Regulation No. 46-03

Name:Regulation No. 46-03
Description:Indirect Vision Devices.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Devices for Indirect Vision and of Motor Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of these Devices.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2012-10-03
Amendment Level:03 Series, Supplement 3.
Number of Pages:65
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

vision, vehicle, approval, mirror, indirect, mirrors, paragraph, device, regulation, type, plane, driver, surface, class, devices, field, series, test, amendments, distance, vertical, means, point, defined, reflecting, monitor, side, exterior, date, figure, force, entry, annex, camera, object, case, width, requirements, passing, position, vehicles, longitudinal, viewing, points, rear-view, front, parallel, critical, extension, maximum

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.45/Rev.5/Amend.2
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
October 17, 2014
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 46-03
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
Incorporating:
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.08.96
Supplement 3 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.09.94
Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.01.98
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 23.06.05
Corr. 1 to the 02 series of amendments (Russian only)
Date of Entry into Force: 15.11.06
Corr. 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.11.08
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.07.08
Supplement 3 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08
Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Corr. 1 to Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated 03.03.2010
Supplement 5 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Supplement 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.11.12
Supplement 2 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.11.13
Supplement 3 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.10.14

REGULATION
1. Scope
REGULATION NO. 46-03
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF DEVICES FOR
INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO
THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
I. DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
Contents
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Markings
5.
Approval
6.
Requirements
7.
Modification of the Type of Device for Indirect Vision and Extension of Approval
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10.
Production Definitively Discontinued
11.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities
II. INSTALLATION OF DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
12.
Definitions
13.
Application for Approval
14.
Approval
15.
Requirements
16.
Modifications of the Vehicle Type and Extension of Approval
17.
Conformity of Production
18.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
19.
Production Definitively Discontinued
20.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities
21.
Transitional Provisions

1. SCOPE
REGULATION NO. 46-03
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF DEVICES FOR
INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO
THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
This Regulation applies:
(a)
(b)
To compulsory and optional devices for indirect vision, set out in the table under
Paragraph 15.2.1.1.1. for vehicles of Category M and N and to compulsory and
optional devices for indirect vision mentioned in Paragraphs 15.2.1.1.3 and
15.2.1.1.4 for vehicles of Category L with bodywork at least partly enclosing the
driver;
To the installation of devices for indirect visions on vehicles of Categories M and N
and on vehicles of Category L with bodywork at least partly enclosing the driver.
I. DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation:
2.1. "Devices for indirect vision" means devices to observe the traffic area adjacent to the
vehicle which cannot be observed by direct vision. These can be conventional mirrors,
camera-monitors or other devices able to present information about the indirect field of
vision to the driver.
2.1.1. "Mirror" means any device, excluding devices such as periscopes, intended to give a
clear view to the rear, side or front of the vehicle within the fields of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.
2.1.1.1. "Interior mirror" means a device as defined in Paragraph 2.1., which can be fitted in the
passenger compartment of a vehicle.
2.1.1.2. "Exterior mirror" means a device as defined in Paragraph 2.1., which can be mounted
on the external surface of a vehicle.
2.1.1.3. "Surveillance mirror" means a mirror other than the ones defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.
which can be fitted to the inside or outside of the vehicle in order to provide fields of
vision other than those specified in Paragraph 15.2.4.
2.1.1.4. "Vision support system" means a system to enable the driver to detect and/or see
objects in the area adjacent to the vehicle.

2.1.1.13. "Class of mirror" means all devices having one or more common characteristics or
functions. They are classified as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Class I: "Interior rear-view mirror", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.1;
Class II and III: "Main exterior rear-view mirror", giving the fields of vision defined
in Paragraphs 15.2.4.2. and 15.2.4.3;
Class IV: "Wide-angle exterior mirror", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.4;
Class V: "Close-proximity exterior mirror", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.5;
(e) Class VI: "Front mirror", giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.6;
(f)
Class VII: Mirrors intended for L category vehicles with bodywork, giving the field
of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.7.
2.1.2. "Camera-monitor device for indirect vision" means a device as defined in
Paragraph 2.1., where the field of vision is obtained by means of a camera-monitor
combination as defined in Paragraphs 2.1.2.1. and 2.1.2.2.
2.1.2.1. "Camera" means a device that renders an image of the outside world and then converts
this image into a signal (e.g. video signal).
2.1.2.2. "Monitor" means a device that converts a signal into images that are rendered into the
visual spectrum.
2.1.2.3. "Detection" means the ability to distinguish an object from its background/surroundings
at certain distance.
2.1.2.4. "Luminance contrast" means the brightness ratio between an object and its immediate
background/surrounding that allows the object to be distinguished from its
background/surroundings.
2.1.2.5. "Resolution" means the smallest detail that can be discerned with a perceptual system,
i.e. perceived as separate from the larger whole. The resolution of the human eye is
indicated as "visual acuity".
2.1.2.6. "Critical object" means a cylindrical object with a height of 0.50m and a diameter of
0.30m.
2.1.2.7. "Critical perception" means the level of perception that can just be obtained under
critical conditions via the viewing system used. This corresponds to the situation in which
the representative scale of the critical object is multiple times larger than the smallest
detail that can be perceived via the viewing system.
2.1.2.8. "Field of vision" means the section of the tri-dimensional space which is monitored with
the help of a device for indirect vision. Unless otherwise stated, this is based on the view
on ground level offered by a device and/or devices other than mirrors. This may be
limited by the relevant detection distance corresponding to the critical object.

4. MARKINGS
4.1. The samples of devices for indirect vision submitted for approval shall bear the trade
name or mark of the manufacturer; this marking shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.2. Every device shall possess a space large enough to accommodate the approval mark,
which must be legible when the device has been mounted on the vehicle; this space
shall be shown on the drawings referred to in Annex 1.
5. APPROVAL
5.1. If the samples submitted for approval meet the requirements of Paragraph 6. of this
Regulation, approval of the pertinent type of device for indirect vision shall be granted.
5.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at
present 03) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another type of device for
indirect vision.
5.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval or of production
definitively discontinued of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by
means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 3 to this Regulation.
5.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in the space referred to in Paragraph 4.2.
above, to every device for indirect vision conforming to a type approved under this
Regulation, in addition to the mark prescribed in Paragraph 4.1., an international
approval mark consisting of:
5.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval ;
5.4.2. An approval number;
5.4.3. An additional Symbol I or II or III or IV or V or VI or VII, specifying the class to which the
type of mirror belongs or the Symbol S in case of any device for indirect vision other than
a mirror. The additional symbol shall be placed in any convenient position in the vicinity
of the circle containing the Letter "E".
5.5. The approval mark and the additional symbol shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
5.6. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the aforesaid
approval mark and additional symbol.

Figure 1
6.1.1.5. Edges of fixing holes or recesses of which the diameter or longest diagonal is less than
12mm are exempt from the radius requirements of Paragraph 6.1.1.3. provided that they
are blunted.
6.1.1.6. The device for the attachment of mirrors to the vehicle must be so designed that a
cylinder with a 70mm radius (50mm in the case of an L-Category vehicle), having as its
axis the axis, or one of the axes, of pivot or rotation which ensures deflection of the
mirror in the direction of impact concerned, passes through at least part of the surface to
which the device is attached.
6.1.1.7. The parts of exterior mirrors referred to in Paragraphs 6.1.1.2. and 6.1.1.3. which are
made of a material with a Shore A hardness not exceeding 60 are exempt from the
relevant provisions.
6.1.1.8. In the case of those parts of interior mirrors which are made of a material with a Shore A
hardness of less than 50 and which are mounted on a rigid support, the requirements of
Paragraphs 6.1.1.2. and 6.1.1.3. shall only apply to the support.
6.1.2. Special Specifications
6.1.2.1. Dimensions
6.1.2.1.1. Interior Rear-view Mirrors (Class I)
The dimensions of the reflecting surface must be such that it is possible to inscribe
thereon a rectangle one side of which is 40mm and the other 'a' mm in length, where
1
a = 150 x
1000
1+
r
mm
and "r" is the radius of curvature.

6.1.2.1.6.
Mirrors for Category L Vehicles with Bodywork (Class VII)
6.1.2.1.6.1.
"Main" Exterior Mirrors (Class VII)
The minimum dimensions of the reflecting surface shall be such that:
(a)
Its area shall not be less than 6.900mm ;
(b)
(c)
The diameter of circular mirrors shall not be less than 94mm;
Where rear view mirrors are not circular, their dimensions shall enable a
78mm-diameter circle to be prescribed on their reflecting surface.
The maximum dimensions of the reflecting surface shall be such that:
(a)
(b)
The diameter of any circular rear view mirror shall not be greater than 150mm;
The reflecting surface of any non-circular rear view mirror shall lie within a
rectangle measuring 120mm × 200mm.
6.1.2.2. Reflecting Surface and Coefficients of Reflection
6.1.2.2.1. The reflecting surface of a mirror must be either flat or spherically convex. Exterior
mirrors may be equipped with an additional aspherical part provided that the main mirror
fulfils the requirements of the indirect field of vision.
6.1.2.2.2. Differences between the radii of curvature of mirrors
6.1.2.2.2.1. The difference between r or r' , and r at each reference point must not exceed 0.15 r.
6.1.2.2.2.2. The difference between any of the radii of curvature (r , r , and r ) and r must not
exceed 0.15 r.
6.1.2.2.2.3. When r is not less than 3.000mm, the value of 0.15 r quoted in Paragraphs 6.1.2.2.2.1.
and 6.1.2.2.2.2. is replaced by 0.25 r.
6.1.2.2.3. Requirements for aspherical parts of mirrors
6.1.2.2.3.1. Aspherical mirrors shall be of sufficient size and shape to provide useful information to
the driver. This normally means a minimum width of 30mm at some point.
6.1.2.2.3.2. The radius of curvature ri of the aspherical part shall not be less than 150mm.
6.1.2.2.4. Value of 'r' for spherical mirrors must not be less than:
6.1.2.2.4.1. 1.200mm for interior rear-view mirrors (Class I);
6.1.2.2.4.2. 1.200mm for Class II and III main exterior rear-view mirrors;
6.1.2.2.4.3. 300mm for "wide-angle" exterior mirrors (Class IV) and "close-proximity" exterior mirrors
(Class V);

6.1.3.2.1.1. The test rig consists of a pendulum capable of swinging about two horizontal axes at
right angles to each other, one of which is perpendicular to the plane containing the
"release" trajectory of the pendulum.
The end of the pendulum comprises a hammer formed by a rigid sphere with a diameter
of 165 ± 1mm having a 5mm thick rubber covering of Shore A hardness 50.
A device is provided which permits determination of the maximum angle assumed by the
arm in the plane of release.
A support firmly fixed to the structure of the pendulum serves to hold the specimens in
compliance with the impact requirements specified in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.2.6.
Figure 1 below gives the dimensions (in mm) of the test rig and the special design
specifications:
Figure 1

6.1.3.2.2.5. The test consists in allowing the hammer to fall from a height corresponding to a
pendulum angle of 60° from the vertical so that the hammer strikes the mirror at the
moment when the pendulum reaches the vertical position.
6.1.3.2.2.6. The mirrors are subjected to impact under the following different conditions:
6.1.3.2.2.6.1. Interior Mirror
(a)
(b)
Test 1 – The points of impact shall be as defined in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.2.3. The
impact must be such that the hammer strikes the mirror on the
reflecting surface side.
Test 2 – Point of impact on the edge of the protective housing, such that the
impact produced makes an angle of 45° with the plane of the reflecting
surface and is situated in the horizontal plane passing through the
centre of that surface. The impact must occur on the reflecting surface
side.
6.1.3.2.2.6.2. Exterior Mirrors
(a)
(b)
Test 1 – The point of impact shall be as defined in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.2.3. or
6.1.3.2.2.4. The impact must be such that the hammer strikes the
mirror on the reflecting surface side.
Test 2 – The point of impact shall be as defined in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.2.3. or
6.1.3.2.2.4. The impact must be such that the hammer strikes the
mirror on the side opposite to the reflecting surface.
Where Class II or III rear-view mirrors are fixed to the same mounting as Class IV
rear-view mirrors, the above-mentioned tests shall be executed on the lower mirror.
Nevertheless, the Technical Service responsible for testing may repeat one or both of
these tests on the upper mirror if this is less than 2m from the ground.

6.1.3.3. Results of the Tests
In the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2., the pendulum must continue to swing after
impact in such a way that the projection of the position assumed by the arm on the plane
of release makes an angle of at least 20° with the vertical. The accuracy of measurement
of the angle shall be within ±1°.
6.1.3.3.1.1. This requirement is not applicable to mirrors stuck to the windscreen, in respect of which
the requirement stipulated in Paragraph 6.1.3.3.2. shall apply after the test.
6.1.3.3.1.2. The required angle to the vertical is reduced from 20° to 10° for all Class II and Class IV
rear-view mirrors and for Class III rear-view mirrors which are attached to the same
mounting as Class IV mirrors.
6.1.3.3.2. Should the mounting of the mirror break during the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.
for mirrors stuck to the windscreen, the part remaining must not project beyond the base
by more than 10mm and the configuration remaining after the test must satisfy the
conditions laid down in Paragraph 6.1.1.3.
6.1.3.3.3. The reflecting surface must not break during the tests described in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.
However, breakage of the reflecting surface will be allowed if one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
6.1.3.3.3.1. The fragments of glass still adhere to the back of the housing or to a surface firmly
attached to the housing; partial separation of the glass from its backing is admissible
provided that this does not exceed 2.5mm on either side of the cracks. It is permissible
for small splinters to become detached from the surface of the glass at the point of
impact;
6.1.3.3.3.2. The reflecting surface is made of safety glass.
6.2. Devices for Indirect Vision other than Mirrors
6.2.1. General Requirements
6.2.1.1. If adjustment by the user is needed, the device for indirect vision shall be adjustable
without the use of tools.
6.2.1.2. If a device for indirect vision can only render the total prescribed field of vision by
scanning the field of vision, the total process of scanning, rendering and reset to its initial
position together shall not take more than 2 seconds.
6.2.2. Camera-monitor Devices for Indirect Vision
6.2.2.1. General Requirements
6.2.2.1.1. When the camera-monitor device for indirect vision is mounted on a plane surface, all
parts, irrespective of the adjustment position of the device which are in potential, static
contact with a sphere either 165mm in diameter in the case of a monitor or 100mm in
diameter in the case of a camera, must have a radius of curvature "c" of not less than
2.5mm.

6.2.2.2.1.4. An example of the set-up is given in the Figure A below.
Figure A
Diagram of the Blooming Measurement Set-Up
1:
Black & white test pattern.
2:
Lamps to make the test pattern evenly illuminated.
3:
Mirror.
4:
High intensity light.
5:
Camera. 6: Monitor.
6.2.2.2.2. The monitor shall render a minimum contrast under various light conditions as specified
by ISO 15008:2003.
6.2.2.2.3. It shall be possible to adjust the average luminance of the monitor either manually or
automatically to the ambient conditions.
6.2.2.2.4. The measurements for the luminance contrast of the monitor shall be carried out
according to ISO 15008:2009.
6.2.3. Other Devices for Indirect Vision
It has to be proved that the device meets the following requirements:
6.2.3.1. The device shall perceive the visual spectrum and shall always render this image without
the need for interpretation into the visual spectrum.
6.2.3.2. The functionality shall be guaranteed under the circumstances of use in which the
system shall be put into service. Depending on the technology used in obtaining images
and presenting them Paragraph 6.2.2.2. shall be entirely or partly applicable. In other
cases this can be achieved by establishing and demonstrating by means of system
sensitivity analogous to Paragraph 6.2.2.2. that a function is ensured that is comparable
to or better than what is required for and by demonstrating that a functionality is
guaranteed that is equivalent or better than that required for mirror- or camera-monitor
type devices for indirect vision.

8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. The conformity of production procedure shall comply with those set out in the
Agreement, Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2).
8.2. Every device for indirect vision approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured
as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set out in Paragraph 6.
above.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to this
Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirement laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above is not
complied with or if the type of device for indirect vision did not satisfy the requirements
prescribed in Paragraph 8.2. above.
9.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a copy of the communication form bearing at the end, in large
letters, the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of device for
indirect vision approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the
authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that
authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation
by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed
and dated annotation "PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED".
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval,
issued in other countries, are to be sent.

12.3. "Type of vehicle as regards indirect vision" means motor vehicles which are identical
in respect of the following basic features:
12.3.1. Type of device for indirect vision;
12.3.2. The bodywork features which reduce the field of vision;
12.3.3. The coordinates of Point R (where applicable);
12.3.4. The prescribed positions, and type-approval markings of compulsory and (if fitted)
optional devices for indirect vision.
12.4. "Vehicles of Categories L , L , M , M , M , N , N and N " mean those defined in the
Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), (document
TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.2,para..2).
12.5. "Forward control" means a configuration in which more than half of the engine length is
rearward of the foremost point of the windshield base and the steering wheel hub in the
forward quarter of the vehicle length.
13. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
13.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of devices for
indirect vision shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited
representative.
13.2. A model of information document is shown in Annex 2.
13.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
13.4. The Competent Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for
ensuring effective checks on conformity of production before type-approval is granted.
14. APPROVAL
14.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval in accordance with Paragraph 13. above meets
the requirements of Paragraph 15. of this Regulation, approval shall be granted.
14.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at
present 02) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent or
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
14.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval of a vehicle type
pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this
Regulation.

15.2.1.1.1. The fields of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4. shall be obtained from the minimum
number on mandatory mirrors set out in the following table. Where the presence of a
mirror is not requested on a mandatory base, this means that no other system for indirect
vision can be requested on a mandatory base.

15.2.1.1.2. In case the described field of vision of a front mirror prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.6.
and/or a close proximity mirror described in Paragraph 15.2.4.5. can be obtained by
another device for indirect vision that is approved according to Paragraph 6.2. and that is
installed according to Paragraph 15., this device can be used instead of the relevant
mirror or mirrors.
In case a camera/monitor device is used, the monitor must exclusively show:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.5. when the close proximity
mirror has been substituted;
The field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.6. when the front mirror has
been substituted while the vehicle is moving forward with a speed of up to 10km/h;
or
Simultaneously the fields of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5. and
15.2.4.6. when the close proximity mirror and the front mirror have been
substituted. In the case where the vehicle is moving forward at a higher speed
than 10km/h or moving backwards, the monitor may be used for other information,
provided that the field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.5. is permanently
displayed.
15.2.1.1.3. Rear view mirrors required for L-Category vehicles with body work
Category of vehicle
L Category motor vehicles fitted
with bodywork which partly or
wholly encloses the driver
Interior mirror
(Class I)
Main exterior mirror(s)
(Classes III and VII)
1 1, if there is an interior mirror;
2, if there is not an interior
mirror
Where a single exterior rear view mirror is fitted this shall be located on the left hand side
of the vehicle in those countries where the traffic drives on the right and on the right hand
side of the vehicle in those countries where the traffic drives on the left.
15.2.1.1.4. Optional rear-view mirrors for L-Category vehicles
The fitting of an exterior rear-view mirror on the side of the vehicle opposite to that of the
mandatory rear-view mirror referred to in Paragraph 15.2.1.1.3, is permissible. The
rear-view mirror shall meet the requirements of this Regulation.
15.2.1.2. The provisions of this Regulation do not apply to the surveillance mirrors defined in
Paragraph 2.1.1.3. Nevertheless, the exterior surveillance mirrors must be mounted at
least 2m above the ground when the vehicle is under a load corresponding to its
maximum technical permissible mass.

15.2.3. Adjustment
15.2.3.1. The interior mirror must be capable of being adjusted by the driver from his driving
position.
15.2.3.2. The exterior mirror situated on the driver's side must be capable of being adjusted from
inside the vehicle while the door is closed, although the window may be open. The mirror
may, however, be locked in position from the outside.
15.2.3.3. The requirements of Paragraph 15.2.3.2. do not apply to exterior mirrors which, after
having been knocked out of alignment, can be returned to their former position without
the need for adjustment.
15.2.4. Fields of Vision
15.2.4.1. Interior rear-view mirror (Class I)
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 20m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road centred on the vertical longitudinal median plane of the
vehicle and extending from 60m behind the driver’s ocular points (Figure 4) to the
horizon.
Figure 4
Field of Vision of Class I Mirror
15.2.4.2. Main Exterior Rear-view Mirrors Class II
15.2.4.2.1. Exterior Rear-view Mirror on the Driver's Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 5m wide, flat, horizontal
portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane which is parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the
driver's side of the vehicle and extends from 30m behind the driver's ocular points to the
horizon.
In addition, the road must be visible to the driver over a width of 1m, which is bounded by
a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver's ocular points (see Figure 5).

15.2.4.3.2. Exterior Rear-view Mirror on the Passenger’s Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 4m wide flat, horizontal
portion of the road which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal
vertical plane passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the passenger’s side
and which extends from 20m behind the driver’s ocular points to the horizon (see
Figure 6).
In addition, the road must be visible to the driver over a width of 1m, which is bounded by
a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver’s ocular points.
Figure 6
Field of Vision of Class III Mirrors
15.2.4.4. "Wide-angle" Exterior Mirror (Class IV)
15.2.4.4.1. "Wide-angle" Exterior Mirror on the Driver’s Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 15m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the outermost point of the
vehicle on the driver’s side and which extends from at least 10m to 25m behind the
driver’s ocular points.
In addition, the road must be visible to the driver over a width of 4.5m, which is bounded
by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 1.5m behind the vertical plane
passing through the driver’s ocular points (see Figure 7).

15.2.4.5. "Close-proximity" Exterior Mirror (Class V)
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see a flat horizontal portion of the
road along the side of the vehicle, bounded by the following vertical planes (see
Figures 8a and 8b):
15.2.4.5.1. The plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle which passes
through the outermost point of the vehicle cab on the passenger’s side;
15.2.4.5.2. In the transverse direction, the parallel plane passing at a distance of 2m in front of the
plane mentioned in Paragraph 15.2.4.5.1.
15.2.4.5.3. To the rear, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver’s ocular
points and situated at a distance of 1.75m behind that plane;
15.2.4.5.4. To the front, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver’s ocular
points and situated at a distance of 1m in front of that plane. If the vertical transverse
plane passing through the leading edge of the vehicle bumper is less than 1m in front of
the vertical plane passing through the driver’s ocular points, the field of vision shall be
limited to that plane.
15.2.4.5.5. In case the field of vision described in Figures 8a and 8b can be perceived through the
combination of the field of vision from a Class IV wide-angle mirror and that of a Class VI
front mirror, the installation of a Class V close proximity mirror is not compulsory.
Figures 8a and 8b
Field of Vision of Class V Close-Proximity Mirror

15.2.4.6.3. For the purpose of Paragraphs 15.2.4.6.1. and 15.2.4.6.2. parts permanently attached to
the vehicle that are situated both above the driver's eye points and in front of the
transverse vertical plane passing through the foremost surface of the vehicle's front
bumper shall not be taken into account when defining the front of the vehicle.
15.2.4.7. L-Category Mirror (Class VII).
15.2.4.7.1. Exterior Rear-view Mirror on the Driver's Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 2.50m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the
driver's side of the vehicle and extends from 10m behind the driver's ocular points to the
horizon (see Figure 10).
15.2.4.7.2. Exterior Rear-view Mirror on the Passenger's Side
The field of vision must be such that the driver can see at least a 4m wide flat, horizontal
portion of the road which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal
vertical plane passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the passenger's side
and which extends from 20m behind the driver's ocular points to the horizon (see
Figure 10).

15.2.4.8. In the case of mirrors consisting of several reflecting surfaces which are either of
different curvature or make an angle with each other, at least one of the reflecting
surfaces must provide the field of vision and have the dimensions
(Paragraph 6.1.2.1.2.2.) specified for the class to which they belong.
15.2.4.9. Obstructions
15.2.4.9.1. Interior Rear-view Mirror (Class I)
The field of vision may be reduced by the presence of devices such as sun visors,
windscreen wipers, heating elements and stop lamp of Category S , provided that all
these devices together do not obscure more than 15% of the prescribed field of vision.
Headrests or framework or bodywork such as window columns of rear split doors, rear
window frame shall be excluded from the calculation. This requirement shall be tested by
projection on to a vertical plane at right angles to the longitudinal centreplane of the
vehicle. The degree of obstruction shall be measured with the sun visors folded back.
15.2.4.9.2. Exterior Mirrors (Classes II, III, IV, V, VI and VII)
In the fields of vision specified above, obstruction due to the bodywork and its
components, such as other cab mirrors, door handles, outline marker lights, direction
indicators and front and rear bumpers, as well as reflective-surface cleaning
components, shall not be taken into account if they are responsible for a total obstruction
of less than 10% of the specified field of vision. In the case of a vehicle designed and
constructed for special purposes where, due to its special features, it is not possible to
meet this requirement, the obstruction of the required field of vision of a Class VI mirror
caused by the special features may be more than 10% but not more than necessary for
its special function.
15.2.4.10. Test Procedure
The field of vision shall be determined by placing powerful light sources at the ocular
points and examining the light reflected on the vertical monitoring screen. Other
equivalent methods may be used.
15.3. Devices for Indirect Vision other than Mirrors
15.3.1. A device for indirect vision shall give such performances that a critical object can be
observed by the driver over the entire required field of vision, taking into account the
critical perception according the procedure of Annex 10.
Alternatively, the determination of the displayed object size shall be performed according
to Annex 11.
15.3.2. Obstruction of the driver’s direct view caused by the installation of a device for indirect
vision shall be restricted to a minimum.
15.3.3. (Reserved)
15.3.4. Installation Requirements for the Monitor
The viewing direction of the monitor shall roughly be the same direction as the one for
the main mirror.

17. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
17.1. The conformity of production procedure shall comply with those set out in the
Agreement, Appendix 2, (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2).
17.2. Every vehicle approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to
the type approved by meeting the requirements set out in Paragraph 15. above.
18. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
18.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirement laid down in Paragraph 17.1. above is not complied with or
if the vehicle fails to pass the checks prescribed in Paragraph 17.2. above.
18.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters,
the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
19. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle
approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which
granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall
inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a
copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated
annotation "PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED".
20. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Type Approval Authorities
responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Administrative Departments which
grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or
withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.
21. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
21.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 03 series of amendments to this
Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse an application for
approval under this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
21.2. As from 12 months after entry into force of the 03 series of amendments to this
Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant approvals to a type
of device for indirect vision only if the type meets the requirements of this Regulation as
amended by the 03 series of amendments.
21.3. As from 18 months after entry into force of the 03 series of amendments to this
Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant approvals to a type
of vehicle with regard to the installation of devices for indirect vision only if the type of
vehicle meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of
amendments.

ANNEX 1
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
FOR TYPE-APPROVAL OF A DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
The following information, if applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and must include a list of contents.
Any drawings shall be supplied in appropriate scale and in sufficient detail on size A4 paper or on a
folder of A4 format.
Photographs, if any, shall show sufficient detail.
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ................................................................................
3. Means of identification of the type, if indicated on the device: .......................................................
4. Category of vehicle for which the device is intended: ....................................................................
5. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
6. Location and method of affixing of the approval mark: ..................................................................
7. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): .................................................................................................
8. Mirrors (state for each mirror): .......................................................................................................
8.1. Variant: ...........................................................................................................................................
8.2. Drawing(s) for the identification of the mirror: ................................................................................
8.3. Details of the method of attachment: .............................................................................................
9. Devices for indirect vision other than mirrors: ................................................................................
9.1. Type and characteristics (such as a complete description of the device): ....................................
9.1.1. In the case of camera-monitor device, the detection distance (mm), contrast, luminance range,
glare correction, display performance (black and white/colour) image repetition frequency,
luminance reach of the monitor: .....................................................................................................
9.2. Sufficiently detailed drawings to identify the complete device including installation instructions;
the position for the type-approval mark has to be indicated on the drawings: ...............................

11. Range of vehicle dimensions (overall): .....................................................................................
11.1. For chassis without bodywork
11.1.1. Width : .....................................................................................................................................
11.1.1.1. Maximum permissible width: .....................................................................................................
11.1.1.2. Minimum permissible width: ......................................................................................................
11.2. For chassis with bodywork: .......................................................................................................
11.2.1. Width : .....................................................................................................................................
12. BODYWORK
12.1. Devices for indirect vision
12.1.1. Mirrors: ......................................................................................................................................
12.1.1.1. Drawing(s) showing the position of the mirror relative to the vehicle structure: .......................
12.1.1.2. Details of the method of attachment including that part of the vehicle structure to which it is
attached: ...................................................................................................................................
12.1.1.3. Optional equipment which may affect the rearward field of vision: ...........................................
12.1.1.4. A brief description of the electronic components (if any) of the adjustment device: .................
12.1.2. Devices for indirect vision other than mirrors: ...........................................................................
12.1.2.1. Sufficiently detailed drawings with the installation instructions: ................................................

10. Position of the approval mark: ........................................................................................................
11. Reason(s) for extension (if applicable): .........................................................................................
12. Approval granted/refused/extended/withdrawn:
13. Place: .............................................................................................................................................
14. Date: ...............................................................................................................................................
15. Signature: .......................................................................................................................................
16. The list of documents deposited with the Type Approval Authority which has granted approval
is annexed to this communication and may be obtained on request.

12. Place: .............................................................................................................................................
13. Date: ...............................................................................................................................................
14. Signature: .......................................................................................................................................
15. The index to the information package lodged with the Type Approval Authority, which may be
obtained on request is attached.
Appendix to Type-approval Communication Form No. ……Concerning the Type-approval
of a Vehicle with Regard to the Mounting of Devices for Indirect Vision under Regulation No. 46
1. Trade name or mark of mirrors and supplementary devices for indirect vision and component
type-approval number: ........................................................................................................................
2. Class(es) of mirrors and devices for indirect vision (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII S)
3. Extension of type approval of the vehicle to cover the following device for indirect vision
..............................................................................................................................................................
4. Data for identification of the R Point of the driver’s seating position:
..............................................................................................................................................................
5. Maximum and minimum bodywork width in respect of which the mirror and the devices for indirect
vision has been granted type-approval (in the case of chassis/cab referred to in
Paragraph 15.2.2.3.)
6. The following documents, bearing the type-approval number shown above, are annexed to this
certificate: ............................................................................................................................................
(a) Drawings showing the mounting of the devices for indirect vision ...........................................
(b)
Drawings and plans showing the mounting position and characteristics of the part of the
structure where the devices for indirect vision are mounted. ...................................................
7. Remarks: (e.g. valid for right hand/left hand traffic ) .........................................................................

ANNEX 6
TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING REFLECTIVITY
1. DEFINITIONS
1.1.
CIE standard illuminant A:
: Colorimetric illuminate, respecting the full radiator at
T = 2855.6 K.
1.1.2. CIE standard source A: Gas-filled tungsten filament lamp operating at a correlated colour
temperature of T = 2855.6 K.
1.1.3. CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer: Receptor of radiation whose colorimetric
characteristics correspond to the spectral tristimulus values x ( λ ), y ( λ ), z ( λ(see ) table).
1.1.4. CIE spectral tristimulus values: Tristimulus values of the spectral components of an equi
energy spectrum in the CIE (XYZ) system.
1.1.5. Photopic vision: Vision by the normal eye when it is adapted to levels of luminance of at
least several cd/m .
2. APPARATUS
2.1. General
The apparatus shall consist of a light source, a holder for the test sample, a receiver unit with
a photodetector and an indicating meter (see Figure 1), and means of eliminating the effects
of extraneous light.
The receiver may incorporate a light-integrating sphere to facilitate measuring the reflectance
of non-flat (convex) mirrors (see Figure 2).
2.2. Spectral Characteristics of Light Source and Receiver
The light source shall consist of a CIE standard source A and associated optics to provide a
near-collimated light beam. A voltage stabiliser is recommended in order to maintain a fixed
lamp voltage during instrument operation.
The receiver shall have a photodetector with a spectral response proportional to the photopic
luminosity function of the CIE (1931) standard colorimetric observer (see table). Any other
combination of illuminate-filter-receptor giving the overall equivalent of CIE standard
illuminate A and photopic vision may be used. When an integrating sphere is used in the
receiver, the interior surface of the sphere shall be coated with a matt (diffusive) spectrally
non-selective white coating.

3.3. Flat Mirror Measurement
The reflectance of flat mirror samples can be measured on instruments employing either the
direct or the indirect calibration method. The reflectance value is read directly from the
indicating meter.
3.4. Non-flat (Convex) Mirror Measurement
Measurement of the reflectance of non-flat (convex) mirrors requires the use of instruments
which incorporate an integrating sphere in the receiver unit (see Figure 2). If the
instrument-indicating meter indicates ne divisions with a standard mirror of E% reflectance,
then, with a mirror of unknown reflectance, n divisions will correspond to a reflectance of X%,
in accordance with the formula:
x = E
n
n
Figure 1
Generalised Reflectometer Showing Experimental
Set-ups for the Two Calibration Methods

4. SPECTRAL TRISTIMULUS VALUES FOR THE CIE 1931 STANDARD COLORIMETRIC
OBSERVER
(This table is taken from CIE Publication 50 (45) (1970))
λ nm x ( λ )
y ( λ )
z ( λ )
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
0.001 4
0.004 2
0.014 3
0.043 5
0.134 4
0.283 9
0.348 3
0.336 2
0.290 8
0.195 4
0.095 6
0.032 0
0.004 9
0.009 3
0.063 3
0.165 5
0.290 4
0.433 4
0.594 5
0.762 1
0.916 3
1.026 3
1.062 2
1.002 6
0.854 4
0.642 4
0.447 9
0.283 5
0.164 9
0.087 4
0.046 8
0.022 7
0.011 4
0.005 8
0.002 9
0.001 4
0.000 7
0.000 3
0.000 2
0.000 1
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 1
0.000 4
0.001 2
0.004 0
0.011 6
0.023 0
0.038 0
0.060 0
0.091 0
0.139 0
0.208 0
0.323 0
0.503 0
0.710 0
0.862 0
0.954 0
0.995 0
0.995 0
0.952 0
0.870 0
0.757 0
0.631 0
0.503 0
0.381 0
0.265 0
0.175 0
0.107 0
0.061 0
0.032 0
0.017 0
0.008 2
0.004 1
0.002 1
0.001 0
0.000 5
0.000 2
0.000 1
0.000 1
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.006 5
0.020 1
0.067 9
0.207 4
0.645 6
1.385 6
1.747 1
1.772 1
1.669 2
1.287 6
0.813 0
0.465 2
0.272 0
0.158 2
0.078 2
0.042 2
0.020 3
0.008 7
0.003 9
0.002 1
0.001 7
0.001 1
0.000 8
0.000 3
0.000 2
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
y λ λ

ANNEX 7
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE "r" OF THE
REFLECTING SURFACE OF A MIRROR
1. MEASUREMENT
1.1. Equipment
A "spherometer" similar to the one described in Figure 1 of this Annex having the indicated
distances between the tracing pin of the dial gauge and the fixed legs of the bar is used.
1.2. Measuring Points
1.2.1. The principal radii of curvature shall be measured at three points situated as close as possible
to positions at ⅓, ½ and ⅔ of the distance along the arc of the reflecting surface passing
through the centre of this surface and parallel to segment b, or of the arc passing through the
centre of the reflecting surface which is perpendicular to it if this arc is the longer.
1.2.2. Where, owing to the size of the reflecting surface, it is impossible to obtain measurements in
the directions defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.6. of this Regulation, the Technical Services
responsible for the tests may take measurements at the said point in two perpendicular
directions as close as possible to those prescribed above.
2. CALCULATION OF THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE "r"
"r" expressed in mm is calculated from the formula:
where:
r 1
r =
+ r 2
3
+ r
3
r 1 = the radius of curvature at the first measuring point,
r 2 = the radius of curvature at the second measuring point,
r 3 = the radius of curvature at the third measuring point.

ANNEX 8
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE "H" POINT AND
THE ACTUAL TORSO ANGLE FOR SEATING POSITIONS IN
MOTOR VEHICLES
Appendix 1 Description of the three-dimensional H Point machine (3 DH machine)
Appendix 2 Three-dimensional reference system
Appendix 3 Reference data concerning seating positions
ANNEX 9 – (Reserved)

Figure 1
Triangular Test Patterns Used in the Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) Method
Figure 2
Typical Relationship between the Size of the Triangle and the Fraction of Correct Responses
1.2. Determination of the Critical Viewing Distance of the Monitor
For a monitor having certain dimensions and properties, the distance to the monitor can be
calculated within which the detection distance is dependent only on the performances of the
camera. The critical viewing distance r is defined as the distance at which the smallest
discernable detail displayed on the monitor spans 1 arc min measured from the eye (the acuity
threshold of a standard observer).
r
δ ⋅ 60 ⋅180
=
π
where:
r : critical viewing distance of the monitor (m)
δ: size of the smallest discernable detail on the monitor (m)

ANNEX 11
DETERMINATION OF THE DISPLAYED OBJECT SIZE
1. CAMERA MONITOR DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
1.1. General
Determination of the displayed object size considers the possible appearance of smear. The
impact on the monitors image and consequence is the occultation of the field of view and
therefore of the object. The following differentiation is made:
1.2. Case A: Smear Appears
1.2.1.
Step 1:
Under the condition described in Paragraph 6.2.2.2.1.2., measure the width (s) of
the vertical bar displayed on the monitor e.g. with a measurement microscope.
1.2.2.
Step 2:
Place the object at a defined distance from the camera. Measure the width of the
object displayed on the monitor (b) in a situation without real sun light condition
e.g. with a measurement microscope.
1.2.3. Step 3: Calculate the residual object width (α) according to the following equation:
where:
α
['
]
b − s
= 60 × 2 × arctan
2 × r
α: residual width of the object displayed on the monitor (with smear) (minutes of arc)
b: width of the object displayed on the monitor (without smear) (mm)
s: width of the smear (mm)
r: viewing distance (mm)
1.3. Case B: Smear Does Not Appear
1.3.1.
Step 1:
Place the object at a defined distance from the camera. Measure the width of the
object displayed on the monitor (b) in a situation without real sun light condition
e.g. with a measurement microscope.
1.3.2. Step 2: Calculate the object width (α) according to the following equation:
where:
α
['
]
b
= 60 × 2 × arctan
2 × r
α: width of the object displayed on the monitor (without smear) (minutes of arc)
b: width of the object displayed on the monitor (without smear) (mm)
r: viewing distance (mm)

1.4.2.2.
Step 2:
Place the critical object inside the drawn intended field of vision in a position at
which the distance between the critical object and the camera is largest. The
illumination conditions shall be in such a way that the critical object is clearly
visible on the monitor.
1.4.2.3. Step 3: Select the first value of the possible viewing distances.
1.4.2.4.
Step 4:
Change the height of the camera above ground in such a way, that the residual
width B of the object displayed on the monitor is equal to the minimum width
allocated to that viewing distance.
where:
B=b
B: residual width of the object displayed on the monitor (which is "b" in cases without
smear and "b – s" in cases with smear) in mm (see Paragraph 1.1. General)
1.4.2.5.
Step 5:
Measure the height between camera and ground which is the maximum
mounting height allocated to that viewing distance. Report the result value.
1.4.2.6. Step 6: Repeat the aforementioned steps 4 and 5 for the other viewing distances.
Indirect Vision Devices.