Regulation No. 43-00

Name:Regulation No. 43-00
Description:Glazing.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Safety Glazing Materials and their Installation on Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1980-10-24
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 14
Number of Pages:180
Vehicle Types:Agricultural Tractor, Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle, Trailer
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

test, annex, paragraph, approval, glass, pieces, glazing, tests, requirements, point, windscreens, regulation, vehicle, samples, characteristics, windscreen, secondary, results, satisfactory, type, material, light, panes, case, pane, piece, thickness, plane, area, resistance, considered, result, number, figure, plastic, angle, accordance, method, defined, safety, surface, set, sample, carried, temperature, vehicles, plastics, means, apply, conditions

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.42/Rev.2/Amend.7
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
December 12, 2011
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 43-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
SAFETY GLAZING MATERIALS AND THEIR INSTALLATION ON VEHICLES
Incorporating:
Supplement 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.03.87
Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.01.00
Corr. 1 to Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 08.03.00
Corr. 2 to Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 13.03.02
Supplement 5 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 06.07.00
Supplement 6 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.09.01
Corr. 1 to Supplement 6 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 07.11.01
Corr. 1 to Revision 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 13.03.02
Supplement 7 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 16.07.03
Corr. 1 to Revision 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 28.04.11
Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.04
Supplement 9 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.06.07
Supplement 10 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Corr. 1 to Supplement 10 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 18.01.08
Supplement 11 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Supplement 12 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09
Supplement 13 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.12.10
Supplement 14 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11

REGULATION NO. 43
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF SAFETY GLAZING MATERIALS AND
THEIR INSTALLATION ON VEHICLES
CONTENTS
REGULATION
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Markings
5.
Approval
6.
General Requirements
7.
Particular Requirements
8.
Tests
9.
Modification or extension of approval of a type of safety glazing material
10.
Conformity of Production
11.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
12.
Transitional Provisions
13.
Production Definitely Discontinued
14. & 15. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests,
and of Administrative Departments

REGULATION NO. 43
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF SAFETY GLAZING MATERIALS AND
THEIR INSTALLATION ON VEHICLES
1. SCOPE
This Regulation applies to:
(a)
(b)
safety glazing materials intended for installation as windscreens or other panes, or
as partitioning, on vehicles of Category L with bodywork, M, N, O and T ;
vehicles of Categories M, N and O with regard to the installation of these materials;
in both cases, to the exclusion of glazing for lighting and light-signalling devices and
instrument panels, of special bullet-proof glazing and of double-windows.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Regulation:
2.1. "Toughened-glass pane" means a glass pane consisting of a single layer of glass which
has been subjected to special treatment to increase its mechanical strength and to
condition its fragmentation after shattering;
2.2. "Laminated-glass pane" means a glass pane consisting of two or more layers of glass
held together by one or more interlayers of plastics material; it may be :
2.2.1. "ordinary", when none of the layers of glass of which it is composed has been treated; or
2.2.2. "treated", when at least one of the layers of glass of which it is composed has been
specially treated to increase its mechanical strength and to condition its fragmentation
after shattering;
2.3. "Safety-glass pane faced with plastics material" means a glass pane as defined in
Paragraphs 2.1. or 2.2. with a layer of plastics material on its inner face;
2.4. "Glass-plastics pane" means a pane of laminated glass having one layer of glass and
one or more layers of plastics material, at least one of which acts as interlayer. The
plastics layer(s) shall be on the inner face when the glazing is fitted on the vehicle;
2.5. "Plastic glazing" is a glazing material that contains as an essential ingredient one or
more organic polymeric substances of large molecular weight, is solid in its finished state
and, at some stage in its manufacture of processing into finished articles, can be shaped
by flow;
2.5.1. "Rigid plastic glazing" means a plastic glazing material which does not deflect vertically
more than 50 mm in the flexibility test (Annex 3, Paragraph 12.);
2.5.2. "Flexible plastic glazing" means a plastic glazing material which deflects vertically more
than 50 mm in the flexibility test (Annex 3, Paragraph 12.).

2.13.2. "Curved windscreen" means a windscreen exhibiting a normal curvature resulting in a
height of segment greater than 10 mm per linear metre.
2.14. "Height of segment 'h'" means the maximum distance, measured at right angles
approximately to the glass pane, separating the inner surface of the pane from a plane
passing through the ends of the pane (see Annex 17, Figure 1);
2.15. "Type of safety glazing material" means a glazing as defined in Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.7.
not exhibiting any essential differences, with respect, in particular, to the principal and
secondary characteristics defined in Annexes 4 to 12 and 14 to 16;
2.15.1. Although a change in the principal characteristics implies that the product is of a new type,
it is recognised that in certain cases a change in shape and dimension does not
necessarily require a complete set of tests to be carried out. For certain of the tests
prescribed in the individual Annexes, glazings may be grouped if it is evident that they
have similar principal characteristics;
2.15.2. Types of glazing exhibiting differences only as regards their secondary characteristics may
be deemed to be of the same type; certain tests may however be carried out on samples
of such glazings if the performance of those tests is explicitly stipulated in the test
condition.
2.16. "Curvature 'r'" means the approximate value of the smallest radius of arc of the
windscreen as measured in the most curved area.
2.17. "HIC" (Head Injury Criteria) value means a value for the characteristics of skull-brain
injury arising from the deceleration forces which result from a blunt perpendicular impact
with the glazing.
2.18. "Safety glazing material requisite for driver visibility"
2.18.1. "Safety glazing material requisite for the driver's forward field of vision" means all
the glazing situated in front of a plane passing through the driver's R Point and
perpendicular to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle through which the driver can
view the road when driving or manoeuvring the vehicle.
2.18.2. "Safety glazing material requisite for the driver's rearward vision" means all glazing
situated behind a plane passing through the driver's R Point perpendicular to the
longitudinal median plane of the vehicle through which the driver can view the road when
driving or manoeuvring the vehicle.
2.19. "Opaque obscuration" means any area of the glazing preventing light transmission.
2.20. "Shade band" means any area of the glazing with a reduced regular transmittance.
2.21. "Transparent area" means the whole glazing area, excluding any opaque obscuration
and any shade band.
2.22. "Daylight opening" means the whole glazing area, excluding any opaque obscuration but
including any shade band.
2.23. "Interlayer" means any material used to hold together the component layers of laminated
glazing.

3.2.1.2.2.6. The maximum height of segment of the windscreen,
3.2.1.2.2.7. The minimum radius curvature of the windscreen (for windscreen-grouping purposes only).
3.2.1.3. In the case of double-glazed units, diagrams in a format not exceeding A4 or folded to that
format, showing, in addition to the information referred to in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.:
the type of each component pane,
the type of sealing,
the nominal width of the gap between the two panes.
3.3. In addition, the applicant for approval shall submit a sufficient number of test pieces and
samples of the finished pieces of the models considered, the number being if necessary
determined by agreement with the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.
3.4. Approval for a Type of Vehicle
The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of its safety
glazing shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited
representative.
3.5. It shall be accompanied by the under mentioned documents in triplicate and the following
particulars:
3.5.1. Drawings of the vehicle on an appropriate scale showing:
3.5.1.1. The position of the windscreen relative to the R Point of the vehicle,
3.5.1.2. The inclination angle of the windscreen,
3.5.1.3. The inclination angle of the seat back;
3.5.2. Technical details concerning the windscreen and all other glazings, in particular:
3.5.2.1. The materials used,
3.5.2.2. Approval numbers,
3.5.2.3. Any additional markings, as described in Paragraph 5.5.
3.6. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
4. MARKINGS
4.1. Every piece of safety glazing material, including the samples and test pieces submitted for
approval, shall bear a trade name or mark of the manufacturer as listed under Item 3 of
Annex 1. Manufactured parts must bear the ECE Regulation No. 43 number allocated to
the prime manufacturer. The marking shall be clearly legible and indelible.

5.5. The following additional symbols shall be affixed near the above approval mark:
5.5.1. In the case of a windscreen :
I
II
III
IV
for toughened glass (I/P if faced)
for ordinary laminated glass (II/P if faced)
for treated laminated glass (III/P if faced)
for glass-plastics glazing.
5.5.2. V in the case of safety glazing having a regular light transmittance less than 70%.
5.5.3. VI in the case of double-glazed unit
5.5.4.
VII
in the case of uniformly-toughened glass panes which can be used as windscreens
for slow-moving vehicles which, by construction, cannot exceed 40 km/h.
5.5.5.
VIII
In the case of rigid plastic glazing. In addition the appropriate application will be
signified by:
/A for forward facing panels
/B for side, rear and roof glazing
/C in locations where there is little or no chance of head impact
In addition, for plastic glazing which has been submitted to the abrasion resistance tests
described in Annex 3, Paragraph 4, the following markings shall also be applied as
appropriate:
/L for panes with a light scatter not exceeding 2% after 1,000 cycles on the outer
surface and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner surface (see Annexes 14 and 16,
Paragraph 6.1.3.1.)
/M for panes with a light scatter not exceeding 10% after 500 cycles on the outer
surface and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner surface (see Annexes 14 and 16,
Paragraph 6.1.3.2.)
5.5.6. IX in the case of flexible-plastic glazing
5.5.7.
X
in the case of a rigid plastic double-glazed unit. In addition, the appropriate
application will be signified by:
/A for forward facing panels
/B for side, rear and roof glazings
/C in locations where there is little or no chance of head impact

5.14. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the
manufacturer.
5.15. Annex 2A to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
6. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
6.1. All glazing materials, including glazing material for the manufacture of windscreens, shall
be such that, in the event of shattering, the danger of bodily injury is reduced as far as
possible. The glazing material shall be sufficiently resistant to the incidents likely to occur
in normal traffic, and to atmospheric and temperature conditions, chemical action,
combustion and abrasion.
6.2. Safety glazing materials shall in addition be sufficiently transparent, shall not cause any
noticeable distortions of objects as seen through the windscreen, and shall not give rise to
any confusion between the colours used in road-traffic signs and signals. In the event of
the windscreen's shattering, the driver must still be able to see the road clearly enough to
be able to brake and stop his vehicle safely.
7. PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS
All types of safety glazing shall, depending on the category to which they belong, comply
with the following particular requirements:
7.1. As regards toughened-glass windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex 4;
7.2. As regards uniformly-toughened glass panes, the requirements contained in Annex 5;
7.3. As regards ordinary laminated-glass windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex 6;
7.4. As regards ordinary laminated-glass panes other than windscreens, the requirements
contained in Annex 7;
7.5. As regards treated laminated-glass windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex 8;
7.6. As regards safety-glass panes faced with plastics material, in addition to the relevant
requirements listed above, the requirements contained in Annex 9;
7.7. As regards glass-plastics windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex 10;
7.8. As regards glass-plastics panes other than windscreens, the requirements contained in
Annex 11;
7.9. As regards double-glazed units, the requirements contained in Annex 12.
7.10. As regards rigid plastic glazings, the requirements contained in Annex 14.
7.11. As regards flexible plastic glazings, the requirements contained in Annex 15.
7.12. As regards rigid plastic double-glazed units, the requirements contained in Annex 16.

8.1.3.4. Resistance-To-Humidity Test
The purpose of this test is to determine whether laminated-glass panes, glass-plastic
panes, glass panes faced with plastic material and rigid plastic material will withstand,
without significant deterioration, the effects of prolonged exposure to atmospheric
humidity.
8.1.3.5. Resistance-To-Temperature-Changes Test
The purpose of this test is to check that plastics material(s) used in safety glazing as
defined in Paragraphs 2.3. and 2.4. above will withstand the effects of prolonged exposure
to extremes of temperature without significant deterioration.
8.1.3.6. Resistance to Simulated Weathering Test
The purpose of this test is to verify that plastic safety glazing is resistant to simulated
weathering conditions.
8.1.3.7. Cross Cut Test
The purpose of this test is to examine whether any abrasive resistant coating of a rigid
plastic glazing has sufficient adherence.
8.1.4. Optical Qualities
8.1.4.1. Light-Transmission Test
The purpose of this test is to determine whether the regular transmittance of safety glazing
exceeds a specified value.
8.1.4.2. Optical-Distortion Test
The purpose of this test is to verify that the distortion of objects as seen through the
windscreen is not of such extent as to be likely to confuse the driver.
8.1.4.3. Secondary-Image-Separation Test
The purpose of this test is to verify that the angular separation of the secondary image
from the primary image does not exceed a specified value.
8.1.4.4. Identification-of-Colours Test
The purpose of this test is to verify that there is no risk of confusion of colours as seen
through a windscreen.
8.1.5. Burning-Behaviour (Fire-Resistance) Test
The purpose of this test is to verify that a safety glazing material as defined in
Paragraphs 2.3., 2.4. and 2.5. above has a sufficiently low burn rate.

8.2.1.2. Plastic glazing materials shall be subjected to the tests listed in the following table:
Test
Motorised
vehicles
Rigid plastics
Plastics other than windscreens
Trailers and
unoccupied
vehicles
Motorised
vehicles
Double glazing
Trailers and
unoccupied
vehicles
Flexible
plastics
Flexibility
A3/12
A3/12
A3/12
A3/12
A3/12
227 g ball
A14/5
A14/5
A16/5
A16/5
A15/4
Headform
A14/4
-
A16/4
-
-
Light transmission
A3/9.1
-
A3/9.1
-
A3/9.1
Fire resistance
A3/10
A3/10
A3/10
A3/10
A3/10
Chemical resistance
A3/11
A3/11
A3/11
A3/11
A3/11.2.1
Abrasion
A14/6.1
-
A16/6.1
-
-
Weathering
A3/6.4
A3/6.4
A3/6.4
A3/6.4
A3/6.4
Humidity
A14/6.4
A14/6.4
A16/6.4
A16/6.4
-
Cross-cut
A3/13
-
A3/13
-
-
8.2.2. A safety glazing material shall be approved if it meets all the requirements prescribed in
the relevant provisions referred to in the Tables: 8.2.1.1 and 8.2.1.2.
9. MODIFICATION OR EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF A TYPE OF SAFETY GLAZING
MATERIAL
9.1. Every modification of a type of safety glazing material, or in the case of windscreens every
addition of a windscreen to a group, shall be notified to the administrative department
which approved the type of safety glazing material. The department may then either:
9.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect
and, in the case of windscreens, that the new type comes within the approved group of
windscreens, and that in any case the safety glazing material still complies with the
requirements; or
9.1.2. Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the
tests.

13. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of safety glazing
material approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority
which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority
shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by
means of a copy of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation.
14. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued
in other countries, are to be sent.
15. The technical services responsible for conducting approval tests shall comply with the
harmonized standards concerning the operation of testing laboratories
(ISO/CEI Guide 25). In addition they should be designated by the approval authority for
which they carry out the approval tests.

12. Remarks: ..............................................................................................................................................
13. Place .....................................................................................................................................................
14. Date ......................................................................................................................................................
15. Signature ..............................................................................................................................................
16. The list of documents filed with the administrative service which has granted approval and
available on request is Annexed to this communication.

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 2
UNIFORMLY-TOUGHENED GLASS PANES
(Principal and secondary characteristics as defined in Annex 5 or Annex 9 to Regulation No. 43)
Approval No.: ........................................... Extension No.: ..............................
Principal characteristics:
Other than windscreens (yes/no): ..........................................................
Windscreen(s) for slow moving vehicles: ..............................................
Shape category: ....................................................................................
Nature of toughening process: ..............................................................
Thickness category: ...............................................................................
Nature and type of plastics coating(s): ..................................................
Nominal thickness of plastic coating(s): ................................................
Secondary characteristics:
Nature of the material (plate, float, sheet glass): ...................................
Colouring of glass: .................................................................................
Colouring of plastics coating(s): ............................................................
Conductors incorporated (yes/no): ........................................................
Opaque obscuration incorporated (yes/no): ..........................................
Approved criteria:
Greatest area (flat glass): ......................................................................
Smallest angle: ......................................................................................
Greatest developed area (curved glass): ..............................................
Greatest height of segment: ..................................................................
Remarks

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 4
LAMINATED-GLASS PANES OTHER THAN WINDSCREENS
(Principal and secondary characteristics as defined in Annex 7 or Annex 9 to Regulation No. 43)
Approval No.: ........................................... Extension No.: ..............................
Principal characteristics:
Number of layers of glass: .....................................................................
Number of layers of interlayer: ..............................................................
Thickness category: ...............................................................................
Nominal thickness of interlayer(s): ........................................................
Special treatment of glass: ....................................................................
Nature and type of interlayer(s): ............................................................
Nature and type of plastics coating(s): ..................................................
Nominal thickness of plastics coating(s): ..............................................
Secondary characteristics:
Nature of the material (plate, float, sheet glass): ...................................
Colouring of interlayer (total/partial): .....................................................
Colouring of glass: .................................................................................
Colouring of plastics coating(s): ............................................................
Conductors incorporated (yes/no): ........................................................
Opaque obscuration incorporated (yes/no): ..........................................
Remarks

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 6
GLASS-PLASTICS PANES OTHER THAN WINDSCREENS
(Principal and secondary characteristics as defined in Annex 11 to Regulation No. 43)
Approval No.: ........................................... Extension No.: ..............................
Principal characteristics
Number of layers of plastics: .................................................................
Thickness of the glass component: .......................................................
Treatment of the glass component (yes/no): .........................................
Nominal thickness of the pane: .............................................................
Nominal thickness of the layer(s) of plastics acting as interlayer: .........
Nature and type of layer(s) of plastics acting as interlayer: ..................
Nature and type of the outer layer of plastics: .......................................
Secondary characteristics:
Nature of the material (plate, float, sheet glass): ...................................
Colouring of glass (colourless/tinted): ...................................................
Colouring of the layer(s) of plastics (total/partial): .................................
Conductors incorporated (yes/no): ........................................................
Opaque obscuration incorporated (yes/no): ..........................................
Remarks

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 8
RIGID PLASTICS PANES OTHER THAN WINDSCREENS
(Principal and secondary characteristics in accordance with Annex 14)
Approval No.: ........................................... Extension No.: ..............................
Principal characteristics:
Chemical designation of the material: ...................................................
The classification of the material by the manufacturer: .........................
Process of manufacture: ........................................................................
Shape and dimensions: .........................................................................
Nominal thickness: ................................................................................
Colouring of the rigid plastic material: ...................................................
Nature and type of surface coating: .......................................................
Secondary characteristics:
Conductors incorporated (yes/no): ........................................................
Remarks

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 10
CONTENTS OF THE LIST OF WINDSCREENS
For each of the windscreens covered by this approval, at least the following particulars shall be provided:
Vehicle manufacturer
Type of vehicle
Vehicle category
Developed area (F)
Height of segment (h)
Curvature (r)
Installation angle (α)
Seat-back angle (β)
R-point coordinates (A, B, C ) relative to the centre of the upper edge of the windscreen.

6. ECE component type approval mark for a windscreen: ......................................................................
7. ECE component type approval mark(s) for: ........................................................................................
7.1. Front side windows : ............................................................................................................................
7.2 Rear side windows : ............................................................................................................................
7.3. Rear windows: .....................................................................................................................................
7.4. Opening roofs: .....................................................................................................................................
7.5. Other glazing: ......................................................................................................................................
8. The fitting requirements have/have not been met.
9. Vehicle submitted for approval on: ......................................................................................................
10. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: .............................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................
11. Date of report issued by that service: ..................................................................................................
12. Number of report issued by that service: ............................................................................................
13. Approval is granted/refused/extended/withdrawn
14. Reason(s) for extension of approval: ..................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................
15. Remarks: .............................................................................................................................................
16. Place ....................................................................................................................................................
17. Date .....................................................................................................................................................
18. Signature .............................................................................................................................................
19. The list of documents deposited with the Administration Service which has granted approval is
Annexed to the communication and may be obtained upon request.

Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to an ordinary laminated-glass windscreen shows that the component
concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 43 under
Approval No. 002439. The approval number indicates that the approval was granted in accordance with
the requirements of Regulation No. 43.
Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens faced with plastics material
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to an ordinary laminated-glass windscreen faced with plastics material
shows that the component concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to
Regulation No. 43 under Approval No. 002439. The approval number indicates that the approval was
granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 43.

Glass panes other than windscreens having a regular light transmittance < 70%
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a glass pane other than a windscreen to which the requirements of
Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1.4., are applicable shows that the component concerned has been approved in
the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 43 under Approval No. 002439. The approval number
indicates that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 43.
Double-glazed units having a regular light transmittance < 70%
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a double-glazed unit shows that the component concerned has been
approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 43 under Approval No. 002439. The
approval number indicates that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of
Regulation No. 43.

Rigid plastic glazings other than windscreens
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a rigid plastic glazing pane for forward facing panels with a light
scatter not exceeding 2% after 1000 cycles on the outer surface and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner
surface shows that the component concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to
Regulation No. 43 under approval No. 002439. The approval number indicates that the approval was
granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 43.
Flexible plastic glazings other than windscreens
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a flexible plastic glazing pane shows that the component concerned
has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 43 under Approval No. 002439.
The approval number indicates that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of
Regulation No. 43.

ANNEX 2A
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS FOR VEHICLES
Model A
(see Paragraph 5.11. of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
installation of glazing, been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 43. The
approval number indicates that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of
Regulation No. 43.
Model B
(see Paragraph 5.12. of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 43 and 52 . The approval numbers indicate that,
at the date when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No. 43 was in its original form and
Regulation No. 52 included the 01 series of amendments.

Figure 1
Support for Ball Tests
2.1.2. Test Conditions
Temperature:
20 ± 5° C
Pressure:
860 to 1,060 mbar
2.1.3. Test Piece
2.1.4. Procedure
Relative humidity: 60 ± 20%
The test piece shall be a flat square of side 300 +10/-0 mm or shall be cut from the flattest
part of a windscreen or other curved pane of safety glazing.
Alternatively a curved pane of safety glazing may be tested. In this case care shall be taken
to ensure adequate contact between the safety glazing and the support.
Condition the test piece at the specified temperature for at least four hours immediately
preceding the test.
Place the test piece in the fixture (Paragraph 2.1.1.3.). The plane of the test piece shall be
perpendicular, within 3°, to the incident direction of the ball.

The ball shall strike that face of the test piece which represents the inward face of the
safety-glass pane when the latter is mounted on the vehicle.
The ball shall be allowed to make only one impact.
3. HEADFORM TEST
3.1. Headform Test without Deceleration Measurement
3.1.1. Apparatus
Headform weight with a spherical or semi-spherical headform made of laminated hardwood
covered with replaceable felt and with or without a cross-beam made of wood. There is a
neck-shaped intermediate piece between the spherical part and the cross-beam and a
mounting rod on the other side of the cross-beam.
The dimensions shall be in accordance with Figure 2. The total mass of the apparatus shall
be 10 ± 0.2 kg.

3.1.4. Test Conditions
Temperature:
Pressure:
20 ± 5° C
860 to 1,060 mbar
3.1.5. Procedure
Relative humidity: 60 ± 20%.
3.1.5.1. Test on a flat test piece
The flat test piece, having a length of 1 100 + 5/-2 mm and a width of 500 + 5/-2 mm, shall
be kept at a constant temperature of 20 ± 5° C for at least four hours immediately preceding
the test.
Fix the test piece in the supporting frames (Paragraph 3.1.3.); the torque on the bolts shall
ensure that the movement of the test piece during the test will not exceed 2 mm. The plane
of the test piece shall be substantially perpendicular to the incident direction of the weight.
The weight shall strike the test piece within 40 mm of its geometric centre on that face which
represents the inward face of the safety-glass pane when the latter is mounted on the
vehicle, and shall be allowed to make only one impact.
The impact surface of the felt cover shall be replaced after 12 tests.
Figure 3
Support for Headform Tests

Figure 2.1
10 kg Headform

22
1
Damping disc
Packing with paper
Diameter:
65 mm
Thickness:
0.5 mm
23




24
1
Base plate
Steel DIN 17100

25
1
Set screw with hexagonal
Class of strength 45H

socket
26
1
Triaxial mounting block


27
3
Acceleration gauge


28
1
Wood component
Hornbeam, glued in layers

29
1
Cover plate
Alloy (AlMg5)

30
1
Protective cap
Polyamid 12

3.2.2. Adjustment and Calibration
To perform the headform test the phantom head is fixed to the cross arm of the guide
system (Figure 2.2) and moved to the required drop height by means of a lifting device.
During the headform test the cross arm with the phantom head is released. After passing
the height adjustable light barrier the phantom head is released from the cross arm, the
cross arm's fall is dampened and the phantom head falls onto the sample.
No impulse may be given to the phantom head by the drop appliance or by the measuring
cable, so that it is accelerated only by gravity and falls vertically.
Figure 2.2
Test Apparatus for the Headform Experiment with Deceleration Measurement

3.2.5. Tests on complete panes (used for a drop height between 1.5 m and 3 m). Place the pane
freely on a support with an interposed strip of rubber of hardness 70 IRHD and thickness of
about 3 mm.
3.2.6. Evaluation
The pane shall be clamped to the supporting structure by means of appropriate
devices. The surface of the pane shall be substantially perpendicular to the incident
direction of the headform weight. The headform weight shall strike the pane at a point
within 40 mm of its geometric centre on that face which represents the inward face of the
plastic pane when the latter is mounted on the vehicle, and shall be allowed to make only
one impact.
Starting from a selected initial drop height, the drop heights should be raised by 0.5 m
respectively in each further experiment. The deceleration curves occurring on impact on the
sample for a , a and a should be recorded according to time t.
After the headform test, it should be checked whether a glazing edge has moved more than
2 mm in the mount and whether the requirement for the point of impact was met. The
acceleration components a and a should be smaller for vertical impact than 0.1 a .
The deceleration curves should be evaluated as follows:
The resulting deceleration a (t) in the centre of gravity according to equation (1) from the
measured deceleration curves a (t), a (t) and a (t) is to be compounded as multiples of the
acceleration due to gravity.
( )
(1) a () t = a () t + a () t + a () t
The time for which a deceleration of 80 g with a is continually exceeded and the greatest
deceleration of a should be determined. The HIC-value should be calculated as a
measurement of the danger of blunt skull-brain-injuries using the following equation (2):


= ⎜


(2) HIC ( t − t ) a ( t)dt




The integral limits t and t should be selected in such a way that the integral takes a
maximal value.
4. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO ABRASION
4.1. Apparatus
4.1.1. Abrading instrument shown diagrammatically in Figure 4 and consisting of:
A horizontal turntable, with centre clamp, which revolves counter-clockwise at 65 to
75 rev/min.;

4.1.4. Optical system consisting of a lens with a focal length f of at least 500 mm and corrected for
chromatic aberrations. The full aperture of the lens shall not exceed f/20. The distance
between the lens and the light source shall be adjusted in order to obtain a light beam which
is substantially parallel. A diaphragm shall be inserted to limit the diameter of the light beam
to 7 ± 1 mm. This diaphragm shall be situated at a distance of 100 ± 50 mm from the lens
on the side remote from the light source.
4.1.5. Equipment for measuring scattered light (see Figure 5), consisting of a photoelectric cell
with an integrating sphere 200 to 250 mm in diameter. The sphere shall be equipped with
entrance and exit ports for the light. The entrance port shall be circular and have a diameter
at least twice that of the light beam. The exit port of the sphere shall be provided with either
a light trap or a reflectance standard, according to the procedure described in
Paragraph 4.4.3. below. The light trap shall absorb all the light when no test piece is
inserted in the light beam.
The axis of the light beam shall pass through the centre of the entrance and exit ports. The
diameter b of the light-exit port shall be equal to 2 a.tan 4°, where a. is the diameter of the
sphere. The photoelectric cell shall be mounted in such a way that it cannot be reached by
light coming directly from the entrance port or from the reflectance standard.
The surfaces of the interior of the integrating sphere and the reflectance standard shall be of
substantially equal reflectance and shall be matt and non-selective.
The output of the photoelectric cell shall be linear within ± 2% over the range of luminous
intensities used. The design of the instrument shall be such that there is no galvanometer
deflection when the sphere is dark.
The whole apparatus shall be checked at regular intervals by means of calibration standards
of defined haze.
If haze measurements are made using equipment or methods differing from those defined
above, the results shall be corrected, if necessary, to bring them into agreement with those
obtained by the apparatus described above.
4.2. Test Conditions
Temperature:
Pressure:
20 ± 5° C
860 to 1,060 mbar
Relative humidity: 60 ± 20%.
4.3. Test Pieces
The test pieces shall be flat squares of side 100 mm having both surfaces substantially
+ 0.2
plane and parallel and having a fixing hole 6.4 mm in diameter drilled in the center, if
− 0
necessary.

Take four readings as indicated in the following table:
Reading
With test
piece
With
light-trap
With reflectance
standard
T No No Yes Incident light
Quantity represented
T Yes No Yes Total light transmitted by test-piece
T No Yes No Light scattered by instrument
T
Yes
Yes
No
Light scattered by instrument and test
piece
Repeat readings for T , T , T , and T with other specified positions of the test piece to
determine uniformity.
Calculate the total transmittance T = T /T .
Calculate the total transmittance T as follows:
T
T
=
− T
T − T
( T / T )
Calculate the percentage haze, or light, or both, scattered, as follows:
T
Haze, or light, or both, scattered, = × 100%
T
Measure the initial haze of the test piece at a minimum of four equally-spaced points in the
unabraded area in accordance with the formula above. Average the results for each test
piece. In lieu of the four measurements, an average value may be obtained by rotating the
piece uniformly at 3 rev/sec or more.
For each type of safety glazing, carry out three tests with the same load. Use the haze as a
measure of the subsurface abrasion, after the test piece has been subjected to the abrasion
test.
Measure the light scattered by the abraded track at a minimum of four equally-spaced points
along the track in accordance with the formula above. Average the results for each test
piece. In lieu of the four measurements, an average value may be obtained by rotating the
piece uniformly at 3 rev/sec or more.
4.5. The abrasion test will be carried out only at the discretion of the laboratory conducting the
test with due regard to the information already at its disposal.
Except for glass-plastics materials, changes in the interlayer or materials thickness will not
normally necessitate further testing.
4.6. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
No secondary characteristics are involved.

In the case of safety-glass panes for which there is no satisfactory correlation between this
test and the conditions of use it will be necessary to review the test conditions.
6.1.1.2. Power-supply transformer and capacitor capable of supplying to the lamp
(Paragraph 6.1.1.1.) a starting peak voltage of 1,100 V minimum and an operating voltage
of 500 ± 50 V.
6.1.1.3. Device for mounting and rotating the test pieces at 1 to 5 rev/min about the centrally-located
radiation source in order to ensure even exposure.
6.1.2. Test Pieces
6.1.2.1. The size of the test pieces shall be 76 x 300 mm.
6.1.2.2. The test pieces shall be cut by the laboratory from the upper part of the glass panes in such
a way that:
6.1.3. Procedure
In the case of glass panes other than windscreens, the upper edge of the test piece
coincides with the upper edge of the glass pane.
In the case of windscreens, the upper edge of the test piece coincides with the upper limit of
the zone in which regular transmittance shall be measured, determined in accordance with
Paragraph 9.1.2.2. of this Annex.
Check the regular light transmittance, determined according to Paragraphs 9.1.1. to 9.1.2. of
this Annex, of three test pieces before exposure. Protect a portion of each test piece from
the radiation, and then place the test pieces in the test apparatus 230 mm from and parallel
lengthwise to the lamp axis. Maintain the temperature of the test pieces at 45 ± 5° C
throughout the test.
That face of each test piece which would constitute a glazed exterior part of the vehicle shall
face the lamp. For the type of lamp specified in Paragraph 6.1.1.1. the exposure time shall
be 100 hours. After exposure, measure the regular light transmittance again in the exposed
area of each test piece.
6.1.4. Each test piece or sample (total number 3 pieces) shall be subjected, in accordance with the
procedure above, to radiation such that the radiation on each point of the test piece or
sample produces on the interlayer used the same effect as that which would be produced by
solar radiation of 1,400 W/m for 100 hours.
6.2. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
Colourless
Tinted
Colouring of glass 2 1
Colouring of interlayer 1 2
The other secondary characteristics are not involved.

– Water spray
– Operating schedule or cycle
The exposure apparatus shall be made from inert materials which do not contaminate the
water employed in the test.
Irradiance shall be measured at the test specimen surface and shall be controlled according
to the recommendations of the exposure apparatus manufacturer.
Total ultraviolet radiant exposure (Joules per square metre) shall be measured or
computed and shall be considered the primary measure of test specimen exposure.
6.4.1.2. Test specimens
6.4.1.3. Procedure
The dimensions of the test specimen shall normally be those specified in the appropriate
test method for the property or properties to be measured after exposure.
The number of control and test specimens for each test condition or exposure stage shall be
determined, in addition to those required for visual evaluations by the number required by
the test methods.
It is recommended that visual evaluations be conducted on the largest test specimens
tested.
Measure, according to Paragraph 9.1. of this Annex the luminous transmission of the test
specimen(s) to be exposed. Measure, according to Paragraph 4 of this Annex, the
resistance to abrasion of the surface(s) of the control specimen(s). That face of each test
specimen, which would represent the surface glazed to the exterior of the road vehicle, shall
face the lamp. Other exposure conditions shall be as follows:
6.4.1.3.1. The irradiance shall not vary more than ± 10% over the whole test specimen area.
6.4.1.3.2. At appropriate intervals, clean lamp filters by washing with detergent and water. Xenon arc
filters shall be replaced according to the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer.
6.4.1.3.3. The temperature within the exposure apparatus during the dry portion of the cycle shall be
controlled by circulation of sufficient air to maintain a constant black standard temperature.
In the xenon arc exposure apparatus, this temperature shall be 70 ± 3° C as indicated by a
Black standard thermometer or equivalent.
The black panel thermometer shall be mounted in the test specimen rack and readings shall
be taken at the point where maximum heat is developed due to light exposure.
6.4.1.3.4. The relative humidity within the exposure apparatus shall be controlled at 50 ± 5% during
the dry portions of the cycle.

6.4.1.5. Expression of results
Report visual evaluations of exposed test specimens, comparing the appearance of each
with that of the unexposed control.
The regular light transmittance measured shall not differ from the original test on unexposed
samples by more than 5% and shall not fall below:
70% in the case of a windscreen and other glazing that is located in a position requisite for
driving visibility.
7. RESISTANCE-TO-HUMIDITY TEST
7.1. Procedure
Keep three samples or three square test pieces of at least 300 x 300 mm in a vertical
position for two weeks in a closed container in which the temperature is maintained at
50 ± 2° C and the relative humidity at 95 ± 4%. In the case of rigid plastic glazings and rigid
plastic double glazed units, the number of samples shall be ten.
The test pieces shall be prepared in such a way that:
– at least one edge of the test pieces coincides with an original edge of the glass pane,
– if several test pieces are tested at the same time, adequate spacing shall be provided
between them.
Precautions shall be taken to prevent condensate from the walls or ceiling of the test
chamber from falling on the test pieces.
7.2. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
Colourless
Tinted
Colouring of interlayer 1 2
The other secondary characteristics are not involved.
7.3. Interpretation of Results
7.3.1. Safety glazing shall be deemed to be satisfactory from the point of view of resistance to
humidity if no significant change is observed more than 10 mm from the uncut edges and
more than 15 mm from the cut edges after ordinary and treated laminated glass panes have
been maintained for two hours in the ambient atmosphere, and plastics-faced and
glass-plastics panes have been maintained for 48 hours in the ambient atmosphere.

9.1.1.3. Measuring equipment
9.1.2. Procedure
The receiver shall have a relative spectral sensitivity in substantial agreement with the
relative spectral luminous efficiency for the ICI standard photometric observer for photopic
vision. The sensitive surface of the receiver shall be covered with a diffusing medium and
shall have at least twice the cross-section of the light beam emitted by the optical system. If
an integrating sphere is used, the aperture of the sphere shall have a cross-sectional area
at least twice that of the parallel portion of the beam.
The linearity of the receiver and the associated indicating instrument shall be better than 2%
of the effective part of the scale.
The receiver shall be centred on the axis of the light beam.
The sensitivity of the measuring system shall be adjusted in such a way that the instrument
indicating the response of the receiver indicates 100 divisions when the safety-glass pane is
not inserted in the light path. When no light is falling on the receiver, the instrument shall
read zero.
Place the safety-glass pane at a distance from the receiver equal to approximately five
times the diameter of the receiver. Insert the safety-glass pane between the diaphragm and
the receiver and adjust its orientation in such a way that the angle of incidence of the light
beam is equal to 0 ± 5°. The regular transmittance shall be measured on the safety-glass
pane, and for every point measured the number of divisions, n, shown on the indicating
instrument, shall be read. The regular transmittance τ is equal to n/100.
9.1.2.1. In the case of windscreens, alternative test methods may be applied using either a test
piece cut from the flattest part of a windscreen or a specifically-prepared flat square with
material and thickness characteristics identical to those of the actual windscreen, the
measurements being taken normal (perpendicular) to the glass pane.

9.2. Optical Distortion Test
9.2.1. Scope
9.2.1.1. Definitions
The method specified is a projection method which permits evaluation of the optical
distortion of a safety-glass pane.
9.2.1.1.1. Optical deviation: The angle between the true and the apparent direction of a point viewed
through the safety-glass pane, the magnitude of the angle being a function of the angle of
incidence of the line of sight, the thickness and inclination of the glass pane, and the radius
of curvature at the point of incidence.
9.2.1.1.2. Optical distortion in a direction M-M': The algebraic difference in angular deviation Δα
measured between two Points M and M' on the surface of the glass pane, the distance
between the two points being such that their projections in a plane at right angles to the
direction of vision are separated by a given distance Δx (see Figure 6).
Anti-clockwise deviation should be regarded as positive and clockwise deviation as
negative.
9.2.1.1.3. Optical distortion at a Point M: The optical-distortion maximum for all directions M-M' from
the Point M.
NOTES:
Figure 6
Diagrammatic Representation of Optical Distortion
Δα = α1 - α2,
Δx = MC
i.e. the optical distortion in the direction M-M'.
i.e. the distance between two straight lines parallel to the direction of
vision and passing through the Points M and M'.

9.2.1.2.2. Slides (rasters) consisting, for example, of an array of bright circular shapes on a dark
background (see Figure 8). The slides shall be of sufficiently high quality and contrast to
enable measurement to be carried out with an error of less than 5%. In the absence of the
safety-glass pane to be examined, the dimensions of the circular shapes shall be such that
when the circular shapes are projected they form an array of circles of diameter
R + R
R
Δx, where Δx = 4 mm (see Figures 6 and 9).
Figure 8
Enlarged Section of the Slide
R = 4 m
R = 2 to 4 m (4 m preferred)
Figure 9
Arrangement of the Apparatus for the Optical Distortion Test
9.2.1.2.3. Support stand, preferably one permitting vertical and horizontal scanning, as well as rotation
of the safety-glass pane.

9.2.1.3.3. Measurement using a photoelectric device
Where a precise measurement with a possible margin of error of less than 10% of the limit
value is required, measure Δd on the projection axis, the value of the spot width being taken
at the point where the luminance is 0.5 times the maximum spot-luminance value.
9.2.1.4. Expression of results
Evaluate the optical distortion of the safety-glass panes by measuring Δd at any point of the
surface and in all directions in order to find Δd max.
9.2.1.5. Alternative method
In addition, a strioscopic technique is permitted as an alternative to the projection
techniques, provided that the accuracy of the measurements given in Paragraphs 9.2.1.3.2.
and 9.2.1.3.3. is maintained.
9.2.1.6. The distance Δx shall be 4 mm.
9.2.1.7. The windscreen shall be mounted at the same angle of inclination as on the vehicle.
9.2.1.8. The projection axis in the horizontal plane shall be maintained approximately normal to the
trace of the windscreen in that plane.
9.2.2. The Measurements shall be Performed:
9.2.2.1. For vehicle Category M in Test Area A, extended to the median plane of the vehicle, and in
the corresponding part of the windscreen symmetrical to it about the longitudinal median
plane of the vehicle, and also in the reduced Test Area B according to Paragraph 2.4. of
Annex 18.
9.2.2.2. For vehicles of Categories M and N other than M :
(a)
in Zone I as defined in Paragraph 9.2.5.2 of this Annex for M , M , N and N vehicles;
(b) either in Zone I as defined in Paragraph 9.2.5.2. of this Annex or in Test Area A,
extended to the median plane of the vehicle, and in the corresponding part of the
windscreen symmetrical to it about the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, and
also in the reduced Test Area B according to Paragraph 2.4 of Annex 18 for N
vehicles.
9.2.2.3. For agricultural and forestry tractors and for construction-site vehicles for which it is not
possible to determine Zone I, in Zone I' as defined in Paragraph 9.2.5.3. of this Annex.
9.2.2.4. Vehicle type
The test shall be repeated if the windscreen is to be fitted to a vehicle of a type in which the
forward field of vision differs from that of the vehicle type for which the windscreen has
already been approved.

9.2.6. Interpretation of Results
A windscreen type shall be considered satisfactory with respect to optical distortion if, in the
four samples submitted for testing, optical distortion does not exceed the values given below
for each zone.
Vehicle category
M and N
Zone
A extended according to
Paragraph 9.2.2.1.
B reduced according to
Paragraph 2.4. of Annex
18
Maximum values of
optical distortion
2' of arc
6' of arc
M and N categories other than M I 2' of arc
Agricultural vehicles etc. for which it is
not possible to determine Zone I
I'
2' of arc
9.2.6.1. For vehicles of Categories M and N, no measurements shall be made in a peripheral area
25 mm wide.
9.2.6.2. For agricultural and forestry tractors and for construction-site vehicles, no measurements
shall be made in a peripheral area 100 mm wide.
9.2.6.3. In the case of split windscreens, no measurements shall be made in a strip 35 mm from the
edge of the pane which is to be adjacent to the dividing pillar.
9.2.6.4. A maximum value of 6' of arc is permitted for all portions of Zone I or Zone A which are less
than 100 mm from the edge of the windscreen.
9.2.6.5. Slight deviations from the requirements may be allowed in the reduced Test Area B
according to Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 18 provided they are localized and recorded in the
report.
9.3. Secondary-image-separation Test
9.3.1. Scope
Two test methods are recognized:
target test, and
collimation-telescope test.
These test methods may be used for approval, quality-control or product-evaluation
purposes, as appropriate.

9.3.1.1.3. Expression of results
Determine whether,
when target (a) (see Figure 11(a)) is used, the primary and secondary images of the circle
separate, i.e. whether the limit value of n is exceeded, or
when target (b) (see Figure 11(b)) is used, the secondary image of the spot shifts beyond
the point of tangency with the inside edge of the circle, i.e. whether the limit value of n is
exceeded.
Figure 11
Dimensions of Targets
Figure 12
Arrangement of Apparatus

9.3.1.2.3. Expression of results
The safety-glass pane shall first be examined by a simple scanning technique to establish
the area giving the strongest secondary image. That area shall then be examined by the
collimation-telescope system at the appropriate angle of incidence. The maximum
secondary-image separation shall be measured.
9.3.1.3. The direction of observation in the horizontal plane shall be maintained approximately
normal to the trace of the windscreen in that plane.
9.3.2. The measurements shall be performed in the zones as defined in Paragraph 9.2.2. above
according to the vehicle categories.
9.3.2.1. Vehicle type
The test shall be repeated if the windscreen is to be fitted to a vehicle of a type in which the
forward field of vision differs from that of the vehicle type for which the windscreen has
already been approved.
9.3.3. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
9.3.3.1. Nature of the material
9.3.3.2. Other secondary characteristics
Polished (plate) glass Float glass Sheet glass
1 1 2
No other secondary characteristics are involved.
9.3.4. Number of Samples
Four samples shall be submitted for testing.

9.3.5. Interpretation of Results
A windscreen type shall be considered satisfactory with respect to secondary-image
separation if, in the four samples submitted for testing, separation of the primary and
secondary images does not exceed the values given below for each zone.
Vehicle category
Zone
Maximum values of the
separation of the primary
and secondary images
M and N
M and N categories other
than M
Agricultural vehicles etc. for
which it is not possible to
determine Zone I
A extended according to
Paragraph 9.2.2.1.
B reduced according to
Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 18
I
I'
15' of arc
25'of arc
15' of arc
15' of arc
9.3.5.1. For vehicles of Categories M and N, no measurements shall be made in a peripheral area
25 mm wide.
9.3.5.2. For agricultural and forestry tractors and for construction-site vehicles, no measurements
shall be made in a peripheral area 100 mm wide.
9.3.5.3. In the case of split windscreens, no measurements shall be made in a strip 35 mm from the
edge of the glass pane which is to be adjacent to the dividing pillar.
9.3.5.4. A maximum value of 25' of arc is permitted for all portions of Zone I or Zone A which are
less than 100 mm from the edge of the windscreen.
9.3.5.5. Slight deviations from the requirements may be allowed in the reduced Test Area B
according to Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 18 provided they are localized and recorded in the
report.
9.4. Identification-of-colours Test
When a windscreen is tinted in the zones defined in Paragraphs 9.2.5.1., 9.2.5.2. or 9.2.5.3.,
four windscreens shall be tested for identifiability of the following colours:
White,
Selective yellow,
Red,
Green,
Blue,
Amber.

Figure 15
Example of Combustion Chamber with Sample Holder and Drip Pan
10.4.2. Sample holder, consisting of two U-shaped metal plates or frames of corrosion-proof
material. Dimensions are given in Figure 18.
10.4.3. Gas Burner
10.4.4. Test Gas
The lower plate is equipped with pins and the upper one with corresponding holes, in order
to ensure a consistent holding of the sample. The pins also serve as measuring points at
the beginning and end of the burning distance.
A support shall be provided in the form of heat-resistant wires 0.25 mm in diameter
spanning the frame at 25-mm intervals over the bottom U-shaped frame (see Figure 19).
The plane of the lower side of samples shall be 178 mm above the floor plate. The distance
of the front edge of the sample holder from the end of the chamber shall be 22 mm; the
distance of the longitudinal sides of the sample holder from the sides of the chamber shall
be 50 mm (all inside dimensions). (See Figures 15 and 16).
The small ignition source is provided by a Bunsen burner having an inside diameter of
9.5 mm. It is so located in the test cabinet that the centre of its nozzle is 19 mm below the
centre of the bottom edge of the open end of the sample (see Figure 16).
The gas supplied to the burner shall have a calorific value of about 38 MJ/m (for example
natural gas).
10.4.5. Metal comb, at least 110 mm in length, with seven or eight smooth rounded teeth per
25 mm.

Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances according to ISO 2768
Figure 18
Example of Sample Holder
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances according to ISO 2768
Figure 19
Example of Section of Lower U-Frame Design for Wire Support Facility

10.5.2. Sampling
At least five samples shall be taken from the material under test. In materials having
burning rates differing according to the direction of the material (this being established by
preliminary tests) the five (or more) samples shall be taken and be placed in the test
apparatus in such a way that the highest burning rate will be measured.
When the material is supplied in set widths, a length of at least 500 mm covering the entire
width shall be cut. From the piece so cut, the samples shall be taken at not less than
100 mm from the edge of the material and at points equidistant from each other.
Samples shall be taken in the same way from finished products when the shape of the
product so permits. If the thickness of the product is over 13 mm it shall be reduced to
13 mm by a mechanical process applied to the side which does not face the passenger
compartment.
Composite materials (see Paragraph 10.2.2.) shall be tested as if they were homogeneous.
In the case of materials comprising superimposed layers of different composition which are
not composite materials, all the layers of material included within a depth of 13 mm from the
surface facing towards the passenger compartment shall be tested individually.
10.5.3. Conditioning
10.6. Procedure
The samples shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours, but not more than 7 days, at a
temperature of 23 ± 2° C and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%, and shall be maintained under
these conditions until immediately prior to testing.
10.6.1. Place samples with napped or tufted surfaces on a flat surface, and comb twice against the
nap using the comb (Paragraph 10.4.5.).
10.6.2. So place the sample in the sample holder (Paragraph 10.4.2.) that the exposed side faces
downwards, towards the flame.
10.6.3. Adjust the gas flame to a height of 38 mm using the mark in the chamber, the air intake of
the burner being closed. The flame shall burn for at least one minute, for stabilization,
before the first test is started.
10.6.4. Push the sample holder into the combustion chamber so that the end of the sample is
exposed to the flame, and after 15 seconds cut off the gas flow.
10.6.5. Measurement of burning time starts at the moment when the foot of the flame passes the
first measuring point. Observe the flame propagation on the side (upper or lower) which
burns faster.
10.6.6. Measurement of burning time is completed when the flame has come to the last measuring
point or when the flame is extinguished before reaching that point. If the flame does not
reach the last measuring point, measure the burnt distance up to the point where the flame
was extinguished. Burnt distance is the part of the sample destroyed, on the surface or
inside, by burning.

11.1.4. Petrol or equivalent reference petrol: a mixture of 50% by volume toluene, 30% by
volume 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 15% by volume 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene and 5% by volume
ethyl alcohol:
N.B. The composition of the petrol used shall be recorded in the test report;
11.1.5. Reference kerosene: a mixture of 50% by volume n-octane and 50% by volume n-decane.
11.2. Test Method
11.2.1. Immersion Test
Two test pieces 180 x 25 mm shall be tested with each of the chemicals specified in
Paragraph 11.1. above, using a new test piece for each test and each cleaning product.
Before each test, test pieces shall be cleaned according to the manufacturer's instructions,
then conditioned for 48 hours at a temperature of 23° C ± 2° C and a relative humidity of
50% ± 5%. These conditions shall be maintained throughout the tests.
The test pieces shall be completely immersed in the test fluid and held for one minute, then
removed and immediately wiped dry with a clean absorbent cotton cloth.
11.2.2. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
Colourless
Tinted
Colouring of the interlayer or
1
2
of the plastics coating
The other secondary characteristics are not concerned.
11.2.3. Interpretation of Results
11.2.3.1. The test for resistance to chemical agents shall be considered to have given a satisfactory
result if the test piece does not exhibit any softening, tackiness, crazing or apparent loss of
transparency.
11.2.3.2. A set of test pieces shall be considered satisfactory with regard to the test for resistance to
chemical agents if one of the following conditions is met:
11.2.3.2.1. All the tests have given a satisfactory result;
11.2.3.2.2. One test having given an unsatisfactory result, a new series of tests carried out on a new
set of test pieces has given a satisfactory result.
11.2.4. Test Procedure under Load
11.2.4.1. The test specimen shall be simply supported as a horizontal level arm between a fixed
supporting edge at one end in such a way that the entire width will rest on a cutting edge
(fulcrum) which is 51 mm from the fixed end support. A load shall be suspended from the
free end of the test specimen at a distance of 102 mm from the fulcrum as shown in
Figure 21 below:

11.2.5. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
Colourless
Tinted
Colouring of the plastics
1
2
coating or plastic glazing
The other secondary characteristics are not concerned.
11.2.6. Interpretation of Results
11.2.6.1. The test for resistance to chemical agents shall be considered to have given a satisfactory
result if the test piece does not exhibit any softening, tackiness, crazing or apparent loss of
transparency.
11.2.6.2. A set of test pieces shall be considered satisfactory with regard to the test for resistance to
chemical agents if one of the following conditions is met:
11.2.6.2.1. All the tests have given a satisfactory result;
11.2.6.2.2. One test having given an unsatisfactory result, a new series of tests carried out on a new
set of test pieces has given a satisfactory result.
12. FLEXIBILITY TEST AND FOLD TEST
12.1. Scope
With this test has to be found out whether a plastic is to be classed into the categories of
rigid or flexible plastics.
12.2. Test Method
From the material of the nominal thickness a rectangular flat sample 300 mm long and
25 mm wide is cut out and horizontally clamped into a clamping device in such a way that
275 mm of the length of the sample freely extend over the holding device. This free end
shall be supported horizontally by an appropriate device until the test begins. Sixty seconds
after removal of this support the vertical deviation of the free end is indicated in mm. If this
deviation exceeds 50 mm a 180° fold test is performed subsequently. The sample is folded
concisely, after that it is folded round 0.5 mm thick piece of sheet metal in such a way that it
tightly contacts it on both sides.
12.3. Test Conditions
– Temperature: 20° C ± 2° C
– Relative Humidity: 60% ± 5%

13.2. Apparatus
Cutting tool with 6 blades set at 1 mm apart. A magnifying glass with an enlargement of 2 x
to examine the crosscut specimen (see Figure 24).
13.3. Test Method
Figure 24
Tool with Six Blades
Cut through the coating on to the subsurface a pattern with 6 cuts and perpendicular to this
another one so that a grid with 25 squares arises (grid-cut).
The cutting tool should be drawn steadily with a speed of 2 to 5 cm/s so that the cuts reach
the subsurface but do not penetrate too deeply.
The cutting is conducted in such a way that the two leading heads at the edge of the
apparatus touch the surface uniformly. After the test the cuts are examined with a
magnifying glass to check that they reach the subsurface. The test is carried out at least at
two different positions of the specimen. After the cuts have been produced they are
brushed 5 times with slight pressure in both diagonal directions with a hand brush with
polyamide bristles.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 4
TOUGHENED-GLASS WINDSCREENS
Toughened-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types if they differ in
at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks;
1.1.2. The shape and dimensions.
Toughened-glass windscreens shall be considered as belonging to one or other of two
groups for the purposes of fragmentation and mechanical-properties test, i.e.;
1.1.2.1. flat windscreens, and
1.1.2.2. curved windscreens.
1.1.3. The thickness category in which the nominal thickness 'e' lies (a manufacturing tolerance of
± 0.2 mm being allowed):
Category I e ≤ 4.5 mm
Category II 4.5 mm < e ≤ 5.5 mm
Category III 5.5 mm < e ≤ 6.5 mm
Category IV 6.5 mm < e
1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:
1.2.1. Nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass);
1.2.2. Colouring (colourless or tinted);
1.2.3. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors;
1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.
2. FRAGMENTATION TEST
2.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
2.1.1. Only the nature of the material is involved.
2.1.2. Float glass and sheet glass are considered to have the same index of difficulty.
2.1.3. The fragmentation tests must be repeated on transition from polished (plate) glass to float
glass or sheet glass, and vice versa.

2.5.2. A fragmentation test shall be performed at each of the Points 1, 2, 3, 3', 4 and 5.
2.6. Interpretation of Results
2.6.1. A test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if fragmentation satisfies all the
conditions given in Paragraphs 2.6.1.1., 2.6.1.2. and 2.6.1.3. below.
2.6.1.1. Zone FI:
2.6.1.1.1. The number of fragments in any 5 cm x 5 cm square is not less than 40 nor more than 350;
however in the case of a count of less than 40, if the number of fragments in any
10 cm x 10 cm square containing the 5 x 5 cm square is not less than 160, this shall be
acceptable.
2.6.1.1.2. For the purposes of the above rule, a fragment extending across a side of a square shall
count as half a fragment.
2.6.1.1.3. Fragmentation shall not be checked in a strip 2 cm wide round the edge of the samples, this
strip representing the frame of the glass, nor within a radius of 7.5 cm from the point of
impact.
2.6.1.1.4. A maximum of 3 fragments of an area exceeding 3 cm shall be allowed. No two of these
fragments shall be contained within the same 10 cm diameter circle.
2.6.1.1.5. Elongated fragments may be permitted provided that their ends are not knife-edged and that
their length does not exceed 7.5 cm, except in the case provided for in Paragraph 2.6.2.2.
below. If these elongated fragments extend to the edge of the glass, they must not form an
angle of more than 45° with it.
2.6.1.2 Zone FII:
2.6.1.2.1. The residual visibility after shattering shall be checked in the rectangular area defined in
Paragraph 2.3.2. above. In that rectangle the aggregate surface area of the fragments of
more than 2 cm shall represent not less than 15% of the area of the rectangle; however, in
the case of windscreens less than 44 cm high, or whose angle of installation is less than 15°
from the vertical, the visibility percentage shall at least be equal to 10% of the surface of the
corresponding rectangle.
2.6.1.2.2. No fragment shall have an area of more than 16 cm except in the case provided for in
Paragraph 2.6.2.2. below.
2.6.1.2.3. Within a radius of 10 cm from the point of impact, but only in that part of the circle which is
included in Zone FII, three fragments having an area of more than 16 cm but less than
25 cm shall be allowed.

3. HEADFORM TEST
3.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
No secondary characteristic is involved.
3.2. Number of Samples
3.2.1. For each group of toughened-glass windscreens, four samples having approximately the
smallest developed area and four samples having approximately the largest developed
area, all eight samples being of the same types as those selected for the fragmentation
tests (see Paragraph 2.2. above), shall be subjected to testing.
3.2.2. Alternatively, at the discretion of the laboratory conducting the tests, for each category of
+ 5
windscreen thickness, six test pieces of the dimension (1,100 mm x 500 mm) mm shall
− 2
be subjected to testing.
3.3. Test Method
3.3.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 3.1.
3.3.2. The height of drop shall be 1.5 m
3.4. Interpretation of Results
+ 0
− 5
mm.
3.4.1. The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the windscreen or the test
piece is fractured.
3.4.2. A set of samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of
view of the headform test if either of the two following conditions is fulfilled, that is to say if:
3.4.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result;
3.4.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new
set of samples has given satisfactory results.
4. OPTICAL QUALITIES
The requirements concerning optical qualities set out in Annex 3, Paragraph 9., shall apply
to every type of windscreen.

2. FRAGMENTATION TEST
2.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
Plate glass
Float glass
Sheet glass
Material
Index of difficulty
2
1
1
No other secondary characteristics are involved.
2.2. Selection of Samples
2.2.1. Samples of each shape category and of each thickness category difficult to produce shall be
selected according to the following criteria for testing.
2.2.1.1. In the case of flat glass panes, two sets of samples shall be provided, corresponding to:
2.2.1.1.1. the largest developed area,
2.2.1.1.2. the smallest angle between two adjacent sides.
2.2.1.2. In the case of flat and curved glass panes, three sets of samples shall be provided,
corresponding to:
2.2.1.2.1. the largest developed area,
2.2.1.2.2. the smallest angle between two adjacent sides,
2.2.1.2.3. the largest height of segment.
2.2.2. Tests carried out on samples corresponding to the largest area 'S' shall be considered to be
applicable to any other area smaller than S + 5%.
2.2.3. If the samples submitted present an angle γ smaller than 30°, the tests shall be considered
as applicable to all glass panes produced having an angle greater than γ - 5°.
If the samples submitted present an angle γ greater than or equal to 30°, the tests shall be
considered as applicable to all glass panes produced having an angle equal to or greater
than 30°.
2.2.4. If the height of segment h of the samples submitted is greater than 100 mm, the tests shall
be considered as applicable to all glass panes produced having a height of segment smaller
than h + 30 mm.
If the height of segment of the samples submitted is less than or equal to 100 mm, the tests
shall be considered as applicable to all glass panes having a height of segment less than or
equal to 100 mm.

2.6.1.5. A few fragments of elongated shape shall be allowed, provided that:
their ends are not knife-edged,
if they extend to the edge of the glass pane they do not form an angle of more than 45° with
it,
and if, except in the case provided for in Paragraph 2.6.2.2. below,
their length does not exceed 7.5 cm.
2.6.2. A set of samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of
view of fragmentation if at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled:
2.6.2.1. When all tests carried out using the points of impact prescribed in Paragraph 2.5.1. above
have given a satisfactory result;
2.6.2.2. When one test among all those carried out using the points of impact prescribed in
Paragraph 2.5.1. has given an unsatisfactory result, taking account of deviations which do
not exceed the following limits:
not more than 5 fragments between 6 and 7.5 cm long,
not more than 4 fragments between 7.5 and 10 cm long,
and is repeated on a new sample which either conforms to the requirements of
Paragraph 2.6.1. or presents deviations within the above specified limits.
2.6.2.3. When two tests among all the tests carried out using the points of impact prescribed in
Paragraph 2.5.1. have given an unsatisfactory result, taking account of deviations not
exceeding the limits specified in Paragraph 2.6.2.2., and a further series of tests carried out
on a new set of samples conform to the prescriptions of Paragraph 2.6.1. or not more than
two samples of the new set present deviations within the above specified limits of
Paragraph 2.6.2.2.
2.6.3. If the above-mentioned deviations are found, they shall be noted in the test report and
permanent recording(s) of the fragmentation pattern of the relevant parts of the glass pane
shall be attached to the report.
3. MECHANICAL STRENGTH TEST
3.1. 227 g Ball Test
3.1.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
Material Index of difficulty Colouring Index of difficulty
Polished glass
Float glass
Sheet glass
2
1
1
colourless
tinted
1
2
The other secondary characteristic (namely, incorporation or otherwise of conductors) is not
involved.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 6
ORDINARY LAMINATED-GLASS WINDSCREENS
Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types if they
differ in at least one of the fallowing principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks.
1.1.2. The shape and dimensions,
Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to one group for the
purposes of tests of mechanical properties and of resistance to the environment.
1.1.3. The number of layers of glass,
1.1.4. The nominal thickness 'e' of the windscreen, a manufacturing tolerance of 0.2 n mm
('n' being the number of layers of glass in the windscreen) above or below the nominal value
being allowed,
1.1.5. The nominal thickness of the interlayer or interlayers,
1.1.6. The nature and type of the interlayer or interlayers (e.g. PVB or other plastics-material
interlayer or interlayers).
1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:
1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass),
1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of the interlayer or interlayers (colourless or tinted),
1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted),
1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors,
1.2.5. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of ordinary laminated-glass windscreens, tests other than headform tests
(Paragraph 3.2. below) and tests of optical qualities shall be conducted on flat test pieces
which are either cut from actual windscreens or are specially made for the purpose. In
either case the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the
serially-produced windscreens for which approval is sought.
2.2. Before each test the test pieces shall be stored for not less than four hours at a temperature
of 23° C ± 2° C. The tests shall take place as soon as possible after the test pieces have
been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

3.3. Headform Test on Flat Test Pieces
3.3.1. Number of Test Pieces
3.3.2. Test Method
Six flat test pieces measuring (1,100 mm x 500 mm)
+ 5
− 2
3.3.2.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 3.1.
shall be subjected to testing.
3.3.2.2. The height of drop shall be 4 m
+ 25
mm.
− 0
3.3.3. Interpretation of Results
3.3.3.1. This test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are
fulfilled:
3.3.3.1.1. the test piece yields and breaks, displaying numerous circular cracks centred approximately
on the point of impact;
3.3.3.1.2. tears in the interlayer are allowed provided that the manikins head does not pass through
the test piece.
3.3.3.1.3. no large fragments of glass shall become detached from the interlayer.
3.3.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of
view of the headform test if one of the following two conditions is met:
3.3.3.2.1. all the tests give satisfactory results, or
3.3.3.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new
set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.
4. MECHANICAL STRENGTH TEST
4.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
No secondary characteristic is involved.
4.2. 2,260 g Ball Test
4.2.1. Number of Test Pieces
Six square test pieces of 300 mm
+ 10
mm side shall be subjected to testing.
− 0

4.3.3.2. The height of drop for the various thickness categories and the mass of the detached
fragments are given in the table below:
Thickness
of test pieces
+ 40° C - 20° C
mm
Height of fall
m
Maximum
permitted mass of
the fragments
g
Height of fall
m
Maximum permitted
mass of the
fragments
g
e ≤ 4,5
4,5 < e ≤ 5,5
5,5 < e ≤ 6,5
e > 6,5
9
10
11
12
12
15
20
25
8,5
9
9,5
10
12
15
20
25
4.3.4. Interpretation of Results
4.3.4.1. The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are
met:
– The ball does not pass through the test piece,
– The test piece does not break into several pieces,
– If the interlayer is not torn, the weight of fragments detached from the side of the
glass opposite to the point of impact must not exceed the appropriate values specified
in Paragraph 4.3.3.2. above.
4.3.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of
view of the 227 g ball test if one of the following conditions is met:
4.3.4.2.1. Not less than eight tests at each test temperature give a satisfactory result, or
4.3.4.2.2. More than two tests at each test temperature having given an unsatisfactory result, a further
series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.
5. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
5.1. Test of Resistance to Abrasion
5.1.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 4., shall apply, the test being continued for
1,000 cycles.
+ 25
mm is allowed in height of fall.
− 0

ANNEX 7
LAMINATED-GLASS PANES OTHER THAN WINDSCREENS
1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
Laminated-glass panes other than windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types
if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The Principal Characteristics are as Follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks.
1.1.2. The thickness category of the pane in which the nominal thickness 'e' lies, a manufacturing
tolerance of ± 0.2 n mm ('n' being the number of layers of glass in the pane) being allowed:
Category I e ≤ 5.5 mm
Category II 5.5 mm < e ≤ 6.5 mm
Category III 6.5 mm < e
1.1.3. The nominal thickness of the interlayer or interlayers,
1.1.4. The nature and type of the interlayer or interlayers, e.g. PVB or other plastics-material
interlayer or interlayers,
1.1.5. Any special treatment which one or more layers of glass may have undergone.
1.2. The secondary Characteristics are as Follows:
1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass),
1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of the interlayer or interlayers (colourless or tinted),
1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).
1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of laminated-glass panes other than windscreens, the tests shall be conducted
on flat test pieces which are either cut from actual glass panes or are specially made. In
either case the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the glass
panes for the production of which approval is sought.
2.2. Before each test the test pieces of laminated glass shall be stored for not less than four
hours at a temperature of 23° C ± 2° C. The tests shall be performed on the test pieces as
soon as the test pieces have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

4.2. Number of Test Pieces
Four flat square test pieces of (300 mm x 300 mm)
testing.
+ 10
mm side shall be subjected to
− 0
4.3. Test Method
4.3.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 2.1.
4.3.2. The height of drop (from the underface of the ball to the upper face of the test piece) shall
be as indicated in the following table as a function of nominal thickness:
Nominal thickness
e ≤ 5,5 mm
5,5 mm < e ≤ 6,5 mm
6,5 mm < e
Height of drop
5 m
6 m
7 m + 25
mm
− 0
4.4. Interpretation of Results
4.4.1. The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are
met:
– the ball does not pass through the test piece,
– the test piece does not break into several fragments,
– the total weight of the few fragments which may be produced on the side opposite to
the point of impact does not exceed 15 g.
4.4.2. A set of test pieces subjected to approval testing shall be considered satisfactory from the
point of view of mechanical strength if one of the following conditions is met:
4.4.2.1. All the tests have given a satisfactory result, or
4.4.2.2. Not more than two tests having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests
carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.
5. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
5.1. Test of Resistance to Abrasion
5.1.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 4., shall apply, the test being continued for
1,000 cycles.
5.1.2. Interpretation of Results
The safety-glass pane shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of abrasion
resistance if the light scatter as a result of abrasion of the test piece does not exceed 2%.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 8
TREATED LAMINATED-GLASS WINDSCREENS
Treated laminated-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types if they
differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks.
1.1.2. The shape and dimensions
Treated laminated glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to one group for the
purposes of tests of fragmentation, of mechanical properties and of resistance to the
environment.
1.1.3. The number of layers of glass,
1.1.4. The nominal thickness 'e' of the windscreen, a manufacturing tolerance of 0.2 n mm
('n' being the number of layers of glass in the windscreen) above and below the nominal
value being allowed,
1.1.5. Any special treatment which one or more layers of glass may have undergone,
1.1.6. The nominal thickness of the interlayer or interlayers,
1.1.7. The nature and type of the interlayer or interlayers (e.g. PVB or other plastics-material
interlayer or interlayers).
1.2. The Secondary Characteristics are as Follows:
1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass),
1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of the interlayer or interlayers (colourless or tinted),
1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted),
1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors,
1.2.5. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of treated laminated-glass windscreens, tests other than the headform test on a
complete windscreen and tests of optical qualities shall be conducted on samples and/or flat
test pieces which are specially made for the purpose. However, the test pieces shall be in
all respects rigorously representative of the serially-produced windscreens for which
approval is sought.

4.5.1.1.3. For agricultural and forestry tractors and for construction-site vehicles, the position of the
visibility zone shall be indicated in the test report.
4.5.1.1.4. The height of the above rectangle may be reduced to 15 cm for windscreens which are less
than 44 cm high or whose angle of installation is less than 15° from the vertical; the
percentage of visibility shall at least be equal to 10% of the area of the corresponding
rectangle.
4.5.1.2. In the case of a test piece, the centre of the rectangle shall be situated on the greater axis of
the test piece at 450 mm from one of its edges.
4.5.2. The test piece(s) or sample(s) submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from
the point of view of fragmentation if either of the following conditions is met:
4.5.2.1. The test gives a satisfactory result for each point of impact, or
4.5.2.2. The test having been repeated on a new set of four test pieces for each point of impact for
which it had originally given an unsatisfactory result, the four new tests, performed at the
same impact points all give a satisfactory result.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 10
GLASS-PLASTICS WINDSCREENS
Glass-plastics windscreens shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at
least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The Principal Characteristics are as Follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks,
1.1.2. The shape and dimensions.
Glass-plastics windscreens shall be deemed to belong to a group for the purposes of tests
of mechanical strength, resistance to the environment, resistance to temperature changes
and resistance to chemical agents,
1.1.3. The number of plastics layers,
1.1.4. The nominal thickness 'e' of the windscreen, a manufacturing tolerance of ± 0.2 mm being
allowed,
1.1.5. The nominal thickness of the layer of glass,
1.1.6. The nominal thickness of the layer(s) of plastics acting as interlayer(s),
1.1.7. The nature and type of the layer(s) of plastics acting as interlayer(s) (e.g. PVB or other
material) and of the plastics layer situated on the inner face,
1.1.8. Any special treatment the glass pane may have undergone.
1.2. The secondary Characteristics are as Follows:
1.2.1. The nature of the material (plate glass, float glass, sheet glass),
1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of any layer(s) of plastics (colourless or tinted),
1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted),
1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors,
1.2.5. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of glass-plastics windscreens, tests other than headform tests (Paragraph 3.2.)
and tests of optical qualities shall be conducted on flat test pieces which are either cut from
actual windscreens or are specially made for the purpose. In either case the test pieces
shall in all respects be, rigorously representative of the serially-produced windscreens for
which approval is sought.

3.3. Headform Test on Flat Test Pieces
3.3.1. Number of Test Pieces
Six flat test pieces measuring (1,100 mm x 500 mm)
+ 5 mm shall be subjected to testing.
− 2
3.3.2. Test Method
3.3.2.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 3. 1.
3.3.2.2. The height of drop shall be 4 m
3.3.3. Interpretation of Results
+ 25
mm
− 0
3.3.3.1. This test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions
are met:
3.3.3.1.1. The layer of glass yields and breaks, displaying numerous circular, cracks centred
approximately on the point of impact;
3.3.3.1.2. Tears in the interlayer are allowed, but the manikin's head must not pass through;
3.3.3.1.3. No large fragment of glass shall become detached from the interlayer.
3.3.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory with respect to
the headform test if one of the following conditions is met:
3.3.3.2.1. All the tests give satisfactory results, or
3.3.3.2.2. One test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new
set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.
4. MECHANICAL STRENGTH TEST
4.1. Indices of Difficulty, Test Method and Interpretation of Results
The requirements of Annex 6, Paragraph 4., shall apply.
4.2. However the third requirement set out in Paragraph 4.3.4.1. of Annex 6 is not relevant.
5. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
5.1. Test of Resistance to Abrasion
5.1.1. Test of Resistance to Abrasion on the Outer Face
5.1.1.1. The requirements of Annex 6, Paragraph 5.1., shall apply.
5.1.2. Test of Resistance to Abrasion on the Inner Face
5.1.2.1. The requirements of Annex 9, Paragraph 2., shall apply.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 11
GLASS-PLASTICS PANES OTHER THAN WINDSCREENS
Glass-plastics panes other than windscreens shall be considered to belong to different types
if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The Principal Characteristics are as Follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks,
1.1.2. The thickness category applicable to the nominal thickness 'e' a manufacturing tolerance of
± 0.2 mm being allowed:
Category I
e
≤ 3.5 mm
Category II
3.5 mm
< e
≤ 4.5 mm
Category III
4.5 mm
< e
1.1.3. The nominal thickness of the layer(s) of plastics material acting as interlayer(s),
1.1.4. The nominal thickness of the glass pane,
1.1.5. The type of the layer(s) of plastics material acting as interlayer(s) (e.g. PVB or other
material) and of the plastics layer on the inner face,
1.1.6. Any special treatment which the layer of glass may have undergone.
1.2. The Secondary Characteristics are as Follows:
1.2.1. The nature of the material (plate glass, float glass, sheet glass),
1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of any layer(s) of plastics (colourless or tinted),
1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).
1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of glass-plastics panes other than windscreens the tests shall be conducted on
flat test pieces which are either cut from normal glass panes or are specially made. In either
case the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the glass panes for
the production of which approval is sought.
2.2. Before each test, the test pieces of glass-plastics panes shall be stored for not less than
four hours at a temperature of 23° C ± 2° C. The tests shall take place as soon as possible
after the test pieces have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.
2.3. The provisions of this Annex shall be considered to be met if the glass pane submitted for
approval has the same composition as that of a windscreen already approved under the
provisions of Annex 10.

5. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
5.1 Test of Resistance to Abrasion
5.1.1. Test of resistance to abrasion on the outer face
The requirements of Annex 7, Paragraph 5.1., shall apply.
5.1.2. Test of resistance to abrasion on the inner face
The requirements of Annex 9, Paragraph 2.1., shall apply.
5.2. Test of Resistance to High Temperature
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 5., shall apply.
5.3. Resistance-to-radiation Test
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 6.3., shall apply.
5.4. Resistance-to-humidity Test
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 7., shall apply.
5.5. Test of Resistance to Temperature Changes
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 8., shall apply.
6. OPTICAL QUALITIES
The provisions concerning the regular light transmittance set out in Annex 3,
Paragraph 9.1., shall apply to glass panes or parts of glass panes other than windscreens
located at places which are essential to the driver's vision.
7. FIRE-RESISTANCE TEST
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 10., shall apply.
8. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO CHEMICALS
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 11.2.1., shall apply.

3.2. Number of Test Pieces
+ 5
Six test pieces (1,100 mm x 500 mm) mm shall be subjected to testing for each
− 2
category of thickness of the component glass panes and each width of gap as defined in
Paragraph 1.1.4. above.
3.3. Test Method
3.3.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 3.1.
3.3.2. The height of drop shall be 1.50 m
+ 0
− 5
mm.
3.3.3. In the case of an asymmetrical double-glazed unit, three tests shall be carried out on one
side and three tests on the other side.
3.4. Interpretation of Results
3.4.1. Double glazing consisting of two uniformly-toughened glass panes:
The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if both components break;
3.4.2. Double glazing consisting of laminated glass panes and/or glass-plastics panes other than
windscreens:
The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are
met:
3.4.2.1. The two components of the test piece yield and break, displaying numerous circular cracks
centred approximately on the point of impact;
3.4.2.2. Tears in the interlayer(s) are allowed provided that the manikin's head does no pass through
the test piece.
3.4.2.3. No large fragment of glass becomes detached from the interlayer.
3.4.3. Double glazing consisting of a uniformly-toughened glass pane and of a laminated glass
pane or glass-plastics pane other than windscreens:
3.4.3.1. The toughened-glass pane breaks;
3.4.3.2. The laminated glass pane or glass-plastics pane yields and breaks, displaying numerous
circular cracks centred approximately on the point of impact;
3.4.3.3. Tears in the interlayer(s) are allowed provided that the manikin's head does not pass
through the test piece;
3.4.3.4. No large fragment of glass becomes detached from the interlayer.

ANNEX 13
GROUPING OF WINDSCREENS FOR APPROVAL TESTING
1. THE WINDSCREEN'S FEATURES TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT ARE:
1.1. The developed area,
1.2. The height of segment,
1.3. The curvature.
2. A GROUP IS MADE UP OF A THICKNESS CLASS
3. CLASSIFICATION IS PERFORMED IN ASCENDING ORDER OF DEVELOPED AREA
The five largest and the five smallest developed areas shall be selected, and shall be
numbered as follows:
1 for the largest
1 for the smallest
2 for the next largest after 1
2 for the next smallest after 1
3 for the next largest after 2
3 for the next smallest after 2
4 for the next largest after 3
4 for the next smallest after 3
5 for the next largest after 4
5 for the next smallest after 4
4. WITHIN EACH OF THE TWO SERIES DEFINED UNDER PARAGRAPH 3. ABOVE, THE
HEIGHTS OF SEGMENT SHALL BE INDICATED AS FOLLOWS:
1 for the greatest height of segment,
2 for the next greatest,
3 for the next greatest,
etc.
5. WITHIN EACH OF THE TWO SERIES DEFINED UNDER PARAGRAPH 3. ABOVE, THE
CURVATURES SHALL BE INDICATED AS FOLLOWS:
1 for the smallest curvature,
2 for the next smallest,
3 for the next smallest,
etc.
6. THE NUMBERS ASSIGNED TO EACH WINDSCREEN IN THE TWO SERIES DEFINED
UNDER PARAGRAPH 3. ABOVE SHALL BE ADDED TOGETHER
6.1. The windscreen among those having the five largest areas which has the smallest total, and
the windscreen among those having the five smallest areas which has the smallest total,
shall be subjected to complete tests as defined in one of Annexes 4, 6, 8, 9 and 10.
6.2. The other windscreens of the same series shall be subjected to the tests of optical qualities
described in Annex 3, Paragraph 9.

9.3.1.3. For treated laminated-glass windscreens, the tests prescribed in Paragraphs 9.3.1.1.1.,
9.3.1.1.2. and 9.3.1.2.
9.3.1.4. For windscreens faced with plastics material, the tests prescribed in Paragraph 9.3.1.1. or
9.3.1.2., as the case may be.
9.3.2. If not, only the tests prescribed for checking optical qualities as described in Annex 3,
Paragraph 9., shall be carried out.

3. FLEXIBILITY TEST
3.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
No secondary characteristic is involved.
3.2. Number of Test Pieces
One flat test piece measuring 300 mm x 25 mm shall be subjected to testing.
3.3. Test Method
3.3.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 12.
3.4. Interpretation of Results
For a test piece or sample to be considered rigid the vertical deflection of the test piece shall
be less than or equal to 50 mm after 60 seconds.
4. HEADFORM TEST
4.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
No secondary characteristic is involved.
4.2. Number of Test Pieces
Six flat test pieces (1170 x 570 +0/-2 mm) or six complete parts shall be subjected to
testing.
4.3. Test Method
4.3.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex 3, Paragraph 3.2.
4.3.2. For panes like partitions and separating windows which have impact probability
(classification VIII/A) the drop height shall be 3 m. The HIC value is also to be measured.
4.3.3. For panes like side windows, back windows and sunroofs which have reduced impact
possibilities (classification VIII/B) the drop height shall be 1.5 m. The HIC value is also to be
measured.
4.3.4. For panes which do not have contact possibilities as well as for small windows in vehicles
and for all windows in trailers (classification VIII/C) there will be no headform testing. A
small window is a window into which a 150 mm diameter circle cannot be scribed.
4.4. Interpretation of Results
The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are
fulfilled:
4.4.1. The test piece or sample is not penetrated nor shall it break into fully separate large pieces.
4.4.2. The HIC value is less than 1000.

5.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of
view of the 227 g ball test if one of the following conditions is met:
5.4.2.1. Eight or more separate tests give a satisfactory result at the drop height.
5.4.2.2. Three or more tests having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried
out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.
5.5. 227 g Ball Test at -18° C ± 2° C
5.5.1. To minimize the temperature change of the test piece, the test shall be performed within
30 seconds of the removal of the test piece from the conditioning appliance.
5.5.2. The test method shall be that described inn Paragraph 5.3. of this Annex, except that the
test temperature is -18° C ± 2° C.
5.5.3. Interpretation of results as in Paragraph 5.4. of this Annex.
6. TEST RESISTANCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
6.1. Test of Resistance to Abrasion
6.1.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 4., shall apply; the test is performed for either
1,000, 500 or 100 cycles to measure abrasion of the surface of the product.
6.1.2. Three flat square test pieces of 100 mm side for each type of surface shall be subjected to
testing.
6.1.3. Interpretation of Results
6.1.3.1. In the case of glazing of class L, the abrasion test shall be considered to have given a
satisfactory result if the total light scatter after abrasion does not exceed 2% after
1,000 cycles on the outer surface of the test sample and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner
surface of the test sample.
6.1.3.2. In the case of glazing of class M, the abrasion test shall be considered to have given a
satisfactory result if the total light scatter after abrasion does not exceed 10% after
500 cycles on the outer surface of the test sample and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner
surface of the test sample.
6.1.3.3. For sun roofs, no abrasion test is required.
6.1.4. A set of samples for approval shall be considered satisfactory if one of the following
conditions is met:
– all samples meet the requirements or
– one sample having failed, a repeat of the tests on a new set of samples gives a
satisfactory result.

6.3.3.2. The test piece shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of approval if one of
the following conditions is met:
6.3.3.2.1. The test has given satisfactory results.
6.3.3.2.2. The test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further test carried out on another
remaining test piece from test 6.2 gives satisfactory results.
6.4. Resistance-to-humidity Test
6.4.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 7., shall apply.
6.4.2. Ten flat square test pieces of 300 mm side shall be subjected to testing.
6.4.3. Interpretation of Results
6.4.3.1 The humidity test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:
6.4.3.1.1. No visible decompositions like bubbles or milkiness occur on any sample,
6.4.3.1.2 and if the light transmittance measured according to Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1. does not fall
to less than 95% of the pre-test value and additionally to no less than 70% for any window
required for driver visibility.
6.4.4. After testing the test pieces shall be stored for at least 48 hours at a temperature of
23° C ± 2° C and a relative humidity of 50% ± 5%, and then subjected to the 227 g ball drop
test described under Item 5 of this Annex.
7. OPTICAL QUALITIES
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1. shall apply for products which are requisite for
driver visibility.
7.1. Interpretation of Results
A set of samples shall be considered as satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:
7.1.1. All samples give a satisfactory results.
7.1.2. One sample having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives
satisfactory results.
8. FIRE RESISTANCE TEST
8.1. Indices of difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 10., shall apply.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 15
FLEXIBLE PLASTIC GLAZINGS OTHER THAN WINDSCREENS
Flexible plastic glazings shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at
least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The Principal Characteristics are as Follows:
1.1.1. Trade names or marks,
1.1.2. The chemical designation of the material.
1.1.3. The classification of the material by the manufacturer.
1.1.4. The process of manufacture.
1.1.5. The nominal thickness (e), a manufacturing tolerance being allowed: ± (0.1 mm + 0.1 e);
d > 0.1 mm.
1.1.6. The colouring of the plastic product.
1.1.7. The nature of the surface coating(s).
1.2. The Secondary Characteristics are as Follows:
1.2.1. No secondary characteristic is involved.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of flexible plastic glazings the tests shall be conducted on flat test pieces which
either are cut from finished products or are specially produced for that purpose. In both
cases the test piece must in every respect be rigorously representative for the panes which
are produced in the run and for which approval is being sought.
2.2. The test pieces must be freed from protecting masks and have to be cleaned carefully
before the test.
2.2.1. They must be stored for 48 hours at a temperature of 23° C ± 2° C and a relative humidity of
50% ± 5%.
3. FLEXIBILITY TEST AND FOLD TEST
3.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics
No secondary characteristic is involved.
3.2. Number of Test Pieces
One flat test piece measuring 300 mm x 25 mm shall be subjected to testing.

5. TEST OF RESISTANCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
5.1. Test of Resistance to Simulated Weathering
5.1.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 6.4. shall apply. The total ultraviolet radiant
exposure with the long arc xenon lamp shall be 500 MJ/m . During irradiation the test
pieces shall be exposed to water spray in continuous cycles. During a cycle of 120 minutes
the test pieces are exposed to light without water spray for 102 minutes, and to light with
water spray for 18 minutes.
5.1.1.1. Other methods giving equivalent results shall be allowed.
5.1.2. Number of Test Pieces
Three flat test pieces 130 x 40 mm cut from a flat sheet sample shall be subjected to testing.
5.1.3. Interpretation of Results
The resistance to the simulated weathering test shall be considered to have given a
satisfactory result if:
5.1.3.1. The light transmittance measured in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1. does not fall
below 95% of the pre-weathering value. Additionally, for windows which are required for
driver visibility the value shall not fall below 70%.
5.1.3.2. No bubbles or other visible decompositions, discolourations, milkiness or crazing shall occur
during weathering.
5.1.4. A set of test pieces or samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from
the point of view of the resistance to simulated weathering if one of the following conditions
is met:
5.1.4.1. All test pieces have given a satisfactory result.
5.1.4.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on
a new set of test pieces or samples gives satisfactory results.
6. OPTICAL QUALITIES
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1. shall apply for products which are requisite for
driver visibility.
6.1. Interpretation of Results
A set of samples shall be considered as satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:
6.1.1. All samples have given a satisfactory results.
6.1.2. One sample having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives
satisfactory results.

1. DEFINITION OF TYPE
ANNEX 16
RIGID PLASTIC DOUBLE GLAZED UNITS
Double glazed units shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least
one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.
1.1. The Principal Characteristics are as Follows:
1.1.1. The trade names or marks,
1.1.2. The chemical designation of the component sheets.
1.1.3. The classification of the sheets by the manufacturer.
1.1.4. The thickness of the component sheets.
1.1.5. The process of window manufacture.
1.1.6. The width of air gap between the component plastic sheets.
1.1.7. The colouring of the plastic sheets.
1.1.8. The nature and type of coating.
1.2. The Secondary Characteristics are as Follows:
1.2.1. No secondary characteristic is involved.
2. GENERAL
2.1. In the case of rigid plastic double glazed units, tests will be performed on either flat test
pieces or finished parts depending upon test requirements.
2.2. The test pieces must be freed from protecting maskings and cleaned before testing. They
must be stored for 24 hours at a temperature of 23° C ± 2° C and a relative humidity of 50%
± 5% prior to testing.
2.3. The nominal thickness tolerance for extruded plastic products is ± 10% of the nominal
thickness. For plastic products produced by other techniques (e.g. cast acrylic sheet), the
acceptable thickness tolerance is given by the equation:
thickness tolerance limits (mm) = ± (0.4 + 0.1 e)
where e is the sheet nominal thickness.
Reference standard is ISO 7823/1
NB: Where the thickness is not constant due to forming techniques, the measurement of the
thickness will be at the geometric centre of the unit.

4.3.4. For panes which do not have contact possibilities such as windows in trailer caravans as
well as for small windows there will be no headform testing. A small window is a window
into which a 150 mm diameter circle cannot be scribed.
4.4. Interpretation of Results
The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are
fulfilled:
4.4.1. The test piece or sample is not penetrated nor shall it break into fully separate large pieces.
4.4.2. The HIC value is less than 1000.
4.4.3. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of
view of the headform test if one of the following conditions is met:
4.4.3.1. All the tests give satisfactory results, or
4.4.3.2. One test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new
set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.
5. MECHANICAL STRENGTH TEST 227 g BALL TEST
5.1. Indices of Difficulty of the Secondary Characteristics:
No secondary characteristic is involved.
5.2. Number of Test Pieces
Ten flat test pieces of the outer component sheet or ten finished parts of size 300 x 300 mm
+10/-0 mm shall be subjected to testing.
5.3. Test Method
5.3.1. The method used shall be that prescribed in Annex 3, Paragraph 2.1.
Impact will be on the outer side of the test window
5.3.2. The height of drop for the various thickness values of the outer component of the window is
given in the table below:
Outer sheet thickness (mm)
< 3
4
5
> 6
Height of drop (m)
2
3
4
5
For intermediate values of thickness in the interval between 3 mm and 6 mm the height of
drop must be interpolated.

6.1.4. A set of samples for approval shall be considered satisfactory if one of the following
conditions is met:
– All samples meet the requirements or
– One sample having failed, a repeat of the tests on a new set of samples gives a
satisfactory result.
6.2. Test of Resistance to Simulated Weathering
6.2.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 6.4. shall apply. The total ultraviolet radiant
exposure with the long arc xenon lamp shall be 500 MJ/m . During irradiation the test
pieces shall be exposed to water spray in continuous cycles. During a cycle of 120 minutes
the test pieces are exposed to light without water spray for 102 minutes, and to light with
water spray for 18 minutes.
6.2.1.1. Other methods giving equivalent results shall be allowed.
6.2.2. Number of Test Pieces
Three flat test pieces 130 x 40 mm cut from the outer skin of the window shall be subjected
to testing.
6.2.3. Interpretation of Results
6.2.3.1. The resistance to the simulated weathering shall be considered to have given a satisfactory
result if:
6.2.3.1.1. The light transmittance measured in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1 does not fall
below 95% of the pre-weathering value. Additionally, for windows which are required for
driver visibility the value shall not fall below 70%.
6.2.3.1.2. No bubbles or other visible decompositions, discolourations, milkiness or crazing shall occur
during weathering.
6.2.4. A set of test pieces or samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from
the point of view of the resistance to simulated weathering if one of the following conditions
is met:
6.2.4.1. All test pieces have given a satisfactory result.
6.2.4.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on
a new set of test pieces or samples gives satisfactory results.
6.3. Cross-cut Test
6.3.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 13., shall apply only to coated products.
6.3.2. The cross-cut test shall be carried out on one of the test pieces from 6.2.

8. FIRE RESISTANCE TEST
8.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 10., shall apply.
8.2. Interpretation of Results
The test needs to be performed separately on both surfaces of the double glazed unit.
The fire-resistance test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the burning
rate is less than 110 mm/min.
8.2.1. For the purpose of approval a set of samples will be considered satisfactory if one of the
following conditions is met:
8.2.1.1. All samples give a satisfactory result.
8.2.1.2. One sample having given an unsatisfactory result a second set of samples gives
satisfactory results.
9. RESISTANCE TO CHEMICALS
9.1. Indices of Difficulty and Test Method
The requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 11., shall apply.
Testing will only be applied to samples representative of the outer face of the double glazed
unit.
9.2. Interpretation of Results
A set of samples shall be considered acceptable if one of the following conditions is met:
9.2.1. All samples give satisfactory results.
9.2.2. One sample having given an unsatisfactory result, a second set of samples gives
satisfactory results.

Figure 2
Prescribed Points of Impact for Windscreens

ANNEX 18
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING TEST AREAS ON WINDSCREENS
OF VEHICLES IN RELATION TO THE 'V' POINTS
1. POSITION OF THE 'V' POINTS
1.1. The position of the 'V' Points in relation to the 'R' Point (see Annex 19 to this Regulation), as
indicated by the X, Y and Z co-ordinates in the three-dimensional reference system, are
shown in Tables 1 and 2.
1.2. Table 1 gives the basic co-ordinates for a design seat-back angle of 25°. The positive
direction of the co-ordinates is shown in this Annex, Figure 3.
Table 1
'V' Point a b c (d)
V
V
68 mm
68 mm
-5 mm
-5 mm
665 mm
589 mm
1.3. Correction for Design Seat-back Angles other than 25°
1.3.1. Table 2 shows the further corrections to be made to the X and Z co-ordinates of each
'V' Point when the design seat-back angle is not 25°. The positive direction of the
co-ordinates is shown in this Annex, Figure 3.
Table 2
Seat back
angle
(in degrees)
Horizontal
co-ordinates
X
Vertical
co-ordinates
Z
Seat back
angle
(in degrees)
Horizontal
co-ordinates
X
Vertical
co-ordinates
Z
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
- 186 mm
- 176 mm
- 167 mm
- 157 mm
- 147 mm
- 137 mm
- 128 mm
- 118 mm
- 109 mm
- 99 mm
- 90 mm
- 81 mm
- 71 mm
- 62 mm
- 53 mm
- 44 mm
- 35 mm
- 26 mm
28 mm
27 mm
27 mm
26 mm
26 mm
25 mm
24 mm
23 mm
22 mm
21 mm
20 mm
18 mm
17 mm
15 mm
13 mm
11 mm
9 mm
7 mm
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
- 17 mm
- 9 mm
0 mm
9 mm
17 mm
26 mm
34 mm
43 mm
51 mm
59 mm
67 mm
76 mm
84 mm
92 mm
100 mm
107 mm
115 mm
123 mm
5 mm
2 mm
0 mm
- 3 mm
- 5 mm
- 8 mm
- 11 mm
- 14 mm
- 17 mm
- 21 mm
- 24 mm
- 28 mm
- 31 mm
- 35 mm
- 39 mm
- 43 mm
- 47 mm
- 52 mm

2.4.2.2. any opaque obscuration bounded downwards by Plane 1 provided it is inscribed in an area
300 mm wide centred on the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle and provided the
opaque obscuration below the Plane 5 trace is inscribed in an area limited laterally by the
traces of planes passing by the limits of a 150 mm wide segment and parallel respectively
to the traces of Planes 4 and 4'.
2.4.3. any opaque obscuration bounded by the intersection of the outer surface of the windscreen:
(a)
with a plane inclined downwards from the X axis at 4°, passing through V , and
parallel to the Y axis (Plane 9);
(b) with Plane 6;
(c)
with Planes 7 and 8 or the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen if the
intersection of Plane 6 with Plane 7 (Plane 6 with Plane 8) doesn't cross the outer
surface of the windscreen;
2.4.4. any opaque obscuration bounded by the intersection of the outer surface of the windscreen:
(a) with a horizontal plane passing through V (Plane 10);
(b) with Plane 3
(c) with Plane 7 or the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen if the intersection of
Plane 6 with Plane 7 (Plane 6 with Plane 8) doesn't cross the outer surface of the
windscreen;
(d) with Plane 9;
2.4.5. an area within 25 mm from the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen or from any
opaque obscuration. This area shall not impinge on the extended Test Area A.
2.5. Definition of the datum points (see Figure 3)
The datum points are points situated at the intersection with the outer surface of the
windscreen of lines radiating forward from the V Points:
2.5.1. upper vertical datum point forward of V and 7° above the horizontal (P );
2.5.2. lower vertical datum point forward of V and 5° below the horizontal (P );
2.5.3. horizontal datum point forward of V and 17° to the left (P );
2.5.4. three additional datum points symmetrical to the points defined under Paragraphs 2.5.1. to
2.5.3. in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle (respectively P' , P' , P' ).
Measured on the outer surface of the windscreen and on the trace of Plane 1.
For the other side of the windscreen, with a symmetrical plane with respect to Plane 3 in relation to the longitudinal median
plane of the vehicle.
For the other side of the windscreen, with Plane 8.

Figure 1b
Test Area "A" (Example of Central Driving Position)

Figure 2b
Reduced Test Area "B" (Example of a Left-hand Steering Control Vehicle)
Upper Obscuration Area as Defined in Paragraph 2.4.2.1.

ANNEX 19
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE 'H' POINT AND THE ACTUAL TORSO ANGLE FOR
SEATING POSITIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES
1. PURPOSE
The procedure described in this Annex is used to establish the 'H' point location and the
actual torso angle for one or several seating positions in a motor vehicle and to verify the
relationship of measured data to design specification given by the vehicle manufacturer.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Annex:
2.1. "Reference data" means one or several of the following characteristics of a seating
position:
2.1.1. the 'H' Point and the 'R' Point and their relationship;
2.1.2. the actual torso angle and the design torso angle and their relationship;
2.2. "Three-dimensional H-point machine" (3 DH machine) means the device used for the
determination of H Points and actual torso angles. This device is described in Appendix 1 to
this Annex.
2.3. "H Point" means the pivot centre of the torso and thigh of the 3 DH machine installed in the
vehicle seat in accordance with the procedure described in Paragraph 3 below. The H Point
is located in the centre of the centre line of the device which is between the H Point sight
buttons on either side of the 3 DH machine. The H Point corresponds theoretically to the
R Point (for tolerances, see Paragraph 3.2.2. below). Once determined in accordance with
the procedure described in Paragraph 4, the H Point is considered as fixed in relation to the
seat-cushion structure and as moving with it when the seat is adjusted.
2.4. "R Point" or "seating reference point" means a design point defined by the vehicle
manufacturer for each seating position and established with respect to the
three-dimensional reference system.
2.5. "Torso line" means the centre line of the probe of the 3 DH machine with the probe in the
fully rearward position.
2.6. "Actual torso angle" means the angle measured between a vertical line through the
H Point and the torso line using the back angle quadrant on the 3 DH machine. The actual
torso angle corresponds theoretically to the design torso angle (for tolerances, see
Paragraph 3.2.2. below).
2.7. "Design torso angle" means the angle measured between a vertical line through the
R Point and the torso line in a position corresponding to the design position of the seat-back
specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
In any seating position other than front seats where the H Point cannot be determined using the three-dimensional machine
or other procedures, the R Point indicated by the vehicle manufacturer may be taken as a reference at the discretion of the
competent authority.

3.2.5. If the results of at least two of the three operations described in Paragraph 3.2.4. above do
not satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 3.2.2. above, or the verification cannot take place
because the vehicle manufacturer has failed to supply information regarding the position of
the R Point or regarding the design torso angle, the centroid of the three measured points or
the average of the three measured angles shall be used and be regarded as applicable in all
cases where the R Point or the design torso angle is referred to in this Regulation.
4. PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE H POINT AND THE ACTUAL TORSO ANGLE
4.1. The vehicle shall be preconditioned at a temperature of 20° C ± 10° C, at the manufacturer's
discretion, to ensure that the seat material reaches room temperature. If the seat to be
checked has never been used, a 70 to 80 kg person or device shall be placed on the seat
twice for one minute to flex the cushion and back. At the manufacturer's request, all seat
assemblies shall remain unloaded for a minimum period of 30 minutes prior to installation of
the 3 DH machine.
4.2. The vehicle shall be in the measuring attitude defined in Paragraph 2.11. above.
4.3. The seat, if adjustable, shall be adjusted first to the rearmost normal driving or riding
position, as indicated by the vehicle manufacturer, taking into consideration only the
longitudinal adjustment of the seat, excluding seat travel used for purposes other than
normal driving or riding positions. Where other modes of seat adjustment exist (vertical,
angular, seat-back, etc.) these will be then adjusted to the position specified by the vehicle
manufacturer. For suspension seats, the vertical position shall be rigidly fixed
corresponding to a normal driving position as specified by the manufacturer.
4.4. The area of the seating position taken up by the 3 DH machine shall be covered by a muslin
cotton, of sufficient size and appropriate texture, described as a plain cotton fabric having
18.9 threads per cm and weighing 0.228 kg/m , or knitted or non-woven fabric having
equivalent characteristics. If the test is performed on a seat outside the vehicle, the floor on
which the seat is placed shall have the same essential characteristics as the floor of the
vehicle in which the seat is intended to be used.
4.5. Place the seat and back assembly of the 3 DH machine so that the centre plane of the
occupant (CPO) coincides with the centre plane of the 3 DH machine. At the
manufacturer's request, the 3 DH machine may be moved inboard with respect to the CPO
if the 3 DH machine is located so far outboard that the seat edge will not permit levelling of
the 3 DH machine.
4.6. Attach the foot and lower leg assemblies to the seat-pan assembly, either individually or by
using the T-bar and lower leg assembly. The line through the H Point sight buttons shall be
parallel to the ground and perpendicular to the longitudinal centre plane of the seat.
Tilt angle, height difference with a seat mounting, surface texture, etc.

4.12. Tilt the back pan forward to release the tension on the back-seat. Rock the 3 DH machine
from side to side through a 10° arc (5° to each side of the vertical centre plane) for three
complete cycles to release any accumulated friction between the 3 DH machine and the
seat.
During the rocking action, the T-bar of the 3 DH machine may tend to diverge from the
specified horizontal and vertical alignment. The T-bar must therefore be restrained by
applying an appropriate lateral load during the rocking motions. Care should be exercised
in holding the T-bar and rocking the 3 DH machine to ensure that no inadvertent exterior
loads are applied in a vertical or fore-and-aft direction.
The feet of the 3 DH machine are not to be restrained or held during this step. If the feet
change position, they should then be allowed to remain in that attitude.
Carefully return the back pan to the seat-back and check the two spirit levels for zero
position. If any movement of the feet has occurred during the rocking operation of the
3 DH machine, they must be repositioned as follows:
Alternately, lift each foot off the floor the minimum necessary amount until no additional foot
movement is obtained. During this lifting, the feet are to be free to rotate; no forward or
lateral loads are to be applied. When each foot is placed back in the down position, the heel
is to be in contact with the structure designed for this.
Check the lateral spirit level for zero position; if necessary, apply a lateral load to the top of
the back pan sufficient to level the 3 DH machine's seat pan on the seat.
4.13. Holding the T-bar to prevent the 3 DH machine from sliding forward on the seat cushion,
proceed as follows:
(a)
(b)
return the back pan to the seat-back,
alternately apply and release a horizontal rearward load, not to exceed 25 N, to the
back angle bar at a height approximately at the centre of the torso weights until the
hip angle quadrant indicates that a stable position has been reached after load
release. Care should be taken to ensure that no exterior downward or lateral loads
are applied to the 3 DH machine. If another level adjustment of the 3 DH machine is
necessary, rotate the back pan forward, re-level, and repeat the procedure from 4.12.
4.14. Take all measurements:
4.14.1. The co-ordinates of the H Point are measured with respect to the three-dimensional
reference system.
4.14.2. The actual torso angle is read at the back angle quadrant of the 3 DH machine with the
probe in its fully rearward position.
4.15. If a repetition of the installation of the 3 DH machine is desired, the seat assembly shall
remain unloaded for a minimum period of 30 minutes prior to the repetition. The
3 DH machine shall not be left loaded on the seat assembly longer than the time required to
perform the test.

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 1
DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL H POINT MACHINE
(3 DH MACHINE)
1. BACK AND SEAT PANS
The back and seat pans are constructed of reinforced plastics and metal; they simulate the
human torso and thighs and are mechanically hinged at the H Point. A quadrant is fastened
to the probe hinged at the H Point to measure the actual torso angle. An adjustable thigh
bar, attached to the seat pan, establishes the thigh centreline and serves as a baseline for
the hip angle quadrant.
2. BODY AND LEG ELEMENTS
Lower leg segments are connected to the seat pan assembly at the T-bar joining the knees,
which is a lateral extension of the adjustable thigh bar. Quadrants are incorporated in the
lower leg segments to measure knee angles. Shoe and foot assemblies are calibrated to
measure the foot angle. Two spirit levels orient the device in space. Body element weights
are placed at the corresponding-centres of gravity to provide seat penetration equivalent to
a 76 kg male. All joints of the 3 DH machine should be checked for free movement without
encountering any noticeable friction.
For details of the construction of the 3 DH machine refer to Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth
Drive, Warrendale, Pennsylvania 15096, United States of America.
The machine corresponds to that described in ISO Standard 6549-1980.

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 1
Figure 2
Dimensions of 3 DH Machine Components and Load Distribution

ANNEX 19 – APPENDIX 3
REFERENCE DATA CONCERNING SEATING POSITIONS
1. CODING OF REFERENCE DATA
Reference data are listed consecutively for each seating position. Seating positions are
identified by a two-character code. The first character is an Arabic numeral which
designates the row of seats, counting from the front to the rear of the vehicle. The second is
a capital letter which designates the location of the seating position in a row, as viewed in
the direction of forward motion of the vehicle; the following letters shall be used:
L
C
R
= left,
= centre,
= right.
2. DESCRIPTION OF VEHICLE MEASURING ATTITUDE
2.1. Co-ordinates of Fiducial Marks
X .........................................................
Y .........................................................
Z .........................................................
3. LIST OF REFERENCE DATA
3.1. Seating position: .................................
3.1.1. Co-ordinates of the R Point:
X .........................................................
Y .........................................................
Z .........................................................
3.1.2. Design torso angle: ............................
3.1.3. Specifications for seat adjustment
horizontal: ........ ...................................
vertical: ............ ...................................
angular: ........... ...................................
torso angle: ..... ...................................
Note: List reference data for further seating positions under 3.2., 3.3., etc.
Strike out what does not apply.

2.2.3. In the case of glass panes used as windscreens:
2.2.3.1. Optical distortion test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 9.2.
2.2.3.2. Secondary image separation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 9.3.
2.3. Ordinary Laminated-glass Windscreens and Glass-plastics Windscreens
2.3.1. Headform test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 6, Paragraph 3.
2.3.2. 2,260 g ball test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 6, Paragraph 4.2. and
Annex 3, Paragraph 2.2.
2.3.3. Test of resistance to high temperature in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 5.
2.3.4. Light transmission measurement in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 9.1.
2.3.5. Optical distortion test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3, Paragraph 9.2.
2.3.6. Secondary image separation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 9.3.
2.3.7. In the case of glass-plastics windscreens only:
2.3.7.1. Test of resistance to abrasion in accordance with the requirements of Annex 9,
Paragraph 2.1.
2.3.7.2. Resistance-to-humidity test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 9, Paragraph 3.
2.3.7.3. Test of resistance to chemicals in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 11.2.1.
2.4. Ordinary Laminated-glass and Glass-plastics Panes other than Windscreens
2.4.1. 227 g ball test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 7, Paragraph 4.
2.4.2. Test of resistance to high temperature in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 5.
2.4.3. Light transmission measurement in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 9.1.
2.4.4. In the case of glass-plastics panes only:
2.4.4.1. Test of resistance to abrasion in accordance with the requirements of Annex 9,
Paragraph 2.1.
2.4.4.2. Resistance-to-humidity test in accordance with the requirements of Annex 9, Paragraph 3.
2.4.4.3. Test of resistance to chemicals in accordance with the requirements of Annex 3,
Paragraph 11.2.1.

2.9. Flexible Plastic Panes Other than Windscreens
2.9.1. 227 g ball drop test in accordance with Annex 15, Paragraph 4.
2.9.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1.
NB: The above test of Paragraph 2.9.2. only applies if the glazing is to be used in a
location requisite for driving visibility.
2.9.3. Test of resistance to chemicals in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 11.2.1.
2.10. Rigid Plastic Double Glazed Units
2.10.1. 227 g ball drop test in accordance with Annex 16, Paragraph 5.
2.10.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 9.1.
NB: The above test of Paragraph 2.10.2. only applies if the glazing is to be used in a
location requisite for driving visibility.
2.10.3. Test of resistance to chemicals in accordance with Annex 3, Paragraph 11.
3. FREQUENCY OF TESTS AND RESULTS
3.1. Fragmentation Test
3.1.1. Tests
3.1.1.1. A first series of tests consisting of a break at each impact point specified by this Regulation
shall be carried out at the beginning of the production of each new type of glass pane to
determine the most severe break point. The result of the tests shall be recorded.
However, for toughened-glass windscreens, the first series of tests shall be carried out only
if the annual production of this type of glass pane exceeds 200 units.
3.1.1.2. During the production run the check test shall be carried out using the break point as
determined in Paragraph 3.1.1.1.
3.1.1.3. A check shall be carried out at the beginning of each production run or following a change of
colour.

3.3.2. Results
All results shall be recorded.
3.4. 227 g Ball-impact Test
3.4.1. Tests
3.4.2. Results
The test pieces shall be cut from samples. However, for practical reasons, the tests may be
carried out on finished products of parts of them.
The check shall be carried out on a sampling corresponding to at least 0.5% of the
production of one shift with a maximum of ten samples per day.
All results shall be recorded.
3.5. Test of Resistance to High Temperature
3.5.1. Tests
3.5.2. Results
The test pieces shall be cut from samples. However, for practical reasons, the tests may be
carried out on finished products or parts of them. These shall be selected so that all
interlayers are tested proportionately to their use.
The check shall be carried out on at least three samples per colour of interlayer taken from
the daily production.
All results shall be recorded.
3.6. Light Transmission
3.6.1. Tests
Representative samples of tinted finished products shall be subjected to this test.
The check shall be carried out at least at the beginning of every production run if there is
any change in the characteristics of the glazing pane affecting the results of the test.
Windscreens and other glazing panes having a regular light transmittance measured during
type approval of not less than 75%, and glass panes whose symbol is V (see
Paragraph 5.5.2. of this Regulation), shall be exempted from this test.
Alternatively, for toughened-glass panes, a certificate of compliance with the above
requirements may be submitted by the glass supplier.

3.10. Test of Resistance to Chemicals
3.10.1. Tests
3.10.2. Results
Plastics-surfaced, glass-plastics and plastic glazing panes only shall be submitted to this
test. There shall be at least one check per month and per type of plastic material surfacing
or plastic material.
All results shall be recorded.
3.11. Cross-cut Test
3.11.1. Tests
3.11.2. Results
Only rigid plastic glazing with an abrasion resistant coating shall be submitted to this
test. There shall be at least one check per week and per type of plastic material and its
coating, on samples that have not been subjected to the test for simulated weathering
(Annex 14, Paragraph 6.2.).
A test on weathered samples shall be carried out each 3 months.
All results shall be recorded.

4.1.3. The windscreen must be correctly fitted with reference to the vehicle driver's 'R' Point.
4.1.4. Vehicles having a maximum design speed greater than 40 km/h may not be fitted with a
toughened windscreen.
4.2. Safety Glazing Other than Windscreens and Partition Glazing
4.2.1. Safety Glazing Requisite for the Driver's Forwards Field of Vision
4.2.1.1. The safety glazing through which the driver's forwards field of vision as defined in
Paragraph 2.18.1. of this Regulation is obtained, must have a regular light transmittance of
at least 70%.
4.2.1.2. Plastic safety glazing shall bear an additional symbol /B/L, as defined in Paragraphs 5.5.5.
and 5.5.7. of this Regulation.
4.2.2. Safety Glazing Requisite for the Driver's Rearward Vision
4.2.2.1. The safety glazing defined in Paragraph 2.18.2. of this Regulation must have a light
transmittance of at least 70%, but where two exterior rear view mirrors are fitted, the glazing
is allowed to have a light transmittance below 70%, provided that it shall bear the additional
Symbol V specified in Paragraph 5.5.2. of this Regulation.
4.2.2.2. Plastic safety glazing shall bear an additional Symbol A/L or B/L, as defined in
Paragraphs 5.5.5. and 5.5.7. of this Regulation.
As an alternative, the rear glazing in the folding roof of a convertible vehicle may bear the
additional Symbol /B/M.
The rear glazing in the folding roof of a convertible vehicle may be made of a flexible plastic
pane.
4.2.3. Other Safety Glazing
4.2.3.1. The safety glazing not covered by the definitions of Paragraphs 2.18.1. and 2.18.2. of this
Regulation shall bear the additional symbol V specified in Paragraph 5.5.2. of this
Regulation, if the light transmittance is below 70%.
4.2.3.2. Plastic safety glazings shall bear one of the additional symbols defined in Paragraphs 5.5.5.,
5.5.6., and 5.5.7. of this Regulation. However, when the vehicle is intended for conveying
passengers, glazings with the additional Symbols /C/L or /C/M are not allowed at locations
where there is a risk of head impact.
4.2.4. Exemptions
In the case of plastic safety glazings, the provisions related to abrasion resistance as
referred in Paragraphs 4.2.2.2. and 4.2.3.2. of this Annex do not apply for the vehicles and
glazing locations listed below:
(a)
(b)
(c)
ambulances
hearses
trailers, including caravans

Glazing.