Regulation No. 47-00

Name:Regulation No. 47-00
Description:Emissions - Positive Ignition Engines - Mopeds.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Mopeds Equipped with a Positive-ignition Engine with Regard to the Emissions of Gaseous Pollutants by the Engine.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1981-08-28
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 1
Number of Pages:40
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
Available on InterRegs.NET

Our online subscription service, offering immediate access to our extensive library of global vehicle regulations, standards and legislation. A fully searchable, accurate, user-friendly resource for consolidated regulations that are updated quickly and frequently.

Tell me more | Already a subscriber

Available on SelectRegs.com

Our fast and easy means of purchasing up-to-date global vehicle and component standards and regulations on a pay-as-you-go basis. Pay securely by credit card and your documents are delivered directly and immediately to your computer as PDF files.

Tell me more | Go straight to site

Keywords:

vehicle, approval, test, regulation, speed, type, paragraph, engine, annex, mass, pollutants, carbon, tests, exhaust, air, monoxide, reference, gaseous, measured, maximum, idling, prescribed, gases, system, hydrocarbons, roller, gear, power, granted, manufacturer, bench, number, weight, means, min, vehicles, sample, content, emission, sampling, mixture, description, fuel, gas, cycle, max, time, constant, type-i, method

Text Extract:

All InterRegs documents are formatted as PDF files and contain the full text, tables, diagrams and illustrations of the original as issued by the national government authority. We do not re-word, summarise, cut or interpret the regulatory documents. They are consolidated, published in English, and updated on a regular basis. The following text extract indicates the scope of the document, but does not represent the actual PDF content.

E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.46/Amend.1
August 6, 2007
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 47
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
MOPEDS EQUIPPED WITH A POSITIVE–IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE
EMISSIONS OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.11.81
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.06.07

REGULATION NO. 47
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF MOPEDS EQUIPPED WITH A
POSITIVE–IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSIONS OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS
BY THE ENGINE
Contents
REGULATION
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Approval
5.
Specifications and Tests
6.
Modifications of the Vehicle Type
7.
Extension of Approval
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10.
Production Definitely Discontinued
11.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Administrative Departments.
ANNEXES
Annex 1

Essential Characteristics of the Engine and Information Concerning the Conduct of
Tests.
Annex 2

Communication Concerning the Approval (or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval) of a
Vehicle Type (Moped) with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants by the
Engine, Pursuant to Regulation No. 47.
Annex 3 – Arrangements of Approval Marks.
Annex 4 – Type-I Test
Annex 5 – Type-II Test
Annex 6 – Specifications of Reference Fuels.

3.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
technical service responsible for conducting approval tests, for the tests referred to in
Paragraph 5. of this Regulation.
3.3.1. The vehicle shall be fitted with an exhaust system suited to accept the gas-collecting device
indicated in Paragraph 4.2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. If this requires an extension of
the standard exhaust system, this extension shall in no way modify the performance or
emission characteristics of the engine.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets with
requirements of Paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type-approved. Its first two digits (at
present 00 for the Regulation in its original form) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign this number to
another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation, by means
of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation and of drawings and
diagrams supplied by the applicant for approval, in a format not exceeding A4
(210 x 297 mm) or folded to that format and on an appropriate scale.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type-approved under this Regulation
an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval:
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.

5.2.1.1.3. Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 5.2.1.1.4. below, the test shall be repeated three
times. In each test, the mass of the carbon monoxide, the mass of the hydrocarbons
obtained shall be less than the amounts shown in the Tables below. The measurement of
the mass per km of nitrogen oxides is made for information only.
Two-wheeled vehicles
Mass of carbon monoxide
g/km
L
Mass of hydrocarbons
g/km
L
8 5
Three-wheeled vehicles other than those referred to in Paragraph 7.4.
Mass of carbon monoxide
g/km
L
Mass of hydrocarbons
g/km
L
15 10
5.2.1.1.3.1. Nevertheless, for each of the pollutants referred to in the foregoing paragraph, one of the
three results may exceed by not more than 10% the limit prescribed in that paragraph for
the vehicle concerned, provided the arithmetical mean of the three results is below the
prescribed limit. In cases where the prescribed limits are exceed for more than one
pollutant, it shall be immaterial whether this occurs in the same test or in different tests.
5.2.1.1.4. The number of tests prescribed in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.3. above shall be reduced in the
conditions hereinafter defined, where V is the result of the first test and V the result of the
second test for each of the pollutants referred to in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.3. of this Regulation.
5.2.1.1.4.1. Only one test shall be made if, for all pollutants concerned, V ≤ 0,70 L.
5.2.1.1.4.2. Only two tests shall be made if, for all pollutants concerned, V ≤ 0,85 L but for at least one
of the pollutants V > 0,70 L. In addition, for each of the pollutants concerned, V must
satisfy the requirements that
V + V < 1,70 L and V < L.
5.2.1.2. Type-II Test (verifying the emission of carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons at idling
speed).
5.2.1.2.1. The mass of carbon monoxide and the mass of unburnt hydrocarbons emitted with the
engine idling during one minute shall be noted.
5.2.1.2.2. This test shall be carried out by the method described in Annex 5 to this Regulation.

7.4. Three-wheeled Vehicles
Approval granted to a two-wheeled vehicle type may be extended to three-wheeled vehicles
using the same engine and exhaust system and using a transmission that is either the same
or differs only in respect of the over-all transmission ratios.
7.5. When a vehicle type has been approved in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraphs 7.1. to 7.4. above, such approval may not be extended to other vehicle types.
8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. Every vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall conform,
with regard to components affecting the emission of gaseous pollutants by the engine, to the
vehicle type-approved.
8.2. In order to verify conformity as prescribed in Paragraph 8.1 above, a vehicle bearing the
approval mark required by this Regulation shall be taken from the series.
8.3. As a general rule, conformity of the vehicle with the approved type shall be verified on the
basis of the description given in the approval form and its annexes, and if necessary a
vehicle shall be subjected to one or both of the tests of Type I and II referred to in
Paragraph 5.2. above.
8.3.1. For verifying the conformity of the vehicle in a Type-I test, the following procedure is
adopted:
8.3.1.1. A vehicle is taken from the series and subjected to the test described in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.
However, the limit values shown in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.3. are replaced by the following limit
values:
Two-wheeled vehicles
Mass of carbon monoxide
g/km
L
Mass of hydrocarbons
g/km
L
9,6 6,5
Three-wheeled vehicles other than those referred to in Paragraph 7.4.
Mass of carbon monoxide
g/km
L
Mass of hydrocarbons
g/km
L
18 13

11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
11.1. The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other
countries, are to be sent.

3.2. Fuel feed
3.2.1. by carburettor
3.2.1.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.1.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
3.2.1.3. Settings
3.2.1.3.1.
Dimension(s) mixture duct .............................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.2.
Venturi throat diameter ..................................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.3.
Dimension(s) throttle slide .............................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.4.
Needle, type or number .................................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.5.
Needle position ..............................................) or (
Curve of fuel delivery plotted
)
(
against air flow
3.2.1.3.6.
Jets.................................................................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.7.
Float-chamber level........................................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.8.
Weight of float ................................................)
(
)
(
3.2.1.3.9.
Float needle ...................................................)
(
3.2.1.4. Manual/automatic choke ............................Closure setting ...............................................
3.2.2. by injection
3.2.2.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3. General description....................................................................................................................
4. Valve Timing
4.1. Timing for mechanically operated valves
4.1.1. Maximum lift of valves and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres .............
...................................................................................................................................................
4.1.2. Reference and/or setting clearance .......................................................................................

7.4. Ignition coil .................................................................................................................................
7.4.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
7.4.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
7.5. Ignition condenser......................................................................................................................
7.5.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
7.5.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
7.6. Idling system. Description of setting and relevant requirements in accordance with
Paragraph 3.1.4. of Annex 4.
7.7. Carbon monoxide content in the exhaust gas, with the engine idling.................... g/min.
(manufacturers, standard).
8. Engine Performance
8.1. Idling speed................................................................................r.p.m.
8.2. Engine speed at maximum power.............................................r.p.m.
8.3. Maximum power..............kW (ECE)

7.4. Check of performance referred to in Annex 4, Paragraph 3.1.5., to this Regulation.................
8. Vehicle submitted for approval on
9. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests ....................................................
10. Date of report issued by that service .........................................................................................
11. Number of report issued by that service ....................................................................................
12.
Values measured during the Type-I test
-
CO......... g/km
HC ......... g/km
NO ....... g/km
13.
Values measured during the Type-II test
-
CO......... g/min.
HC ......... g/min.
14. Approval granted/refused
15. Position of approval mark on the vehicle ...................................................................................
16. Place ..........................................................................................................................................
17. Date............................................................................................................................................
18. Signature....................................................................................................................................
19. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are annexed to this
communication:–
1 copy of Annex 1, duly completed and accompanied by the drawings and diagrams
referred to;
1 photograph of the engine;
1 copy of the test report.

ANNEX 4
TYPE-I TEST
(Verifying the Average Emission of Gaseous Pollutants in a Congested Urban Area)
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex describes the procedure for the Type-I Test defined in Paragraph 5.2.1.1.
2. OPERATING CYCLE ON THE DYNAMOMETER BENCH
2.1. Description of the Cycle
The operating cycle to be used on the dynamometer bench shall be that indicated in the
following table and depicted in the graph shown in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
Operating Cycle on the Dynamometer Bench
No. of
operation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Operation Acceleration Speed
Idling
Acceleration )
Constant speed )
Deceleration )
Constant speed
Deceleration )
Idling
Duration of
operation
Total
time
(m/s ) (km/h) (s) (s)
-
Full throttle
Full throttle
-0,56
-
-0,93
-
-
0 – max )
Max )
Max – 20 )
20
20-0
-
8
57
36
6
5
9
-
-
65
101
107
112
2.2. General Conditions under which the Cycle is carried out
Preliminary testing cycles should be carried out if necessary to determine how best to
actuate the accelerator control and, where necessary, the gear-box and the brake control.
2.3. Use of the Gear-Box
The use of the gear-box shall be, if necessary, as specified by the manufacturer; however,
in the absence of such instructions, the following points shall be taken into account;
2.3.1. Manual change gear-box
At a constant speed of 20 km/h, the rotating speed on the engine shall be, if possible, within
50% and 90% of the speed corresponding to the maximum power of the engine. When this
speed can be reached in two or more gears, the vehicle shall be tested with the higher gear
engaged.

4. TEST EQUIPMENT
4.1. Dynamometer Bench
The main characteristics of the bench are as follows:–
Equation of the power absorption curve: The test bench shall allow reproduction within
± 15%, from the initial speed of 12 km/h, of the road power developed by the engine, the
vehicle being driven on a horizontal road with a wind speed as near to zero as possible. If
not, the power absorbed by the brake and the internal friction of the test bench shall be:
for a speed of 0 < V < 12 km/h:
for a speed of V > 12 km/h:
0 ≤ P ≤ kV + 5% kV + 5% P
P = kV ± 5% kV ± 5% P
without being negative (the method of verification to be in accordance with Appendix 4 to
this Annex).
Basic inertia: 100 kg
Additional inertias
from 10 kg to 10 kg
The roller shall be fitted with a revolution counter with reset to measure the distance actually
covered.
4.2. Gas-collection Equipment
The gas-collection device is described below (see Appendices 2 and 3 to this Annex).
4.2.1. A device to collect all the exhaust gases produced during the test maintaining the
atmospheric pressure at the vehicle exhaust outlet(s).
4.2.2. A connecting tube between the device for collecting the exhaust gases and the exhaust gas
sampling system.
This tube, and the collecting device shall be made of stainless steel, or some other material
which does not affect the composition of the gases collected and which withstands the
temperature of these gases.
4.2.3. An extractor device for the dilute exhaust mixture. The capacity of this device shall be
constant and large enough to ensure the extraction of all the exhaust gases.
4.2.4. A sample probe, located near to, but outside the gas collecting device, to collect, through a
pump, a filter and a flowmeter, samples of the dilution air stream, at constant flow rates,
throughout the test.

4.4.7. The accuracy required to measure the content of the various pollutants disregarding the
accuracy of the calibration gases shall be within ± 3%.
The over-all response time of the analysing circuit shall be less than one minute.
4.4.8. The content of the calibration gases shall not differ by more than ± 2% from the reference
value of each gas. The diluent shall be nitrogen for carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides,
and it shall be air for hydrocarbons (propane).
4.4.9. The accuracy of the measurement of cooling air speed shall be measured to within
± 5 km/h.
4.4.10. The duration of cycles and gas collection shall be conducted to within ± 1 s. These times
shall be measured with an accuracy of 0,1 s.
4.4.11. The total volume of the dilute gases shall be measured with an accuracy of ± 3%.
4.4.12. The total flow rate and the sampling flow rates shall be steady within ± 5%.
5. PREPARING THE TEST
5.1. Setting of Brake
The brake shall be so adjusted as to ensure that the vehicle bench speed, with the throttle
fully open, shall be equal to the maximum attainable speed on the road within ± 1 km/h.
This maximum attainable speed on the road shall not differ from the maximum design speed
specified by the manufacturer by more than ± 2 km/h. In the case where the vehicle is fitted
with a device to regulate its maximum road speed, the effect of the regulator will be taken
into account.

5.4.2. The tyre pressure shall be that recommended by the manufacturer for normal road use
conditions. However, if the diameter of the roller is less than 500 mm, the tyre pressure
may be increased by 30-50%.
5.4.3. Load on the driving wheel: the load on the driving wheel shall be within ± 3 kg that of a
vehicle in normal road use with a rider of 75 kg ± 5 kg and in the upright position.
5.5. Check of Back-Pressure
5.5.1. During the preliminary tests, a check shall be made to ensure that the back-pressure set up
by the sampling device is equal to the atmospheric pressure to within ± 7,5 mbar.
5.6. Adjustment of Analytical Apparatus
5.6.1. Calibration of Analysers
The quantity of gas at the indicated pressure compatible with the correct functioning of the
equipment shall be injected into the analyser by means of the flowmeter and the discharge
gauge mounted on each gas cylinder. The apparatus shall be adjusted to indicate, as a
stabilised value, the value shown on the standard-gas cylinder. Starting from the setting
obtained, with a maximum content cylinder, the curve of the analyser's deviations shall be
drawn as a function of the content of the various standard-gas cylinders used.
5.6.2. Over-all Response Time of the Apparatus
The gas from the maximum content cylinder shall be injected into the end of the sampling
probe. A check shall be made to ensure that the indicated value corresponding to the
maximum deviation, is reached in less than one minute. If this value is not reached, the
analysing circuit shall be inspected from end to end for leaks.
6. PROCEDURE FOR BENCH TESTS
6.1. Special Conditions for Carrying out the Cycle
6.1.1. The temperature in the room housing the roller bench shall be between 20° and 30°C
throughout the test.
6.1.2. The vehicle shall be as nearly level as possible when tested, in order to prevent any
abnormal fuel or engine oil distribution.
6.1.3. During the test the speed shall be plotted against time, so that the correctness of the cycles
performed can be assessed.
6.2. Starting up the Engine
6.2.1. After the preliminary operations on the equipment for collecting, diluting, analysing and
measuring the gases (see Paragraph 7.1. below) have been carried out, the engine shall be
started up by means of the devices provided for the purpose - the choke, the starter valve,
etc. - in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
6.2.2. The first test cycle shall start at the same time as the collection of samples and the
measurement of the flow through the aspirator.

7.2. Analysis
7.2.1. The gases contained in each bag shall be analysed as soon as possible and in any event
not later than 20 minutes after filling of the bags began.
7.2.2. If the sampling probe is not left permanently in the bags, entry of air into the latter during
insertion of the probe and escape of gas from the bag during extraction of the probes must
be avoided.
7.2.3. The analyser shall be in a stabilised condition within one minute after connecting it to the
bag.
7.2.4. The concentration in HC, CO and NO in the dilute exhaust mixture samples and the dilution
air collecting bags shall be determined from the measuring instrument readings or
recordings by use of appropriate calibration curves.
7.2.5. The figure recorded as the content of the gases in each of the effluents measured shall be
that read off after stabilisation of the measuring device.
8. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITY OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS EMITTED
8.1. The mass of carbon gases shall be determined by means of the following formula:
where:
CO =
1
S
.V.d
CO
.
10
8.1.1. CO is the mass of carbon monoxide emitted during the test in g/km;
8.1.2. S is the distance actually covered; shall be arrived at by multiplying the number of
revolutions read from the cumulative counter by the circumference of the roller. This
distance shall be measured in km;
8.1.3. d is the density of the carbon monoxide at a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of
1013,3 mbar : 1,250 kg/m ;
8.1.4. CO is the volumetric concentration, expressed in parts per million, of carbon monoxide in
the diluted gases, corrected to take account of pollution in the diluent air.
where:
CO
= CO
− CO
(1 −
1
DF
)
8.1.4.1. CO is the concentration of carbon monoxide, measured in parts per million, in the sample
of diluted gases collected in bag SA;
8.1.4.2. CO is the concentration of carbon monoxide, measured in parts per million, in the sample
of diluent air collected in bag SB;
8.1.4.3. DF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 8.4. below;

8.3. The mass of nitrogen oxides emitted by the vehicle's exhaust during the test shall be
calculated by means of the following formula:–
1
NO = . V . d
S
NO . K
.
10
8.3.1. NO is the mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test, expressed in g/km;
8.3.2. S is the distance defined in Paragraph 8.1.2. above;
8.3.3. d is the density of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases, assuming that they will be in the
form of nitric oxide at a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of 1013,3 mbar: 2,05 kg/m ;
8.3.4. NO is the nitrogen oxide concentration of the diluted gases, expressed in parts per million,
corrected to take account of the diluent air
where:
NO
= NO
− NO
(1 −
1
DF
)
8.3.4.1. NO is the concentration of nitrogen oxides, expressed in parts per million, in the sample of
diluted gases collected in bag SA;
8.3.4.2. NO is the concentration of nitrogen oxides, expressed in parts per million, in the sample of
diluent air collected in bag SB;
8.3.4.3. DF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 8.4. below;
8.3.5. K is the humidity correction factor.
where:
K
1
=
1 − 0,0329 (H − 10,7)
8.3.5.1. H is the absolute humidity in grams of water per kg of dry air.
where:
6,2111. U . P
H =
U
P − P
100
(g / kg)
8.3.5.1.1. U is the percentage humidity;
8.3.5.1.2. P is the saturated pressure of water at the test temperature, in mbar;
8.3.5.1.3. P is atmospheric pressure in mbar;

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 1
OPERATING CYCLE FOR THE TYPE-I TEST
- - - - Speed (± km/h) and time
(± 0,5 s) tolerances are
- - - - combined geometrically
for each point, as shown
in the insert

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 3
EXAMPLE II OF GAS-SAMPLING AND VOLUME-MEASURING EQUIPMENT

3.9. Verify that this curve is within the tolerance given in Paragraph 4.1. of Annex 4.

4. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITY OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS EMITTED
4.1. The mass of carbon gases shall be determined by means of the following formula:
where:
CO = v . d
CO
.
10
4.1.1. CO is the mass of carbon monoxide emitted during the test in g/min;
4.1.2. d is the density of the carbon monoxide at a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of
1013,3 mbar: 1,250 kg/m ;
4.1.3. CO is the volumetric concentration, expressed in parts per million, of carbon monoxide in
the diluted gases, corrected to take account of pollution in the diluent air.
CO
= CO
− CO
(1 −
1
DF
)
where:
4.1.3.1. CO is the concentration of carbon monoxide, measured in parts per million, in the sample
of diluted gases;
4.1.3.2. CO is the concentration of carbon monoxide, measure in parts per million, in the sample of
diluent air;
4.1.3.3. DF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 4.3. below;
4.1.4. V is the total volume of diluted gas, expressed in m /min, adjusted to the reference
conditions of 0°C (273°K) and 1013,3 mbar;
where:
v = v
. N
(Pa −
1013,3 . (T
Pi) . 273
+ 273
4.1.4.1. V is the volume of gas displaced by pump Pi during one revolution, expressed in
m /revolution. This volume is a function of the differences between the intake and output
sections of the pump;
4.1.4.2. N is the number of revolutions made by pump Pi during the idling test divided by time in
min.;
4.1.4.3. Pa is the ambient pressure in mbar;
4.1.4.4. Pi is the average under-pressure during the test in the intake section of pump P ,
expressed in mbar;
4.1.4.5. T is the temperature of the diluted gases during the test, measured in the intake section of
pump P .

ANNEX 6
Specifications of Reference Fuels
(Reference Fuel No. 1) (identical with Regulation No. 15 (E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.1/Add.14/Rev.2,
Annex 7))
Research octane number
Specific gravity 15/4°C
Reid vapour pressure
Distillation
Initial boiling point
- 10% vol.
- 50% vol.
- 90% vol.
Final boiling point
- residue (% vol.)
- loss
Hydrocarbon analysis
- olefins
- aromatics
- saturates
Oxidation stability
Gum (residues)
Antioxidant
Sulphur content
Lead content
Nature of scavenger
Nature of lead alkyl
Other additives
Limits and Units
99 ± 1
0,742 ± 0,007
(0,6 ± 0,04 bars
(8,82 ± 0,59 psi
50 ± 5°C
100 ± 10°C
160 ± 10°C
195 ± 10°C
max. 2
max. 1
18 ± 4% by volume
35 ± 5% by volume
Balance
min. 480 minutes
max. 4 mg/100 ml
min. 50 ppm
0,03 ± 0,015% by weight
(0,57 ± 0,03 g/l
(2,587 ± 0,136 g/IG
motor mix
not specified
nil
Method
ASTM D 908-67
ASTM D 1298-67
ASTM D 323-58
ASTM D 86-67
ASTM D 1319-66 T
ASTM D 525-55
ASTM D 381-64
ASTM D 1266-64 T
ASTM D 526-66

Emissions - Positive Ignition Engines - Mopeds.