick-acting solenoid valves (V), to divert a constant flow of gas samples into the sampling
bags or the vent.
3.2.3.12. Gas-tight, quick-lock coupling elements (Q), between the quick acting valves and the sampling
bags; the couplings shall close automatically on the sampling-bag side; as an alternative, other
ways of transporting the samples to the analyser may be used (three-way stopcocks, for
instance).

Figure 2
Constant Volume Sampler with Critical Flow Venturi (CFV-CVS)

Figure 3
Diagram of a Variable Dilution Device with Constant Flow Venturi Control by
Orifice (CFO-CVS)

3. EFFICIENCY TEST OF THE NO CONVERTER
The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO into NO is tested as follows:—
Using the test set up shown in Figure 1 and the procedure described below, the efficiency of
converters can be tested by means of an ozonator.
3.1. Calibrate the CLD in the most common operating range following the manufacturer's
specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which should amount to about 80%
of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas mixture shall be less than 5% of
the NO concentration) The NO analyser shall be in the NO mode so that the span gas does
not pass through the converter. Record the indicated concentration.
3.2. Via a T-fitting, oxygen or synthetic air is added continuously to the gas flow until the
concentration indicated is about 10% less than the indicated calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 3.1. of this Appendix. Record the indicated concentration (c). The ozonator is
kept deactivated throughout this process.
3.3. The ozonator is now activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO concentration down
to 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given under Paragraph 3.1. above.
Record the indicated concentration (d).
3.4. The NO analyser is then switched to the NO mode which means that the gas mixture
(consisting of NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. Record the indicated
concentration (a).
3.5. The ozonator is now deactivated. The mixture of gases described in Paragraph 3.2. passes
through the converter into the detector. Record the indicated concentration (b).
3.6. With the ozonator deactivated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air is also shut off. The NO
reading of the analyser shall then be no more than 5% above the figure in Paragraph 3.1.

3.7. The efficiency of the NO converter is calculated as follows:—
a − b
Efficiency (%) = (1 + ) × 100
c − d
3.8. The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 95%.
3.9. The efficiency of the converter shall be tested at least once a week.
4. CALIBRATION OF THE CVS SYSTEM
4.1. The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow-meter and a restricting device.
The flow through the system shall be measured at various pressure readings and the control
parameters of the system measured and related to the flows.
4.1.1. Various types of flow-meter may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi, laminar flow-meter,
calibrated turbine-meter, provided that they are dynamic measurement systems and can meet
the requirements of paragraphs 4.2.2. and 4.2.3. of this Annex.
4.1.2. The following sections give details of methods of calibrating PDP and CFV units, using a
laminar flow-meter, which gives the required accuracy, together with a statistical check on the
calibration validity.
4.2. Calibration of the Psitive Displacement Pump (PDP)
4.2.1. The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration and the
various parameters which shall be measured to establish the flow-rate of the CVS pump. All
the parameters related to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters related
to the flow-meter which is connected in series with pump. The calculated flow-rate (given in
m /min at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) can then be plotted versus a
correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters. The
linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function is then determined. In
the event that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a calibration for each range used must be
performed.
4.2.2. This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the pump
and flow-meter parameters that relate the flow rate at each point. Three conditions must be
maintained to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration curve:
4.2.2.1. The pump pressures shall be measured at tappings on the pump rather than at the external
piping on the pump inlet and outlet. Pressure taps that are mounted at the top centre and
bottom centre of the pump drive headplate are exposed to the actual pump cavity pressures,
and therefore reflect the absolute pressure differentials;
4.2.2.2. Temperature stability shall be maintained during the calibration. The laminar flow meter is
sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations which cause the data points to be scattered.
Gradual changes of ± 1°C in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period
of several minutes;
4.2.2.3. All connections between the flow meter and the CVS pump shall be free of any leakage.

4.2.4.2. The air flow rate is then converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure.
where:
Q T
V = × ×
n 273,2
101,33
p
V
Q
T
P
n
= pump flow rate at T and P given in m /rev,
= air flow at 101,33 kPa and 273,2 K given in m /min,
= pump inlet temperature (K),
= absolute pump inlet pressure,
= pump speed in revolutions per minute.
To compensate for the interaction of pump speed pressure variations at the pump and the
pump slip rate, the correlation function (x ) between the pump speed (n), the pressure
differential from pump inlet to pump outlet and the absolute pump outlet pressure is then
calculated as follows:
x
=
1
n
P
P

P
where:
x
∆ P
P
= correlation function,
= pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet (kPa),
= absolute outlet pressure (PPO + P )(kPa).
A linear least square fit is performed to generate the calibration equations which have the
formulae:
V = D - M (X )
n = A - B (∆ P )
D , M, A and B are the slope-intercept constants describing the lines.

4.3.4. The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure 3 of this Appendix and checked for leaks.
Any leaks between the flow-measuring device and the critical flow venturi will seriously affect
the accuracy of the calibration.
4.3.5. The variable-flow restrictor shall be set to the open position, the blower shall be started and
the system stabilized. Data from all instruments shall be recorded.
4.3.6. The flow restrictor shall be varied and at least eight readings across the critical flow range of
the venturi shall be made.
4.3.7. The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculations. The air
flow-rate (Q ) at each test point is calculated from the flow-meter data using the
manufacturer's prescribed method.
Calculate values of the calibration coefficient for each test point:
K
Q
=

P
T
where:
Q
T
P
= flow-rate in m /min at 273,2 K and 101,33 kPa,
= temperature at the venturi inlet (K),
= absolute pressure at the venturi inlet (kPa).
Plot K , as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For sonic flow, K will have a relatively constant
value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases) the venturi become unchoked and K
decreases. The resultant K changes are not permissible.
For a minimum of eight points in the critical region calculate an average K and the standard
deviation.
If the standard deviation exceeds 0,3% of the average K take corrective action.

Figure 3
CFV-CVS Calibration Configuration

ANNEX 4
APPENDIX 8
CALCULATION OF THE MASS EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS
The mass emissions of pollutants are calculated by means of the following equation:—
M = V × Q × k × C × 10
(1)
where:
M = mass emission of the pollutant i in g/test,
V
=
volume of the diluted exhaust gas expressed in l/test and corrected to standard
conditions (273,2 K and 101,33 kPa),
Q
=
density of the pollutant i in g/l at normal temperature and pressure (273,2 K and
101,33 kPa),
k
=
humidity correction factor used for the calculation of the mass emissions of oxides of
nitrogen. There is no humidity correction for HC and CO.
C
=
concentration of the pollutant i in the diluted exhaust gas expressed in ppm and
corrected by the amount of the pollutant i contained in the dilution air.
1. VOLUME DETERMINATION
1.1. Calculation of the volume when a variable dilution device with constant flow control by orifice
or venturi is used. Record continuously the parameters showing the volumetric flow, and
calculate the total volume for the duration of the test.
1.2. Calculation of volume when a positive displacement pump is used. The volume of diluted
exhaust gas in systems comprising a positive displacement pump is calculated with the
following formula:
where:
V = V × N
V = volume of the diluted gas expressed in l/test (prior to correction),
V
=
volume of gas delivered by the positive displacement pump in testing conditions
in l/rev.
N = number of rev/test.

2. (Cont'd)
In this equation:
c
= concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag,
expressed in % volume,
c
=
concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag,
expressed in ppm carbon equivalent,
c
=
concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag,
expressed in ppm.
3. DETERMINATION OF THE NO HUMIDITY CORRECTION FACTOR
In order to correct the influence of humidity on the results of oxides of nitrogen, the following
calculations are applied:—
k
1
=
1 − 0,0329 − (H − 10,71)
(6)
in which:
6,211⋅
R
H =
P − P ⋅ R
⋅ P
⋅ 10
(6)
where:
H
=
absolute humidity expressed in grams of water per kilogram of dry air,
R
=
relative humidity of the ambient air expressed in per cent,
P
=
saturation vapour pressure at ambient temperature expressed in kPa,
P
=
atmospheric pressure in the room, expressed in kPa.

4.2.2. Dilution factor (DF) (see formula (5))
DF =
c
13,4
+ (c + c
) 10
13,4
DF =
1,6 + (92 + 470) 10
DF = 8,091
4.2.3. Calculation of the corrected concentration of pollutants in the sampling bag:
HC, mass emissions (see formulae (4) and (1))
C
= C
− C
(1 −
1
)
DF
C
= 92 − 3 (1 −
1
)
8,091
C = 89,371
M
= C
⋅ V
⋅ Q
Q = 0,619
M
= 89,371⋅
51961⋅
0,619 ⋅ 10
M = 2,88
g
test
CO, mass emissions (see formula (1))
M
= C
⋅ V
⋅ Q
Q = 1,25
M
= 470 ⋅ 51961⋅
1,25 ⋅ 10
M = 30,5
g
test

4.4. Example of a Calculation
4.4.1. Data
Ambient conditions
Ambient temperature : 23°C = 296,2K
Barometric pressure : P = 101,33 kPa
Relative humidity : R = 60%
Saturation vapour pressure
:
P
= 3,20 kPa
of H O at 23°C
Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
Pump volume
:
V
= 2,439 litres/rev
(from calibration data)
Vacuum : P = 2,80 kPa
Gas temperature : T = 51°C = 324,2K
Number of pump revolutions : n = 26 000
Analyser Readings
Diluted Exhaust Sample
Dilution air sample
4.4.2. Calculation
HC : 92 ppm 3,0 ppm
CO : 470 ppm 0 ppm
NO : 70 ppm 0 ppm
CO : 1,6 Vol. % 0,03 Vol. %
4.4.2.1. Gas volume (see formula (2))
P − P
V = K × V × V = 2,6961×
2,439 × 26 000 ×
TT
V = 51960,89
98,53
324,2
N.B. For CFV and similar CVS systems the volume may be read directly from the
instrumentation.

4.4.2.4. Calculation of the corrected concentration of pollutants in the sampling bag:
HC, mass emissions (see formulae No. 4 and No. 1)
C
= C
− C
(1 −
1
)
DF
C
= 92,0 − 3 (1 −
1
)
8,091
C = 89,372
M
= C
⋅ V
⋅ Q
Q = 0,619
M
= 89,372 ⋅ 51961⋅
0,619 ⋅ 10
M = 2,87 g / test

2.5.2.4 The Type II Test shall be considered satisfactory if one or both of the following conditions is
met:-
2.5.2.4.1. none of the values measured in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 2.5.2.3. above
exceeds the limit values;
2.5.2.4.2. the maximum content obtained by continuously varying one of the adjustment components
while the other components are kept stable does not exceed the limit value, this condition
being met for the various combinations of adjustment components other than the one which
was varied continuously.
2.5.2.5. The possible positions of the adjustment components shall be limited:-
2.5.2.5.1. on the one hand, by the larger of the following two values: the lowest idling speed which the
engine can reach; the speed recommended by the manufacturer, minus 100 r.p.m.;
2.5.2.5.2. on the other hand, by the smallest of the following three values: the highest speed the engine
can attain by activation of the idling speed components; the speed recommended by the
manufacturer, plus 250 r.p.m.; the cut-in speed of automatic clutches.
2.5.2.6. In addition, settings incompatible with correct running of the engine shall not be adopted as
measurement settings. In particular, when the engine is equipped with several carburettors,
all the carburettors shall have the same setting.
3. SAMPLING OF GASES
3.1. The sampling probe shall be placed in the pipe connecting the exhaust with the sampling bag
and as close as possible to the exhaust.
3.2. The concentration in CO (C ) and CO (C ) shall be determined from the measuring
instrument readings or recordings, by use of appropriate calibration curves.
3.3. The corrected concentration for carbon monoxide regarding four-stroke engines is:—
C
corr = C
C
15
+ C
(Vol. − %)
3.4.
The concentration in C
(Paragraph 3.2.) measured according to the formulas contained in
Paragraph 3.3. need not be corrected if the total of the concentrations measured (C
+ C
)
is at least 15 for four-stroke engines.

5. METHOD OF VERIFICATION OF THE CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM
5.1. The engine's apertures shall be left as found
5.2. The pressure in the crankcase shall be measured at an appropriate location. It shall be
measured at the dipstick hole with an inclined-tube manometer.
5.3. The vehicle shall be deemed satisfactory if, in every condition of measurement defined in
Paragraph 3.2. above, the pressure measured in the crankcase does not exceed the
atmospheric pressure prevailing at the time of measurement.
5.4. For the test by the method described above, the pressure in the intake manifold shall be
measured to within ± 1 kPa.
5.5. The vehicle speed as indicated at the dynamometer shall be measured to within ± 2 km/h.
5.6. The pressure measured in the crankcase shall be measured to within ± 0,01 kPa.
5.7. If in one of the conditions of measurement defined in the above mentioned Paragraph 3.2., the
pressure measured in the crankcase exceeds the atmospheric pressure, an additional test as
defined in Paragraph 6 below shall be performed if so requested by the manufacturer.
6. ADDITIONAL TEST METHOD
6.1. The engine's apertures shall be left as found
6.2. A flexible bag impervious to crankcase gases and having a capacity of approximately five litres
shall be connected to the dipstick hole. The bag shall be empty before each measurement.
6.3. The bag shall be closed before each measurement. It shall be opened to the crankcase for five
minutes for each condition of measurement prescribed in Paragraph 3.2. above.
6.4. The vehicle shall be deemed satisfactory if, in every condition of measurement defined in
Paragraph 3.2., above no visible inflation of the bag occurs.
6.5. Remark
6.5.1. If the structural layout of the engine is such that the test cannot be performed by the methods
described in Paragraphs 6.1. to 6.4. above, the measurements shall be effected by that method
modified as follows:
6.5.2. Before the test, all apertures other than that required for the recovery of the gases shall be
closed;
6.5.3. The bag shall be placed on a suitable take-off which does not introduce any additional loss of
pressure and is installed on the recycling circuit of the device directly at the engine-connection
aperture.

ANNEX 7
SPECIFICATIONS OF REFERENCE FUELS
1. TECHNICAL DATA OF THE REFERENCE FUEL TO BE USED TESTING VEHICLES
EQUIPPED WITH POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES
(CEC Reference fuel RF-01-A-80). Type: Premium gasoline, leaded
Property Limits and Units ASTM Method
Research Octane Number Min. 98,0 D 2699
Density at 15°C
Reid vapour pressure
Distillation (2)
Initial boiling point
10% vol. point
50% vol. point
90% vol. point
Final boiling point
Residue
Hydrocarbon analysis
Olefins
Aromatics
Saturates
Min, 0,741 kg/l
Max. 0,755
Min. 0,56 bar
Max. 0,64
Min. 24°C
Max. 40
Min. 42°C
Max. 58
Min. 90°C
Max. 110
Min. 150
Max. 170
Min. 185
Max. 205
Max. 2% Vol.
Max. 20% Vol.
Max. 45% Vol.
balance
D 1298
D 323
D 86
D 1319
Oxidation stability Min. 480 minutes D 525
Existent gum Max. 4 mg/100 ml D 381
Sulphur content Max. 0,04% mass D 1266, D 2622 or 2785
Lead content
Nature of scavenger
Nature of lead alkyl
Carbon/Hydrogen Ratio
Min. 0,10 g/l
Max. 0,40 g/l
Motor mix
not specified
Report
D 3341

2. TECHNICAL DATA OF THE REFERENCE FUEL TO BE USED FOR TESTING VEHICLES
WITH COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES
Density at 15°C
CEC REFERENCE FUEL RF-03-A-80. Type: Diesel fuel
Property Limits and Units ASTM Method
Cetane Index Min. 51
Max. 57
Distillation (2)
50% vol. point
90% vol. point
Final boiling point
Min. 0,835 kg/l
Max. 0,845 kg/l D 1298
Min. 245°C
Min. 320°C
Max. 340
Max. 370°C
Viscosity, 40°C Min. 2,5 m /s
Max. 3,5 mm /s
Sulphur content
Min. 0,20% mass
Max. 0,50
D 976
D 86
D445
D 1266, D 2622 or D 2785
Flash point Min. 55°C D 93
Cold filter plugging point Max. -5°C CEN draft pr EN116 or IP309
Conradson carbon residue on
10% dist. residue
Max. 0,20% mass D 189
Ash content Max. 0,01% mass 482
Water content Max. 0,05 mass D 95 or D 1744
Copper corrosion, 100°C Max. 1 D 130
Neutralisation (strong acid)
number
Max. 0,20 mg KOH/g D 974

ANNEX 8
METHOD FOR MEASURING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE NET POWER
1. OBJECT
2. SCOPE
These provisions apply to the method for representing the curve of the power at full load of an
internal combustion engine as a function of engine speed.
This method applies to internal combustion engines used for the propulsion of the vehicles
covered by this Regulation and Regulation No. 24 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE 505/Rev.1/Add.23/Rev.1)
The engines belong to one of the following categories:
3. DEFINITIONS
reciprocating piston engines (positive-ignition or compression ignition), but excluding free
piston engines;
rotary piston engines.
These engines may be naturally aspirated or supercharged.
For the purposes of these provisions,
3.1. "Net power" means the power obtained on a test bench at the end of the crankshaft or its
equivalent at the corresponding engine speed with the auxiliaries listed in Table 1;
3.2. "Standard-production Equipment" means any equipment provided by the manufacturer for a
particular engine application.
4. ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENTS
4.1. Torque
± 1% of the measured torque.
4.2. Engine Speed
± 0,5% of measured speed.
4.3. Fuel Consumption
± 1% of measured consumption.

Table 1
Auxiliaries to be Fitted for the Test to Determine Net Power of Engine
No. Auxiliaries Fitted for Net Power Test
1
Intake system
Intake manifold
)
Crankcase emission control system
)
Air filter
)
Intake silencer
)
Speed limiting device
)
Yes, standard production equipment
Yes, standard production equipment
2
Induction heating device of intake manifold
Yes, standard production equipment. If
possible, to be set in the most favourable
position
3
Exhaust system
Exhaust purifier
)
Exhaust Manifold
)
Supercharging device
)
Connecting pipes
)
Silencer
)
Tail pipe
)
Exhaust brake
)
Yes, standard production equipment
4 Fuel supply pump Yes, standard production equipment
5 Carburettor
Electronic control system
air flow meter, etc. . . .
(if fitted)
Pressure reducer )
Evaporater )
Mixer )
6
Fuel injection equipment
(petrol and diesel)
Pre-filter
)
Filter
)
Pump
)
High-pressure pipe
)
Injector
)
Air-intake valve, if fitted
)
Electronic control system
)
air flow meter, etc. . . .
)
(if fitted)
)
Governor/control system
)
Automatic full-load stop for the control
)
rack depending on atmospheric
)
conditions
)
Yes, standard production equipment
Equipment for gas engines
Yes, standard production equipment
(see Notes at end of Table)

5.1.3. Compression-ignition Engine Starting Auxiliaries
For the auxiliaries used in starting compression-ignition engines, the two following cases shall
be considered:
a) electrical starting. The generator is fitted and supplies, where necessary, the auxiliaries
indispensable to the operation of the engine;
b) starting other than electrical. If there are any electrically operated accessories
indispensable to the operation of the engine, the generator is fitted to supply these
accessories. Otherwise, it is removed.
In either case, the system for producing and accumulating the energy necessary for
starting is fitted and operates in the unloaded condition.

5.3.8. The fuel temperature shall be measured at the inlet to the carburettor or at the fuel injection
system and maintained within the limits established by the engine manufacturer.
5.3.9. The temperature of the lubricating oil measured in the oil sump or at the outlet from the oil
cooler, if fitted, shall be maintained within the limits established by the engine manufacturer.
5.3.10. An auxiliary regulating system may be used if necessary to maintain the temperatures within the
limits specified in 5.3.7.,5.3.8.and 5.3.9.
5.3.11. The fuel shall be one available on the market without any supplementary smoke suppressant
additives. In any case of dispute, the reference fuel shall be:
a) diesel engines, as defined by CEC in CEC-RF-03-A-80;
b) positive-ignition engines, as defined by CEC-RF-01-A-80.
5.4. Test Procedure
Measurements shall be taken at a sufficient number of engine speeds to define correctly the
power curve between the lowest and the highest engine speeds recommended by the
manufacturer. This range of speeds must include the speed of revolution at which the engine
produces its maximum power. The average of at least two stabilised measurements is to be
determined.
5.5. Data to be Recorded
Data to be recorded are those indicated in the Appendix to this Annex.
6. POWER CORRECTION FACTORS
6.1. Definition
The power correction factor is the coefficient α to determine the engine power under the
reference atmospheric conditions specified in 6.2.
P = α . P
where
P is the corrected power (i.e. power under reference atmospheric conditions)
α is the correction factor ( αa or αd);
P is the measured power (test power).

6.4.2. Diesel Engines - Factor α
The power correction factor (α ) for diesel engines at constant fuel rate is obtained by applying
the formula:
α = (f ) f
where
f is the atmospheric factor;
f is the characteristic parameter for each type of engine and adjustment.
6.4.2.1. Atmospheric Factor f
This factor indicates the effects on environmental conditions (pressure, temperature and
humidity) on the air drawn in by the engine.
The atmospheric factor formula differs according to the type of engine.
6.4.2.1.1. Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines.
f
⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛
= ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜
⎝ P ⎠ ⎝
T
298



6.4.2.1.2. Turbocharged engines with or without cooling of inlet air.
f
⎛ 99 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
⎝ P ⎠

⋅ ⎜

T
298



6.4.2.2. Engine Factor f
f is a function of q (fuel flow corrected) as follows:
f = 0,036 q - 1,14
where
q = q/r
where
"q" is the fuel flow in milligramme per cycle per litre of total swept volume (mg/(1.cycle)).
"r" is the pressure ratio of compressor outlet and compressor inlet
(r = 1 for naturally aspirated engines).
This formula is valid for a value interval of q included between
40 mg/ (1.cycle) and 65 mg/ (1.cycle).
For q values lower than 40 mg/(1.cycle), a constant value of f equal to 0,3 (f = 0,3) will be
taken.
For q values higher than 65 mg/(1.cycle), a constant value of f equal to 1,2 (f = 1,2) will be
taken (See Figure):

ANNEX 8
APPENDIX
STATEMENT OF THE RESULTS OF TESTS FOR MEASURING NET ENGINE POWER
This information is to be supplied by the manufacturer simultaneously with the identification sheet
constituting Annex 1 to the Regulation. If the test under this Regulation is a bench test of the engine, this
form shall be completed by the laboratory performing the test.
1. TEST CONDITIONS
1.1. Pressures measured at maximum power ..........................................................................................
1.1.1. Total barometric pressure.............................................. Pa
1.1.2. Water vapour pressure .................................................. Pa
1.1.3. Exhaust pressure ........................................................... Pa
1.2. Temperatures measured at maximum power:
1.2.1. of the intake air..................................................................K
1.2.2. at the outlet of the engine intercooler ...............................K
1.2.3. of the cooling fluid:
1.2.3.1. at the engine cooling fluid outlet ...................................K
1.2.3.2. at the reference point in the case of air cooling ...........K
1.2.4. of the lubricating oil ...........................................................K
(indicate point of measurement)
1.2.5. of the fuel:
1.2.5.1. at the fuel pump inlet.........................................................K
1.2.5.2. in the fuel-consumption measuring device.......................K
1.3. Characteristics of the dynamometer:
1.3.1. Make:........................................................ Model:...............................................................................
1.3.2. Type:....................................................................................................................................................

3.
LUBRICANT
3.1.
Makes: .................................................................................................................................................
3.2.
Specification: .......................................................................................................................................
3.3.
SAE viscosity:......................................................................................................................................
Engine speed, min
Measured torque, Nm
Measured power, kW
Measured fuel flow, g/h
Measured smoke index, m
Barometric pressure, kPa
Water vapour pressure, kPa
Inlet air temperature, K
Power to be added for auxiliaries in excess of
Table 1, kW
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
Power correction factor
Corrected brake power, kW (with/without
fan)
4.
DETAILED RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS
4.1.
Statement of results of net power measurement test
4.2.
Maximum net power: . . . . . . . . kW at . . . . . . min
4.3.
Maximum net torque:. . . . . . . . Nm at . . . . . . min
5.
ENGINE SUBMITTED FOR TESTING ON
6.
TECHNICAL SERVICE CONDUCTING THE TESTS

ANNEX 9
"ECE" METHOD OF MEASURING THE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES
1. OBJECT
2. SCOPE
These requirements describe a conventional method of measuring the fuel consumption of
motor vehicles which provides purchasers with a basis for comparing different models.
This method applies to private (passenger) cars
equipped with internal combustion engines.
3. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
3.1. Fuel consumption shall be determined by the following tests:—
3.1.1. Cycle simulating urban driving, as described in Annex 4 to this Regulation (see Paragraph 5.
below);
3.1.2. Constant speed test at 90 km/h (see Paragraph 6. below);
3.1.3. Constant speed test at 120 km/h (Paragraph 6. below)
3.2. The vehicle tested shall comply with the other applicable Regulations of the 1958 Agreement, in
particular this Regulation and Regulation No. 24.
3.3. The results of the tests shall be expressed in litres/100 km rounded to 0,1 of a litre/100 km.
3.4. Distances shall be measured to within an accuracy of 0,5% and times to within an accuracy of
0,2 s.
3.5. Test Fuel
The fuel used shall be, as the case may require, one of the reference fuels specified in Annex 7
to this Regulation or that specified in Regulation No. 24, Annex 6.

4.5.1.2. The air density shall be calculated by the formula:—
H
d = d × ×
H
T
T
, where
d
d
H
T
= air density at test conditions;
= air density at reference conditions;
= test pressure;
= absolute temperature during the test (°K).
5. MEASUREMENT OF FUEL CONSUMPTION ON A CYCLE SIMULATING URBAN DRIVING
5.1. The test cycle shall be that described in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
5.1.1. Reference Mass of the Vehicle.
The mass of the vehicle shall be the reference mass, as defined in Paragraph 2.3. of this
Regulation.
5.2. The dynamometer bench will be set with the equivalent inertia as stipulated in Annex 4,
Paragraph 5.2. to this Regulation.
5.3. Measurement of Consumption
5.3.1. Consumption shall be determined from the quantity of fuel consumed during two consecutive
cycles.
5.3.2. The engine shall be warmed up from a cold start by carrying out five complete cycles before any
measurement is made or carried out immediately after the Type I and Type II Tests defined in
this Regulation. The temperature shall be kept within the normal operating range for that
engine if necessary by using the auxiliary cooling device.
5.3.3. The idling period between consecutive pairs of cycles may be extended by not more than 60 s
to facilitate fuel measurement.
5.4. Calculation of Results
5.4.1. If the fuel consumption is measured gravimetrically, the consumption shall be expressed (in
litres/100 km) by converting the measurement M (fuel consumed expressed in kilogrammes) by
means of the following formula:—
M
C =
D × S
100 litres /100 km
where:
S = specific density of the fuel in the reference conditions (kg/dm );
D = distance covered during the test (km)

6. MEASUREMENT OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AT CONSTANT SPEED
6.1. These tests may be carried out either on a dynamometer bench or on the road.
6.1.1. Weight of the Vehicle
6.2. Gear-box
The weight of the vehicle shall be the weight in running order, as defined below, plus 180 kg, or
plus half the full load if that is more than 180 kg including measuring equipment and occupants.
The trim of the vehicle shall be that obtained when the centre of gravity of the load is in the
middle of the straight line joining the R points of the front (side) seats. The weight of the vehicle
in running order is its total unladen weight with all tanks except the fuel tank full, the fuel tank
being filled to 90% of the capacity specified by the manufacturer, and a set of tools and the
spare wheel on board.
If the vehicle is fitted with a manual gear change, the gear ratio used shall be the highest
recommended by the manufacturer for driving at each of the test speeds.
6.3. Test Procedure
6.3.1. Road Test
6.3.1.1. Weather Conditions
6.3.1.1.1. The relative humidity shall be less than 95%; the road shall be dry; the road surface may,
however, bear traces of moisture, provided that there is no appreciable film of water in any area.
6.3.1.1.2. The average wind speed shall be less than 3 m/s and gusts less than 8 m/s.
6.3.1.2. Before any measurements are taken, the vehicle shall travel on the chosen circuit at a speed
close to the test speed, a sufficient distance for the running temperatures to be reached, but in
any case at least 10 km.
6.3.1.3. Test Run
The test run shall allow a steady speed to be maintained. The run shall be at least 2 km in
length. It shall form a closed circuit and the surface shall be in good condition. A straight road
may be used, however, provided that the run of 2 km is made in both directions. The gradient
shall not exceed ± 2% between any two points.
6.3.1.4. To determine the consumption at a steady reference speed (see graph below), four tests shall
be made; two at an average speed less than the reference speed and two at an average speed
exceeding the reference speed.
6.3.1.5. During each test run, the speed shall be kept steady within ± 2 km/h. The average speed for
each test shall not differ from the reference speed by more than 2 km/h.
6.3.1.6. The fuel consumption for each test run shall be calculated from the formulae in Paragraph 5.4.

6.3.2. Dynamometer bench test
6.3.2.1. Dynamometer bench setting
6.3.2.2. Cooling
The bench shall be set as described in Annex 4, Paragraph 5, to this Regulation with the
following modifications:—
The bench shall be set for the appropriate test speed; the condition of the vehicle during the
test runs shall be as specified in Paragraphs 4.1. to 4.3., and the weather conditions during the
road test to determine the correct inlet manifold depression setting shall be as specified in
Paragraph 6.3.1.
Additional air cooling devices shall be used in order to keep the operating conditions and the
temperatures of the lubricants and coolant within the range normally obtained at the same
speed on the road.
6.3.2.3. Before any measurements are taken, the vehicle shall be run on the bench, at a speed close to
the test speed, a sufficient distance for the running temperatures to be reached, but in any case
not less than 10 km.
6.3.2.4. The test distance shall not be less than 2 km measured by a revolution counter on the bench.
6.4. The type of test bench used shall be indicated in the test report.
7. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
7.1. Whatever the method of measurement used, the results shall be expressed in volume under the
reference conditions specified in Paragraph 4.5. above.
7.2. It is recommended that the vehicle manufacturer indicates in the owner's manual the fuel
consumption results obtained and also the fuel consumption as a function of speed.

7.4. Check of performances referred to in Annex 4, Paragraph 3.1.6., of this Regulation......................
8. Vehicle submitted for tests on ............................................................................................................
9. Technical service conducting tests.....................................................................................................
10. Date of report issued by that service..................................................................................................
11. Number of report issued by that service ............................................................................................
12. Fuel grade recommended by manufacturer.......................................................................................
13. Results of fuel consumption tests:
13.1. Urban cycle: .....................................................l/100 km
13.2. Constant speed at 90 km/h:.............................l/100 km
13.3. Constant speed at 120 km/h:...........................l/100 km
14. Place....................................................................................................................................................
15. Date .....................................................................................................................................................
16. Signature .............................................................................................................................................
17. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are annexed to this
communication:—
1 copy of Annex 1 to this Regulation, duly completed and with the drawings and diagrams
referred to attached;
1 photograph of the engine and its compartment.
Positive and Compression-ignition Engines - Emission of Gaseous Pollutants - Power Measurement - Fuel Consumption.