Regulation No. 46-04 Proposed Supplement 2

Name:Regulation No. 46-04 Proposed Supplement 2
Description:Indirect Vision Devices. Proposed Supplement 2 to the 04 Series.
Official Title:Proposal for Supplement 2 to the 04 Series of Amendments to Regulation No. 46 (Devices for Indirect Vision).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2015-08-27
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:93
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Drafts and Proposals (Historical)
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Keywords:

vision, vehicle, class, approval, device, paragraph, regulation, indirect, monitor, test, driver, point, field, type, plane, devices, mirror, mirrors, camera, vertical, distance, light, surface, defined, side, system, luminance, figure, means, requirements, cms, series, case, reflecting, rear-view, amendments, passing, position, points, view, annex, longitudinal, width, maximum, information, object, viewing, source, minimum, direction

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2015/84
PROPOSAL FOR SUPPLEMENT 2 TO THE 04 SERIES OF
AMENDMENTS TO
REGULATION NO. 46
(DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION)
ADOPTED AT THE 167 SESSION – NOVEMBER 2015
PROVISIONAL DATE OF ENTRY INTO FORCE: JUNE 18, 2016

2.1.1.4. "r" means the average of the radii of curvature measured over the reflecting surface, in
accordance with the method described in Annex 7.
2.1.1.5. "The principal radii of curvature at one point on the reflecting surface (r )" means
the values obtained with the apparatus defined in Annex 7, measured on the arc of the
reflecting surface passing through the centre of this surface parallel to the segment b, as
defined in Paragraph 6.1.2.1.2.1. of this Regulation and on the arc perpendicular to this
segment.
2.1.1.6. "The radius of curvature at one point on the reflecting surface (r )" means the
arithmetical average of the principal radii of curvature r and r , i.e.:
r
r
=
+ r
2
2.1.1.7. "Spherical surface" means a surface, which has a constant and equal radius in all
directions.
2.1.1.8. "Aspherical surface" means a surface, which has only in one plane a constant radius.
2.1.1.9. "Aspherical mirror" means a mirror composed of a spherical and an aspherical part, in
which the transition of the reflecting surface from the spherical to the aspherical part has
to be marked. The curvature of the main axis of the mirror is defined in the x/y coordinate
system defined by the radius of the spherical primary calotte with:
y = R −
( R − x ) + k( x − a)
Where:
R: nominal radius in the spherical part
k: constant for the change of curvature
a: constant for the spherical size of the spherical primary calotte
2.1.1.10. "Centre of the reflecting surface" means the centre of the visible area of the reflecting
surface.
2.1.1.11. "The radius of curvature of the constituent parts of the mirror" means the radius "c"
of the arc of the circle which most closely approximates to the curved form of the part in
question.
2.1.2. "Camera-monitor system (CMS)" means a device for indirect vision as defined in
Paragraph 2.1., where the field of vision is obtained by means of a camera-monitor
combination as defined in Paragraphs 2.1.2.1. and 2.1.2.2. below.
2.1.2.1. "Camera" means a device that renders an image of the outside world and then converts
this image into a signal (e.g. video signal).
2.1.2.2. "Monitor" means a device that converts a signal into images that are rendered into the
visual spectrum.

2.3. "Surveillance camera-monitor-recording device" means a camera and either a
monitor or recording equipment other than the camera-monitor system defined in
Paragraph 2.1.2. above which can be fitted to the inside or outside of the vehicle in order
to provide fields of vision other than those specified in Paragraph 15.2.4. of this
Regulation or to provide a security system within or around the vehicle.
2.4. "Class of device for indirect vision" means all devices having one or more common
characteristics or functions. They are classified as follows:
2.4.1. Class I: "Rear-view device", giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.1.
2.4.2. Class II and III: "Main rear-view device", giving the fields of vision defined in
Paragraphs 15.2.4.2. and 15.2.4.3.
2.4.3. Class IV: "Wide-angle view device", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.4.
2.4.4. Class V: "Close-proximity view device", giving the field of vision defined in
Paragraph 15.2.4.5.
2.4.5. Class VI: "Front-view device", giving the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.6.
2.4.6. Class VII: Main rear-view mirrors intended for L Category vehicles with bodywork giving
the field of vision defined in Paragraph 15.2.4.7.
2.5. "Point light source detection factor - PLSDF" means the level of distinctness of a pair
of point light sources, based on luminance intensities and horizontal and vertical
dimension of the rendition on the monitor.
2.6. "Point light source contrast factor - PLSCF" means the level of distinctness of a pair
of point light sources, based on luminance differences between the maximum luminance
of the luminance profile L and the minimum luminance of the luminance profile L
in the horizontal direction (see Figure 3 of Annex 12).
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a type of device for indirect vision shall be submitted by
the holder of the trade name or mark or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. A model of information document is shown in Annex 1.
3.3. For each type of device for indirect vision the application shall be accompanied by three
samples of the parts.
3.4. The CMS shall be provided by the applicant with the following documents:
(a)
(b)
Technical specification of the CMS; and
Operator's manual.

6. REQUIREMENTS
6.1. Mirrors
6.1.1. General Specifications
6.1.1.1. All mirrors shall be adjustable.
6.1.1.2. (a) Rear-view mirrors (Classes II to VII)
The edge of the reflecting surface shall be enclosed in a protective housing
(holder, etc.) which, on its perimeter, shall have a value "c" greater than or equal
to 2.5mm at all points and in all directions. If the reflecting surface projects beyond
the protective housing, the radius of curvature "c" on the edge of the projecting
part shall be not less than 2.5mm and the reflecting surface shall return into the
protective housing under a force of 50N applied to the point of greatest projection,
relative to the protective housing, in a horizontal direction, approximately parallel
to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.
(b) Rear-view mirrors (Class I)
In cases, where the edge of the reflecting surface is enclosed in a protective
housing (holder, etc.), the radius of curvature "c" on its perimeter shall be not less
than 2.5mm at all points and in all directions. In cases, where the edge of the
reflecting surface projects beyond the protective housing, this requirement shall
apply to the edge of the projecting part.
6.1.1.3. When the mirror is mounted on a plane surface, all parts, irrespective of the adjustment
position of the device, including those parts remaining attached to the support after the
test provided for in Paragraph 6.3.2. below, which are in potential, static contact with a
sphere either 165mm in diameter in the case of a Class I mirror or 100mm in diameter in
the case of a Class II to VII mirror, shall have a radius of curvature "c" of not less than
2.5mm.
6.1.1.4. The requirements in Paragraphs 6.1.1.2. and 6.1.1.3. above shall not apply to parts of
the external surface which protrude less than 5mm, but the outward facing angles of
such parts shall be blunted, save where such parts protrude less than 1.5mm. For
determining the dimension of the projection, the following method shall apply:
6.1.1.4.1. The dimension of the projection of a component which is mounted on a convex surface
may be determined either directly or by reference to a drawing of an appropriate section
of this component in its installed condition.
6.1.1.4.2. If the dimension of the projection of a component which is mounted on a surface other
than convex cannot be determined by simple measurement, it shall be determined by the
maximum variation of the distance of the centre of a 100mm diameter sphere from the
nominal line of the panel when the sphere is moved over and is in constant contact with
that component. Figure 1 shows an example of the use of this procedure.

6.1.2.1.2. Main rear-view mirrors (Classes II and III)
6.1.2.1.2.1. The dimensions of the reflecting surface shall be such that it is possible to inscribe
therein:
(a)
(b)
A rectangle 40mm high the base length of which, measured in millimetres, has the
value "a";
A segment which is parallel to the height of the rectangle and the length of which,
expressed in millimetres, has the value "b".
6.1.2.1.2.2. The minimum values of "a" and "b" are given in the table below:
Class of Rear-view Mirror a (mm) b (mm)
II
III
170
1,000
1 +
r
130
1,000
1 +
r
200
70
6.1.2.1.3. "Wide-angle" view mirrors (Class IV)
The contours of the reflecting surface shall be of simple geometric form and its
dimensions such that it provides, if necessary in conjunction with a Class II exterior
mirror, the field of vision specified in Paragraph 15.2.4.4. of this Regulation.
6.1.2.1.4. "Close-proximity" view mirrors (Class V)
The contours of the reflecting surface shall be of simple geometric form and its
dimensions such that the mirror provides the field of vision specified in
Paragraph 15.2.4.5. of this Regulation.
6.1.2.1.5. Front-view mirrors (Class VI)
The contours of the reflecting surface shall be of simple geometric form and its
dimensions such that the mirror provides the field of vision specified in
Paragraph 15.2.4.6. of this Regulation.

6.1.2.2.4.5. 1,000mm or more than 1,500mm for Class VII main rear-view mirrors.
6.1.2.2.5. The value of the normal coefficient of reflection, as determined according to the method
described in Annex 6, shall be not less than 40%.
In the case of reflecting surfaces with a changeable degree of reflection, the "day"
position shall allow the colours of the signals used for road traffic to be recognized. The
value of the normal coefficient of reflection in the "night" position shall be not less than
4%.
6.1.2.2.6. The reflecting surface shall retain the characteristics laid down in Paragraph 6.1.2.2.5.
above in spite of prolonged exposure to adverse weather conditions in normal use.
6.2. Devices for Indirect Vision other than Mirrors
6.2.1. General Requirements
6.2.1.1. If adjustment by the user is needed, the device for indirect vision shall be adjustable
without the use of tools.
6.2.1.2. If a device for indirect vision can only render the total prescribed field of vision by
scanning the field of vision, the total process of scanning, rendering and reset to its initial
position together shall not take more than 2s.
6.2.1.3. The effectiveness of the CMS of Classes I to IV shall not be adversely affected by
magnetic or electrical fields. This shall be demonstrated by compliance with the technical
requirements and transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10, 04 series of amendments
or any later series of amendements.
6.2.2. Camera-monitor Systems
The requirements of Paragraph 6.2.2.1. shall be considered to be satisfied in the case of
monitors of a vehicle that fulfills the provisions of Regulation No. 21.
6.2.2.1. General Requirements
6.2.2.1.1. When the devices of the camera-monitor system are mounted in the position
recommended by the manufacturer for normal driving, all parts, irrespective of the
adjustment position of the device which are in potential, static contact with a sphere
either 165mm in diameter in the case of a CMS or parts of CMS installed inside the
vehicle or 100mm in diameter in the case of a CMS or parts of CMS installed outside the
vehicle, shall have a radius of curvature "c" of not less than 2.5mm.
6.2.2.1.2. Edges of fixing holes or recesses of which the diameter or longest diagonal is less than
12mm are exempt from the radius requirements of Paragraph 6.2.2.1.1. above provided
that they are blunted.
6.2.2.1.3. For parts of the camera and the monitor which are made of a material with a Shore A
hardness of less than 60 and which are mounted on a rigid support, the requirements of
Paragraph 6.2.2.1.1. above shall only apply to the support.

1:
Black and white test pattern.
2:
Lamps to make the test pattern evenly illuminated.
3:
Mirror.
4:
High intensity light.
5:
Camera.
6:
Monitor.
Figure A
Diagram of the Blooming Measurement Set-Up
6.2.2.2.2. The monitor shall render a minimum contrast under various light conditions as specified
by ISO 15008:2003.
6.2.2.2.3. It shall be possible to adjust the average luminance of the monitor either manually or
automatically to the ambient conditions.
6.2.2.2.4. The measurements for the luminance contrast of the monitor shall be carried out
according to ISO 15008:2009.

Table 1
Measurement Directions for Standard Isotropy Range
Direction i
Horizontal/degree
Vertical/degree
-7
+6
2

(c)
(d)
The background luminance of the monitor shall be limited under the night
condition. The maximum background luminance under the night condition shall be
less than 2.0cd/m²;
The instructions for use shall contain a note that sunlight or light from other
intense light source upon the monitor reduces the luminance contrast which may
require the driver to be particularly alert and attentive.
6.2.2.3.3.2.1. Day condition with diffuse sky-light exposure test
For the day condition with diffuse sky-light exposure, the test method given in
ISO 16505:2015, Subclause 7.8.2., Test 2 shall be applied, but a value of 4,000 to
4,200cd/m for luminance diffuse illuminator shall be used.
At the request of the manufacturer, the value for luminance diffuse illuminator may be
determined by using the diagram of figure below.
Ratio of projected area vs. luminance of the diffuse illuminator
Procedure for determining the ration of the projected area leaving the vehicle:
(a)
(b)
Determine the projected area in the vehicle that represents the mirror reflected
direction from the monitor extended isotropy range.
Evaluation shall be made in the centre of the monitor defined size, under
consideration of the monitor design viewing direction (see figure below).

(c) Blue colour coordinates shall not exceed the range of (209.9°, 302.2°);
(d) Yellow colour coordinates shall not exceed the range of (44.8°, 96.6°);
(e)
To distinguish from the white colour, define distance from white as Ri ≥0.02, where
R is the chromatic distance of each colour patch (i = Red, Green, Blue, Yellow),
relative to white (i = White).
Figure B shows an illustrative tolerance range described on CIE 1976 uniform colour
space.
6.2.2.3.3.5. Artefacts
6.2.2.3.3.5.1. Smear
Figure B
Amber, Blue and Red Light Signals shall be Distinguishable from each other.
The operator's manual shall refer to possible artefacts and their impact on the partial
occlusion of the field of view and of the objects which may require the driver to be
particularly alert and attentive.
Smear shall be transparent and not be more than 10% of the maximum luminance value
of the displayed glare source luminance level, which causes smear effect.
6.2.2.3.3.5.2. Blooming and lens flare
The total area of disturbing blooming and lens flare areas shall not cover more than 25%
of the displayed camera image.

6.2.2.3.3.6.2. Depth of field
The CMS shall enable the driver to observe the occupied space by the object and
perceive the content shown within the range of interest with detailed resolution. The
MTF10(1:1), when measured at different distances to the object, shall satisfy at least the
minimum resolution for the following points:
(a)
Resolution at point 1 (10m as representative point for infinity) and point 2 (middle
distance at 6m)
MTF10 ≥ 0.9 × MTF10
LW/PH
(b) Resolution at point 3 (Close distance at 4m)
1
MTF10 ≥ MTF10
2
LW/PH
6.2.2.3.3.7. Geometric distortion
For CMS of Classes I, II and III the maximum distortion within the minimum required field
of view shall not exceed 20% relative to recto-linear or pinhole projection.
This performance shall be tested according to the method given in ISO 16505:2015,
Annex G.3.
6.2.2.3.3.8. Further image quality requirements
6.2.2.3.3.8.1. Flicker
The entire image area of the monitor shall be free of flicker according to the test method
of Annex 12, Paragraph 1.2.
6.2.2.3.4. Time behaviour
6.2.2.3.4.1. Frame rate
Movements of objects in front of the camera shall be rendered smooth and fluid. The
minimum frame rate of the system (update rate of the image information) shall be at least
30Hz. At low light conditions or while maneuvering at low speed, the minimum frame rate
of the system (i.e. update rate of the image information) shall be at least 15Hz.
6.2.2.3.4.2. Image formation time
The image formation time of the monitor shall be less than 55ms at a temperature of
22°C ± 5°C.
6.2.2.3.4.3. System latency
This performance shall be tested according to the method given in ISO 9241-305:2008.
A CMS shall have a sufficient short latency to render the scenery nearly at the same
time. The latency shall be lower than 200ms at room temperature 22°C ± 5°C.

In such cases, a description specifying that the device for indirect vision shall be
mounted so as to conform to the above-mentioned conditions for the positioning of its
attachments on the vehicle shall be provided.
Where advantage is taken of this derogation, the arm shall be indelibly marked with the
symbol and the type approval certificate shall be endorsed to this effect.
6.3.2. Impact Test
The test according to this Paragraph is not to be carried out for devices integrated in the
bodywork of the vehicle and providing a frontal deflecting area of an angle not more than
45° measured in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, or devices not
protruding more than 100mm measured beyond the circumscribing bodywork of the
vehicle according to Regulation No. 26.
6.3.2.1. Description of the Test Rig
6.3.2.1.1. The test rig consists of a pendulum capable of swinging about two horizontal axes at
right angles to each other, one of which is perpendicular to the plane containing the
"release" trajectory of the pendulum.
The end of the pendulum comprises a hammer formed by a rigid sphere with a diameter
of 165 ± 1mm having a 5mm thick rubber covering of Shore A hardness 50.
A device is provided which permits determination of the maximum angle assumed by the
arm in the plane of release.
A support firmly fixed to the structure of the pendulum serves to hold the specimens in
compliance with the impact requirements specified in Paragraph 6.1.3.2.2.6. below.

6.3.2.2.2.3. When the device for indirect vision has a device for adjusting its distance from the base,
the device shall be set in the position in which the distance between the housing and the
base is shortest;
6.3.2.2.2.4. In the case of mirrors, when the reflecting surface is mobile in the housing, it shall be so
adjusted that the upper corner, which is furthest from the vehicle, is in the position of
greatest projection relative to the housing.
6.3.2.2.3. In the case of mirrors, except in the case of Test 2 for Class I mirrors (see
Paragraph 6.3.2.2.7.1. below), when the pendulum is in a vertical position the horizontal
and longitudinal vertical planes passing through the centre of the hammer shall pass
through the centre of the reflecting surface as defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.10. of this
Regulation. The longitudinal direction of oscillation of the pendulum shall be parallel to
the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.
6.3.2.2.4. In the case of camera-monitor systems, when the pendulum is in a vertical position the
horizontal and longitudinal vertical planes passing through the centre of the hammer
shall pass through the centre of the lens or of the transparent protection part protecting
the lens. The longitudinal direction of oscillation of the pendulum shall be parallel to the
longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. If the test is performed with a shutter camera
system, the shutter has to be open during the pendulum impact.
6.3.2.2.5. When, under the conditions governing adjustment laid down in Paragraphs 6.3.2.2.1.
and 6.3.2.2.2. above parts of the device for indirect vision limit the return of the hammer,
the point of impact shall be displaced in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation
or pivoting in question.
The displacement shall be no greater than is strictly necessary for the execution of the
test; it shall be limited in such a way that:
(a)
(b)
Either the sphere delimiting the hammer remains at least tangential to the cylinder
as defined in Paragraph 6.1.1.6.;
Or, in the case of mirrors, the point of contact with the hammer is located at least
10mm from the periphery of the reflecting surface.
6.3.2.2.6. The test consists in allowing the hammer to fall from a height corresponding to a
pendulum angle of 60° from the vertical so that the hammer strikes the device for indirect
vision at the moment when the pendulum reaches the vertical position.
6.3.2.2.7. The devices for indirect vision are subjected to impact under the following different
conditions:
6.3.2.2.7.1. Class I rear-view mirrors
(a)
(b)
Test 1: The points of impact shall be as defined in Paragraph 6.3.2.2.3. above.
The impact shall be such that the hammer strikes the mirror on the reflecting
surface side.
Test 2: Point of impact on the edge of the protective housing, such that the impact
produced makes an angle of 45° with the plane of the reflecting surface and is
situated in the horizontal plane passing through the centre of that surface. The
impact shall occur on the reflecting surface side.

Figure 2
Example of Rear-view Mirror Beding-test Rig
6.3.2.3.2. The test loading shall be 25kg and shall be maintained for 1min.
6.3.3. Results of the Tests
6.3.3.1. In the tests described in Paragraph 6.3.2. above, the pendulum shall continue to swing
after impact in such a way that the projection of the position assumed by the arm on the
plane of release makes an angle of at least 20° with the vertical. The accuracy of
measurement of the angle shall be within ±1°.
6.3.3.1.1. In the case of mirrors, this requirement is not applicable to mirrors stuck to the
windscreen, in respect of which the requirement stipulated in Paragraph 6.3.3.2. shall
apply after the test.
6.3.3.1.2. The required angle to the vertical is reduced from 20° to 10° for all Class II and Class IV
devices for indirect vision and for Class III devices for indirect vision which are attached
to the same mounting as Class IV devices for indirect vision.
6.3.3.2. In the case of mirrors, should the mounting of the mirror break during the tests described
in Paragraph 6.3.2. above for mirrors stuck to the windscreen, the part remaining shall
not project beyond the base by more than 10mm and the configuration remaining after
the test shall satisfy the conditions laid down in Paragraph 6.1.3. of this Regulation.

7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations shall be communicated by
the procedure specified in Paragraph 5.3. above to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation. In addition, the index to the information package, attached to the
communication document, shall be amended accordingly to show the date of the most
recent revision or extension.
7.3. (Reserved)
7.4. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series
number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. The conformity of production procedure shall comply with those set out in the
Agreement, Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2).
8.2. Every device for indirect vision approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured
as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set out in Paragraph 6.
above.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to this
Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirement laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above is not
complied with or if the type of device for indirect vision did not satisfy the requirements
prescribed in Paragraph 8.2. above.
9.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an
approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting
Parties applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the communication form bearing
at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of device for
indirect vision approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type
Approval Authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant
communication, the authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement
applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in
large letters, the signed and dated annotation "PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED".
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to
the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services
responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which
grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or
withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

12.4. "Vehicles of categories L , L , M , M , M , N , N and N " means those defined in the
Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), (document
ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.3, para. 2).
12.5. "Forward control" means a configuration in which more than half of the engine length is
rearward of the foremost point of the windshield base and the steering wheel hub in the
forward quarter of the vehicle length.
12.6. "Ocular reference point" means the middle point between the driver's ocular points.
13. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
13.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of devices for
indirect vision shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited
representative.
13.2. A model of information document is shown in Annex 2.
13.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
13.4. The Type Approval Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for
ensuring effective checks on conformity of production before type-approval is granted.
13.5. The CMS shall be provided by the applicant with the following documents:
(a)
(b)
Technical specification of the CMS;
Operator's manual;
14. APPROVAL
(c) Documentation referred to in Annex 12, Paragraph 2.3.
14.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval in accordance with Paragraph 13. above meets
the requirements of Paragraph 15. of this Regulation, approval shall be granted.
14.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at
present 04) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent or
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
14.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval of a vehicle type
pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this
Regulation.

15.2.1.1.3. Rear-view mirrors required for L-Category vehicles with body work
Category of vehicle
L Category motor vehicles
fitted with bodywork which
partly or wholly encloses the
driver
Rear-view
Class I
Main rear-view Classes III and VII
1 1, if there is a Class I rear-view mirror;
2, if there is not a Class I rear-view mirror
Where a single Class III or VII rear-view mirror is fitted this shall be located on the left
hand side of the vehicle in those countries where the traffic drives on the right and on the
right hand side of the vehicle in those countries where the traffic drives on the left.


15.2.2. Position
15.2.2.1. Devices for indirect vision shall be so placed that the driver, when sitting on the driving
seat in a normal driving position, has a clear view of the road to the rear, side(s) or front
of the vehicle.
15.2.2.2. Class II to VII mirrors shall be visible through the side windows or through the portion of
the windscreen that is swept by the windscreen wiper. Nevertheless, for design reasons,
this last provision (i.e. the provisions relating the cleaned part of the windscreen) shall
not apply to:
(a)
(b)
Class II to VII mirrors on the passenger side and optional exterior mirrors on the
driver side of vehicles of Categories M and M ;
Class VI front-view mirrors.
15.2.2.3. In the case of any vehicle, which is in chassis/cab form when the field of vision is
measured, the minimum and maximum body widths shall be stated by the manufacturer
and, if necessary, simulated by dummy headboards. All vehicles and devices for indirect
vision configurations taken into consideration during the tests shall be shown on the
type-approval certificate for a vehicle with regard to the installation of devices for indirect
vision (see Annex 4).
15.2.2.4. The prescribed Class II, III, IV and VII mirror or monitor on the driver's side of the vehicle
shall be so located that an angle of not more than 55° is formed between the vertical
longitudinal median plane of the vehicle and the vertical plane passing through the
centre of the mirror or monitor and through the centre of the straight line 65mm long
which joins the driver's two ocular points.
15.2.2.5. Devices for indirect vision shall not project beyond the external bodywork of the vehicle
substantially more than is necessary to comply with the requirements concerning fields
of vision laid down in Paragraph 15.2.4. below.
15.2.2.6. Where the lower edge of a Class II to VII mirror is less than 2m above the ground when
the vehicle is loaded to its technically permissible maximum laden mass, this mirror shall
not project more than 250mm beyond the overall width of the vehicle measured without
mirrors.
15.2.2.7. Class V and Class VI mirrors shall be mounted on vehicles in such a way that,
regardless of their position after adjustment, no part of these mirrors or their holders is
less than 2m from the ground when the vehicle is under a load corresponding to its
technically permissible maximum laden mass.
These mirrors shall not, however, be mounted on vehicles the cab height of which is
such as to prevent compliance with this requirement. In this case another device for
indirect vision is not mandatory.
15.2.2.8. Subject to the requirements of Paragraphs 15.2.2.5., 15.2.2.6. and 15.2.2.7. above,
devices for indirect vision may project beyond the permissible maximum widths of
vehicles.

15.2.4.2.2. Main rear-view device on the passenger's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 5m wide, flat, horizontal
portion of the road, which is bounded on the passenger's side by a plane parallel to the
median longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the outermost point
of the vehicle on the passenger's side and which extends from 30m behind the driver's
ocular points to the horizon.
In addition, the road shall be visible to the driver over a width of 1m, which is bounded by
a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver's ocular points (see Figure 5).
15.2.4.3. Class III Main Rear-view Device
15.2.4.3.1. Main rear-view device on the driver's side
Figure 5
Class II Fields of Vision
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 4m wide, flat, horizontal
portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal
vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the driver's side
of the vehicle and extends from 20m behind the driver's ocular points to the horizon (see
Figure 6).
In addition, the road shall be visible to the driver over a width of 1m, which is bounded by
a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 4m behind the vertical plane passing
through the driver's ocular points.

15.2.4.4.2. Wide-angle view device on the passenger's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 15m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane of the vehicle and passing through the outermost point of the
vehicle on the passenger's side and which extends from at least 10m to 25m behind the
driver's ocular points.
In addition, the road shall be visible to the driver over a width of 4.5m, which is bounded
by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the
outermost point of the vehicle starting from a point 1.5m behind the vertical plane
passing through the driver's ocular points (see Figure 7).
Figure 7
Class IV Fields of Vision

15.2.4.5.6. On the passenger side only, the field of vision shall also be such that the
driver can see a flat horizontal portion of the road along the side of the vehicle which is
outside the field defined in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1. to 15.2.4.5.4. above but within the
field bounded by the following vertical planes; the front of this field of vision may be
rounded off with a radius of 2,000mm (see Figures 8c and 8d):
15.2.4.5.7. In the transverse direction, the parallel plane passing at a distance of 4.5m in front of the
plane mentioned in Paragraph 15.2.4.5.1. above.
15.2.4.5.8. To the rear, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver's ocular
points and situated at a distance of 1.75m behind that plane.
15.2.4.5.9. To the front, the plane parallel to the vertical plane passing through the driver's ocular
points and situated at a distance of 3m in front of that plane. This field of vision may be
partially provided by a front-view device (Class VI).
15.2.4.5.10. The field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9. above may be
partially provided by a wide-angle view device (Class IV) or a combination of a closeproximity
view device (Class V) and a front-view device (Class VI).
15.2.4.5.11. The area prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9. above may be viewed using
a combination of direct view and indirect vision devices (of Class IV, V, VI).
15.2.4.5.11.1. If an indirect vision device of Class IV is used to provide a part of the field of vision
prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9., it shall be adjusted in a way that it
simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.4.2.
15.2.4.5.11.2. If an indirect vision device of Class V is used to provide a part of the field of vision
prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9., it shall be adjusted in a way that it
simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1. to
15.2.4.5.4.
15.2.4.5.11.3. If an indirect vision device of Class VI is used to provide a part of the field of vision
prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.9., it shall be adjusted in a way that it
simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in Paragraph 15.2.4.6.1.
15.2.4.5.12. The field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1. to 15.2.4.5.4. may be viewed
using a combination of a close-proximity view device (Class V) and a wide-angle view
device (Class IV).
In such cases the close-proximity view mirror (Class V) shall provide at least 90% of the
field of vision prescribed in Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.1 to 15.2.4.5.4. and the Class IV mirror
shall be adjusted in a way that it simultaneously provides the field of vision prescribed in
Paragraph 15.2.4.4.2.
15.2.4.5.13. Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.12. above shall not apply to a vehicle where any part
of a Class V mirror, if fitted, or its holder, is less than 2.4m above the ground, regardless
of its position after adjustment.
15.2.4.5.14. Paragraphs 15.2.4.5.6. to 15.2.4.5.12. above shall not apply to a vehicle of Category M
or M .

The provisions for Class VI front-view devices are compulsory for forward controlled (as
defined in Paragraph 12.5. of this Regulation) vehicles of categories N >7.5t and N .
If vehicles of these categories cannot fulfil the requirements by using a front-view device,
a vision support system shall be used. In the case of a vision support system this device
shall be able to detect an object of 50cm height and with a diameter of 30cm within the
field defined in Figure 9.
Figure 9
Class VI Field of Vision
15.2.4.6.2. However, if the driver can see, taking into account the obstructions by the A-pillars, a
straight line 300mm in front of the vehicle at a height of 1,200mm above the road surface
and which is situated between a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal
vertical median plane going through the outermost side of the vehicle at the driver's side
and a longitudinal vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal vertical median plane 900mm
outside the outermost side of the vehicle opposite to the driver's side, a Class VI device
for indirect vision is not mandatory.
15.2.4.6.3. For the purpose of Paragraphs 15.2.4.6.1. and 15.2.4.6.2. above parts permanently
attached to the vehicle that are situated both above the driver's eye points and in front of
the transverse vertical plane passing through the foremost surface of the vehicle's front
bumper shall not be taken into account when defining the front of the vehicle.
15.2.4.7. Class VII Main Rear-view Mirror
15.2.4.7.1. Main rear-view mirror on the driver's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 2.50m wide, flat,
horizontal portion of the road, which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median
longitudinal vertical plane and passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the
driver's side of the vehicle and extends from 10m behind the driver's ocular points to the
horizon (see Figure 10).
15.2.4.7.2. Main rear-view mirror on the passenger's side
The field of vision shall be such that the driver can see at least a 4m wide flat, horizontal
portion of the road which is bounded by a plane parallel to the median longitudinal
vertical plane passing through the outermost point of the vehicle on the passenger's side
and which extends from 20m behind the driver's ocular points to the horizon
(see Figure 10).

15.2.4.8. In the case of mirrors consisting of several reflecting surfaces which are either of
different curvature or make an angle with each other, at least one of the reflecting
surfaces shall provide the field of vision and have the dimensions (Paragraph 6.1.2.1.2.2.
of this Regulation) specified for the class to which they belong.
15.2.4.9. Obstructions
15.2.4.9.1. Class I rear-view devices
The field of vision may be reduced by the presence of devices such as sun visors,
windscreen wipers, heating elements and stop lamp of Category S3, provided that all
these devices together do not obscure more than 15% of the prescribed field of vision.
Headrests or framework or bodywork such as window columns of rear split doors, rear
window frame shall be excluded from the calculation. This requirement shall be tested by
projection on to a vertical plane at right angles to the longitudinal centre plane of the
vehicle. The degree of obstruction shall be measured with the sun visors folded back.
15.2.4.9.2. Classes II, III, IV, V, and VI devices for indirect vision and Class VII mirrors
In the fields of vision specified above, obstruction due to the bodywork and its
components, such as other cab devices for indirect vision, door handles, outline marker
lights, direction indicators and front and rear bumpers, as well as reflective-surface
cleaning components, shall not be taken into account if they are responsible for a total
obstruction of less than 10% of the specified field of vision. In the case of a vehicle
designed and constructed for special purposes where, due to its special features, it is not
possible to meet this requirement, the obstruction of the required field of vision of a
Class V mirror caused by the special features may be more than 10% but not more than
necessary for its special function.
15.2.4.10. Test Procedure
The field of vision shall be determined by placing powerful light sources at the ocular
points and examining the light reflected on the vertical monitoring screen. Other
equivalent methods may be used.
16. REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVICES FOR INDIRECT VISION OTHER THAN MIRRORS
16.1. Class I to IV Camera-monitor Devices (see Annex 12)
Unless otherwise provided in this Regulation, the definitions and symbols used in
Paragraph 16.1. are in accordance with ISO 16505:2015, Chapters 3 and 4.
Unless otherwise provided in this Regulation, the requirements given in Paragraph 16.1.
shall be verified according to the test procedures given in ISO 16505:2015, Chapter 7,
where available.
16.1.1. Intended Use, Activation and Deactivation
The intended use shall be mentioned within the operator's manual. The procedure for
activation and deactivation of the CMS of Classes II and III shall allow a safe use of the
vehicle.
The CMS shall be activated when the vehicle is opened (e.g. unlocking of the doors,
opening of a front door or any other means by the choice of the manufacturer).

16.1.3. Magnification and Resolution
16.1.3.1. Magnification Factor
The minimum and the average magnification factors of the CMS, in both horizontal and
vertical directions shall not be lower than the minimum average magnification factor
indicated below.
The minimum magnification factor shall not be less than:
(a) for Class I: 0.31;
(b) for Class II (driver's side): 0.26;
(c) for Class III (driver's side): 0.29;
(d) for Class IV (driver's side): 0.054;
(e) for Class II (passenger's side): 0.13;
(f) for Class III (passenger's side): 0.19;
(g) for Class IV (passenger's side): 0.016.
The average magnification factor shall not be less than:
(h) for Class I: 0.33;
(i) for Class II (driver's side): 0.31;
(j) for Class III (driver's side): 0.31;
(k) for Class IV (driver's side): 0.091;
(l) for Class II (passenger's side): 0.16;
(m) for Class III (passenger's side): 0.20;
(n) for Class IV (passenger's side): 0.046.

16.1.4. Magnification Aspect Ratio
In the required field of view, the difference between the average magnification factor for
horizontal and vertical direction of a CMS shall satisfy the following equations depending
on the individual mirror classes.
For devices Class I the acceptable range shall be:
M
− 0.34
≤ 1 −
≤ 0.25
M
For devices Class II the acceptable range shall be:
M
− 0.42
≤ 1 −
≤ 0.3
M
For devices Class III the acceptable range shall be:
M
− 0.34
≤ 1 −
≤ 0.25
M
For devices Class IV no restriction in magnification ratio is required.
16.1.5. Monitor Inside the Vehicle
16.1.5.1. The centre of the monitor(s) shall not be below a plane passing through the driver's
ocular points, as defined in Paragraph 12.1., and declined 30° below.
16.1.5.2. The arrangement of the monitor(s) inside the vehicle shall be convenient to the driver.
Thus, the image of the right side field of view shall be presented to the right of the
longitudinal vertical plane through the ocular reference point, defined in Paragraph 12.6.
The image of the left side field of view shall be presented to the left of the longitudinal
vertical plane through the ocular reference point.
If the CMS shows more than one field of vision on one display, non-continuous images
shall be clearly separated from each other. Provided that the required field of vision of
different classes of devices for indirect vision are shown on the monitor(s) without hiding
any part of the required field of vision, a combined continuous image without clear
separation is allowed.
16.1.5.3. The monitor defined size shall be visible without any obstruction from the ocular
reference point. A virtual testing is acceptable.
16.1.6. Obstruction of the driver's direct view caused by the installation of a device for indirect
vision shall be restricted to a minimum.

17.1.1. Revision
17.1.2. Extension
When particulars recorded in the information folder have changed and the Type Approval
Authority considers that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable
adverse effect, and that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements, the
modification shall be designated a "revision".
In such a case, the Type Approval Authority shall issue the revised pages of the
information folder as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of
the modification and the date of re-issue. A consolidated,updated version of the
information folder, accompanied by a detailed description of the modification, shall be
deemed to meet this requirement.
The modification shall be designated an "extension" if, in addition to the change of the
particulars recorded in the information folder,
(a)
(b)
(c)
Further inspections or tests are required; or
Any information on the communication document (with the exception of its
attachments) has changed; or
Approval to a later series of amendments is requested after its entry into force.
17.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated to
the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming
to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation. In addition, the index to the information
package, attached to the communication document, shall be amended accordingly to
show the date of the most recent revision or extension.
17.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series
number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
18. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
18.1. The conformity of production procedure shall comply with those set out in the
Agreement, Appendix 2, (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2).
18.2. Every vehicle approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to
the type approved by meeting the requirements set out in Paragraph 15., and where
applicable Paragraph 16. above.
19. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
19.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirement laid down in Paragraph 18.1. above is not complied with or
if the vehicle fails to pass the checks prescribed in Paragraph 18.2. above.
19.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters,
the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".

22.7. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph 22.2., approvals which were granted to
mirrors of Class II, IV, V, VI or VII pursuant to this Regulation as modified by the 02
series of amendments before the date of entry into force of the 03 series of amendments
shall remain valid and Contracting Parties shall continue to accept them. Contracting
Parties shall not refuse to grant extensions to approvals granted to the 02 series of
amendments.
22.8. The provisions of this Regulation shall not prohibit the approval of a type of vehicle with
regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to this Regulation as
modified by the 03 series of amendments, if all or part of the devices for indirect vision of
Class I or III, with which it is fitted, bear the approval mark prescribed by this Regulation
in its original form (00 series) or modified by the 01 or 02 series of amendments.
22.9. The provisions of this Regulation shall not prohibit the approval of a type of vehicle with
regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to this Regulation as
modified by the 03 series of amendments, if all or part of the rear-view mirrors of Class II,
IV, V, VI or VII, with which it is fitted, bear the approval mark prescribed by the 02 series
of amendments of this Regulation.
22.10. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraphs 22.2., 22.4. and 22.5. above, for the
purpose of replacement parts Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall continue
to grant approvals according 02 series of amendments to this Regulation, to devices for
indirect vision for use on vehicle types which have been approved before the date
mentioned in Paragraph 22.2. above pursuant to the 02 series of amendments of
Regulation No. 46, and, where applicable, subsequent extensions to these approvals.
22.11. As from the official date of entry into force of the 04 series of amendments to this
Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse an application for
approval under this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments.
22.12. As from June 30, 2014, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant
approvals to a type of device for indirect vision only if the type of device meets the
requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments.
22.13. As from June 30, 2014, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant
approvals to a type of vehicle with regard to the installation of devices for indirect vision
only if the type of vehicle meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the
04 series of amendments.
22.14. As from June 30, 2015, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not be obliged
to accept approvals of a type of vehicle or type of device for indirect vision which have
not been granted in accordance with the 04 series of amendments to this Regulation.
22.15. Notwithstanding Paragraph 22.14. above, type approvals granted to the preceding series
of amendments to the Regulation, which are not affected by the 04 series of
amendments, shall remain valid and Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall
continue to accept them.
22.16. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type
approvals for existing types of vehicles or devices, which are not affected by the 04
series of amendments, granted according to the 02 or 03 series of amendments to this
Regulation.

ANNEX 1
INFORMATION DOCUMENT FOR TYPE APPROVAL OF A DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
The following information, if applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and shall include a list of contents.
Any drawings shall be supplied in appropriate scale and in sufficient detail on size A4 paper or on a
folder of A4 format.
Photographs, if any, shall show sufficient details.
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ................................................................................
3. Means of identification of the type, if indicated on the device: .......................................................
4. Category of vehicle for which the device is intended: ....................................................................
5. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
6. Location and method of affixing of the approval mark: ..................................................................
6.1. Other mean of identification link to the approval mark: ..................................................................
7. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): .................................................................................................
8. Mirrors (state for each mirror): .......................................................................................................
8.1. Variant: ...........................................................................................................................................
8.2. Drawing(s) for the identification of the mirror: ................................................................................
8.3. Details of the method of attachment: .............................................................................................
9. Devices for indirect vision other than mirrors: ................................................................................
9.1. Type and characteristics (such as a complete description of the device): ....................................
9.1.1. In the case of camera-monitor systems of Classes V and VI, the class, the detection distance
[mm], contrast, luminance range, glare correction, display performance (black and white/colour)
image repetition frequency, luminance reach of the monitor: ........................................................
9.1.2. In the case of camera-monitor systems of Classes I to IV, the class, field of view, magnification
and resolution: ................................................................................................................................
9.2. Sufficiently detailed drawings to identify the complete device including installation instructions;
the position for the type-approval mark has to be indicated on the drawings: ...............................

11. Range of vehicle dimensions (overall): .....................................................................................
11.1. For chassis without bodywork ...................................................................................................
11.1.1. Width: .....................................................................................................................................
11.1.1.1. Maximum permissible width: .....................................................................................................
11.1.1.2. Minimum permissible width: ......................................................................................................
11.2. For chassis with bodywork: .......................................................................................................
11.2.1. Width: .....................................................................................................................................
12. Bodywork
12.1. Devices for indirect vision
12.1.1. Mirrors: ......................................................................................................................................
12.1.1.1. Drawing(s) showing the position of the mirror relative to the vehicle structure: .......................
12.1.1.2. Details of the method of attachment including that part of the vehicle structure to which it is
attached: ...................................................................................................................................
12.1.1.3. Optional equipment which may affect the rearward field of vision: ...........................................
12.1.1.4. A brief description of the electronic components (if any) of the adjustment device: .................
12.1.2. Devices for indirect vision other than mirrors: ...........................................................................
12.1.2.1. Sufficiently detailed drawings with the installation instructions: ................................................
12.1.2.2. In the case of camera-monitor system of Classes I to IV: ........................................................
12.1.2.2.1. Drawing(s)/photograph(s) showing the position of the camera(s) relative to the vehicle
structure: ...................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 3
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of device for indirect vision pursuant to Regulation No. 46
Approval No. ................................................. Extension No. ...............................
1. Trade name or mark of device: ......................................................................................................
2. Manufacturer’s name for the type of device: ..................................................................................
3. Manufacturer’s name and address: ...............................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of Manufacturer's representative: ..............................................
5. Submitted for approval on: .............................................................................................................
6. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: .......................................................
7. Date of report issued by that service: ............................................................................................
8. Number of report issued by that service: .......................................................................................
9. Brief description: ............................................................................................................................
Identification of the device: mirror, camera/monitor, other device
Device for indirect vision of Class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, S
Symbol 2 Δ
m as defined in Paragraph 6.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation: yes/no

ANNEX 4
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration:
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of vehicle with regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision pursuant to
Regulation No. 46
Approval No. ................................................. Extension No. ...............................
1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
2. Type and general commercial description(s): ................................................................................
3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: ..............................................................
3.1. Location of that marking: ................................................................................................................
4. Category of vehicle: (M , M , M , N , N ≤7.5t, N >7.5t, N )
5. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
6. Address(es) of the production plant(s): ..........................................................................................
7. Additional information: (where applicable): See appendix
8. Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests: ..............................................................
9. Date of test report: .........................................................................................................................
10. Number of test report: ....................................................................................................................
11. Remarks: (if any): See Appendix

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX
Appendix to type approval communication form No. ……… concerning the type approval of a vehicle with
regard to the mounting of devices for indirect vision under Regulation No. 46
1. Trade name or mark of mirrors and supplementary devices for indirect vision and component typeapproval
number: ................................................................................................................................
2. Class(es) of mirrors and devices for indirect vision (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, S)
3. Extension of type approval of the vehicle to cover the following device for indirect vision .................
4. Data for identification of the R point of the driver's seating position: ..................................................
5. Maximum and minimum bodywork width in respect of which the mirror and the devices for indirect
vision has been granted type-approval (in the case of chassis/cab referred to in
Paragraph 15.2.2.3. of this Regulation) ..............................................................................................
6. The following documents, bearing the type approval number shown above, are annexed to this
certificate: .............................................................................................................................................
(a) Drawings showing the mounting of the devices for indirect vision ...........................................
(b)
Drawings and plans showing the mounting position and characteristics of the part of the
structure where the devices for indirect vision are mounted. ...................................................
7. Remarks: (e.g. valid for right hand/left hand traffic ) .........................................................................

1. DEFINITIONS
ANNEX 6
TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING REFLECTIVITY
1.1.
CIE standard illuminate A
: Colorimetric illuminate, respecting the full radiator at
T = 2,855.6K.
1.1.2. CIE standard source A : Gas-filled tungsten filament lamp operating at a correlated colour
temperature of T = 2,855.6K.
1.1.3. CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer : Receptor of radiation whose colorimetric
characteristics correspond to the spectral tristimulus values x ( λ ), y ( λ ), z ( λ ) (see table).
1.1.4. CIE spectral tristimulus values : Tristimulus values of the spectral components of an equi
energy spectrum in the CIE (XYZ) system.
1.1.5. Photopic vision : Vision by the normal eye when it is adapted to levels of luminance of at
least several cd/m .
2. APPARATUS
2.1. General
The apparatus shall consist of a light source, a holder for the test sample, a receiver unit with
a photodetector and an indicating meter (see Figure 1), and means of eliminating the effects
of extraneous light.
The receiver may incorporate a light-integrating sphere to facilitate measuring the reflectance
of non-flat (convex) mirrors (see Figure 2).
2.2. Spectral Characteristics of Light Source and Receiver
The light source shall consist of a CIE standard source A and associated optics to provide a
near-collimated light beam. A voltage stabiliser is recommended in order to maintain a fixed
lamp voltage during instrument operation.
The receiver shall have a photodetector with a spectral response proportional to the photopic
luminosity function of the CIE (1931) standard colorimetric observer (see table). Any other
combination of illuminate-filter-receptor giving the overall equivalent of CIE standard
illuminate A and photopic vision may be used. When an integrating sphere is used in the
receiver, the interior surface of the sphere shall be coated with a matt (diffusive) spectrally
non-selective white coating.

3.3. Flat Mirror Measurement
The reflectance of flat mirror samples can be measured on instruments employing either the
direct or the indirect calibration method. The reflectance value is read directly from the
indicating meter.
3.4. Non-flat (Convex) Mirror Measurement
Measurement of the reflectance of non-flat (convex) mirrors requires the use of instruments
which incorporate an integrating sphere in the receiver unit (see Figure 2). If the
instrument-indicating meter indicates n divisions with a standard mirror of E% reflectance,
then, with a mirror of unknown reflectance, n divisions will correspond to a reflectance of X%,
in accordance with the formula:
x = E
n
n
Figure 1
Generalised Reflectometer Showing Experimental
Set-ups for the Two Calibration Methods

4. SPECTRAL TRISTIMULUS VALUES FOR THE CIE 1931 STANDARD COLORMETRIC
OBSERVER
This table is taken from CIE publication 50 (45) (1970)
λ
nm
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
x ( λ ) y ( λ ) z ( λ )
0.001 4
0.004 2
0.014 3
0.043 5
0.134 4
0.283 9
0.348 3
0.336 2
0.290 8
0.195 4
0.095 6
0.032 0
0.004 9
0.009 3
0.063 3
0.165 5
0.290 4
0.433 4
0.594 5
0.762 1
0.916 3
1.026 3
1.062 2
1.002 6
0.854 4
0.642 4
0.447 9
0.283 5
0.164 9
0.087 4
0.046 8
0.022 7
0.011 4
0.005 8
0.002 9
0.001 4
0.000 7
0.000 3
0.000 2
0.000 1
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 1
0.000 4
0.001 2
0.004 0
0.011 6
0.023 0
0.038 0
0.060 0
0.091 0
0.139 0
0.208 0
0.323 0
0.503 0
0.710 0
0.862 0
0.954 0
0.995 0
0.995 0
0.952 0
0.870 0
0.757 0
0.631 0
0.503 0
0.381 0
0.265 0
0.175 0
0.107 0
0.061 0
0.032 0
0.017 0
0.008 2
0.004 1
0.002 1
0.001 0
0.000 5
0.000 2
0.000 1
0.000 1
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.006 5
0.020 1
0.067 9
0.207 4
0.645 6
1.385 6
1.747 1
1.772 1
1.669 2
1.287 6
0.813 0
0.465 2
0.272 0
0.158 2
0.078 2
0.042 2
0.020 3
0.008 7
0.003 9
0.002 1
0.001 7
0.001 1
0.000 8
0.000 3
0.000 2
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
y
( λ) = V ( λ)

1. MEASUREMENT
1.1. Equipment
ANNEX 7
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE RADIUS OF
CURVATURE "R" OF THE REFLECTING SURFACE OF A MIRROR
A "spherometer" similar to the one described in Figure 1 of this annex having the indicated
distances between the tracing pin of the dial gauge and the fixed legs of the bar is used.
1.2. Measuring Points
1.2.1. The principal radii of curvature shall be measured at three points situated as close as possible
to positions at one-third, one-half and two-thirds of the distance along the arc of the reflecting
surface passing through the centre of this surface and parallel to segment b, or of the arc
passing through the centre of the reflecting surface which is perpendicular to it if this arc is the
longer.
1.2.2. Where, owing to the size of the reflecting surface, it is impossible to obtain measurements in
the directions defined in Paragraph 2.1.1.5. of this Regulation, the Technical Services
responsible for the tests may take measurements at the said point in two perpendicular
directions as close as possible to those prescribed above.
2. CALCULATION OF THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE "r"
"r" expressed in mm is calculated from the formula:
where:
r 1
r =
+ r 2
3
+ r
3
r 1 = the radius of curvature at the first measuring point,
r 2 = the radius of curvature at the second measuring point,
r 3 = the radius of curvature at the third measuring point.

ANNEX 8
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE "H" POINT AND THE ACTUAL TORSO
ANGLE FOR SEATING POSITIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES
Appendix 1 Description of the three-dimensional "H" Point machine (3-D H machine)
Appendix 2 Three-dimensional reference system
Appendix 3 Reference data concerning seating positions
ANNEX 9
(RESERVED)

Figure 1
Triangular Test Patterns Used in the Triangle Orientation
Discrimination (TOD) Method
Figure 2
Typical Relationship between the Size of the Triangle
and the Fraction of Correct Responses
1.2. Determination of the Critical Viewing Distance of the Monitor
For a monitor having certain dimensions and properties, the distance to the monitor can be
calculated within which the detection distance is dependent only on the performances of the
camera. The critical viewing distance r is defined as the distance at which the smallest
discernable detail displayed on the monitor spans 1 arcmin measured from the eye (the acuity
threshold of a standard observer).
r
=
δ × 60 × 180
π
Where:
r : critical viewing distance of the monitor (m)
δ: size of the smallest discernable detail on the monitor (m)

ANNEX 11
DETERMINATION OF THE DISPLAYED OBJECT
SIZE FOR CMS OF CLASSES V AND VI
1. CAMERA MONITOR DEVICE FOR INDIRECT VISION
1.1. General
Determination of the displayed object size considers the possible appearance of smear. The
impact on the monitors image and consequence is the occultation of the field of view and
therefore of the object. The following differentiation is made:
1.2. Case A: Smear Appears
1.2.1.
Step 1:
Under the condition described in Paragraph 6.2.2.2.1.2. of this Regulation,
measure the width (s) of the vertical bar displayed on the monitor e.g. with a
measurement microscope.
1.2.2.
Step 2:
Place the object at a defined distance from the camera. Measure the width of the
object displayed on the monitor (b) in a situation without real sun light condition
e.g. with a measurement microscope.
1.2.3. Step 3: Calculate the residual object width (α) according to the following equation:
Where:
α
['
]
b − s
= 60 × 2 × arctan
2 × r
α: residual width of the object displayed on the monitor (with smear) (minutes of arc)
b: width of the object displayed on the monitor (without smear) (mm)
s: width of the smear (mm)
r: viewing distance (mm)
1.3. Case B: Smear does not Appear
1.3.1.
Step 1:
Place the object at a defined distance from the camera. Measure the width of the
object displayed on the monitor (b) in a situation without real sun light condition
e.g. with a measurement microscope.

1.4.2. The value of the maximum mounting height is different for different viewing distances as the
displayed object size varies with the mounting height. Use the following working steps for
determination of the maximum mounting height:
1.4.2.1.
Step 1:
Determine the minimum width b
of the critical object displayed on the monitor
for each viewing distance.
b
8'
= 2 × r × tan
2 × 60
Where:
r: viewing distance (mm)
b
: minimum width of the critical object displayed on the monitor (mm)
1.4.2.2.
Step 2:
Place the critical object inside the drawn intended field of vision in a position at
which the distance between the critical object and the camera is largest. The
illumination conditions shall be in such a way that the critical object is clearly
visible on the monitor.
1.4.2.3. Step 3: Select the first value of the possible viewing distances.
1.4.2.4.
Step 4:
Change the height of the camera above ground in such a way, that the residual
width B of the object displayed on the monitor is equal to the minimum width
allocated to that viewing distance.
Where:
B=b
B: residual width of the object displayed on the monitor (which is "b" in cases without
smear and "b – s" in cases with smear) in mm (see Paragraph 1.1. General)
1.4.2.5.
Step 5:
Measure the height between camera and ground which is the maximum
mounting height allocated to that viewing distance. Report the result value.
1.4.2.6. Step 6: Repeat the aforementioned steps 4 and 5 for the other viewing distances.

For AMP :
AMP
=
2 × c
c
For c , which is the n Fourier coefficient. Take the n Fourier coefficient from the Fourier
transform.
1.2.3. Determination of E , which is the predicted energy at every frequency <120Hz:
E = a × e
The variables a and b depend on the monitor diagonal as seen from the driver's ocular
reference point and is measured in degree (see Table B.1 in the standard ISO 13406-2:2001).
For a monitor diagonal α of less than 20°, variables a and b equals to a = 0.1276
and b = 0.1424.
The monitor diagonal α
is given by the following equation:
α
Diagonal
= 2 × arctan
2 × α
Where:
Diagonal
α
diagonal of the monitor, measured in metres
Distance of the ORP to the centre of the monitor coordinate system.
1.2.4.
For every frequency <120Hz compare the observed energy E
with the predicted energy E
and report the result value for passed or failed.
1.3. Point Light Sources Test Method
Figure 1 shows the test arrangement for the point light source test.

A typical white LED having a correlated colour temperature of 6,500K with a tolerance of
±1,500K is used for this evaluation. The emitting surface of the LED shall keep an even
luminance or it shall be diffused using an optional diffuser as shown in Figure 1.
The angular size corresponding to the headlamp of 0.09m diameter and the angular orientation
of the two point light source separated by 1.3m of each other, at 250m distance, are calculated
as:
α
(0.09 / 2)
( d / 2)
= 2 × arctan = 2 × arctan = 1.24'
250
α
and
α
(1.3 / 2)
( SD / 2)
= 2 × arctan = 2 × arctan
= 17.9'
250
α
For example, at 6m distance from CMS to this emulated LED, the corresponding aperture
opening of the LED shall be d = 2.2mm in diameter and separated by SD = 31.2mm to
emulate the set of passing beam headlamps located 250m from the CMS.
Ambient illumination at the point light source lab model and at the monitor-side shall be less
than 2lx.
The luminance of the LED shall be measured at the same angular direction of the CMS to
confirm that light emitted from the aperture delivers the correct luminance.
The luminance of the rendered point light sources on the monitor is measured by using a
reference (luminance) camera according to ISO 16505:2015 providing a sufficient spatial
resolution, or equivalent.
For the evaluation, the CMS shall be switched to the operation mode intended to observe the
point light sources.
Position the camera of the CMS such that its optical axis is aligned to the perpendicular
orientation of the point light source lab model (Figure 1). Target the CMS camera to display the
point light sources in the middle of the monitor defined size. The distance from the camera
entrance pupil to the point light source lab model shall be set to a .
For determination of the point light source detection factor PLSDF evaluate the luminance
profile in horizontal and vertical direction (Figure 2).

Figure 3
Luminance Profile of the Rendered Point Light Sources
for the Determination of the PLSCF
The point light source contrast factor PLSCF is determined by the following equation:
⎛ L
PLSCF = ⎜1

⎝ L



Where:
L maximum luminance of the luminance profile in horizontal direction
L luminance value at saddle point of the luminance profile, which is equivalent to the
minimum luminance value between the two luminance peaks (see Figure 3)
Verify the consistency of the result with slightly shifted position of the point light source lab
model.
1.4. Grey Scale Rendering Test Method
The grey scale rendering test shall verify that CMS are capable of displaying at least 8 tonal
grey steps distinguishable within the darkest and brightest output range from the reproduced
chart on the CMS monitor. The grey scale rendering test is evaluated using a 20:1 low contrast
grey scale chart as described in ISO 14524:2009, Table A.1, under 500lx illuminated scene
environment.
The distinguishable tonal difference described herein is defined as an display output signal
whose lightness difference between two different tonal input through the CMS satisfy at least
delta L* ≥3.0, with L* defined as lightness according to the definition in CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour
space.

The whole camera image area shall be covered by the chart image. The grey scale rendering
chart shall be placed in such a way so that the grey patches are visible in the centre of the
monitor defined size.
Adjust the distance between the camera under test and the test chart to have individual
patches of the chart displayed by at least 50 × 50 pixels on the monitor under test, whenever
possible. For Class IV devices exhibiting high distortion and/or optical vignetting, a reduced
size area may also be used to minimize the vignette effect on the measurement results.
The illumination shall be similar to the CIE D65 standard illuminant and have a correlated
colour temperature of T = 6,500K with a tolerance of ±1,500K.
The test is performed with a scene illumination of 500lx (this test condition is equivalent to test
condition for colour rendering as defined in ISO 16505:2015 Clause 7.8.3), and at room
temperature 22 °C ±5°C.
Ambient illumination at the monitor-side shall be ≤ 10lx, and glare light source to the monitor
shall be avoided.
Figure 5
Example of the Grey Scale Rendering Chart

2. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS TO BE APPLIED TO THE SAFETY ASPECTS OF CAMERA
MONITOR SYSTEMS FOR INDIRECT VISION
2.1. General
The purpose of this Paragraph is to specify the requirements for documentation and verification
for CMS for indirect vision of Classes I to IV to replace mandatory rear-view mirrors for road
vehicles.
"The System", referred to herein, is the one for which type approval is being sought.
This Paragraph 2. does not specify the performance criteria for "The System" but covers the
methodology applied to the design process and the information which shall be disclosed to the
Technical Service, for type approval purposes.
This information shall show that "The System" respects, under normal and fault conditions, all
the appropriate performance requirements specified elsewhere in this Regulation.
2.2. Definitions
2.2.1. Camera Monitor System (CMS)
2.2.2. Camera
2.2.3. Monitor
A CMS is used in road vehicles to present the required outside information of a specific field of
view to the driver. It replaces a conventional legally prescribed mirror system on the vehicle by
means of electronic image capture and display systems.
It consists of a camera that is usually installed at the bodywork of a vehicle and a monitor that
is usually placed inside the vehicle.
A camera is a device to capture colour images of a specific field of view. It mainly consists of
two relevant items: imager and lens.
A monitor is a device for displaying images. It either consists of a matrix of active areas that
radiate light of different wavelengths or is a (usually diffuse) reflector that is illuminated in
different wavelengths and in a matrix of specific points by a projector.
2.2.4. Control Unit
A control unit is a component which controls communication and coordination between
electronic components, e.g. a camera and a monitor.
2.2.5. Safety Concept
A safety concept is a description of the measures designed into the system, for example within
the electronic units, so as to address system integrity and thereby ensure safe operation even
in the event of a system or electrical failure.

2.4. List of Failures
2.4.1. Camera
(a)
(b)
(c)
Failure of the camera;
Electronic noise, reduced detail resolution;
Defocus of the optics, reduced detail resolution.
2.4.2. Monitor
(a)
(b)
(c)
Failure of monitor display, no image content is displayed;
Freeze of displayed monitor content, image content is not refreshed;
Enlarged image formation time, changing image content is blurred.
2.4.3. Control Unit
(a)
(b)
(c)
Failure of the control unit;
Failure in the communication between camera and control unit;
Failure in the communication between control unit and monitor.
2.5. Verification
2.5.1. Verification of the performance of the camera monitor system under no-fault and fault
conditions shall be conducted against the manufacturer's specification.
2.5.2. The verification of the safety concept of the reaction of the camera monitor system shall, at the
discretion of the Type Approval Authority, be verified according to the influence of failures in
Paragraph 2.4. The verification results shall correspond with the documented summary of the
failure analysis in Paragraph 2.4., to a level of overall effect such that the safety concept and
execution are confirmed as being adequate.
Indirect Vision Devices. Proposed Supplement 2 to the 04 Series.