Regulation No. 46-02

Name:Regulation No. 46-02
Description:Indirect Vision Devices.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Devices for Indirect Vision and of Motor Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of these Devices.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1981-10-29
Amendment Level:02 Series, Supplement 5
Number of Pages:69
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
Available on InterRegs.NET

Our online subscription service, offering immediate access to our extensive library of global vehicle regulations, standards and legislation. A fully searchable, accurate, user-friendly resource for consolidated regulations that are updated quickly and frequently.

Tell me more | Already a subscriber

Available on SelectRegs.com

Our fast and easy means of purchasing up-to-date global vehicle and component standards and regulations on a pay-as-you-go basis. Pay securely by credit card and your documents are delivered directly and immediately to your computer as PDF files.

Tell me more | Go straight to site

Keywords:

vision, vehicle, mirror, approval, paragraph, point, plane, mirrors, device, indirect, regulation, driver, means, class, vertical, surface, devices, position, type, field, angle, annex, side, defined, machine, seat, reflecting, exterior, series, amendments, figure, requirements, longitudinal, manufacturer, distance, passing, test, torso, date, points, vehicles, front, case, centre, rear-view, parallel, force, extension, entry, median

Text Extract:

All InterRegs documents are formatted as PDF files and contain the full text, tables, diagrams and illustrations of the original as issued by the national government authority. We do not re-word, summarise, cut or interpret the regulatory documents. They are consolidated, published in English, and updated on a regular basis. The following text extract indicates the scope of the document, but does not represent the actual PDF content.

E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.45/Rev.3/Amend.1
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
December 12, 2011
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 46-02
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
Incorporating:
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.08.96
Supplement 3 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.09.94
Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.01.98
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 23.06.05
Corr. 1 to the 02 series of amendments (Russian only)
Date of Entry into Force: 15.11.06
Corr. 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.11.08
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.07.08
Supplement 3 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08
Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Corr. 1 to Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated 03.03.2010
Supplement 5 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11

REGULATION
1. Scope
REGULATION NO. 46
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF DEVICES FOR
INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO
THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
I. DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
Contents
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Markings
5.
Approval
6.
Requirements
7.
Modification of the Type of Device for Indirect Vision and Extension of Approval
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10.
Production Definitely Discontinued
11.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Administrative Departments
II. INSTALLATION OF DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
12.
Definitions
13.
Application for Approval
14.
Approval
15.
Requirements
16.
Modifications of the Vehicle Type and Extension of Approval
17.
Conformity of Production
18.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
19.
Production Definitely Discontinued
20.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Administrative Departments
21.
Transitional Provisions

1. SCOPE
REGULATION NO. 46
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF DEVICES FOR
INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO
THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
This Regulation applies:
(a)
(b)
To compulsory and optional devices for indirect vision, set out in the table under
Paragraph 15.2.1.1.1. for vehicles of Category M and N and to compulsory and
optional devices for indirect vision mentioned in Paragraphs 15.2.1.1.3 and 15.2.1.1.4
for vehicles of Category L with bodywork at least partly enclosing the driver;
To the installation of devices for indirect visions on vehicles of Categories M and N
and on vehicles of Category L with bodywork at least partly enclosing the driver.
I. DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation:
2.1. "Devices for indirect vision" means devices to observe the traffic area adjacent to the
vehicle which cannot be observed by direct vision. These can be conventional mirrors,
camera-monitors or other devices able to present information about the indirect field of
vision to the driver.
2.1.1. "Mirror" means any device, excluding devices such as periscopes, intended to give a clear
view to the rear, side or front of the vehicle within the fields of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.
2.1.1.1. "Interior mirror" means a device as defined in Paragraph 2.1., which can be fitted in the
passenger compartment of a vehicle.
2.1.1.2. "Exterior mirror" means a device as defined in Paragraph 2.1., which can be mounted on
the external surface of a vehicle.
2.1.1.3. "Surveillance mirror" means a mirror other than the ones defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.
which can be fitted to the inside or outside of the vehicle in order to provide fields of vision
other than those specified in Paragraph 15.2.4.
2.1.1.4. "Vision support system" means a system to enable the driver to detect and/or see objects
in the area adjacent to the vehicle.

(d)
Class V: "Close-proximity exterior mirror", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.5.;
(e) Class VI: "Front mirror", giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.6.
(f)
Class VII: Mirrors intended for Category L vehicles with bodywork giving the field of
vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.7.
2.1.2. "Camera-monitor device for indirect vision" means a device as defined in
Paragraph 2.1., where the field of vision is obtained by means of a camera-monitor
combination as defined in Paragraphs 2.1.2.1. and 2.1.2.2.
2.1.2.1. "Camera" means a device that renders an image of the outside world and then converts
this image into a signal (e.g. video signal).
2.1.2.2. "Monitor" means a device that converts a signal into images that are rendered into the
visual spectrum.
2.1.2.3. "Detection" means the ability to distinguish an object from its background/surroundings at
certain distance.
2.1.2.4.
"Luminance contrast " means the brightness ratio between an object and its immediate
background/surrounding
that
allows
the
object
to
be
distinguished
from
its
background/surroundings.
2.1.2.5. "Resolution" means the smallest detail that can be discerned with a perceptual system,
i.e. perceived as separate from the larger whole. The resolution of the human eye is
indicated as "visual acuity".
2.1.2.6. "Critical object" means a circular object with a diameter D = 0.8 m.
2.1.2.7. "Critical perception" means the level of perception that the human eye is generally
capable of achieving under various conditions. For traffic conditions the limiting value for a
critical perception is eight arc-minutes of visual angle.
2.1.2.8. "Field of vision" means the section of the tri-dimensional space which is monitored with
the help of a device for indirect vision. Unless otherwise stated, this is based on the view on
ground level offered by a device and/or devices other than mirrors. This may be limited by
the relevant detection distance corresponding to the critical object.
2.1.2.9. "Detection distance" means the distance measured at ground level from the viewing
reference point to the extreme point at which a critical object can just be perceived (the
limiting value for a critical perception just barely achieved).
2.1.2.10. "Critical field of vision" means the area in which a critical object has to be detected by
means of a device for indirect vision and that is defined by an angle and one or more
detection distances.

5. APPROVAL
5.1. If the samples submitted for approval meet the requirements of Paragraph 6. of this
Regulation, approval of the pertinent type of device for indirect vision shall be granted.
5.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
02,) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another type of device for indirect
vision.
5.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval or of production
definitely discontinued of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to this Regulation shall
be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of
a form conforming to the model in Annex 3 to this Regulation.
5.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in the space referred to in Paragraph 4.2. above,
to every device for indirect vision conforming to a type approved under this Regulation, in
addition to the mark prescribed in Paragraph 4.1., an international approval mark consisting
of:
5.4.1. A circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval;
5.4.2. An approval number;
5.4.3. An additional symbol I or II or III or IV or V or VI, specifying the class to which the type of
mirror belongs or the Symbol S in case of any device for indirect vision other than a mirror.
The additional symbol shall be placed in any convenient position in the vicinity of the circle
containing the Letter "E".
5.5. The approval mark and the additional symbol shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
5.6. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the aforesaid approval
mark and additional symbol.

6.1.2. Special Specifications
6.1.2.1. Dimensions
6.1.2.1.1. Interior Rear-view Mirrors (Class I)
The dimensions of the reflecting surface must be such that it is possible to inscribe thereon
a rectangle one side of which is 40 mm and the other "a" mm in length, where
and "r" is the radius of curvature.
1
a = 150 mm x
1 000
1 +
r
6.1.2.1.2. Main Exterior Rear-view Mirrors (Classes II and III)
6.1.2.1.2.1. The dimensions of the reflecting surface must be such that it is possible to inscribe therein:


A rectangle 40 mm high the base length of which, measured in millimetres, has the
value "a";
A segment which is parallel to the height of the rectangle and the length of which,
expressed in millimetres, has the value "b".
6.1.2.1.2.2. The minimum values of "a" and "b" are given in the table below:
Class of rear-view mirror a (mm) b (mm)
II
III
170
1 000
1 +
r
130
1 000
1 +
r
200
70
6.1.2.1.3. "Wide-angle" Exterior Mirrors (Class IV)
The contours of the reflecting surface must be of simple geometric form and its dimensions
such that it provides, if necessary in conjunction with a Class II exterior mirror, the field of
vision specified in Paragraph 15.2.4.4.
6.1.2.1.4. "Close-proximity" Exterior Mirrors (Class V)
The contours of the reflecting surface must be of simple geometric form and its dimensions
such that the mirror provides the field of vision specified in Paragraph 15.2.4.5.

6.1.2.2.4. Value of "r" for spherical mirrors must not be less than:
6.1.2.2.4.1. 1 200 mm for interior rear-view mirrors (Class I);
6.1.2.2.4.2. 1 200 mm for Class II and III main exterior rear-view mirrors;
6.1.2.2.4.3. 300 mm for "wide-angle" exterior mirrors (Class IV) and "close-proximity" exterior mirrors
(Class V).
6.1.2.2.4.4. 200 mm for front mirrors (Class VI).
6.1.2.2.4.5. 1 000 mm or more than 1 500 mm in the case of Class VII mirrors.
6.1.2.2.5. The value of the normal coefficient of reflection, as determined according to the method
described in Annex 6, must be not less than 40%.
In the case of reflecting surfaces with a changeable degree of reflection, the "day" position
must allow the colours of the signals used for road traffic to be recognised. The value of the
normal coefficient of reflection in the "night" position must be not less than 4%.
6.1.2.2.6. The reflecting surface must retain the characteristics laid down in Paragraph 6.1.2.2.5., in
spite of prolonged exposure to adverse weather conditions in normal use.
6.1.3. Test
6.1.3.1. Mirrors in Classes I to VI and Class VII (having fitments identical to Class III) shall be
subjected to the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.1. and 6.1.3.2.2. Class VII mirrors with
a stem, shall be subjected to the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.3.
6.1.3.1.1. The test provided for in Paragraph 6.1.3.2. shall not be required in the case of any exterior
mirror of which no part is less than 2 m from the ground, regardless of the adjustment
position, when the vehicle is under a load corresponding to its maximum technically
permissible mass.
This derogation also applies to the attachments of mirrors (attachment plates, arms, swivel
joints, etc.) which are situated less than 2 m from the ground and which do not project
beyond the overall width of the vehicle, measured in the transverse plane passing through
the lowest mirror attachments or any other point forward of this plane if this configuration
produces a greater overall width.
In such cases, a description specifying that the mirror must be mounted so as to conform to
the above-mentioned conditions for the positioning of its attachments on the vehicle must be
provided.
Where advantage is taken of this derogation, the arm shall be indelibly marked with the
symbol and the type-approval certificate shall be endorsed to this effect.
2 Δ
m
6.1.3.2. Impact Test
The test according to this Paragraph is not to be carried out for devices integrated in the
bodywork of the vehicle and providing a frontal deflecting area of an angle not more than
45° measured in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, or devices not
protruding more than 100 mm measured beyond the circumscribing bodywork of the vehicle
according to Regulation No. 26.

6.1.3.2.2. Description of the test
6.1.3.2.2.1. The procedure used to clamp the mirror to the support shall be that recommended by the
manufacturer of the device or, where appropriate, by the vehicle manufacturer.
6.1.3.2.2.2. Positioning of the mirror for the test.
6.1.3.2.2.2.1. Mirrors shall be positioned on the pendulum impact rig in such a way that the axes which
are horizontal and vertical when the mirror is installed on a vehicle in accordance with
the applicant's mounting instructions are in a similar position.
6.1.3.2.2.2.2. When a mirror is adjustable with respect to the base, the test position shall be that in
which any pivoting device is least likely to operate, within the limits of adjustment
provided by the applicant.
6.1.3.2.2.2.3. When the mirror has a device for adjusting its distance from the base, the device must
be set in the position in which the distance between the housing and the base is
shortest.
6.1.3.2.2.2.4. When the reflecting surface is mobile in the housing, it shall be so adjusted that the
upper corner, which is furthest from the vehicle, is in the position of greatest projection
relative to the housing.
6.1.3.2.2.3. Except in the case of test 2 for interior mirrors (see Paragraph 6.1.3.2.2.6.1.), when the
pendulum is in a vertical position the horizontal and longitudinal vertical planes passing
through the centre of the hammer shall pass through the centre of the reflecting surface
as defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.11. The longitudinal direction of oscillation of the
pendulum shall be parallel to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.
6.1.3.2.2.4. When, under the conditions governing adjustment laid down in Paragraphs 6.1.3.2.2.1.
and 6.1.3.2.2.2., parts of the mirror limit the return of the hammer, the point of impact
must be displaced in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation or pivoting in
question.
This displacement must be no greater than is strictly necessary for the execution of the
test; it must be limited in such a way that:
(a)
(b)
either the sphere delimiting the hammer remains at least tangential to the cylinder
as defined in Paragraph 6.1.1.5.;
or the point of contact with the hammer is located at least 10 mm from the
periphery of the reflecting surface.
6.1.3.2.2.5. The test consists in allowing the hammer to fall from a height corresponding to a
pendulum angle of 60° from the vertical so that the hammer strikes the mirror at the
moment when the pendulum reaches the vertical position.

Figure 2
Example of Rear View Mirror Bending-Test Rig
6.1.3.2.3.2. The test loading shall be 25 kg and shall be maintained for one minute.
6.1.3.3. Results of the Tests
6.1.3.3.1. In the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2., the pendulum must continue to swing after
impact in such a way that the projection of the position assumed by the arm on the plane
of release makes an angle of at least 20° with the vertical. The accuracy of
measurement of the angle shall be within ± 1°.
6.1.3.3.1.1. This requirement is not applicable to mirrors stuck to the windscreen, in respect of which
the requirement stipulated in Paragraph 6.1.3.3.2. shall apply after the test.
6.1.3.3.1.2. The required angle to the vertical is reduced from 20° to 10° for all Class II and Class IV
rear-view mirrors and for Class III rear-view mirrors which are attached to the same
mounting as Class IV mirrors.
6.1.3.3.2. Should the mounting of the mirror break during the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.
for mirrors stuck to the windscreen, the part remaining must not project beyond the base
by more than 10 mm and the configuration remaining after the test must satisfy the
conditions laid down in Paragraph 6.1.1.3.

6.2.2.2.3. It shall be possible to adjust the average luminance of the monitor either manually or
automatically to the ambient conditions.
6.2.2.2.4. The measurements for the luminance contrast shall be carried out according to
ISO 15008:2003.
6.2.3. Other Devices for Indirect Vision
It has to be proved that the device meets the following requirements:
6.2.3.1. The device shall perceive the visual spectrum and shall always render this image without
the need for interpretation into the visual spectrum.
6.2.3.2. The functionality shall be guaranteed under the circumstances of use in which the
system shall be put into service. Depending on the technology used in obtaining images
and presenting them Paragraph 6.2.2.2. shall be entirely or partly applicable. In other
cases this can be achieved by establishing and demonstrating by means of system
sensitivity analogous to Paragraph 6.2.2.2. that a function is ensured that is comparable
to or better than what is required for and by demonstrating that a functionality is
guaranteed that is equivalent or better than that required for mirror- or camera-monitor
type devices for indirect vision.
7. MODIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION AND EXTENSION
OF APPROVAL
7.1. Every modification to an existing type of device for indirect vision including its connection
to the bodywork shall be notified to the administrative department which approved the
type of device for indirect vision. The administrative department shall then either:
(a)
(b)
Decide, in consultation with the manufacturer, that a new type-approval is to be
granted, or
Apply the procedure contained in Paragraph 7.1.1. (Revision) and, if applicable,
the procedure contained in Paragraph 7.1.2. (Extension).
7.1.1. Revision
When particulars recorded in the information folder have changed and the administrative
department considers that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable
adverse effect and that in any case the device for indirect vision still complies with the
requirements, the modification shall be designated a "revision".
In such a case, the administrative department shall issue the revised pages of the
information folder as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of
the modification and the date of re-issue. A consolidated,updated version of the
information folder, accompanied by a detailed description of the modification, shall be
deemed to meet this requirement.

11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
12. DEFINITIONS
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the Administrative Departments which grant approval
and to which forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval,
issued in other countries, are to be sent.
II. INSTALLATION OF DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
For the purpose of this Regulation,
12.1. "The driver's ocular points" means two points 65 mm apart and 635 mm vertically
above point "R" of the driver's seat as defined in Annex 8. The straight line joining these
points runs perpendicular to the vertical longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. The
centre of the segment joining the two ocular points is in a vertical longitudinal plane
which must pass through the centre of the driver's designated seating position, as
specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

12.5. "Forward control" means a configuration in which more than half of the engine length is
rearward of the foremost point of the windshield base and the steering wheel hub in the
forward quarter of the vehicle length.
13. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
13.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of devices for
indirect vision shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited
representative.
13.2. A model of information document is shown in Annex 2.
13.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
13.4. The Competent Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for
ensuring effective checks on conformity of production before type-approval is granted.
14. APPROVAL
14.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval in accordance with Paragraph 13. above meets
the requirements of Paragraph 15. of this Regulation, approval shall be granted.
14.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits
(at present 02,) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent or
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
14.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval of a vehicle type
pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this
Regulation.
15. REQUIREMENTS
15.1. GENERAL
15.1.1. The compulsory and optional devices for indirect vision, set out in the table under
Paragraph 15.2.1.1.1, installed on the vehicle shall be of a type approved under this
Regulation.
15.1.2. Mirrors and other devices for indirect vision must be fitted in such a way that the mirror or
other device does not move so as significantly to change the field of vision as measured
or vibrate to an extent which would cause the driver to misinterpret the nature of the
image perceived.
15.1.3. The conditions laid down in Paragraph 15.1.2. must be maintained when the vehicle is
moving at speeds of up to 80% of its maximum design speed, but not exceeding
150 km/h.


15.2.2. Position
15.2.2.1. Mirrors must be so placed that the driver, when sitting on the driving seat in a normal
driving position, has a clear view of the road to the rear, side(s) or front of the vehicle.
15.2.2.2. Exterior mirrors shall be visible through the side windows or through the portion of the
windscreen that is swept by the windscreen wiper. Nevertheless, for design reasons,
this last provision (i.e. the provisions relating the cleaned part of the windscreen) shall
not apply to:
(a)
(b)
exterior mirrors on the passenger side and optional exterior mirrors on the driver
side of vehicles of Categories M and M ;
Class VI mirrors.
15.2.2.3. In the case of any vehicle, which is in chassis/cab form when the field of vision is
measured, the minimum and maximum body widths shall be stated by the manufacturer
and, if necessary, simulated by dummy headboards. All vehicles and mirror
configurations taken into consideration during the tests shall be shown on the
type-approval certificate for a vehicle with regard to the installation of mirrors
(See Annex 4).
15.2.2.4. The prescribed exterior mirror on the driver's side of the vehicle must be so located that
an angle of not more than 55° is formed between the vertical longitudinal median plane
of the vehicle and the vertical plane passing through the centre of the mirror and through
the centre of the straight line 65 mm long which joins the driver's two ocular points.
15.2.2.5. Mirror(s) must not project beyond the external bodywork of the vehicle substantially more
than is necessary to comply with the requirements concerning fields of vision laid down
in Paragraph 15.2.4.
15.2.2.6. Where the lower edge of an exterior mirror is less than 2 m above the ground when the
vehicle is loaded to its technically permissible maximum laden mass, this mirror must not
project more than 250 mm beyond the overall width of the vehicle measured without
mirrors.
15.2.2.7. Class V and Class VI mirrors shall be mounted on vehicles in such a way that,
regardless of their position after adjustment, no part of these mirrors or their holders is
less than 2 m from the ground when the vehicle is under a load corresponding to its
technically permissible maximum laden mass.
These mirrors shall not, however, be mounted on vehicles the cab height of which is
such as to prevent compliance with this requirement. In this case another device for
indirect vision is not requested.
15.2.2.8. Subject to the requirements of Paragraphs 15.2.2.5., 15.2.2.6. and 15.2.2.7., mirrors may
project beyond the permissible maximum widths of vehicles.
15.2.2.9. All Class VII mirrors shall be attached in such a way that they remain in a stable position
under normal vehicle driving conditions.

15.2.4.2.2. Exterior Rear-view Mirror on the Passenger's Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 5 m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded on the passenger's side by a plane
parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle on the passenger's side and which extends from 30 m
behind the driver's ocular points to the horizon.
In addition, the road must be visible to the driver over a width of 1 m, which is bounded
by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4 m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver's ocular points (see Figure 5).
Figure 5
Field of Vision of Class II Mirrors
15.2.4.3. Main Exterior Rear-view Mirrors Class III
15.2.4.3.1. Exterior Rear-view Mirror on the Driver’s Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 4 m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the
driver’s side of the vehicle and extends from 20 m behind the driver’s ocular points to the
horizon (see Figure 6).
In addition, the road must be visible to the driver over a width of 1 m, which is bounded
by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4 m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver’s ocular points.

15.2.4.4.2. "Wide-angle" Exterior Mirror on the Passenger's Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 15 m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the outermost point of the
vehicle on the passenger’s side and which extends from at least 10 m to 25 m behind the
driver’s ocular points.
In addition, the road must be visible to the driver over a width of 4.5 m, which is bounded
by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 1.5 m behind the vertical plane
passing through the driver’s ocular points (see Figure 7).
Figure 7
Field of Vision of Class IV Wide-angle Mirrors
15.2.4.5. "Close-proximity" Exterior Mirror (Class V)
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see a flat horizontal portion of the
road along the side of the vehicle, bounded by the following vertical planes
(See Figures 8a and 8b):
15.2.4.5.1. The plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle which passes
through the outermost point of the vehicle cab on the passenger's side;
15.2.4.5.2. In the transverse direction, the parallel plane passing at a distance of 2 m in front of the
plane mentioned in Paragraph 15.2.4.5.1.
15.2.4.5.3. To the rear, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver's ocular
points and situated at a distance of 1.75 m behind that plane;

15.2.4.6. Front Mirror (Class VI)
15.2.4.6.1. The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a flat horizontal portion of
the road, which is bounded by:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
a transverse vertical plane through the outermost point of the front of the vehicle,
a transverse vertical plane 2 000 mm in front of the plane defined in (a),
a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal vertical median plane going
through the outermost side of the vehicle at the driver’s side and,
a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal vertical median plane
2 000 mm outside the outermost side of the vehicle opposite to the driver’s side.
The front of this field of vision opposite to the driver’s side may be rounded off with a
radius of 2 000 mm (see Figure 9).
For the defined field of vision, see also Paragraph 15.2.4.9.2.
The provisions for front mirrors are compulsory for forward controlled (as defined in
Paragraph 12.5.) vehicles of Categories N > 7.5 t and N .
If vehicles of these categories cannot fulfil the requirements by using a front mirror or a
camera/monitor device, a vision support system shall be used. In the case of a vision
support system this device must be able to detect an object of 50 cm height and with a
diameter of 30 cm within the field defined in Figure 9.
Figure 9
Field of Vision of Class VI Front Mirror
15.2.4.6.2. However, if the driver can see, taking into account the obstructions by the A-pillars, a
straight line 300 mm in front of the vehicle at a height of 1 200 mm above the road
surface and which is situated between a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the
longitudinal vertical median plane going through the outermost side of the vehicle at the
driver’s side and a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal vertical median
plane 900 mm outside the outermost side of the vehicle opposite to the driver’s side, a
front mirror of Class VI is not mandatory.

Figure 10
Field of Vision of Class VII Mirrors

15.3.4. Installation Requirements for the Monitor
The viewing direction of the monitor shall roughly be the same direction as the one for
the main mirror.
15.3.5. Vehicles may be equipped with additional devices for indirect vision.
15.3.6. The provisions of this Regulation do not apply to the surveillance
camera-monitor-recording devices defined in Paragraph 2.1.2.13. Exterior surveillance
cameras either shall be mounted at least 2 m above the ground when the vehicle is
under a load corresponding to its maximum technical permissible mass, or, if their lower
edge is less than 2 m from the ground, shall not project more than 50 mm beyond the
overall width of the vehicle measured without this device and have a radii of curvature of
not less than 2.5 mm.
16. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VEHICLE TYPE AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL
16.1. Every modification of the vehicle type shall be notified to the administrative department
which approved the vehicle type. The administrative department shall then either:
(a)
(b)
Decide, in consultation with the manufacturer, that a new type-approval is to be
granted, or
Apply the procedure contained in Paragraph 16.1.1. (Revision) and, if applicable,
the procedure contained in Paragraph 16.1.2. (Extension).
16.1.1. Revision
16.1.2. Extension
When particulars recorded in the information folder have changed and the administrative
department considers that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable
adverse effect, and that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements, the
modification shall be designated a "revision".
In such a case, the administrative department shall issue the revised pages of the
information folder as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of
the modification and the date of re-issue. A consolidated, updated version of the
information folder, accompanied by a detailed description of the modification, shall be
deemed to meet this requirement.
The modification shall be designated an "extension" if, in addition to the change of the
particulars recorded in the information folder,
(a)
(b)
(c)
Further inspections or tests are required, or
Any information on the communication document (with the exception of its
attachments) has changed, or
Approval to a later series of amendments is requested after its entry into force.

21. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
21.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments to this
Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse an application for
approval under this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments.
21.2. As from January 26, 2006, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant
approvals to a type of vehicle with regard to the installation of devices for indirect vision
only if the type of vehicle meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the
02 series of amendments. However, this date shall be postponed by 12 months as
regards the requirements concerning the installation of a Class VI front mirror.
21.3. As from January 26, 2006, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant
approvals to a type of devices for indirect vision only if the type meets the requirements
of this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments. However, this date
shall be postponed by 12 months with regard to the requirements concerning a Class VI
front mirror as a component and its installation on vehicles.
21.4. As from January 26, 2010 for vehicles of Category M and N and January 26, 2007 for
vehicles of other categories, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse to
recognise approvals of a type of vehicle which have not been granted in accordance with
the 02 series of amendments to this Regulation.
21.5. As from January 26, 2010 for vehicles of Category M and N and from January 26, 2007
for vehicles of other categories, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse
to recognise approvals of a device for indirect vision which have not been granted in
accordance with the 02 series of amendments to this Regulation.
21.6. Approvals which were granted to rear-view mirrors of Classes I or III pursuant to this
Regulation in its original form (00 series) or modified by the 01 series of amendments
before the date of entry into force of this series of amendments shall remain valid.
21.7. The provisions of this Regulation shall not prohibit the approval of a type of vehicle with
regard to the mounting of rear-view mirrors pursuant to this Regulation as modified by
the 02 series of amendments, if all or part of the rear-view mirrors of Classes I or III, with
which it is fitted, bear the approval mark prescribed by the original version
(00 or 01 series) of this Regulation.
21.8. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraphs 21.3. and 21.5. above, for the purpose of
replacement parts Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall continue to grant
approvals according to the 01 series of amendments to this Regulation, to devices for
indirect vision for use on vehicle types which have been approved before the date
mentioned in Paragraph 21.2. pursuant to the 01 series of amendments of
Regulation No. 46, and, where applicable, subsequent extensions to these approvals.

ANNEX 2
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
FOR TYPE-APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE WITH RESPECT TO
THE INSTALLATION OF DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
The following information, if applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and include a list of contents.
Any drawings shall be supplied in appropriate scale and in sufficient detail on size A4 paper or on a
folder of A4 format.
Photographs, if any, shall show sufficient detail.
GENERAL
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): ........................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ...........................................................................
3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle (b): ....................................................
4. Location of that marking: ...........................................................................................................
5. Category of vehicle (c): .............................................................................................................
6. Name and address of manufacturer: ........................................................................................
7. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): ............................................................................................
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE
8. Photograph(s) and/or drawing(s) of a representative vehicle: ..................................................
9. Driving cab (forward control or bonneted) : ............................................................................
10. Driving position: left/right : ......................................................................................................
10.1. The vehicle is equipped to be driven in right-hand/left hand traffic

ANNEX 3
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm) )
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to Regulation No. 46
Approval No. ................................................. Extension No. ...............................
1. Trade name or mark of device: ......................................................................................................
2. Manufacturer’s name for the type of device: ..................................................................................
3. Manufacturer’s name and address: ...............................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of Manufacturer's representative: ..............................................
5. Submitted for approval on: .............................................................................................................
6. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: .......................................................
7. Date of report issued by that service: ............................................................................................
8. Number of report issued by that service: .......................................................................................
9. Brief description: ............................................................................................................................
Identification of the device: mirror, camera/monitor, other device
Device for indirect vision of Class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, S
Symbol 2 Δ
m as defined in Paragraph 6.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation: yes/no

ANNEX 4
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm) )
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of vehicle with regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to
Regulation No. 46
Approval No. ................................................. Extension No. ...............................
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ................................................................................
3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: ..............................................................
3.1. Location of that marking: ................................................................................................................
4. Category of vehicle: (M , M , M , N , N ≤ 7.5 t, N > 7.5 t, N )
5. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
6. Address(es) of the production plant(s): ..........................................................................................
7. Additional information: (where applicable): See appendix
8. Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests: ..............................................................
9. Date of test report: .........................................................................................................................
10. Number of test report: ....................................................................................................................
11. Remarks: (if any): See appendix

ANNEX 5
ARRANGEMENT OF APPROVAL MARK OF A DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
(See Paragraph 5.4. of the Regulation)
a = 12 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a device for indirect vision indicates that the mirror is a rear-view
mirror, of Class II, which has been approved in the Netherlands (E4) pursuant to Regulation No. 46 and
under approval number 022439. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that
Regulation No. 46 already included the 02 series of amendments when the approval was granted.
Note: The approval number and the additional symbol must be placed close to the circle and either
above or below the "E" or to the left or right of that letter. The digits of the approval number must be on
the same side of the "E" and point in the same direction. The additional symbol must be directly opposite
the approval number. The use of Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to
prevent any confusion with other symbols.

2.3. Geometric Conditions
The angle of the incident beam (θ) should preferably be 0.44 ± 0.09 rad (25 ± 5°) from the
perpendicular to the test surface and shall not exceed the upper limit of the tolerance
(i.e. 0.53 rad or 30°). The axis of the receptor shall make an angle (θ) with this perpendicular
equal to that of the incident beam (See Figure 1). The incident beam upon arrival at the test
surface shall have a diameter of not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.). The reflected beam shall not
be wider than the sensitive area of the photodetector, shall not cover less than 50% of such
area, and as nearly as possible shall cover the same area segment as used during Instrument
calibration.
When an integrating sphere is used in the receiver section, the sphere shall have a minimum
diameter of 127 mm (5 in.). The sample and incident beam apertures in the sphere wall shall
be of such a size as to admit the entire incident and reflected light beams. The photodetector
shall be so located as not to receive direct light from either the incident or the reflected beam.
2.4. Electrical Characteristics of the Photodetector-Indicator Unit
The photodetector output as read on the indicating meter shall be a linear function of the light
intensity of the photosensitive area. Means (electrical and/or optical) shall be provided to
facilitate zeroing and calibration adjustments. Such means shall not affect the linearity or the
spectral characteristics of the instrument. The accuracy of the receptor-indicator unit shall be
with ± 2% of full scale, or ± 10% of the magnitude of the reading, whichever is the smaller.
2.5. Sample Holder
The mechanism shall be capable of locating the test sample so that the axes of the source
arm and receptor intersect at the reflecting surface. The reflecting surface may lie within or at
either face of the mirror sample, depending on whether it is a first-surface, second-surface, or
prismatic "flip" type mirror.
3. PROCEDURE
3.1. Direct Calibration Method
In the direct calibration method, air is used as the reference standard. This method is
applicable for those instruments which are so constructed as to permit calibration at the 100%
point by swinging the receiver to a position directly on the axis of the light source
(See Figure 1).
It may be desired in some cases (such as when measuring low reflectivity surfaces) to use an
intermediate calibration point (between 0 and 100% on the scale) with this method. In these
cases a neutral density filter of known transmittance shall be inserted in the optical path, and
the calibration control shall then be adjusted until the meter reads the percentage
transmission of the neutral density filter. This filter shall be removed before reflectivity
measurements are performed.
3.2. Indirect Calibration Method
The indirect calibration method is applicable in the case of instruments with fixed source and
receiver geometry. A properly calibrated and maintained reflectance standard is required.
This reference standard should preferably be a flat mirror with a reflectance value as near as
possible to that of the test samples.

Figure 2
Generalized Reflectometer Incorporating an Integrating Sphere in the Receiver

EXPLANATORY FIGURE
Example of Device for Measuring the Reflection Factor of Spherical Mirrors
C
D
E
F
L
M
S
= Receiver
= Diaphragm
= Window of entry
= Window of measurement
= Lens
= Object window
= Light source
(S) = Integrating sphere

Figure 1
Spherometer

2.7. "Design torso angle" means the angle measured between a vertical line through the
"R" point and the torso line in a position which corresponds to the design position of the
seat-back established by the vehicle manufacturer.
2.8. "Centre plane of occupant" (C/LO) means the median plane of the 3-D H machine
positioned in each designated seating position; it is represented by the co-ordinate of the
"H" point on the "Y" axis. For individual seats, the centre plane of the seat coincides with the
centre plane of the occupant. For other seats, the centre plane of the occupant is specified
by the manufacturer.
2.9. "Three-dimensional reference system" means a system as described in Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
2.10. "Fiducial marks" are physical points (holes, surfaces, marks or indentations) on the vehicle
body as defined by the manufacturer.
2.11. "Vehicle measuring attitude" means the position of the vehicle as defined by the
co-ordinates of fiducial marks in the three-dimensional reference system.
3. REQUIREMENTS
3.1. Data Presentation
For each seating position where reference data are required in order to demonstrate
compliance with the provisions of the present Regulation, all or an appropriate selection of the
following data shall be presented in the form indicated in Appendix 3 to this Annex:
3.1.1. The co-ordinates of the "R" point relative to the three-dimensional reference system,
3.1.2. The design torso angle
3.1.3. All indications necessary to adjust the seat (if it is adjustable) to the measuring position set
out in Paragraph 4.3. below.
3.2. Relationship Between Measured Data and Design Specifications
3.2.1. The co-ordinates of the "H" point and the value of the actual torso angle obtained by the
procedure set out in Paragraph 4 below shall be compared, respectively, with the
co-ordinates of the "R" point and the value of the design torso angle indicated by the vehicle
manufacturer.
3.2.2. The relative positions of the "R" point and the "H" point and the relationship between the
design torso angle and the actual torso angle shall be considered satisfactory for the seating
position in question if the "H" point, as defined by its co-ordinates, lies within a square of
50 mm side length with horizontal and vertical sides whose diagonals intersect at the
"R" point, and if the actual torso angle is within 5° of the design of the torso angle.
3.2.3. If these conditions are met, the "R" point and the design torso angle shall be used to
demonstrate compliance with the provisions of this Regulation.

4.7. Adjust the feet and leg positions of the 3-D H machine as follows:
4.7.1. Designated seating position: driver and outside front passenger:
4.7.1.1. Both feet and leg assemblies shall be moved forward in such a way that the feet take up
natural positions on the floor, between the operating pedals if necessary. Where possible the
left foot shall be located approximately the same distance to the left of the centre plane of the
3-D H machine as the right foot is to the right. The spirit level verifying the transverse
orientation of the 3-D H machine is brought to the horizontal by readjustment of the seat pan if
necessary, or by adjusting the leg and foot assemblies towards the rear. The line passing
through the "H" point sight buttons shall be maintained perpendicular to the longitudinal
centre plane of the seat.
4.7.1.2. If the left leg cannot be kept parallel to the right leg and the left foot cannot be supported by
the structure, move the left foot until it is supported. The alignment of the sight buttons shall
be maintained.
4.7.2. Designated seating position: outboard rear
For rear seats or auxiliary seats, the legs are located as specified by the manufacturer. If the
feet then rest on parts of the floor which are at different level, the foot which first comes into
contact with the front seat shall serve as a reference and the other foot shall be so arranged
that the spirit level giving the transverse orientation of the seat of the device indicates the
horizontal.
4.7.3. Other designated seating positions:
The general procedure indicated in Paragraph 4.7.1. above shall be followed except that the
feet shall be placed as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
4.8. Apply lower leg and thigh weights and level the 3-D H machine.
4.9. Tilt the back pan forward against the forward stop and draw the 3-D H machine away from the
seat-back using the T-bar. Reposition the 3-D H machine on the seat by one of the following
methods:
4.9.1. If the 3-D H machine tends to slide rearward, use the following procedure. Allow the 3-D H
machine to slide rearward until a forward horizontal restraining load on the T-bar is no longer
required, i.e. until the seat pan contacts the seat-back. If necessary, reposition the lower leg.
4.9.2. If the 3-D H machine does not tend to slide rearward, use the following procedure. Slide the
3-D H machine rearwards by applying a horizontal rearward load to the T-bar until the seat
pan contacts the seat-back (see Figure 2 of Appendix 1 to this Annex).
4.10. Apply a 100 ± 10 N load to the back and pan assembly of the 3-D H machine at the
intersection of the hip angle quadrant and the T-bar housing. The direction of load application
shall be maintained along a line passing through the above intersection to a point just above
the thigh bar housing (see Figure 2 of Appendix 1 to this Annex). Then carefully return the
back pan to the seatback. Care must be exercised throughout the remainder of the
procedure to prevent the 3-D H machine from sliding forward.
4.11. Install the right and left buttock weights and then, alternatively, the eight torso weights.
Maintain the 3-D H machine level.

4.16. If the seats in the same row can be regarded as similar (bench seat, identical seats, etc.) only
one "H" point and one "actual torso angle" shall be determined for each row of seats, the
3-D H machine described in Appendix 1 to this Annex being seated in a place regarded as
representative for the row. This place shall be:
4.16.1. In the case of the front row, the driver's seat,
4.16.2. In the case of the rear row or rows, an outer seat.

Figure 1
3-D H Machine Elements Designation

ANNEX 8 - APPENDIX 2
THREE-DIMENSIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
1. The three-dimensional reference system is defined by three orthogonal planes established
by the vehicle manufacturer (see Figure).
2. The vehicle measuring attitude is established by positioning the vehicle on a supporting
surface such that the co-ordinates of the fiducial marks correspond to the values indicated
by the manufacturer.
3. The co-ordinates of the "R" point and the "H" point are established in relation to the fiducial
marks defined by the vehicle manufacturer.
Figure 3
Three-dimensional Reference System

ANNEX 10
CALCULATION OF THE DETECTION DISTANCE
1. CAMERA MONITOR DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
1.1. Resolution Threshold of a Camera
The resolution threshold of a camera is defined by the formula:
ω
= 60 β
2N
where:
ω = resolution threshold of the camera (arc-min)
β = angle of vision of the camera (°)
N = number of video lines of the camera (#)
The manufacturer shall supply the values for β and N
1.2. Determination of the Critical Viewing Distance of the Monitor
For a monitor having certain dimensions and properties, a distance to the monitor can be
calculated within which the detection distance is dependent only on the performances of the
camera. This critical viewing distance r is defined by:
r
=
H
⎛ ω ⎞
N ..2.tan⎜

⎝ 2.60 ⎠
where:
r = critical viewing distance (m)
H
N
= height of the monitor image (m)
= number of video lines of the monitor (−)
ω = resolution threshold of the observer (minutes of arch)
The number 60 is for conversion from minutes of arches to degrees.
The manufacturer shall supply the values for H and N .
ω = 1

2. SECONDARY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Based on the installation conditions, a determination shall be made to discover whether the
entire device can still satisfy the functional requirements listed in Paragraph 6.2.2. of this
Regulation, especially the glare correction, the maximum and the minimum luminance of the
monitor. It shall also be determined the degree to which the glare correction will be addressed
and the angle at which sunlight can strike a monitor and these shall be compared to the
corresponding measuring results from the system measurements. This can be either based on
a CAD-generated model, a determination of the angles of light for the device when mounted on
the relevant vehicle, or by carrying out relevant measurements on the relevant vehicle as
described in Paragraph 6.2.2.2. of this Regulation.
Indirect Vision Devices.