Regulation No. 46-04

Name:Regulation No. 46-04
Description:Indirect Vision Devices.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Devices for Indirect Vision and of Motor Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of these Devices.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2013-07-15
Amendment Level:04 Series, Supplement 3
Number of Pages:98
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Driver's Vision
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Keywords:

vision, vehicle, approval, indirect, device, regulation, class, paragraph, monitor, test, point, driver, devices, field, type, plane, series, amendments, mirror, mirrors, camera, vertical, light, surface, defined, distance, side, luminance, system, means, figure, requirements, cms, annex, date, force, case, entry, reflecting, rear-view, passing, position, view, points, maximum, information, longitudinal, width, object, source

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.45/Rev.6/Amend.1
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
October 28, 2016
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 46-04
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
Incorporating:
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.08.96
Supplement 3 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.09.94
Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.01.98
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 23.06.05
Corr. 1 to the 02 series of amendments (Russian only)
Date of Entry into Force: 15.11.06
Corr. 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.11.08
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.07.08
Supplement 3 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08
Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Corr. 1 to Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated 03.03.2010
Supplement 5 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Supplement 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.11.12
Supplement 2 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.11.13
04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.07.13
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.10.14
Corr. 1 to Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Dated: 25.11.2015
Supplement 2 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.16
Supplement 3 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.10.16

REGULATION
1. Scope
REGULATION NO. 46-04
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF DEVICES FOR
INDIRECT VISION AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO
THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES
Contents
I. DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
2. Definitions
3. Application for Approval
4. Markings
5. Approval
6. Requirements
7. Modification of the Type of Device for Indirect Vision and Extension of Approval
8. Conformity of Production
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10. Production Definitively Discontinued
11. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities
II.
INSTALLATION OF DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
12.
Definitions
13.
Application for Approval
14.
Approval
15.
Requirements
16.
Requirements for Devices for Indirect Vision Other Than Mirrors

Annex 9

(Reserved)
Annex 10

Calculation of the Detection Distance for CMS of Classes V and VI
Annex 11

Determination of the Displayed Object Size for CMS of Classes V and VI
Annex 12

Test Methods and Safety Provisions for CMS of Classes I to IV

2.1.1.5. "The Principal Radii of Curvature at One Point on the Reflecting Surface (r )"
means the values obtained with the apparatus defined in Annex 7, measured on the arc
of the reflecting surface passing through the centre of this surface parallel to the
segment b, as defined in Paragraph 6.1.2.1.2.1. of this Regulation and on the arc
perpendicular to this segment;
2.1.1.6. "The Radius of Curvature at one Point on the Reflecting Surface (r )" means the
arithmetical average of the principal radii of curvature r and r' i.e.:
r
r
=
+
2
r '
2.1.1.7. "Spherical Surface" means a surface, which has a constant and equal radius in all
directions
2.1.1.8. "Aspherical Surface" means a surface, which has only in one plane a constant radius.
2.1.1.9. "Aspherical Mirror" means a mirror composed of a spherical and an aspherical part, in
which the transition of the reflecting surface from the spherical to the aspherical part has
to be marked. The curvature of the main axis of the mirror is defined in the x/y coordinate
system defined by the radius of the spherical primary calotte with:
y = R −
( R − x ) + k ( x − a )
Where:
R: nominal radius in the spherical part
k: constant for the change of curvature
a: constant for the spherical size of the spherical primary calotte
2.1.1.10. "Centre of the Reflecting Surface" means the centre of the visible area of the
reflecting surface.
2.1.1.11. "The Radius of Curvature of the Constituent Parts of the Mirror" means the radius
"c" of the arc of the circle which most closely approximates to the curved form of the part
in question.
2.1.2. "Camera-monitor system (CMS)" means a device for indirect vision as defined in
Paragraph 2.1., where the field of vision is obtained by means of a camera-monitor
combination as defined in Paragraphs 2.1.2.1. and 2.1.2.2. below.
2.1.2.1. "Camera" means a device that renders an image of the outside world and then converts
this image into a signal (e.g. video signal).
2.1.2.2. "Monitor" means a device that converts a signal into images that are rendered into the
visual spectrum.

2.2. "Type of Device for Indirect Vision" means devices that do not differ on the following
essential characteristics:
a) Design of the device inclusive, if pertinent, the attachment to the bodywork;
b) In case of mirrors the class, the shape, the dimensions and radius of curvature of
the mirror's reflecting surface;
c) In case of camera-monitor systems, the class, the field of view, the magnification
and resolution
2.3. "Surveillance Camera-monitor-recording Device" means a camera and either a
monitor or recording equipment other than the camera-monitor device defined in
Paragraph 2.1.2. above which can be fitted to the inside or outside of the vehicle in order
to provide fields of vision other than those specified in Paragraph 15.2.4. of this
Regulation or to provide a security system within or around the vehicle.
2.4. "Class of device for indirect vision" means all devices having one or more common
characteristics or functions. They are classified as follows:
2.4.1. Class I: "Rear-view device", giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.1.
2.4.2. Class II and III: "Main rear-view device", giving the fields of vision defined in
Paragraphs 15.2.4.2. and 15.2.4.3.
2.4.3. Class IV: "Wide-angle view device", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.4.
2.4.4. Class V: "Close-proximity view device", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.5.
2.4.5. Class VI: "Front-view device", giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.6.
2.4.6. Class VII: "Main rear-view mirrors" intended for L Category vehicles with bodywork
giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.7.
2.5. "Point light source detection factor - PLSDF" means the level of distinctness of a pair
of point light sources, based on luminance intensities and horizontal and vertical
dimension of the rendition on the monitor.
2.6. "Point light source contrast factor - PLSCF" means the level of distinctness of a pair
of point light sources, based on luminance differences between the maximum luminance
of the luminance profile L and the minimum luminance of the luminance profile L
in the horizontal direction (see Figure 3 of Annex 12).
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a type of device for indirect vision shall be submitted by
the holder of the trade name or mark or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. A model of information document is shown in Annex 1.

5.4.3. Additional Symbol I or II or/and III or/and IV or/and V or/and VI or/and VII, specifying the
class to which the type of device for indirect vision belongs. The additional symbol shall
be placed in any convenient position in the vicinity of the circle containing the Letter "E".
5.5. The approval mark and the additional symbol shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
5.6. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the aforesaid
approval mark and additional symbol.
6. REQUIREMENTS
6.1. Mirrors
6.1.1. General Specifications
6.1.1.1. All mirrors shall be adjustable.
6.1.1.2. (a) Rear-view mirrors (Classes II to VII)
The edge of the reflecting surface shall be enclosed in a protective housing
(holder, etc.) which, on its perimeter, shall have a value "c" greater than or equal
to 2.5mm at all points and in all directions. If the reflecting surface projects beyond
the protective housing, the radius of curvature "c" on the edge of the projecting
part shall be not less than 2.5mm and the reflecting surface shall return into the
protective housing under a force of 50N applied to the point of greatest projection,
relative to the protective housing, in a horizontal direction, approximately parallel
to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.
(b) Rear-view mirrors (Class I)
In cases, where the edge of the reflecting surface is enclosed in a protective
housing (holder, etc.), the radius of curvature "c" on its perimeter shall be not less
than 2.5mm at all points and in all directions. In cases, where the edge of the
reflecting surface projects beyond the protective housing, this requirement shall
apply to the edge of the projecting part.
6.1.1.3. When the mirror is mounted on a plane surface, all parts, irrespective of the adjustment
position of the device, including those parts remaining attached to the support after the
test provided for in Paragraph 6.3.2. below, which are in potential, static contact with a
sphere either 165mm in diameter in the case of a Class I mirror or 100mm in diameter in
the case of a Class II to VII mirror, shall have a radius of curvature 'c' of not less than
2.5mm.

6.1.2. Special Specifications
6.1.2.1. Dimensions
6.1.2.1.1. Rear-view mirrors (Class I)
The dimensions of the reflecting surface shall be such that it is possible to inscribe
thereon a rectangle one side of which is 40mm and the other 'a' mm in length, where
and "r" is the radius of curvature.
1
a = 150 x mm
1,000
1+
r
6.1.2.1.2. Main rear-view mirrors (Classes II and III)
6.1.2.1.2.1. The dimensions of the reflecting surface shall be such that it is possible to inscribe
therein:
(a)
(b)
A rectangle 40mm high the base length of which, measured in millimetres, has the
value "a";
A segment which is parallel to the height of the rectangle and the length of which,
expressed in millimetres, has the value "b".
6.1.2.1.2.2. The minimum values of 'a' and 'b' are given in the table below:
Class of Rear-view Mirror a (mm) b (mm)
II
III
170
1,000
1+
r
130
1,000
1+
r
200
70

6.1.2.2.3. Requirements for aspherical parts of mirrors
6.1.2.2.3.1. Aspherical mirrors shall be of sufficient size and shape to provide useful information to
the driver. This normally means a minimum width of 30mm at some point.
6.1.2.2.3.2. The radius of curvature r of the aspherical part shall not be less than 150mm.
6.1.2.2.4. Value of 'r' for spherical mirrors shall not be less than:
6.1.2.2.4.1. 1,200mm for interior rear-view mirrors (Class I);
6.1.2.2.4.2. 1,200mm for Class II and III main rear-view mirrors;
6.1.2.2.4.3. 300mm for "wide-angle" mirrors (Class IV) and "close-proximity" mirrors (Class V);
6.1.2.2.4.4. 200mm for front mirrors (Class VI).
6.1.2.2.4.5. 1,000mm or more than 1,500mm for Class VII main rear-view mirrors
6.1.2.2.5. The value of the normal coefficient of reflection, as determined according to the method
described in Annex 6, shall be not less than 40%.
In the case of reflecting surfaces with a changeable degree of reflection, the "day"
position shall allow the colours of the signals used for road traffic to be recognised.
The value of the normal coefficient of reflection in the "night" position shall be not less
than 4%.
6.1.2.2.6. The reflecting surface shall retain the characteristics laid down in Paragraph 6.1.2.2.5.
above in spite of prolonged exposure to adverse weather conditions in normal use.
6.2. Devices for Indirect Vision other than Mirrors
6.2.1. General Requirements
6.2.1.1. If adjustment by the user is needed, the device for indirect vision shall be adjustable
without the use of tools.
6.2.1.2. If a device for indirect vision can only render the total prescribed field of vision by
scanning the field of vision, the total process of scanning, rendering and reset to its initial
position together shall not take more than 2s.
6.2.1.3. The effectiveness of the CMS of Classes I to IV shall not be adversely affected by
magnetic or electrical fields. This shall be demonstrated by compliance with the technical
requirements and transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10, 04 series of amendments
or any later series of amendments.
6.2.2. Camera-monitor Systems
The requirements of Paragraph 6.2.2.1. shall be considered to be satisfied in the case of
monitors of a vehicle that fulfils the provisions of Regulation No. 21.

6.2.2.2.1.4. An example of the
set-up is given in the Figure A below.
Figure A
Diagram of the Blooming Measurement
Set-Up
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
Black & white test pattern.
Lamps to make the test pattern evenly illuminated.
Mirror.
High intensity light.
Camera.
Monitor.
6.2.2.2.2.
6.2.2.2.3.
The monitor shall render a minimum contrast under various light conditions as
specified
by ISO
15008:2003.
It shall be possible to adjust the averagee luminance of the monitor either manually or
automatically to the ambient conditions.
6.2.2.2.4.
The measurements for the luminance contrast of
according to ISO 15008:2009.
the monitor r shall be carried out
6.2.2.3.
Functional Requirements for Camera-monitor Devices of Classes I to IV (see Annex 12).
Unless otherwise specified in this Regulation, the definitions and symbols used in
Paragraph 6.2.2.3. are in accordance with ISO 16505:2015, Chapters 3 and 4.
Unless
otherwise
specifiedd in this Regulation, the requirements
Paragraph 6.2.2. 3. shall bee verified according too the test procedures
ISO 16505:2015,
Chapter 7, where available.
given in
given in
6.2.2.3.1.
Luminance Adjustment
It shall be possible to adjust the averagee luminance of the monitor either manually or
automatically to the ambient conditions.

For the extended isotropy range:
max
{ L − L ( Θ , φ )}
L ( Θ , φ )
< 50%
for points i' = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 as defined in Table 2 below.
Table 2
Measurement Directions for Extended Isotropy Range
Direction i'
horizontal/degree
vertical/degree
1
-12
+11
2

6.2.2.3.3.2.1. Day condition with diffuse sky-light exposure test
For the day condition with diffuse sky-light exposure, the test method given in
ISO 16505:2015, subclause 7.8.2., Test 2 shall be applied, but a value of 4,000 to 4,200
cd/m for luminance diffuse illuminator shall be used.
At the request of the manufacturer, the value for luminance diffuse illuminator may be
determined by using the diagram of figure below.
Ratio of projected area vs. luminance of the diffuse illuminator
Procedure for determining the ration of the projected area leaving the vehicle:
(a)
(b)
Determine the projected area in the vehicle that represents the mirror reflected
direction from the monitor extended isotropy range.
Evaluation shall be made in the centre of the monitor defined size, under
consideration of the monitor design viewing direction (see figure below).
This projected area represents the 100% of the surface to be considered.

Figure B
6.2.2.3.3.5. Artefacts
6.2.2.3.3.5.1. Smear
Amber, blue and red light signals shall be distinguishable from each other.
The operator's manual shall refer to possible artefacts and their impact on the partial
occlusion of the field of view and of the objects which may require the driver to be
particularly alert and attentive.
Smear shall be transparent and not be more than 10% of the maximum luminance value
of the displayed glare source luminance level, which causes smear effect.
6.2.2.3.3.5.2. Blooming and Lens Flare
The total area of disturbing blooming and lens flare areas shall not cover more than 25%
of the displayed camera image.

(b) Resolution at Point 3 (Close distance at 4m)
6.2.2.3.3.7. Geometric distortion
1
MTF10( ) ≥ MTF10 LW / PH
2
For CMS of Classes I, II and III the maximum distortion within the minimum required field
of view shall not exceed 20% relative to recto-linear or pinhole projection.
This performance shall be tested according to the method given in ISO 16505:2015,
Annex G.3.
6.2.2.3.3.8. Further image quality requirements
6.2.2.3.3.8.1. Flicker
The entire image area of the monitor shall be free of flicker according to the test method
of Annex 12, Paragraph 1.2.
6.2.2.3.4. Time Behaviour
6.2.2.3.4.1. Frame Rate
Movements of objects in front of the camera shall be rendered smooth and fluid. The
minimum frame rate of the system (update rate of the image information) shall be at least
30Hz. At low light conditions or while manoeuvring at low speed, the minimum frame rate
of the system (i.e. update rate of the image information) shall be at least 15Hz.
6.2.2.3.4.2. Image Formation Time
The image formation time of the monitor shall be less than 55ms at a temperature of
22°C ± 5°C
This performance shall be tested according to the method given in ISO 9241-305:2008.
6.2.2.3.4.3. System Latency
A CMS shall have a sufficient short latency to render the scenery nearly at the same
time. The latency shall be lower than 200ms at room temperature 22 °C ± 5°C.
6.2.2.3.5. Quality and further ergonomic requirements
6.2.2.3.5.1. Glare due to high luminance of the monitor
In order to avoid glare from a high luminance of the monitor, the luminance shall be
dimmable in the night condition either manually or automatically.
6.2.3. Other Devices for Indirect Vision
It has to be proved that the device meets the following requirements:
6.2.3.1. The device shall perceive the visual spectrum and shall always render this image without
the need for interpretation into the visual spectrum.

6.3.2.1.
6.3.2.1.1.
Description of the test rig
The test rig consists of a pendulum capable of swinging about two horizontal axes at
right angles to each other, one of whichh is perpendicular to thee plane containing the
"release" trajectory of the pendulum.
The end of the pendulum comprises a hammer formedd by a rigid sphere with a diameter
of 165
± 1mm having a 5mm thick rubber covering of Shore S A hardness 50.
A device is provided which permits determination of the maximum angle assumed by the
arm in
the plane of release.
A support firmly fixed to the structure of the pendulumm serves to hold the specimens in
compliance with the impact requirements specified in Paragraph P 6. .1.3.2.2.6 below.
Figure
1 below gives the dimensions (in
mm) of the test rig and the special design
specifications:
Figure 1

6.3.2.2.5. When, under the conditions governing adjustment laid down in Paragraphs 6.3.2.2.1.
and 6.3.2.2.2. above parts of the device for indirect vision limit the return of the hammer,
the point of impact shall be displaced in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation
or pivoting in question.
The displacement shall be no greater than is strictly necessary for the execution of the
test; it shall be limited in such a way that:
(a)
(b)
Either the sphere delimiting the hammer remains at least tangential to the cylinder
as defined in Paragraph 6.1.1.6.;
Or, in the case of mirrors, the point of contact with the hammer is located at least
10mm from the periphery of the reflecting surface.
6.3.2.2.6. The test consists in allowing the hammer to fall from a height corresponding to a
pendulum angle of 60° from the vertical so that the hammer strikes the device for indirect
vision at the moment when the pendulum reaches the vertical position.
6.3.2.2.7. The devices for indirect vision are subjected to impact under the following different
conditions:
6.3.2.2.7.1. Class I Rear-view Mirrors
(a)
(b)
Test 1: The points of impact shall be as defined in Paragraph 6.3.2.2.3. above.
The impact shall be such that the hammer strikes the mirror on the reflecting
surface side.
Test 2: Point of impact on the edge of the protective housing, such that the impact
produced makes an angle of 45° with the plane of the reflecting surface and is
situated in the horizontal plane passing through the centre of that surface. The
impact shall occur on the reflecting surface side.
6.3.2.2.7.2. Class II to VII Mirrors
(a)
(b)
Test 1: The point of impact shall be as defined in Paragraphs 6.3.2.2.3. or
6.3.2.2.5. The impact shall be such that the hammer strikes the mirror on the
reflecting surface side.
Test 2: The point of impact shall be as defined in Paragraphs 6.3.2.2.3. or
6.3.2.2.5. The impact shall be such that the hammer strikes the mirror on the side
opposite to the reflecting surface.
Where Class II or III rear-view mirrors are fixed to the same mounting as Class IV
rear-view mirrors, the above-mentioned tests shall be executed on the lower mirror.
Nevertheless, the Technical Service responsible for testing may repeat one or both of
these tests on the upper mirror if this is less than 2m from the ground.

6.3.3. Results of the Tests
6.3.3.1. In the tests described in Paragraph 6.3.2., the pendulum shall continue to swing after
impact in such a way that the projection of the position assumed by the arm on the plane
of release makes an angle of at least 20° with the vertical. The accuracy of measurement
of the angle shall be within ±1°.
6.3.3.1.1. In the case of mirrors, this requirement is not applicable to mirrors stuck to the
windscreen, in respect of which the requirement stipulated in Paragraph 6.3.3.2. shall
apply after the test.
6.3.3.1.2. The required angle to the vertical is reduced from 20° to 10° for all Class II and Class IV
devices for indirect vision and for Class III devices for indirect vision which are attached
to the same mounting as Class IV devices for indirect vision.
6.3.3.2. In the case of mirrors, should the mounting of the mirror break during the tests described
in Paragraph 6.3.2. above for mirrors stuck to the windscreen, the part remaining shall
not project beyond the base by more than 10mm and the configuration remaining after
the test shall satisfy the conditions laid down in Paragraph 6.1.3. of this Regulation.
6.3.3.3. The reflecting surface shall not break during the tests described in Paragraph 6.3.2.
However, breakage of the reflecting surface will be allowed if one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
6.3.3.3.1. The fragments of glass still adhere to the back of the housing or to a surface firmly
attached to the housing; partial separation of the glass from its backing is admissible
provided that this does not exceed 2.5mm on either side of the cracks. It is permissible
for small splinters to become detached from the surface of the glass at the point of
impact;
6.3.3.3.2. The reflecting surface is made of safety glass.
6.3.3.4. In the case of camera-monitor systems, the lens shall not break during the tests
described in Paragraph 6.3.2. above.
7. MODIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION AND EXTENSION
OF APPROVAL
7.1. Every modification to an existing type of device for indirect vision including its connection
to the bodywork shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority which approved the type
of device for indirect vision. The Type Approval Authority shall then either:
(a)
(b)
Decide, in consultation with the manufacturer, that a new type-approval is to be
granted, or
Apply the procedure contained in Paragraph 7.1.1. (Revision) and, if applicable,
the procedure contained in Paragraph 7.1.2. (Extension).

9.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an
approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting
Parties applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the communication form bearing
at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of device for
indirect vision approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type
Approval Authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant
communication, the Authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement
applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in
large letters, the signed and dated annotation "PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED".
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval,
issued in other countries, are to be sent.
II.
INSTALLATION OF DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION
12. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Regulation:
12.1. "The Driver's Ocular Points" means two points 65mm apart and 635mm vertically
above Point R of the driver's seat as defined in Annex 8. The straight line joining these
points runs perpendicular to the vertical longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. The
centre of the segment joining the two ocular points is in a vertical longitudinal plane
which shall pass through the centre of the driver's designated seating position, as
specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

12.5. "Forward Control" means a configuration in which more than half of the engine length
is rearward of the foremost point of the windshield base and the steering wheel hub in
the forward quarter of the vehicle length.
12.6. "Ocular reference point" means the middle point between the driver's ocular points.
13. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
13.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of devices for
indirect vision shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited
representative.
13.2. A model of information document is shown in Annex 2.
13.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
13.4. The Type Approval Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for
ensuring effective checks on conformity of production before type-approval is granted.
13.5. The CMS shall be provided by the applicant with the following documents:
(a)
(b)
Technical specification of the CMS;
Operator's manual;
14. APPROVAL
(c) Documentation referred to in Annex 12, Paragraph 2.3.
14.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval in accordance with Paragraph 13. above meets
the requirements of Paragraph 15. of this Regulation, approval shall be granted.
14.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at
present 04) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent or
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
14.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval of a vehicle type
pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this
Regulation.
15. REQUIREMENTS
15.1. General
15.1.1. The compulsory and optional devices for indirect vision, set out in the table under
Paragraph 15.2.1.1.1., below installed on the vehicle shall be of a type approved under
this Regulation.

Where a single Class III or VII rear-view mirror is fitted this shall be located on the left
hand side of the vehicle in those countries where the traffic drives on the right and on the
right hand side of the vehicle in those countries where the traffic drives on the left.


15.2.2. Position
15.2.2.1. Devices for indirect vision shall be so placed that the driver, when sitting on the driving
seat in a normal driving position, has a clear view of the road to the rear, side(s) or front
of the vehicle.
15.2.2.2. Classes II to VII mirrors shall be visible through the side windows or through the portion
of the windscreen that is swept by the windscreen wiper. Nevertheless, for design
reasons, this last provision (i.e. the provisions relating the cleaned part of the
windscreen) shall not apply to:
(a)
(b)
Classes II to VII mirrors on the passenger side and optional exterior mirrors on the
driver side of vehicles of Categories M and M ;
Class VI front-view mirrors.
15.2.2.3. In the case of any vehicle, which is in chassis/cab form when the field of vision is
measured, the minimum and maximum body widths shall be stated by the manufacturer
and, if necessary, simulated by dummy headboards. All vehicles and devices for indirect
vision configurations taken into consideration during the tests shall be shown on the
type-approval certificate for a vehicle with regard to the installation of devices for indirect
vision (see Annex 4).
15.2.2.4. The prescribed Classes II, III, IV and VII mirror or monitor on the driver’s side of the
vehicle shall be so located that an angle of not more than 55° is formed between the
vertical longitudinal median plane of the vehicle and the vertical plane passing through
the centre of the mirror or monitor and through the centre of the straight line 65mm long
which joins the driver's two ocular points.
15.2.2.5. Devices for indirect vision shall not project beyond the external bodywork of the vehicle
substantially more than is necessary to comply with the requirements concerning fields
of vision laid down in Paragraph 15.2.4. below.
15.2.2.6. Where the lower edge of a Classes II to VII mirror is less than 2m above the ground
when the vehicle is loaded to its technically permissible maximum laden mass, this
mirror shall not project more than 250mm beyond the overall width of the vehicle
measured without mirrors.
15.2.2.7. Class V and Class VI mirrors shall be mounted on vehicles in such a way that,
regardless of their position after adjustment, no part of these mirrors or their holders is
less than 2m from the ground when the vehicle is under a load corresponding to its
technically permissible maximum laden mass.
These mirrors shall not, however, be mounted on vehicles the cab height of which is
such as to prevent compliance with this requirement. In this case another device for
indirect vision is not mandatory.
15.2.2.8. Subject to the requirements of Paragraphs 15.2.2.5., 15.2.2.6. and 15.2.2.7. above,
devices for indirect vision may project beyond the permissible maximum widths of
vehicles.
15.2.2.9. All Class VII mirrors shall be attached in such a way that they remain in a stable position
under normal vehicle driving conditions.

15.2.4.2.2. Main rear-view device on the passenger's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 5m wide, flat, horizontal
portion of the road, which is bounded on the passenger's side by a plane parallel to the
median longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the outermost point
of the vehicle on the passenger's side and which extends from 30m behind the driver's
ocular points to the horizon.
In addition, the road shall be visible to the driver over a width of 1m, which is bounded by
a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver's ocular points (see Figure 5).
15.2.4.3. Class III main rear-view device
15.2.4.3.1. Main rear-view device on the driver's side
Figure 5
Class II Fields of Vision
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 4m wide, flat, horizontal
portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal
vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the driver's side
of the vehicle and extends from 20m behind the driver’s ocular points to the horizon
(see Figure 6).
In addition, the road shall be visible to the driver over a width of 1m, which is bounded by
a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver’s ocular points.

15.2.4.4.2. Wide-angle view device on the passenger’s side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 15m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the outermost point of the
vehicle on the passenger’s side and which extends from at least 10m to 25m behind the
driver’s ocular points.
In addition, the road shall be visible to the driver over a width of 4.5m, which is bounded
by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 1.5m behind the vertical plane
passing through the driver’s ocular points (see Figure 7).
Figure 7
Class IV Fields of Vision

15.2.4.5.6. On the passenger side only, the field of vision shall also be such that the driver can see
a flat horizontal portion of the road along the side of the vehicle which is outside the field
defined in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1. to 15.2.4.5.4. above but within the field bounded by the
following vertical planes; the front of this field of vision may be rounded off with a radius
of 2,000mm (see Figures 8c and 8d):
15.2.4.5.7. In the transverse direction, the parallel plane passing at a distance of 4.5m in front of the
plane mentioned in Paragraph 15.2.4.5.1. above.
15.2.4.5.8. To the rear, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver's ocular
points and situated at a distance of 1.75m behind that plane.
15.2.4.5.9. To the front, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver's ocular
points and situated at a distance of 3m in front of that plane. This field of vision may be
partially provided by a front-view device (Class VI).
15.2.4.5.10. The field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9. above may be
partially provided by a wide-angle view device (Class IV) or a combination of a
close-proximity view device (Class V) and a front-view device (Class VI).
15.2.4.5.11. The area prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9. above may be viewed using
a combination of direct view and indirect vision devices (of Classes IV, V, VI).
15.2.4.5.11.1. If an indirect vision device of Class IV is used to provide a part of the field of vision
prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9., it shall be adjusted in a way that it
simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.4.2.
15.2.4.5.11.2. If an indirect vision device of Class V is used to provide a part of the field of vision
prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9., it shall be adjusted in a way that it
simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1. to
15.2.4.5.4.
15.2.4.5.11.3. If an indirect vision device of Class VI is used to provide a part of the field of vision
prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9., it shall be adjusted in a way that it
simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.6.1.
15.2.4.5.12. The field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1. to 15.2.4.5.4. may be viewed
using a combination of a close-proximity view device (Class V) and a wide-angle view
device (Class IV).
In such cases the close-proximity view mirror (Class V) shall provide at least 90% of the
field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1 to 15.2.4.5.4. and the Class IV mirror
shall be adjusted in a way that it simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in
Paragraph 15.2.4.4.2.
15.2.4.5.13. Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.12. above shall not apply to a vehicle where any part
of the Class V mirror, if fitted, or its holder, is less than 2.4m above the ground,
regardless of its position after adjustment.

The provisions for Class VI front-view devices are compulsory for forward controlled (as
defined in Paragraph 12.5. of this Regulation) vehicles of Categories N > 7.5t and N .
If vehicles of these categories cannot fulfil the requirements by using a front-view device,
a vision support system shall be used. In the case of a vision support system this device
shall be able to detect an object of 50cm height and with a diameter of 30cm within the
field defined in Figure 9.
Figure 9
Class VI Field of Vision
15.2.4.6.2. However, if the driver can see, taking into account the obstructions by the A-pillars, a
straight line 300mm in front of the vehicle at a height of 1,200mm above the road surface
and which is situated between a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal
vertical median plane going through the outermost side of the vehicle at the driver’s side
and a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal vertical median plane 900mm
outside the outermost side of the vehicle opposite to the driver’s side, a Class VI device
for indirect vision is not mandatory.
15.2.4.6.3. For the purpose of Paragraphs 15.2.4.6.1. and 15.2.4.6.2. above parts permanently
attached to the vehicle that are situated both above the driver's eye points and in front of
the transverse vertical plane passing through the foremost surface of the vehicle's front
bumper shall not be taken into account when defining the front of the vehicle.
15.2.4.7. Class VII main rear-view mirror
15.2.4.7.1. Main rear-view mirror on the driver's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 2.50m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the
driver's side of the vehicle and extends from 10m behind the driver's ocular points to the
horizon (see Figure 10).
15.2.4.7.2. Main rear-view mirror on the passenger's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 4m wide flat, horizontal
portion of the road which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal
vertical plane passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the passenger's side
and which extends from 20m behind the driver's ocular points to the horizon (see
Figure 10).

15.2.4.8. In the case of mirrors consisting of several reflecting surfaces which are either of
different curvature or make an angle with each other, at least one of the reflecting
surfaces shall provide the field of vision and have the dimensions (Paragraph 6.1.2.1.2.2.
of this Regulation) specified for the class to which they belong.
15.2.4.9. Obstructions
15.2.4.9.1. Class I rear-view devices
The field of vision may be reduced by the presence of devices such as sun visors,
windscreen wipers, heating elements and stop lamp of Category S3, provided that all
these devices together do not obscure more than 15% of the prescribed field of vision.
Headrests or framework or bodywork such as window columns of rear split doors, rear
window frame shall be excluded from the calculation. This requirement shall be tested by
projection on to a vertical plane at right angles to the longitudinal centreplane of the
vehicle. The degree of obstruction shall be measured with the sun visors folded back.
15.2.4.9.2. Classes II, III, IV, V and VI devices for indirect vision and Class VII mirrors
In the fields of vision specified above, obstruction due to the bodywork and its
components, such as other cab devices for indirect vision, door handles, outline marker
lights, direction indicators and front and rear bumpers, as well as reflective-surface
cleaning components, shall not be taken into account if they are responsible for a total
obstruction of less than 10% of the specified field of vision. In the case of a vehicle
designed and constructed for special purposes where, due to its special features, it is not
possible to meet this requirement, the obstruction of the required field of vision of a
Class VI mirror caused by the special features may be more than 10% but not more than
necessary for its special function.
15.2.4.10. Test procedure
The field of vision shall be determined by placing powerful light sources at the ocular
points and examining the light reflected on the vertical monitoring screen. Other
equivalent methods may be used.
16. REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION OTHER THAN MIRRORS
16.1. Class I to IV Camera-monitor Devices (see Annex 12)
Unless otherwise provided in this Regulation, the definitions and symbols used in
Paragraph 16.1. are in accordance with ISO 16505:2015, Chapters 3 and 4.
Unless otherwise provided in this Regulation, the requirements given in Paragraph 16.1.
shall be verified according to the test procedures given in ISO 16505:2015, Chapter 7,
where available.
16.1.1. Intended Use, Activation and Deactivation
The intended use shall be mentioned within the operator's manual. The procedure for
activation and deactivation of the CMS of Classes II and III shall allow a safe use of the
vehicle.

16.1.3. Magnification and Resolution
16.1.3.1. Magnification Factor
The minimum and the average magnification factors of the CMS, in both horizontal and
vertical directions shall not be lower than the minimum average magnification factor
indicated below.
The minimum magnification factor shall not be less than:
(a) for Class I: 0.31;
(b) for Class II (driver's side): 0.26;
(c) for Class III (driver's side): 0.29;
(d) for Class IV (driver's side): 0.054;
(e) for Class II (passenger's side): 0.13;
(f) for Class III (passenger's side): 0.19;
(g) for Class IV (passenger's side): 0.016.
The average magnification factor shall not be less than:
(h) for Class I: 0.33;
(i) for Class II (driver's side): 0.31;
(j) for Class III (driver's side): 0.31;
(k) for Class IV (driver's side): 0.091;
(l) for Class II (passenger's side): 0.16;
(m) for Class III (passenger's side): 0.20;
(n) for Class IV (passenger's side): 0.046.
16.1.3.2. Resolution (MTF)
The resolution (MTF) defines the minimum distinguishable details observable in an
image as is represented by the MTF10. For reasons of simplicity the requirement is
defined assuming an aspect ratio of 1:1.

16.1.4 Magnification Aspect Ratio
In the required field of view, the difference between the average magnification factor for
horizontal and vertical direction of a CMS shall satisfy the following equations depending
on the individual mirror classes.
For devices Class I the acceptable range shall be:
M
− 0.34
≤1−
≤ 0.25
M
For devices Class II the acceptable range shall be:
M
− 0.42
≤1−
≤ 0.3
M
For devices Class III the acceptable range shall be:
M
− 0.34
≤1−
≤ 0.25
M
For devices Class IV no restriction in magnification ratio is required.
16.1.5. Monitor Inside The Vehicle
16.1.5.1. The centre of the monitor(s) shall not be below a plane passing through the driver's
ocular points, as defined in Paragraph 12.1., and declined 30° below.
16.1.5.2. The arrangement of the monitor(s) inside the vehicle shall be convenient to the driver.
Thus, the image of the right side field of view shall be presented to the right of the
longitudinal vertical plane through the ocular reference point, defined in paragraph 12.6.
The image of the left side field of view shall be presented to the left of the longitudinal
vertical plane through the ocular reference point.
If the CMS shows more than one field of vision on one display, non-continuous images
shall be clearly separated from each other. Provided that the required field of vision of
different classes of devices for indirect vision are shown on the monitor(s) without hiding
any part of the required field of vision, a combined continuous image without clear
separation is allowed.
16.1.5.3. The monitor defined size shall be visible without any obstruction from the ocular
reference point. A virtual testing is acceptable.
16.1.6. Obstruction of the driver's direct view caused by the installation of a device for indirect
vision shall be restricted to a minimum.

17.1.1. Revision
17.1.2. Extension
When particulars recorded in the information folder have changed and the Type Approval
Authority considers that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable
adverse effect, and that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements, the
modification shall be designated a "revision".
In such a case, the Type Approval Authority shall issue the revised pages of the
information folder as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of
the modification and the date of re-issue. A consolidated,updated version of the
information folder, accompanied by a detailed description of the modification, shall be
deemed to meet this requirement.
The modification shall be designated an "extension" if, in addition to the change of the
particulars recorded in the information folder,
(a)
(b)
(c)
Further inspections or tests are required, or
Any information on the communication document (with the exception of its
attachments) has changed, or
Approval to a later series of amendments is requested after its entry into force.
17.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated to
the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming
to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation. In addition, the index to the information
package, attached to the communication document, shall be amended accordingly to
show the date of the most recent revision or extension.
17.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series
number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
18. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
18.1. The conformity of production procedure shall comply with those set out in the
Agreement, Appendix 2, (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2).
18.2. Every vehicle approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to
the type approved by meeting the requirements set out in Paragraph 15., and where
applicable Paragraph 16 above.
19. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
19.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirement laid down in Paragraph 18.1. above is not complied with or
if the vehicle fails to pass the checks prescribed in Paragraph 18.2. above.
19.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters,
the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".

22.7. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph 22.2, approvals which were granted to
mirrors of Classes II, IV, V, VI or VII pursuant to this Regulation as modified by the
02 series of amendments before the date of entry into force of the 03 series of
amendments shall remain valid and Contracting Parties shall continue to accept them.
Contracting Parties shall not refuse to grant extensions to approvals granted to the 02
series of amendments.
22.8. The provisions of this Regulation shall not prohibit the approval of a type of vehicle with
regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to this Regulation as
modified by the 03 series of amendments, if all or part of the devices for indirect vision of
Classes I or III, with which it is fitted, bear the approval mark prescribed by this
Regulation in its original form (00 series) or modified by the 01 or 02 series of
amendments.
22.9. The provisions of this Regulation shall not prohibit the approval of a type of vehicle with
regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to this Regulation as
modified by the 03 series of amendments, if all or part of the rear-view mirrors of
Classes II, IV, V, VI or VII, with which it is fitted, bear the approval mark prescribed by
the 02 series of amendments of this Regulation.
22.10. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraphs 22.2., 22.4. and 22.5. above, for the
purpose of replacement parts Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall continue
to grant approvals according 02 series of amendments to this Regulation, to devices for
indirect vision for use on vehicle types which have been approved before the date
mentioned in Paragraph 22.2 pursuant to the 02 series of amendments of Regulation
No. 46, and, where applicable, subsequent extensions to these approvals.
22.11. As from the official date of entry into force of the 04 series of amendments to this
Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse an application for
approval under this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments.
22.12. As from June 30, 2014, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant
approvals to a type of device for indirect vision only if the type of device meets the
requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments.
22.13. As from June 30, 2014, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant
approvals to a type of vehicle with regard to the installation of devices for indirect vision
only if the type of vehicle meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the
04 series of amendments.
22.14. As from June 30, 2015, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not be obliged
to accept approvals of a type of vehicle or type of device for indirect vision which have
not been granted in accordance with the 04 series of amendments to this Regulation.
22.15. Notwithstanding Paragraph 22.14. above, type approvals granted to the preceding series
of amendments to the Regulation, which are not affected by the 04 series of
amendments, shall remain valid and Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall
continue to accept them.

ANNEX 1
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
FOR TYPE-APPROVAL OF A DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
The following information, if applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and shall include a list of contents.
Any drawings shall be supplied in appropriate scale and in sufficient detail on size A4 paper or on a
folder of A4 format.
Photographs, if any, shall show sufficient details.
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ................................................................................
3. Means of identification of the type, if indicated on the device: .......................................................
4. Category of vehicle for which the device is intended: ....................................................................
5. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
6. Location and method of affixing of the approval mark: ..................................................................
7. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): .................................................................................................
8. Mirrors (state for each mirror): .......................................................................................................
8.1. Variant: ...........................................................................................................................................
8.2. Drawing(s) for the identification of the mirror: ................................................................................
8.3. Details of the method of attachment: .............................................................................................
9. Devices for indirect vision other than mirrors: ................................................................................
9.1. Type and characteristics (such as a complete description of the device): ....................................
9.1.1. In the case of camera-monitor systems of Classes V and VI, the class, the detection distance
[mm], contrast, luminance range, glare correction, display performance (black and white/colour)
image repetition frequency, luminance reach of the monitor: ........................................................
9.1.2. In the case of camera-monitor systems of Classes I to IV, the class, field of view, magnification
and resolution: .................................................................................................................................
9.2. Sufficiently detailed drawings to identify the complete device including installation instructions;
the position for the type-approval mark has to be indicated on the drawings: ...............................

11. Range of vehicle dimensions (overall): .....................................................................................
11.1. For chassis without bodywork ....................................................................................................
11.1.1. Width : .....................................................................................................................................
11.1.1.1. Maximum permissible width: .....................................................................................................
11.1.1.2. Minimum permissible width: ......................................................................................................
11.2. For chassis with bodywork: .......................................................................................................
11.2.1. Width : ....................................................................................................................................
12. BODYWORK
12.1. Devices for indirect vision
12.1.1. Mirrors: ......................................................................................................................................
12.1.1.1. Drawing(s) showing the position of the mirror relative to the vehicle structure: .......................
12.1.1.2. Details of the method of attachment including that part of the vehicle structure to which it is
attached: ...................................................................................................................................
12.1.1.3. Optional equipment which may affect the rearward field of vision: ...........................................
12.1.1.4. A brief description of the electronic components (if any) of the adjustment device: .................
12.1.2. Devices for indirect vision other than mirrors: ...........................................................................
12.1.2.1. Sufficiently detailed drawings with the installation instructions: ................................................
12.1.2.2. In the case of camera-monitor system of Classes I to IV: .........................................................
12.1.2.2.1. Drawing(s)/photograph(s) showing the position of the camera(s) relative to the vehicle
structure: ....................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 3
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to Regulation No. 46
Approval No. ................................................. Extension No. ...............................
1. Trade name or mark of device: ......................................................................................................
2. Manufacturer’s name for the type of device: ..................................................................................
3. Manufacturer’s name and address: ...............................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of Manufacturer's representative: ..............................................
5. Submitted for approval on: .............................................................................................................
6. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: .......................................................
7. Date of report issued by that Service: ............................................................................................
8. Number of report issued by that Service: .......................................................................................
9. Brief description: ............................................................................................................................
Identification of the device: mirror, camera/monitor, other device
Device for indirect vision of Class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, S
Symbol 2 Δ
m as defined in Paragraph 6.3.1.1. of this Regulation: yes/no

ANNEX 4
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of vehicle with regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to
Regulation No. 46
Approval No. ................................................. Extension No. ...............................
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ................................................................................
3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: ..............................................................
3.1. Location of that marking: ................................................................................................................
4. Category of vehicle: (M , M , M , N , N ≤ 7.5t, N > 7.5t, N )
5. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
6. Address(es) of the production plant(s): ..........................................................................................
7. Additional information: (where applicable): See appendix
8. Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests: ..............................................................
9. Date of test report: .........................................................................................................................
10. Number of test report: ....................................................................................................................
11. Remarks: (if any): See Appendix

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX
Appendix to type-approval communication form No. …… concerning the type-approval of a vehicle with
regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision under Regulation No. 46
1. Trade name or mark of mirrors and supplementary devices for indirect vision and component
type-approval number: ........................................................................................................................
2. Class(es) of mirrors and devices for indirect vision (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII S)
3. Extension of type approval of the vehicle to cover the following device for indirect vision
..............................................................................................................................................................
4. Data for identification of the R Point of the driver’s seating position:
..............................................................................................................................................................
5. Maximum and minimum bodywork width in respect of which the mirror and the devices for indirect
vision has been granted type-approval (in the case of chassis/cab referred to in
Paragraph 15.2.2.3. of this Regulation) ..............................................................................................
6. The following documents, bearing the type-approval number shown above, are annexed to this
certificate: ............................................................................................................................................
(a) Drawings showing the mounting of the devices for indirect vision ...........................................
(b)
Drawings and plans showing the mounting position and characteristics of the part of the
structure where the devices for indirect vision are mounted. ...................................................
7. Remarks: (e.g. valid for right hand/left hand traffic ) .........................................................................

ANNEX 6
TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING REFLECTIVITY
1. DEFINITIONS
1.1.
CIE standard illuminate A
: Colorimetric illuminate, respecting the full radiator at
T = 2855.6K.
1.1.2. CIE standard source A Gas-filled tungsten filament lamp operating at a correlated colour
temperature of T = 2855.6K.
1.1.3. CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer : Receptor of radiation whose colorimetric
characteristics correspond to the spectral tristimulus values x ( λ ), y ( λ ), z ( λ )(see table).
1.1.4. CIE spectral tristimulus values : Tristimulus values of the spectral components of an equi
energy spectrum in the CIE (XYZ) system.
1.1.5. Photopic vision : Vision by the normal eye when it is adapted to levels of luminance of at
least several cd/m .
2. APPARATUS
2.1. General
The apparatus shall consist of a light source, a holder for the test sample, a receiver unit with
a photodetector and an indicating meter (see Figure 1), and means of eliminating the effects
of extraneous light.
The receiver may incorporate a light-integrating sphere to facilitate measuring the reflectance
of non-flat (convex) mirrors (see Figure 2).
2.2. Spectral Characteristics of Light Source and Receiver
The light source shall consist of a CIE standard source A and associated optics to provide a
near-collimated light beam. A voltage stabiliser is recommended in order to maintain a fixed
lamp voltage during instrument operation.
The receiver shall have a photodetector with a spectral response proportional to the photopic
luminosity function of the CIE (1931) standard colorimetric observer (see table). Any other
combination of illuminate-filter-receptor giving the overall equivalent of CIE standard
illuminate A and photopic vision may be used. When an integrating sphere is used in the
receiver, the interior surface of the sphere shall be coated with a matt (diffusive) spectrally
non-selective white coating.

3.3. Flat Mirror Measurement
The reflectance of flat mirror samples can be measured on instruments employing either the
direct or the indirect calibration method. The reflectance value is read directly from the
indicating meter.
3.4. Non-flat (Convex) Mirror Measurement
Measurement of the reflectance of non-flat (convex) mirrors requires the use of instruments
which incorporate an integrating sphere in the receiver unit (see Figure 2). If the
instrument-indicating meter indicates n divisions with a standard mirror of E% reflectance,
then, with a mirror of unknown reflectance, n divisions will correspond to a reflectance of X%,
in accordance with the formula:
x = E
n
n
Figure 1
Generalised Reflectometer Showing Experimental
Set-ups for the Two Calibration Methods

4. SPECTRAL TRISTIMULUS VALUES FOR THE CIE 1931 STANDARD COLORIMETRIC
OBSERVER
(This table is taken from CIE Publication 50 (45) (1970))
λ nm x ( λ )
y ( λ )
z ( λ )
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
0.001 4
0.004 2
0.014 3
0.043 5
0.134 4
0.283 9
0.348 3
0.336 2
0.290 8
0.195 4
0.095 6
0.032 0
0.004 9
0.009 3
0.063 3
0.165 5
0.290 4
0.433 4
0.594 5
0.762 1
0.916 3
1.026 3
1.062 2
1.002 6
0.854 4
0.642 4
0.447 9
0.283 5
0.164 9
0.087 4
0.046 8
0.022 7
0.011 4
0.005 8
0.002 9
0.001 4
0.000 7
0.000 3
0.000 2
0.000 1
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 1
0.000 4
0.001 2
0.004 0
0.011 6
0.023 0
0.038 0
0.060 0
0.091 0
0.139 0
0.208 0
0.323 0
0.503 0
0.710 0
0.862 0
0.954 0
0.995 0
0.995 0
0.952 0
0.870 0
0.757 0
0.631 0
0.503 0
0.381 0
0.265 0
0.175 0
0.107 0
0.061 0
0.032 0
0.017 0
0.008 2
0.004 1
0.002 1
0.001 0
0.000 5
0.000 2
0.000 1
0.000 1
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.006 5
0.020 1
0.067 9
0.207 4
0.645 6
1.385 6
1.747 1
1.772 1
1.669 2
1.287 6
0.813 0
0.465 2
0.272 0
0.158 2
0.078 2
0.042 2
0.020 3
0.008 7
0.003 9
0.002 1
0.001 7
0.001 1
0.000 8
0.000 3
0.000 2
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
y λ λ

ANNEX 7
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE "r" OF
THE REFLECTING SURFACE OF A MIRROR
1. MEASUREMENT
1.1. Equipment
A "spherometer" similar to the one described in Figure 1 of this Annex having the indicated
distances between the tracing pin of the dial gauge and the fixed legs of the bar is used.
1.2. Measuring Points
1.2.1. The principal radii of curvature shall be measured at three points situated as close as possible
to positions at ⅓, ½ and ⅔ of the distance along the arc of the reflecting surface passing
through the centre of this surface and parallel to segment b, or of the arc passing through the
centre of the reflecting surface which is perpendicular to it if this arc is the longer.
1.2.2. Where, owing to the size of the reflecting surface, it is impossible to obtain measurements in
the directions defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.5. of this Regulation, the Technical Services
responsible for the tests may take measurements at the said point in two perpendicular
directions as close as possible to those prescribed above.
2. CALCULATION OF THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE "r"
"r" expressed in mm is calculated from the formula:
where:
r 1
r =
+ r 2
3
+ r
3
r 1 = the radius of curvature at the first measuring point,
r 2 = the radius of curvature at the second measuring point,
r 3 = the radius of curvature at the third measuring point.

ANNEX 8
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE "H" POINT AND THE ACTUAL TORSO
ANGLE FOR SEATING POSITIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES
Appendix 1 Description of the three-dimensional "H" Point machine (3-D H machine)
Appendix 2 Three-dimensional reference system
Appendix 3 Reference data concerning seating positions

ANNEX 10
CALCULATION OF THE DETECTION DISTANCE FOR CMS OF CLASSES V AND VI
1. CAMERA MONITOR DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
1.1. Determination of the Smallest Discernable Detail
The smallest discernable detail of the naked eye shall be defined according to standard
ophthalmologic tests like the Landolt-C test or the Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD)
test. The smallest discernable detail at the centre of the viewing system can be determined
using the Landolt-C test or the TOD test. In the rest of the viewing area the smallest
discernable detail may be estimated from the centrally determined smallest discernable detail
and the local image deformation. For instance, in the case of a digital camera the smallest
discernable detail at a given pixel location (in the monitor) scales inversely with the solid angle
of the pixel.
1.1.1. Landolt-C Test
In the Landolt-C test, test symbols are judged by the subject under test. In accordance with this
test the smallest discernable detail is defined as the visual angle of the gap size of the Landolt-
C Symbol at threshold size and is expressed in arcmin. The threshold size corresponds to the
size at which the subject judges the orientation correctly in 75% of the trials. The smallest
discernable detail is determined in a test involving a human observer. A test chart containing
test symbols is placed in front of the camera and the observer judges the orientation of test
symbols from the monitor. From the threshold gap size of the Landolt-C test Symbol d (m) and
the distance between the test pattern and the camera D (m) the smallest discernable detail ω
(arcmin) is calculated as follows:
ω
=
d 180 ⋅ 60

D π
1.1.2. TOD Test
The Landolt-C test can be used to determine the smallest discernable detail of the
camera-monitor system. However, for sensor systems it is more suitable to use the TOD
(Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method which is similar to the Landolt-C method, but
involves equilateral triangular test patterns. The Triangle Orientation Discrimination method is
described in detail by Bijl & Valeton (1999), who provide practical guidelines on how to perform
a TOD measurement. In the method, triangular test patterns (see Figure 1) are viewed through
the viewing system under test. Each triangle can have one out of four possible orientations
(apex up, left, right or down) and the observer indicates/guesses for each triangle its
orientation. When this procedure is repeated for many (randomly oriented) triangles of different
sizes the fraction of correct responses can be plotted (see Figure 2), and increases with test
pattern size. The threshold is defined as the point at which the fraction correct crosses
the 0.75 level and can be obtained by fitting a smooth function through the data (see Bijl &
Valeton, 1999). Critical perception is reached when the critical object diameter equals two
times the width of the triangle at threshold size. The smallest discernable detail (ω ) is equal
to 0.25 times the width of the triangle at threshold size. This means that, from the threshold
triangle width w (in m) and the distance between test pattern and the camera D (in m) the
smallest discernable detail ω (in arcmin) is calculated as follows:
ω
w 180 ⋅ 60
= ⋅
4 ⋅ D π

1.3. Determination of the Detection Distance
1.3.1. Maximum detection distance within the critical viewing distance where, due to the installation,
the distance eye-monitor is less than the critical viewing distance, the maximum attainable
detection distance is defined as:
r
D ⋅ 60 ⋅180
=
ω ⋅ π ⋅ f
where:
r : detection distance [m]
D :
diameter of the critical object (m) according to Paragraph 2.1.2.6. of this Regulation;
for the calculation of r for Class V and VI devices, a representative value of 0.30m
shall be used
f: threshold increasing factor, which is equal to 8
ω :
smallest discernable detail (arcmin)
1.3.2. Detection distance greater than the critical viewing distance. Where, due to the installation, the
distance eye-monitor is more than the critical viewing distance, the maximum obtainable
detection distance is defined as:
where:
r
r = r (m)
r
r : detection distance for distances larger than the critical viewing distance [m]
r : detection distance for distances smaller than the critical viewing distance [m]
r :
viewing distance, i.e. distance between eye and monitor [m]
r : critical viewing distance [m]
2. SECONDARY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Based on the installation conditions, a determination shall be made to discover whether the
entire device can still satisfy the functional requirements listed in Paragraph 6.2.2. of this
Regulation, especially the glare correction, the maximum and the minimum luminance of the
monitor. It shall also be determined the degree to which the glare correction will be addressed
and the angle at which sunlight can strike a monitor and these shall be compared to the
corresponding measuring results from the system measurements. This can be either based on
a CAD-generated model, a determination of the angles of light for the device when mounted on
the relevant vehicle, or by carrying out relevant measurements on the relevant vehicle as
described in Paragraph 6.2.2.2. of this Regulation.

1.4. Data Supplied by the Instructions for Use
In case of Class V and VI camera monitor devices the instructions for use shall include a
table that shows the minimum and maximum mounting height of the camera above ground
under consideration of different viewing distances. The camera shall be mounted within the
applicable height range. The viewing distances shall be selected from the intended context
of use. The following table shows an example.
Viewing
distance
0.5m 1.0m 1.5m 2.0m 2.5m
Minimum
mounting
height
Paragraph
1.4.1.
Paragraph
1.4.1.
Paragraph
1.4.1.
Paragraph
1.4.1.
Paragraph
1.4.1.
Maximum
mounting
height
Paragraph
1.4.2.
Paragraph
1.4.2.
Paragraph
1.4.2.
Paragraph
1.4.2.
Paragraph
1.2.2.
1.4.1. The value of the minimum mounting height is the same for all viewing distances as it is
independent of the viewing distance. It is determined by the dimensions of the field of vision
and the field of view of the camera. Use the following working steps for determination of the
minimum mounting height.
1.4.1.1. Step 1: Draw the intended field of vision on ground.
1.4.1.2.
Step 2:
Place the camera above the field of vision in such a way that the camera is
viewing the field of vision. The lateral position shall be in accordance with the
intended mounting position at the vehicle.
1.4.1.3.
Step 3:
Change the height of the camera above ground in such a way, that the field of
vision displayed on the monitor covers an area at least as large as the field of
vision. Furthermore, the field of vision display should encompass the entire
monitor screen.
1.4.1.4.
Step 4:
Measure the height between camera and ground which is the minimum mounting
height. Report the result value.
1.4.2. The value of the maximum mounting height is different for different viewing distances as the
displayed object size varies with the mounting height. Use the following working steps for
determination of the maximum mounting height:
1.4.2.1.
Step 1:
Determine the minimum width b
of the critical object displayed on the monitor
for each viewing distance.
b
8'
= 2 × r × tan
2 × 60
where:
r: viewing distance in mm
b
: minimum width of the critical object displayed on the monitor in mm

ANNEX 12
TEST METHODS AND SAFETY PROVISIONS FOR CMS OF CLASSES I TO IV
1. TEST METHODS
1.1. General Specifications
The Technical Service shall use recognized test methods to check compliance with the
requirements defined above in the Regulation. These test methods shall be agreed upon by
the Type Approval Authority.
1.2. Flicker Test
The entire image area of the monitor shall be free of flicker for at least 90% of the user
population. The flicker evaluation uses the determination given in Annex B of
ISO13406-2: 2001. The following measurement procedure applies:
1.2.1. Position the camera of the CMS in front of a still scene (e.g. chessboard chart). Use a scene
illumination of about 500lx. Measure the time resolved luminance value of a portion of the
monitor that displays a white patch of the chessboard chart. The measurement location shall
be near the centre of the monitor defined size and the measurement direction is
perpendicular onto the monitor. Perform a Fourier transform of the luminance-time function
for determination of the amount of energy E at various frequencies up to 120Hz. These
numbers are then compared to the amounts of energies that people will detect as flicker, the
predicted flicker threshold E .
If E < E at every frequency < 120Hz then it is likely that people will not see flicker.
If E ≥ E at any frequency < 120Hz then it is likely that people will see flicker.
1.2.2. Determination of E , which is the observed energy at every frequency < 120Hz:
E
= DC ∗ AMP
= A ∗ c
∗ AMP
= b
∗ L
∗ c
∗ AMP
where:
b = 12.45184
b = -0.16032
For L , which is the adaption luminance:
Use L = L
from ISO 16505:2015 (subclause 7.8.2: Test 2: Day
condition with diffuse sky-light exposure).

1.3. Point Light Sources Test Method
Figure 1 shows the test arrangement for the point light source test.
Figure 1
Test Arrangement for the Point Light Source Test
1: Point light source lab model to emulate passing beam headlamp at 250m
2: Camera being tested
3: Monitor being tested
4: Reference camera
5: Optical or spatial isolation between camera and monitor display environment
6: Camera-side dark environment
7: Monitor-side dark room environment
8: LED light diffuser/aligner, according to necessity
9: Neutral black background
The point light source lab model is an emulation of a set of vehicle passing beam
headlamps at a distance of 250m with luminous intensity of 1,750cd, in accordance to the
maximum allowance of luminous intensity of a vehicle passing-beam headlamp at point
"BR" described in Regulation No. 112, 01 series of amendments. The test is performed
considering a set of lamps with 0.09m diameter and separated by 1.3m. This results in a
luminance of 275,000cd/m . For laboratory evaluation purposes the light sources shall be
adjusted to have a luminance within the range of 250,000 to 300,000cd/m by using a
constant current source.

For determination of the point light source detection factor PLSDF evaluate the luminance
profile in horizontal and vertical direction (Figure 2).
Figure 2
Luminance Profile of the Rendered Point Light Sources
for the Determination of PLSDF
The point light source detection factor - PLSDF is determined by the following equation:
s
PLSDF =
s
× L
× L
Where:
s
full width at half maximum of the luminance profile in horizontal direction at the
vertical centre
L maximum luminance of the luminance profile in horizontal direction at the vertical
centre
s
full width at half maximum of the luminance profile in vertical direction at
hourglass point
L maximum luminance of the luminance profile in vertical direction at hourglass
point
Verify the consistency of the result with slightly shifted position of the point light source lab
model.
For determination of the point light source contrast factor PLSCF, evaluate the luminance
profile in horizontal direction (Figure 3) at the vertical centre.

Figure 4
Test Arrangement for the Grey Scale Rendering Test
1: Test chart (grey scale rendering chart)
2: Illumination for test chart
3: Camera being tested
4: Monitor being tested
5: Reference camera
6: Optical or spatial isolation between camera and monitor display environment
7: Optical isolation barrier to avoid direct light into lens
8: Camera-side
9: Monitor-side
Figure 5 shows an example of a grey scale rendering chart to be used in this measurement.
The grey scale rendering chart shall consists of 12 different tonal density grey patches.
The density value D shall follow the values as defined by ISO 14524:2009 Table A.1 for low
contrast 20:1. The definition of D is given in the ISO 14524:2009.
The background of the patches shall be covered with a neutral grey colour having a density
value D of 0.54 ± 0.05.

Table 1 shows density value D of the 12 different grey patches as well D of the background.
Table 1
Density values D
Grey patch No.
Density Di
1 1.40
2 1.21
3 1.05
4 0.90
5 0.77
6 0.65
7 0.54
8 0.44
9 0.35
10 0.26
11 0.18
12 0.10
Background 0.54 ±0.05
Measure the luminance Yi of each grey patch i = 1…12 by using the reference camera.
Then, calculate the lightness of each grey patch:
⎛ Y ⎞
L = 116 × ⎜ ⎟ − 16, when Y / Y > 0.008856
⎜ Y ⎟
⎝ ⎠
L
⎛ Y
= 903.3 × ⎜

⎝ Y

⎟ ,


when Y / Y
≤ 0.008856
Calculate the lightness difference between each grey patch:
ΔL
= L
− L
and compare the result with the requirement.

2.2.6. "Boundary of functional operation"
"Boundary of functional operation" defines the boundaries of the external physical limits
within which the system is able to maintain functionality.
2.3. Documentation
2.3.1. The vehicle manufacturer shall provide the following documentation:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
A description of the camera monitor system which gives an explanation of the main
function of the system, incl. drawings, pictures, block diagrams, etc.
A description of the location of the camera and the monitor in the vehicle (system
overview).
Name of manufacturer of camera, monitor and electronic control units.
Type of camera and monitor. Each unit shall be clearly and unambiguously
identifiable (e.g. by marking for hardware and marking or software output for software
content) to provide corresponding hardware and documentation association.
Explanation of the warning strategy and the safety concept, as defined by the
manufacturer, covering at least the list of failures of paragraph 2.4.
2.3.2. For periodic technical inspections, the documentation shall describe how the current
operational status of "The System" can be verified.
2.3.3. The limits for the boundary of functional operation (e.g. environmental parameters) shall be
stated where appropriate to the system performance.
2.3.4. Safety Concept of the Manufacturer
The manufacturer shall provide a statement which affirms that the strategy chosen allows a
safe operation of "The System".
In the case of a failure, the driver shall be informed for example by a clear and visible
warning signal or message display. When the system is activated, the warning shall be
present as long as the fault condition persists.
The fault conditions shall be established and maintained by the manufacturer and shall be
made open for inspection by the Technical Service at the time of the type approval.
2.3.5. The chosen analytical approach(es) shall be established and maintained by the
manufacturer and shall be made open for inspection by the Technical Service at the time of
the type approval.

Indirect Vision Devices.