Regulation No. 27-03

Name:Regulation No. 27-03
Description:Advanced-warning Triangles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Advance-warning Triangles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1972-06-07
Amendment Level:03 Series, Corrigendum 1, Revision 1
Number of Pages:34
Vehicle Types:Component
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

advance-warning, triangle, approval, regulation, test, paragraph, surface, annex, triangles, retro-reflecting, axis, sample, device, conformity, type, fluorescent, requirements, light, tests, means, production, series, cover, colour, material, amendments, protective, sampling, illumination, measured, force, water, figure, date, minimum, angle, luminance, sand, mark, photometer, samples, method, optical, entry, carried, area, granted, form, observation, manufacturer

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.26/Rev.1/Corr.1
July 5, 2010
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 27-03
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
ADVANCE-WARNING TRIANGLES
Incorporating:
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.09.73
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.07.77
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.03.85
Corr. 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Dated: 11.09.92
Supplement 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.01.98
Corr. 1 to Revision 1 of the Regulation
Dated: 16.06.10
Supplement 2 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09

REGULATION
1. Scope
REGULATION NO. 27
UNIFORM PROVISIONS FOR THE APPROVAL OF ADVANCE-WARNING TRIANGLES
2. Definitions
3. Application for Approval
4. Markings
5. Approval
6. General Specifications
7. Particular Specifications
8. Test Procedure
CONTENTS
9. Modifications of the Advance-Warning Triangle Type and Extension of Approval
10. Conformity of Production
11. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
12. Production Definitely Discontinued
13. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Administrative Departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
Annex 3
Annex 4
Annex 5
Annex 6
Annex 7
Annex 8
Communication Concerning the Approval or extension or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval
or Production Definitely Discontinued of a type of Advance-Warning Triangle, Pursuant to
Regulation No. 27.
Arrangements of the Approval Mark.
Shape and Dimensions of the Advance-Warning Triangle and of the Support.
Determination of the Roughness of the Road Surface ("Sandy Beach" Method).
Test Procedures.
Method for Measurement of the CIL of the Retro-Reflecting Device
Minimum Requirements for Conformity of Production Control Procedures
Minimum Requirements for Sampling by an Inspector

3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
The application for approval shall be submitted by the holder of the trade name or mark or
by his duly accredited representative, and shall be accompanied by:
3.1. Dimensional drawings in triplicate in sufficient detail to permit identification of the type;
3.2. A brief description giving the technical specifications of the materials constituting the
advance-warning triangle and instructions for use;
3.3. A copy of the instructions on its assembly for use;
3.4. Four samples of the advance-warning triangle and at least two protective covers if the
advance-warning triangles are to be supplied with protective covers;
3.5. Two samples of the fluorescent material in which a 100 x 100 mm square can be inscribed
and which are fully representative of the material applied under the same conditions to the
same base material as used for the advance-warning triangle.
4. MARKINGS
4.1. Every advance-warning triangle and its protective cover shall, when submitted for approval,
bear the trade name or mark of the applicant; such marking shall be clearly legible and be
indelible.
4.2. Every advance-warning triangle and its protective cover shall provide adequate space for
the approval mark; the space aforesaid shall be shown in the drawings referred to in
Paragraph 3.1. above.
5. APPROVAL
5.1. If all the samples of a type of advance-warning triangle which are submitted in conformity
with the provisions of Paragraph 3 above meet the requirements of this Regulation, approval
shall be granted.
5.2. The approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits
(at present 03 corresponding to the 03 series of amendments which entered into force on
March 3, 1985) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another type of
advance-warning triangle covered by this Regulation.
5.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a type of advance-warning triangle pursuant to
this Regulation shall be communicated to the countries Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation accompanied by dimensional drawings (supplied by the applicant for approval) in
a format not exceeding A4 (210 x 297 mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate
scale.

6.7. The advance-warning triangle shall be accompanied by its protective cover, if any, against
external agents, especially during carriage; it may however be supplied without protective
cover where the necessary protection is provided by other means. These means shall be
stated in the description mentioned in Paragraph 3.2. above and in the communication form
under Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation.
6.8. Each triangle shall be required to be accompanied by a copy of the instructions referred to
in Paragraph 3.3. above.
7. PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS
7.1. Requirements as to Shape and Dimensions
7.1.1. Shape and Dimensions of the Triangle (see Annex 3)
7.1.1.1. The theoretical sides of the triangle shall be 500 ± 50 mm long.
7.1.1.2. The retro-reflecting units shall be arranged along the edge within a strip of an unvarying
width which shall be between 25 mm and 50 mm.
7.1.1.3. Between the outer edge of the triangle and the retro-reflecting strip there may be an edging
not more than 5 mm wide and not necessarily red-coloured.
7.1.1.4. The retro-reflecting strip may be continuous or not. In the latter case the free area of the
supporting material must be red (see also Paragraph 7.3.1.2 of this Regulation).
7.1.1.5. The fluorescent surface shall be contiguous to the retro-reflecting units. It shall be arranged
symmetrically along the three sides of the triangle. When in use, its surface area shall be
not less than 315 cm . However, an edging, continuous or not, not more than 5 mm wide,
which need not necessarily be red-coloured, may be placed between the retro-reflecting
surface and the fluorescent surface.
7.1.1.6. The side of the open centre of the triangle shall have a minimum length of 70 mm (Fig. 1).
7.1.2. Shape and Dimensions of the Support
7.1.2.1. The distance between the supporting surface and the lower side of the advance-warning
triangle shall not exceed 300 mm.
7.2. Colorimetric Specification
7.2.1. Retro-reflecting Devices
7.2.1.1. Retro-reflecting devices shall be made of material coloured red in the mass.
7.2.1.2. When the retro-reflecting device is illuminated by the CIE standard illuminant A, with an
angle of divergence of ⅓° and an illumination angle V = H = 0°, or, if this produces a
colourless surface reflection, an angle V = ± 5°, H = 0°, the trichromatic co-ordinates of the
red reflected luminous flux shall be within the limits according to Paragraph 2.30 of
Regulation No. 48.

7.3.2. Fluorescent Materials
7.3.2.1. The luminance factor including the luminance by reflection and fluorescence, shall not be
less than 30%.
7.3.2.2. The measurement of the luminance factor shall be carried out according to the method
described in Annex 5, Paragraph 3.
8. TEST PROCEDURE
Every advance-warning triangle and its protective cover, if any, shall meet the requirements
of the checks and tests described in Annex 5 to this Regulation.
9. MODIFICATIONS OF THE ADVANCE-WARNING TRIANGLE TYPE AND EXTENSION
OF APPROVAL
9.1. Every modification of the triangle type shall be notified to the administrative department
which granted approval. The department may then either:
9.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect,
and that in any case the triangle meets the requirements; or
9.1.2. require a further report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.
9.2. Notice of confirmation of approval, specifying the modifications, or of refusal of approval
shall be communicated by the procedure specified in Paragraph 5.3., above to the Parties to
the Agreement which apply this Regulation.
9.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension and inform thereof the other
Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form
conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
10. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:
10.1. Advance-warning triangles approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to
conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 6, 7 and
8 above.
10.2. In addition, the stability in time of the optical properties and colour of retro-reflecting optical
units of advance-warning triangles conforming to an approval type and in use shall be
verified. In the event of a systematic deficiency of the retro-reflecting optical units of
advance-warning triangles in use and conforming to an approved type, approval may be
withdrawn. A "systematic deficiency" shall be deemed to exist where an approved type of
advance-warning triangle fails to meet the requirements of Paragraph 6.2 of this Regulation.
10.3. The minimum requirements for conformity of production control procedures set forth in
Annex 7 to this Regulation shall be complied with.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm) )
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of advance-warning triangle pursuant to Regulation No. 27
Approval No...................................................
Extension No. ................................
1.
Trade name or mark of the advance-warning triangle...............................................................
2.
Manufacturer's name .................................................................................................................
3.
Address ......................................................................................................................................
4.
If applicable, name of manufacturer's representative ................................................................
5.
Address ......................................................................................................................................
6.
Brief description of the advance-warning triangle......................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
7.
Submitted for approval on..........................................................................................................
8.
Technical service conducting approval tests .............................................................................
9.
Date of report issued by that service .........................................................................................
10.
Number of report issued by that service ....................................................................................

ANNEX 2
ARRANGEMENTS OF THE APPROVAL MARK
a ≥ 8 mm
An advance-warning triangle bearing one of the approval marks shown above has been approved in the
Netherlands (E4) under approval number 03216. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that
the approval was granted according to the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 03 series
of amendments.
Note: The drawings show several possible embodiments and are given by way of example. The
competent authorities shall avoid using Roman numerals for the approval, in order to prevent any
confusion

Dimensions in mm
Figure 2
Test Device for Clearance to Ground

ANNEX 5
TEST PROCEDURES
1. GENERAL
1.1. The applicant shall submit samples, as mentioned in Paragraphs 3.4. and 3.5. of this
Regulation, for approval.
1.2. After verification of the general specifications (Paragraph 6 of the Regulation) and the
specifications of shape and dimensions (Paragraph 7.1. of this Regulation), all samples shall
be subjected to the heat resistance test (Paragraph 7 below) and examined after at least one
hour of rest.
1.3. The CIL value of the four samples of the advance-warning triangles submitted is measured at
an observation angle of 20' and at an illumination angle with the components V = 0°, H = ± 5°;
this test is carried out in accordance with the method described in Paragraph 4 below.
1.4. The two triangles which show the smallest and the largest CIL value during the tests carried
out according to Paragraph 1.3. above shall be visually compared, during daylight and at a
distance of 30 m by an observer having normal colour response, with the two samples
submitted in accordance with Paragraph 3.5. of this Regulation. There shall be no noticeable
difference in colour or luminance between the fluorescent material on the four samples.
1.5. The same two samples with the smallest and the largest CIL value in the tests according to
Paragraph 1.4 above shall be subsequently subjected to the following tests:
1.5.1. Measurement of the values of the CIL in respect of the observation and illumination angles
referred to in Paragraphs 7.3.1.1. and 7.3.1.2. of this Regulation according to the method
described in Paragraph 4 below. The visual inspection as meant in Paragraphs 7.3.1.3. and
7.3.1.4. of this Regulation can then also be performed.
1.5.2. Testing of the colour of the retro-reflected light according to Paragraph 2.1. below on the
sample which, as a result of a visual inspection, seems to have the least favourable
colorimetric characteristics; in other cases the sample with the highest CIL concerned shall be
examined.
1.5.3. Test of clearance to ground according to Paragraph 5 below.
1.5.4. Mechanical solidity test according to Paragraph 6 below.
1.6. One sample other than those referred to in Paragraph 1.5. above shall be subjected to the
following tests:
1.6.1. Testing of resistance to penetration of water into the retro-reflecting device according to
Paragraph 11.1. below or if relevant, of the mirror-backed reverse side of the retro-reflecting
device, according to Paragraph 11.2. below.

3. DETERMINATION OF THE LUMINANCE FACTOR OF THE FLUORESCENT MATERIAL
3.1. For the determination of the luminance factor the sample shall be illuminated by a light source
of the CIE illuminant C, at an angle of illumination of 45° to the normal, and the light emitted
by luminosity and reflection observed in the direction of the normal (geometry 45°/0°) shall be
measured. The luminance factor may be obtained:
3.1.1. By putting the luminance L of the sample into relation to the luminance L of a perfect diffuser
whose luminance factor β is known under identical conditions of illumination and observation;
the luminance factor b of the sample then results from the formula:
β =
L
L
3.1.2. When the colour of the fluorescent material has been colorimetrically determined in
compliance with Paragraph 2.2.2. above, from the ratio of the tristimulus value Y the sample
and the tristimulus value of the perfect diffuser Y ; in this case it is:
• β
β =
Y
Y
4. MEASUREMENT OF THE VALUE OF THE CIL OF RETRO-REFLECTING DEVICES
4.1. For this measurement it is assumed that the direction of illumination H = V = δ for the
advance-warning triangle in its position of use is parallel to the base plane and vertical to the
lower side of the triangle, which in turn is parallel to the said base plane.
4.2. The measurement shall be performed by the method described in Annex 6 to this Regulation.
5. TEST OF CLEARANCE TO GROUND
5.1. The advance-warning triangle shall be required to pass the following tests:
5.1.1. For this test, the apparatus shown in Annex 3, Figure 2, of this Regulation, which has the form
of an inverted hollow pyramid, shall be placed on a horizontal base plane.
5.1.2. The individual supports to the ground shall be placed one after another in the square hole 0 of
the test apparatus. During the test of each support, it shall be required to find a position of the
test apparatus in relation to the advance-warning triangle and its supporting device, which is
favourable for the triangle and which ensures that:
5.1.2.1. all supports are resting simultaneously on the base plane,
5.1.2.2. outside the area covered by the test apparatus, the distance between the base plane and
parts of the triangle as well as of the supporting device is at least 50 mm (with the exception
of the supports proper).
6. MECHANICAL SOLIDITY TEST
6.1. When the advance-warning triangle has been set up as required by the manufacturer and its
bases are firmly held, a force of 2 N shall be applied to the apex of the triangle parallel to the
supporting surface and normal to the lower side of the triangle.

10.3. The advance-warning triangle shall:
10.3.1. neither overturn,
10.3.2. nor shift. Slight shifting of the points of contact with the road surface by not more than 5 cm,
however, shall be allowed.
10.4. The triangular part of the device shall not rotate through more than 10° round a horizontal axis
or a vertical axis from its initial position.
11. TEST OF RESISTANCE OF THE RETRO-REFLECTING DEVICE
11.1. Test of Resistance to Penetration of Water
11.1.1. The triangle - collapsible triangles are to be assembled as for use - shall be immersed for
10 minutes in water having a temperature of 50°C ± 5°C, with the highest point of the upper
part of the illuminating surface being about 20 mm below the water surface. Immediately
afterwards this retro-reflecting device shall be immersed under the same conditions in water
having a temperature of 25°C ± 5°C.
11.1.2. After this test, no water shall have penetrated to the reflecting surface of the retro-reflecting
device. If a visual inspection clearly reveals the presence of water, the device has not passed
the test.
11.1.3. If the visual inspection does not reveal the presence of water, or in case of doubt the value of
the CIL shall again be measured under the same conditions as specified in Paragraph 1.2.
above, after the retro-reflecting device has been gently shaken to remove excess water from
the outside. The CIL shall not have diminished by more than 40% of the values recorded
before the test.
11.2. Test of Resistance of the Accessible Reverse Side of the Mirror-backed Retro-reflecting
Device
The reverse side of the retro-reflecting device shall be brushed with a hard nylon brush and
then covered or thoroughly wetted for one minute with a mixture of 70% n-heptane and 30%
toluene. The fuel shall then be removed and the device allowed to dry. As soon as
evaporation is completed, the reverse side shall be brushed with the same brush as before.
The value of the CIL shall then be measured under the same conditions as specified in
Paragraph 1.2. above, after the whole surface of the mirror-coated reverse side has been
covered with Indian ink. The CIL shall not have diminished by more than 40% of the values
recorded before the test.
12. TEST OF THE WEATHER-RESISTANCE OF THE LUMINANCE FACTOR AND OF THE
COLOUR OF THE FLUORESCENT MATERIAL
12.1. One of the samples of the fluorescent material submitted according to Paragraph 3.5. of this
Regulation shall be subjected to a temperature and irradiation test described in
ISO 105-B02:1994/Amendment.2:2000, Paragraph 7.2.4 Method 4, until the contrast No. 4 of
the grey scale has been reached for the reference sample No. 5.
12.2. After this test, the colour co-ordinates of the fluorescent material shall comply with colour
specification in Paragraph 7.2.2.2. of this Regulation. The luminance factor (see Paragraph 3
above) shall be at least 30% and shall not have increased by more than 5% compared with
the value ascertained according to Paragraph 1.8.2. above.

ANNEX 6
METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE CIL OF THE RETRO-REFLECTING DEVICE
1. DEFINITIONS
Needed definitions are explained by Figures 1 to 4.
2. DIMENSIONAL AND PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE PHOTOMETRY OF
RETRO - REFLECTORS
2.1. The CIE-angular system as shown in Figure 1 shall be used.
An adequate support (goniometer) is demonstrated in Figure 2.
2.2. The measuring distance shall be chosen in such an order that at least the limits for the
angles δ, γ and η given in Figure 4 are respected, but not lower than 10 m or its optical
equivalent.
2.3. The illuminance at the retro-reflector.
The illuminance over the useful area of the retro-reflector, measured perpendicular to the
incident light shall be sufficiently uniform. A check on this condition requires a measuring
element, the sensitive area of which is not greater than one-tenth of the area to be
examined. The variation in the value of the illuminance shall then comply with the condition:
max imum value
minimum value
≤ 1.05
2.4. The colour temperature and the spectral distribution of the source.
The source used for illuminating the retro-reflector shall as faithfully as possible represent
the CIE illuminant A, both as regards colour temperature and spectral power distribution.
2.5. The photometer head (measuring element)
2.5.1. The photometer head shall be corrected to the spectral luminous efficiency for the CIE
standard photometric observer in photopic vision.
2.5.2. The device shall not show a perceptible change in local sensitivity within the area of its
aperture; otherwise suitable provisions must be added, e.g. the application of a diffusing
window at a certain distance in front of the sensitive surface.
2.5.3. Experience has shown that non-linearity of photometer heads may be a problem with the
very small light quantities which are the rule in the photometry of retro-reflectors. A check at
comparable illuminance levels on the photometer head is recommended.
2.6. The Influence of a Regular Reflection
The amount and distribution of the regular reflection from the surface of the retro-reflector
depends on the flatness and the gloss of the surface. In general, regular reflection is best
avoided when the reference axis is placed so that the regular reflection is directed on the
opposite side of the source from the photometer head (for example with β = - 5°).

Figure 1
The CIE Co-Ordinate System
1: First Axis I: Illumination Axis a: Observation angle
2: Second Axis O: Observation Axis β , β : Entrance angles
R: Reference Axis R: Rotation angle ε: Rotation angle
The CIE angular system for specifying and measuring retro-reflectors. The first axis is perpendicular to
the plane containing the observation axis and the illumination axis. The second axis is perpendicular
both to the first axis and to the reference axis. All axes, angles, and directions of rotation are shown
positive.
Note:
(a)
(b)
The principal fixed axis is the illumination axis.
The first axis is fixed perpendicular to the plane containing the observation and illumination
axis.
(c) The reference axis is fixed in the retro-reflector and moveable with β and β .

Figure 3
Figure 4

2.3. Nature of Sampling
Samples of advance-warning triangles shall be selected at random from the production of a
uniform batch. A uniform batch means a set of advance-warning triangles of the same type,
defined according to the production methods of the manufacturer.
The assessment shall in general cover series production from individual factories. However,
a manufacturer may group together records concerning the same type from several
factories, provided these operate under the same quality system and quality management.
2.4 Measured and Recorded Photometric Characteristics
The sampled advance-warning triangle shall be subjected to photometric measurements at
the points and the chromaticity coordinates provided for in the Regulation.
2.5 Criteria Governing Acceptability
The manufacturer is responsible for carrying out a statistical study of the test results and for
defining, in agreement with the competent authority, criteria governing the acceptability of
his products in order to meet the specifications laid down for verification of conformity of
products in Paragraph 10.1. of this Regulation.
The criteria governing the acceptability shall be such that, with a confidence level of 95%,
the minimum probability of passing a spot check in accordance with Annex 8 (first sampling)
would be 0.95.

2.2. The Conformity is Contested
2.2.1. Following the sampling procedure shown in Figure 1 of this Annex the conformity of massproduced
advance-warning triangles shall be contested and the manufacturer requested to
make his production meet the requirements (alignment) if the deviations of the measured
values of the advance-warning triangles are:
2.2.1.1. sample A
2.2.1.2. sample B
A3:
one advance-warning triangle not more than
20%
one advance-warning triangle more than
20%
but not more than
30%
B2:
in the case of A2
one advance-warning triangle more than
0%
but not more than
20%
one advance-warning triangle not more than
20%
B3:
in the case of A2
one advance-warning triangle
0%
one advance-warning triangle more than
20%
but not more than
30%
2.3. Approval Withdrawn
2.3.1. sample A
2.3.2. sample B
Conformity shall be contested and Paragraph 11. applied if, following the sampling
procedure in Figure 1 of this Annex, the deviations of the measured values of the advancewarning
triangles are:
A4:
one advance-warning triangle not more than
20%
one advance-warning triangle more than
30%
A5: both advance-warning triangles more than 20%
B4:
in the case of A2
one advance-warning triangle more than
0%
but not more than
20%
one advance-warning triangle more than
20%
B5: in the case of A2
both advance-warning triangles more than 20%
B6:
in the case of A2
one advance-warning triangle
0%
one advance-warning triangle more than
30%

3.3.2. sample D
D3:
in the case of C2
one advance-warning triangle 0 or more than
0%
one advance-warning triangle more than
20%
4. ADDITIONAL TESTS
With respect to the verification of the normal use the following procedures shall be applied:
One additional advance-warning triangle shall be tested according to the procedures
described in Paragraph 1.5.3. to 1.8.3. of Annex 5.
The advance-warning triangles shall be considered as acceptable if the tests have been
passed.
However, if the test on this sample is not complied with, the two other additional advancewarning
triangles shall be subjected to the same procedure and both shall pass the test.

Advanced-warning Triangles.