Regulation No. 28-00

Name:Regulation No. 28-00
Description:Audible Warning Devices.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Audible Warning Devices and Motor Vehicles with Regard to their Audible Signals.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1972-10-31
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 4
Number of Pages:20
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Miscellaneous
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Keywords:

approval, type, regulation, warning, vehicle, audible, device, production, paragraph, devices, granted, sound, number, mark, vehicles, motor, test, awd, level, approved, conformity, signals, supplied, form, authority, pursuant, current, power, ensure, regard, service, manufacturer, case, awds, rated, pressure, voltage, set, maximum, agreement, extension, technical, submitted, specifications, requirements, tests, date, frequency, applying, annex

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.27/Amend.4
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
February 5, 2016
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 28-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
AUDIBLE WARNING DEVICES AND OF MOTOR
VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR AUDIBLE SIGNALS
Incorporating:
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 07.02.84
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.01.91
Corr. 1 to Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 16.06.92
Supplement 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.12.00
Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.01.16

REGULATION NO. 28
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF AUDIBLE WARNING DEVICES AND
OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR AUDIBLE SIGNALS
Regulation
1. Scope
I. AUDIBLE WARNING DEVICES
CONTENTS
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Markings
5.
Approval
6.
Specifications
7.
Modification of the Type of Audible Warning Device
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10.
Production Discontinued
II.
AUDIBLE SIGNALS OF MOTOR VEHICLES
11.
Definitions
12.
Application for Approval
13.
Approval
14.
Specifications
15.
Modifications of Vehicle Type
16.
Conformity of Production
17.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
18.
Names and Addresses of the Technical Services Conducting Approval Tests and of Administrative
Departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Annex 2
Communication Concerning the Approval (or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval or
Production Definitely Discontinued) of a Type of Audible Warning Device for Motor Vehicles,
Pursuant to Regulation No. 28
Communication Concerning the Approval (or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval or
Production Definitely Discontinued) of a Vehicle Type with Regard to its Audible Signals
pursuant to Regulation No. 28
Annex 3 I. Arrangement of the Approval Mark of the Audible Warning Device
II.
Arrangement of the Approval Mark of a Vehicle with Regard to its Audible Signals

2.10. The AWD is principally intended for:
2.10.1. motor cycles of a power less than or equal to 7kW (Class I)
2.10.2. vehicles of Categories M and N and motor cycles of a power greater than 7kW (Class II)
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a type of audible warning device shall be submitted by the
holder of the trade name or mark or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the following documents, in triplicate, giving the following
particulars:
3.2.1. a description of the type of audible warning device, paying particular attention to the points
mentioned in Paragraph 2;
3.2.2. a drawing showing, inter alia, the warning device in cross section;
3.2.3. a list of the components used in manufacture, duly identified, with an indication of the
materials used;
3.2.4. detailed drawings of all the components used in manufacture. The drawings shall show the
place provided for the approval number in relation to the circle of the approval mark.
3.3. In addition, the application for approval shall be accompanied by two samples of the type of
warning device.
3.4. The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring
effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.
4. MARKING
4.1. The samples of the audible warning devices submitted for approval shall bear the
manufacturer's trade name or mark; this mark must be clearly legible and indelible.
4.2. Each sample shall have a space of adequate dimensions for the approval mark; this space
shall be indicated in the drawing referred to in Paragraph 3.2.2.
5. APPROVAL
5.1. If the samples submitted for approval conform to the provisions of Paragraphs 6. and 7.
below, approval for this type of warning device shall be granted.
5.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
00 for the Regulation in its original form) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party may not assign this number to
another type of audible warning device.
5.3. The same approval number may be assigned to types of warning device differing only with
respect to rated voltage, rated frequency or frequencies or for the devices mentioned in
Paragraph 2.8. above, rated operating pressure.

6.2. Measurement of the Sound Characteristics
6.2.1. The warning device should, preferably, be tested in an anechoic environment. Alternatively,
it may be tested in a semi-anechoic chamber or in an open space. In this case, precautions
shall be taken to avoid reflections from the ground within the measuring area (for instance
by erecting a set of absorbing screens). Compliance with the spherical divergence to a limit
of 1dB within a hemisphere of not less than 5m radius, up to the maximum frequency to be
measured, especially in the measuring direction and at the height of the apparatus and the
microphone, shall be checked.
The ambient noise level shall be at least 10dB lower than the sound pressure level to be
measured.
The device to be tested and the microphone shall be placed at the same height. This height
shall be between 1.15m and 1.25m. The axis of maximum sensitivity of the microphone
shall coincide with the direction of the maximum sound level of the device.
The microphone shall be so placed that its diaphragm is at a distance of 2 ± 0.01m from the
plane of the sound outlet of the device. In the case of devices with several outlets, the
distance shall be determined in relation to the plane of the nearest outlet to the microphone.
6.2.2. The measurement of the sound pressure levels shall be made with a Class 1 precision
sound level meter conforming to the specifications of IEC Publication No. 651, first edition
(1979). All measurements shall be made using the time constant "F". The measurement of
the over-all sound pressure level shall be made using the weighting curve A. The spectrum
of the sound emitted shall be measured according to the Fourier transform of the acoustic
signal. Alternatively, one-third octave filters conforming to the specifications of
IEC Publication No. 225, first edition (1966) may be used: in this case, the sound pressure
level in the mid-band frequency 2,500Hz shall be determined by adding the quadratic
means of the sound pressures in the one-third mid-band frequencies 2,000, 2,500 and
3,150Hz. In every case, only the Fourier transform method shall be regarded as a reference
method.
6.2.3. The AWD shall be supplied with current, as appropriate, at the following voltages:
6.2.3.1. in the case of AWDs supplied with direct current, at a voltage measured at the terminal of
the electric power source of 13/12 of the rated voltage;
6.2.3.2. in the case of AWDs supplied with alternating current, the current shall be supplied by an
electric generator of the type normally used with this type of AWD. The acoustic
characteristics of the AWD shall be recorded for electric generator speeds corresponding to
50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum speed indicated by the manufacturer of the generator
for continuous operation. During this test, no other electrical load shall be imposed on the
electric generator. The endurance test described in Paragraph 6.3 shall be carried out at a
speed indicated by the manufacturer of the equipment and selected from the above range.
6.2.4. If a rectified current source is used for the test of an AWD supplied with direct current, the
alternating component of the voltage measured at its terminals, when the warning devices
are in operation, shall not be more than 0.1V, peak to peak.
6.2.5. For AWDs supplied with direct current, the resistance of the connecting leads, expressed in
ohms, including terminals and contacts, shall be as close as possible to (0,10/12) x rated
voltage in volts:

6.3. Endurance Test
6.3.1. The AWD shall be supplied with current at the rated voltage and with the connecting lead
resistances specified in Paragraphs 6.2.3. to 6.2.5. above, and operated, respectively:
10,000 times for AWDs intended principally for motor cycles with a power less than or equal
to 7kW
50,000 times for AWDs intended principally for vehicles of Categories M and N and motor
cycles with a power greater than 7kW,
each time for one second followed by an interval of four seconds. During the test, the AWD
shall be ventilated by an air current having a speed of approximately 10m/sec.
6.3.2. If the test is made in an anechoic chamber, the chamber shall be large enough to ensure
normal dispersal of the heat released by the warning device during the test.
6.3.3. The ambient temperature in the testing room shall be between +15 and +30°C.
6.3.4. If, after the AWD has been operated for half the number of times prescribed, the sound-level
characteristics are no longer the same as before the test, the AWD may be adjusted. After
being operated the prescribed number of times, and after further adjustment if necessary,
the AWD must pass the test described in Paragraph 6.2. above.
6.3.5. For warning devices of the electro-pneumatic type, the device may be lubricated with the oil
recommended by the manufacturer after every 10,000 times of operation.
7. MODIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF AUDIBLE WARNING DEVICE AND EXTENSION OF
APPROVAL
7.1. Any modification of the type of audible warning device shall be notified to the administrative
department which granted approval to the type of audible warning device. This department
may then:
7.1.1. either take the view that the modifications made are not likely to have any appreciable
adverse effect,
7.1.2. or call for a new report from the technical service responsible for the tests.
7.2. Notice of confirmation of the approval, with particulars of the modifications, or of refusal of
approval shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying to this Regulation,
in accordance with the procedure indicated in Paragraph 5.4. above.
7.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension.

9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted to a type of audible warning device pursuant to this Regulation may
be withdrawn if the conditions set forth in Paragraph 8.1. are not complied with or if the
audible warning device fails to pass the checks referred to in Paragraph 8.2. above.
9.2. Should a Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraw an approval which it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at end in large letters the
statement, signed and dated: "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
10. PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED
If the holder of an approval granted pursuant to this Regulation discontinues the production
of the type of audible warning device approved, he shall inform the authority which granted
the approval. Upon receipt of the communication this authority shall inform the other Parties
to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing
at the end in large letters the statement, signed and dated: "PRODUCTION
DISCONTINUED".
11. DEFINITIONS
II. AUDIBLE SIGNALS OF MOTOR VEHICLES
For the purposes of this Regulation,
11.1. "approval of the motor vehicle" shall be understood to mean approval of a vehicle type with
regard to its audible signals;
11.2. "Vehicle type" shall be understood to mean vehicles not essentially different from one
another with respect to such matters as:
11.2.1. the number and type(s) of warning devices fitted on the vehicle;
11.2.2. the mountings used to fit the warning devices to the vehicle;
11.2.3. the position of the warning devices on the vehicle;
11.2.4. the rigidity of the parts of the structure on which the warning device(s) is (are) mounted;
11.2.5. the shape and materials of the bodywork at the front of the vehicle which might affect the
level of the sound emitted by the warning device(s) and have a masking effect.
12. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
12.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to its audible signals shall be
submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
12.2. It shall be accompanied by the following documents, in triplicate, giving the following
particulars:
12.2.1. a description of the vehicle type with regard to the items mentioned in Paragraph 11.2.
above:

13.8. Annex 3, Section II, to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the approval
mark.
13.9. The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring
effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.
14. SPECIFICATIONS
The vehicle shall comply with the following specifications:
14.1. The audible warning device(s) (or system) fitted on the vehicle shall be of a type approved
under this Regulation;
Audible warning devices of Class II approved under this Regulation in its original form, and
therefore not bearing the Symbol II in their approval mark, may continue to be fitted to
vehicle types submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation.
14.2. The test voltage shall be as specified in Paragraph 6.2.3. of the Regulation;
14.3. The sound pressure measurements shall be made in the conditions specified in
Paragraph 6.2.2. of this Regulation.
14.4. The A-weighted sound pressure level emitted by the device(s) fitted on the vehicle shall be
measured at a distance of 7m in front of the vehicle, the latter being placed on an open site,
on ground as smooth as possible, and, in the case of devices supplied with direct current,
with its engine stopped. The test voltage as specified in Paragraph 6.2.3. shall be supplied
by:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The vehicle battery only; or
The vehicle battery with the vehicle engine warmed-up and at idle; or
With an external power source supply connected to the AWD terminal(s).
14.5. The microphone of the measuring instrument shall be placed approximately in the mean
longitudinal plane of the vehicle;
14.6. The sound pressure level of the background noise and wind noise must be at least 10dB (A)
below the sound to be measured;
14.7. The maximum sound pressure level shall be sought within the range of 0.5 and 1.5m above
the ground;
14.8. Measured under the conditions specified in Paragraphs 14.2. to 14.7., the maximum
sound-pressure level (14.7.) of the audible signal tested shall be at least:
(a)
(b)
equal to 83dB(A) and not more than 112dB(A) for the signals of motor cycles of a
power less than or equal to 7kW;
equal to 87dB(A) and at most 112dB(A) for the signals of vehicles of Categories M
and N and motor cycles of a power greater than 7kW.

17. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
17.1. The approval granted to a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the
conditions set forth in Paragraph 16.1. above are not complied with, or if the vehicle fails to
pass the checks referred to in Paragraph 16.2. above.
17.2. Should a Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraw an approval which it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end in large letters the
statement, signed and dated: "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN"
18. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING APPROVAL
TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for
approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval and to which
forms certifying approval or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are
to be sent.

15. Place .....................................................................................................................................................
16. Date ......................................................................................................................................................
17. Signature ..............................................................................................................................................
18. A list of documents contained in the approval file transmitted to the administrative service which
has granted approval is annexed to this communication.

ANNEX 3
I. ARRANGEMENT OF THE APPROVAL MARK OF THE AUDIBLE
WARNING DEVICE
(See Paragraph 5.5. of this Regulation)
I
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to an audible warning device shows that this AWD of Class I has been
approved in the Netherlands (E 4) under approval number 002439. The first two digits of the approval
number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No.28
in its original form.
Note
The approval number must be placed close to the circle and must be in a position either above or below
the Letter "E" or to left or right of that letter. The digits of the approval number must be on the same side
of the Letter "E" and face in the same direction.
The use of Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to prevent any confusion
with other symbols.

Audible Warning Devices.