Regulation No. 40-01

Name:Regulation No. 40-01
Description:Emissions - Positive-ignition Engines - Motorcycles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Motorcycles Equipped with a Positive-ignition Engine with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants by the Engine.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1979-05-07
Amendment Level:01 Series, Supplement 1
Number of Pages:40
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

vehicle, approval, test, speed, regulation, engine, type, annex, paragraph, gear, tests, reference, carbon, gases, power, cycle, prescribed, exhaust, pollutants, idling, dynamometer, weight, monoxide, device, series, pump, engaged, brake, gaseous, emission, gas, pressure, number, manufacturer, fuel, air, granted, acceleration, nitrogen, max, motorcycle, mass, bench, amendments, samples, means, vol, constant, description, method

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.39/Amend.2
August 6, 2007
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 40
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
MOTORCYCLES EQUIPPED WITH A POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE
EMISSION OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.09.79
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 06.09.79
Corr. 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 20.05.80
Corr. 2/Revision 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 21.04.81
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.05.88
Corr. 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 01.05.89
Corr. 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 26.06.96
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.06.07

REGULATION NO. 40
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF MOTORCYCLES EQUIPPED WITH A
POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS BY
THE ENGINE
REGULATION
CONTENTS
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Approval
5.
Specifications and Tests
6.
Modifications of the Vehicle Type
7.
Extension of Approval
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10.
Production Definitely Discontinued
11.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Administrative Departments.
Table I – Limits in Terms of Reference Weight R for Motorcycles with Two-stroke Engines.
Table II – Limits in Terms of Reference Weight R for Motorcycles with Four-stroke Engines.
ANNEXES
Annex 1

Essential Characteristics of the Engine and Information Concerning the Conduct of
Tests.
Annex 2

Communication Concerning the Approval (or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval) of a
Vehicle Type (Motorcycle) with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants by the
Engine, Pursuant to Regulation No. 40.
Annex 3 – Arrangements of Approval Marks.
Annex 4

Type-I Test (Verifying the Average Emission of Gaseous Pollutants in a Congested
Urban Area).
Annex 5 – Type-II Test (Verifying the Emission of Carbon Monoxide at Idling Speed).
Annex 6 – Specifications of Reference Fuels.
Annex 7

Method of Determining the Power Absorbed on the Road by the Dynamometric Brake
for Motorcycles.

3.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
technical service responsible for conducting approval tests, for the tests referred to in
Paragraph 5. of this Regulation.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets with
requirements of Paragraphs 5 and 6 below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type-approved, the first two digits (at present
01 corresponding to the 01 series of amendments which entered into force on
May 31, 1988) of which shall be the highest number of the series of amendments
incorporated in the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting
Party may not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation, by means
of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation and of drawings and
diagrams supplied by the applicant for approval, in a format not exceeding A4
(210 x 297 mm) or folded to that format and on an appropriate scale.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type-approved under this Regulation
an international approval mark consisting of:–
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval:
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter R, a dash and the approval number to
the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved, under one or more other Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a
case the regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations
under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under
this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in
Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

5.2.1.2. Type-II Test (verifying the emission of carbon monoxide at idling speed).
5.2.1.2.1. The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust gases emitted with the engine idling shall not
exceed 4,5% by volume
5.2.1.2.2. Conformity with this requirement shall be checked by a test carried out by the method
described in Annex 5 to this Regulation.
6. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VEHICLE TYPE
6.1. Every modification of the vehicle type shall be notified to the administrative department
which approved the vehicle type. The department may then either:–
6.1.1. consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements; or
6.1.2. require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.
6.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above to the Parties to the Agreement applying this
Regulation.
7. EXTENSION OF APPROVAL
7.1. Vehicle Type of Different Reference Weights
Approval of a vehicle type may be extended to vehicle types which differ from the type
approved only in respect of their reference weight, provided that the reference weight of the
vehicle type for which extension of the approval is requested requires merely the use of the
next higher or next lower equivalent inertia.
7.2. Vehicle Type with Different Over-all Gear Ratios
7.2.1. Approval granted to a vehicle type may under the following conditions be extended to
vehicle types differing from the type approved only in respect of their over-all transmission
ratios:–
7.2.1.1. For each of the transmission ratios used in the Type-I Test, it shall be necessary to
determine the proportion
E =
V
− V
V
where V and V are respectively the speed at 1 000 r.p.m. of the engine of the vehicle
type-approved and the speed of the vehicle type for which extension of the approval is
requested.
7.2.2. If for each gear ratio E ≤ 8%, the extension shall be granted without repeating the Type-I
Tests.

The arithmetical mean x of the results obtained with the sample and the standard deviation
S of the sample shall then be determined for each gaseous pollutant. The production of
the series shall then be deemed to conform if the following condition is met:–
where:
x + k.S ≤ L,
L =
K =
the limit value prescribed in Paragraph 8.3.1. for each gaseous pollutant considered;
and
a statistical factor dependent on n and given by the following table;–
n
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
k
0,973
0,613
0,489
0,421
0,376
0,342
0,317
0,296
0,279
n
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
k
0,265
0,253
0,242
0,233
0,224
0,216
0,210
0,203
0,198
If n≥ 20
0,860
k =
n
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. are not complied with or if the
vehicle or vehicles taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in Paragraph 8.3. above.
9.2. If a Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously
granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by
means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and
dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of motorcycle under
this Regulation, he shall inform thereof the authority which granted the approval. Upon
receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform the other Parties to the
Agreement which apply this Regulation thereof by means of a copy of the approval form
bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "PRODUCTION
DISCONTINUED".
S =


ANNEX 1
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE AND INFORMATION CONCERNING THE
CONDUCT OF TESTS
1. Description of Engine..............................................................................................................
1.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
1.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
1.3. Cycle: four-stroke/two-stroke .................................................................................................
1.4. Number and arrangement of cylinders.......................................................................................
1.5. Bore.............................................................................................. mm
1.6. Stroke........................................................................................... mm
1.7. Cylinder capacity.......................................................................... cm
1.8. Compression ratio .................................................................
1.9. Drawings of the combustion chamber and of the piston, including the
piston rings.................................................................................................................................
1.10. System of cooling.......................................................................................................................
1.11. Supercharged with/without description of the system............................................................
1.12. Device for recycling crank-case gases (description and diagrams) ..........................................
...................................................................................................................................................
1.13. Air filter: drawings, or makes and types....................................................................................
1.14. System of lubrication (two-stroke engines - separate or by mixture).........................................
...................................................................................................................................................
2. Additional Anti-pollution Devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)
Description and diagrams ..........................................................................................................

4. Valve Timing
4.1. Timing for mechanically operated valves
4.1.1. Maximum lift of valves and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres .............
...................................................................................................................................................
4.1.2. Reference and/or setting clearance .......................................................................................
4.2. Distribution by ports
4.2.1. Volume of crank-case cavity with piston at tdc
4.2.2. Description of reed valves if any (with dimensioned drawing)
4.2.3. Description (with dimensioned drawing) of inlet ports, scavenging and exhaust, with
corresponding timing diagram.
5. Ignition
5.1. Distributor(s)
5.1.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
5.1.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
5.1.3. Ignition advance curve ...........................................................................................................
5.1.4. Ignition timing ...........................................................................
5.1.5. Contact-point gap
6. Exhaust System
Description and diagrams ..........................................................................................................
7. Additional Information on Test Conditions
7.1. Lubricant used
7.1.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
7.1.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
(State percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel mixed)
7.2. Sparking plugs
7.2.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
7.2.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 2
(Maximum format: A 4 (210 x 297 mm)
Name of Administration
Communication Concerning the Approval (or Refusal or
Withdrawal of Approval) of a Vehicle Type (motorcycle) with
Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants by the Engine,
Pursuant to Regulation No. 40
Approval No.
1. Trade name or mark...................................................................................................................
2. Type of motorcycle.....................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address ............................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative ...........................................
...................................................................................................................................................
5. Unladen weight of vehicle ..........................................................................................................
5.1. Reference weight of vehicle.......................................................................................................
6. Maximum weight of vehicle........................................................................................................
7. Gear-box ....................................................................................................................................
7.1. Manual or automatic ...............................................................................................................
7.2. Number of gear ratios ................................................................................................................
7.3.
Gear ratio
First gear .....................................................................................................
Second gear................................................................................................
Third gear ....................................................................................................
Final drive ratio...........................................................................................................................
Tyres:
dimensions..................................................................................................................
dynamic rolling circumference ....................................................................................
7.4. Check of performances referred to in Annex 4, Paragraph 3.1.5., to this Regulation ...............

ANNEX 3
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
Model A
(See Paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)
a ≥ 8 mm
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
the emission of gaseous pollutants of the engine, been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to
Regulation No. 40. The first two digits of the approval number indicates that Regulation No. 40 already
included the 01 series of amendments when the approval was granted.
Model B
(See Paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation)
a ≥ 8 mm
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulations No. 40 and 33. .The approval numbers indicate that,
at the dates when the respective approval were granted, Regulation No. 40 included the 01 series of
amendments but Regulation No. 33 was still in its original form.

2.3.1.3. During deceleration, a lower gear shall be engaged either before the engine starts to idle
roughly or when the engine revolutions are equal to 30% of the speed corresponding to the
maximum power of the engine, whichever of these conditions is reached first. No change
down to first gear shall be effected during deceleration.
2.3.2. Motorcycles equipped with automatic-shift gearboxes shall be tested with the highest gear
(Drive) engaged. The accelerator shall be used in such a way as to obtain the steadiest
possible acceleration at which the various gears can be engaged in the normal order. The
tolerances prescribed in Paragraph 2.4. shall apply.
Operating Cycle on the Dynamometer Bench

3.2. Motor Fuel
The fuel shall be the reference fuel whose specifications are given in Annex 6 to this
Regulation. If the engine is lubricated by mixture, the oil added to the reference fuel shall
comply as to grade and quantity with the manufacturer's recommendations.
4. TEST EQUIPMENT
4.1. Dynamometer Bench
The main characteristics of the bench are as follows:–
One roller - tyre contact for each driving wheel
-roller diameter: ≥ 400 mm
Equation of the power absorption curve: The test bench shall allow reproduction within
± 15% from the initial speed of 12 km/h, of the road power developed by the engine, the
motorcycle being driven on a horizontal road with a wind speed as near to zero as possible.
If not, the power absorbed by the brake and the internal friction of the test bench shall be
calculated according to Annex 7, Paragraph 11. If not, the power absorbed by the brake
and the internal frictions of the test bench shall be
equal to K V ± 5% K V ± 5% of P
additional inertias: from 10 kg by 10 kg
4.1.1. The distance actually covered shall be measured with a revolution counter which is driven
by the roller which drives the brake and the flywheels.
4.2. Gas-Sampling and Volume-Measuring Equipment
4.2.1. A simplified diagram of the collecting, diluting, sampling and volume-measuring equipment
for use with the exhaust gases emitted during the test will be found in Appendices 2 and 3 to
this Annex.
4.2.2. The testing equipment is described in the paragraphs which follow; each component is
identified by the reference symbol used in the sketch in Appendices 2 and 3. Different
equipment may be used if, in the opinion of the administration technical officers, it gives
equivalent results.
4.2.2.1. A device for collecting all exhaust gases emitted during the test; it is generally an open type
device, maintaining the atmospheric pressure at the motorcycle exhaust outlet(s).
Nevertheless, if the back pressure conditions are complied with (< ± 125 mm of H O), a
closed system may be used. The gas collection shall be such that there is no condensation
which could appreciably modify the nature of exhaust gases at the test temperature.
4.2.2.2. A pipe (Tu) linking the device and the gas-sampling equipment. The pipe and the device
shall be made of stainless steel or of some other material which does not affect the
composition of the gases collected and withstands their temperatures.

4.2.2.14. A cumulative counter CT to count the revolutions of the rotary displacement pump P1.
4.2.2.15. Three-way cocks on the above sampling circuits to direct the sample streams either to the
outside or to their respective collecting bags throughout the test. The valves shall be
quick-acting. They shall be made of materials which do not affect the composition of the
gases; furthermore, their flow sections and shapes shall be such as to minimize load losses
so far as is technically possible.
4.3. Analytical Equipment
4.3.1. Determining HC Concentration
4.3.1.1. The concentration of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) in the samples collected in bags SA and
SB during the tests shall be determined by means of a flame ionization analyser.
4.3.2. Determining CO and CO Concentrations
4.3.2.1. The concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO ) in the samples
collected in bags SA and SB during the tests shall be determined by means of an analyser
of the non-dispersive type with absorption in the infra-red.
4.3.3. Determining NO Concentrations
4.3.3.1. The concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO ) in the samples collected in bags SA and SB
during the tests shall be determined by means of a chemiluminescence analyser.
4.4. Accuracy of Instruments
4.4.1. Since the brake is calibrated in a separate test, the accuracy of the dynamometer is not
indicated. The total inertia of the rotating masses, including that of the rollers and the
rotating part of the brake (See Paragraph 5.2.), shall be given to within ± 2%.
4.4.2. The speed of the vehicle shall be measured by the speed of rotation of the rollers connected
to the brake and fly-wheels. It shall be measurable to within ± 2 km/h in the speed range
0 - 10 km/h and to within ± 1 km/hr at speeds above 10 km/h.
4.4.3. The temperature considered in Paragraph 4.2.2.5. shall be measurable to within ± 1°C. The
temperature considered in Paragraph 6.1.1. shall be measurable to within ± 2°C.
4.4.4. The atmospheric pressure shall be measurable to within ± 1 mm (mercury gauge).
4.4.5. The degree to which the pressure of the diluted gases falls short of atmospheric pressure at
the intake of pump P1 (see Paragraph 4.2.2.12.) shall be measured to within ± 3 mm
(mercury gauge). The difference in pressure of the diluted gases between the sections
before and after pump P1 (See Paragraph 4.2.2.13.) shall be measured to within ± 3 mm
(mercury gauge).
4.4.6. The volume displaced by each complete rotation of the pump P1 and the displacement
value at the minimum feasible pumping speed, as recorded by the cumulative revolution
counter CT, shall be such that the overall volume of the exhaust gas/diluent air mixture
displaced by the pump P1 during the test can be determined to within ± 2%.

5.2. Adjustment of Equivalent Inertias to the Vehicle Translatory Inertias
The fly-wheel shall be adjusted to obtain a total inertia of the rotating masses proportional to
the reference weight within the following limits:–
Reference weight
(kg)
R
<
105
105
<
R
<
115
115
<
R
<
125
125
<
R
<
135
135
<
R
<
150
150
<
R
<
165
165
<
R
<
185
185
<
R
<
205
205
<
R
<
225
225
<
R
<
245
245
<
R
<
270
270
<
R
<
300
300
<
R
<
330
330
<
R
<
360
360
<
R
<
395
395
<
R
<
435
435
<
R
<
475
Equivalent
Inertia (kg)
100
110
120
130
140
150
170
190
210
230
260
280
310
340
380
410
450
Power absorbed
(kW)
0,88
0,90
0,91
0,93
0,94
0,96
0,99
1,02
1,05
1,09
1,14
1,17
1,21
1,26
1,33
1,37
1,44
5.3. Conditioning of Vehicle
5.3.1. Before the test, the vehicle shall be stored at a temperature between 20° and 30°C. After
the engine has been kept idling for 40 seconds, two complete cycles are effected without
collecting exhaust gas.
5.3.2. The tyre pressure shall be the same as that indicated by the manufacturer for the
preliminary road test for brake adjustment. However, if the diameter of the rollers is less
than 50 mm, the pressure in the tyres shall be increased by 30 - 50% to prevent damage to
them.
5.3.3. The weight on the driven wheel should be the same as the vehicle in normal driving
conditions, with a driver weighing 75 kg.

6.2. Starting up the Engine
6.2.1. After the preliminary operations on the equipment for collecting, diluting, analyzing and
measuring the gases (see Paragraph 7.1. below) have been carried out, the engine shall be
started up by means of the devices provided for the purpose - the choke, the starter valve,
etc. - in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
6.2.2. The engine shall be kept idling for a maximum period of 40 seconds The first test cycle
shall start at the same time as the beginning of the collection of samples and the
measurements of the revolutions of the pump.
6.3. Use of the Manual Choke
6.4. Idling
The choke shall be cut out as soon as possible, and in principle before acceleration from
zero to 50 km/h. If this principle cannot be applied the moment of effective cut-out shall be
stated. The method used to adjust the choke shall be that indicated in the manufacturer
specifications.
6.4.1. Manual-shift gear-box
6.4.1.1. During periods of idling, the clutch shall be engaged and the gears in neutral.
6.4.1.2. To enable the accelerations to be performed according to the normal cycle, the vehicle shall
be placed in first gear, with the clutch disengaged, 5 seconds before the acceleration
following the idling period considered.
6.4.1.3. The first idling period at the beginning of the cycle shall consist of 6 seconds of idling in
neutral with the clutch engaged and 5 seconds in first gear with the clutch disengaged.
6.4.1.4. For the idling periods in the middle of each cycle, the corresponding times shall be
16 seconds in neutral and 5 seconds in first gear with the clutch disengaged.
6.4.1.5. The last idling period in a cycle shall consist of 7 seconds in neutral with the clutch engaged.
6.4.2. Semi-automatic-shift gear-boxes
The manufacturer's instructions for driving in town or, in their absence, the rules applicable
to manual-shift gear-boxes shall be followed.
6.4.3. Automatic-shift gear-boxes
The selector shall not be operated at any time during the test unless the manufacturer
specified otherwise. In the latter case the procedure prescribed for manual-shift gear-boxes
shall be applied.

7.2. Start of Sampling and Volumetric Measurement Operations
7.2.1. After 40 seconds preliminary unladen idling and two preparatory cycles (initial moment of
the first cycle), the operations specified in Paragraphs 7.2.2. to 7.2.5. below shall be carried
out strictly simultaneously.
7.2.2. The switching valves shall be set for collection in bags SA and SB of the samples which are
still being taken by probes S2 and S3, and which have hitherto been discharged into the
atmosphere.
7.2.3. The moment of starting the test shall be marked on the graphs of the analogue recorders
connected to the temperature sensing devices T and the differential pressure gauges g1
and g2.
7.2.4. The cumulative revolution counter CT shall be engaged with the pump P1.
7.2.5. The blower referred to in Paragraph 6.1.3. shall be started.
7.3. End of Sampling, and Volumetric Measurement Operations
7.3.1. The operations specified in Paragraphs 7.3.2. to 7.3.5. below shall be carried out strictly
simultaneously at the end of the fourth test cycle.
7.3.2. The switching valves shall be set to close off bags SA and SB and to discharge into the
atmosphere the samples taken by pumps P2 and P3 through probes S2 and S3.
7.3.3. The moment of ending the test shall be marked on the graphs of the analogue recorders
(see Paragraph 7.2.3.).
7.3.4. The cumulative revolution counter CT shall be disengaged from the pump P1.
7.3.5. The blower referred to in Paragraph 6.1.3. shall be switched off.
7.4. Analysis of the Samples Contained in the Bags
The analysis shall begin as soon as possible, and in any event not later than 20 minutes
after the end of the tests, in order to determine:–
The concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide
in the sample of diluent air contained in bag SB;
The concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide
in the sample of diluted exhaust gases contained in bag SA.
7.5. Measuring the Distance Covered
The distance S actually covered shall be arrived at by multiplying the number of revolutions
read from the cumulative counter (see Paragraph 4.1.1.) by the circumference of the roller.
This distance shall be measured in km.

8.1.5.4. Pi is the average under-pressure during the four test cycles in the intake section of pump
P1, expressed in mm (mercury gauge);
8.1.5.5. T is the temperature of the diluted gases during the four test cycles, measured in the
intake section of pump P1.
8.2. The mass of unburnt hydrocarbons emitted by the vehicle exhaust during the test shall be
calculated by means of the following formula:–
1
HC = . V . d
S
HC
.
10
where:–
8.2.1. HC is the mass of hydrocarbons emitted during the test, in grammes/km;
8.2.2. S is the distance defined in Paragraph 7.5. above;
8.2.3. d is the density of the hydrocarbons at a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of 760 mm
(mercury gauge), where the average carbon/hydrogen ratio is 1 : 1,85 = 0,619 kg/m .
8.2.4. HC is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million, of carbon
equivalent (e.g. the concentration in propane multiplied by 3), corrected to take account of
the diluent air
HC
= HC
− HC
(1 −
1
)
DF
where:–
8.2.4.1. HC is the concentration of hydrocarbons, expressed in parts per million of carbon
equivalent, in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag SA;
8.2.4.2. HC is the concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in parts per million of carbon
equivalent, in the sample of diluent air collected in bag SB;
8.2.4.3. DF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 8.4. below;
8.2.5. V is the total volume (see Paragraph 8.1.5.).
8.3. The mass of nitrogen oxides emitted by the vehicle's exhaust during the test shall be
calculated by means of the following formula:–
1
NO = . V . d
S
NO
.
10
. K
where:–
8.3.1. NO is the mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test, expressed in grammes/test;
8.3.2. S is the distance defined in Paragraph 7.5. above;

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 1
OPERATING CYCLE FOR PETROL ENGINES FOR THE TYPE - I TEST

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 3
EXAMPLE II OF GAS-SAMPLING AND VOLUME-MEASURING EQUIPMENT

ANNEX 6
SPECIFICATIONS OF REFERENCE FUELS
1. Technical data of the reference fuel to be used for testing vehicles equipped with positive
ignition engines.
(a) CEC reference fuel RF-01-A-80 (Type: premium gasoline, leaded)
Property Limits and Units ASTM Method
Research octane number min. 98,0 D 2699
Density at 15°C
Reid vapour pressure
Distillation (2)
Initial boiling point
10% vol. point
50% vol. point
90% vol. point
Final boiling point
Residue
Hydrocarbon analysis
- Olefins
- Aromatics
- Saturates
min. 0,741 kg/l
max. 0,755
min. 0,56 bar
max. 0,64
min. 24°C
max. 40
min. 42°C
max. 58
min. 90°C
max. 110
min. 150
max. 170
min. 185
max. 205
max. 2% vol.
max. 20% vol.
max. 45% vol.
Balance
D 1298
D 323
D 86
D 1319
Oxidation stability min. 480 minutes D 525
Existent gum max, 4 mg/100 ml D 381
Sulphur content max. 0,04% mass D 1266, D 2622 or D 2785
Lead content
Nature of scavenger
Nature of lead alkyl
Carbon/hydrocarbon ratio
min. 0,10 g/l
max. 0,40 g/l
Motor mix
not specified
Report
D 3341

ANNEX 7
METHOD OF DETERMINING THE POWER ABSORBED ON THE ROAD BY THE DYNAMOMETRIC
BRAKE FOR MOTORCYCLES
This Annex describes the method to be used to determine the power absorbed, as measured on the road
by a dynamometric brake.
The power absorbed, as measured on the road, comprises the power absorbed by frictional effects and
the power absorbed by the power-absorption device. The dynamometer is brought into operation
beyond the range of test speeds. The device used for starting up the dynamometer is then disconnected
from the dynamometer, and the rotational speed of the roller or rollers decreases.
The kinetic energy of the device is dissipated by the power-absorption unit of the dynamometer and by
the frictional effects of the dynamometer. This method disregards variations in the roller internal frictional
effects caused by the rotating mass of the vehicle. The difference between the stopping time of the free
rear roller and that of the front drive roller can be disregarded in the case of two-roller dynamometers.
The following procedures will be used:–
1. Measure the rotational speed of the roller if this has not already been done. A fifth wheel, a
revolution counter or some other method may be used.
2. Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method of starting up the
dynamometer.
3. Use the fly-wheel or any other system of inertia simulation for the vehicle-mass category most
commonly used with the dynamometer.
4. Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 50 km/h.
5. Note the power absorbed.
6. Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 60 km/h.
7. Disconnect the device used to start up the dynamometer.
8. Note the time taken by the dynamometer to pass from a speed of 55 km/hr to a speed of 45 km/h.
9. Set the power-absorption device at a different level.
10. Repeat phases 4 to 9 above sufficiently often to cover the range of road powers used.

Emissions - Positive-ignition Engines - Motorcycles.