Regulation No. 49-05

Name:Regulation No. 49-05
Description:Emissions - Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the: Measures to be Taken Against the Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants from Compression-ignition Engines for Use in Vehicles, and the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants from Positive-ignition Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas or Liquefied Petroleum Gas for Use in Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2008-02-03
Amendment Level:05 Series, Supplement 8
Number of Pages:579
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

engine, system, flow, paragraph, exhaust, test, gas, annex, emission, obd, manufacturer, approval, dilution, fuel, type, mass, sampling, engines, appendix, cycle, time, speed, control, sample, emissions, particulate, vehicle, requirements, concentration, regulation, dual-fuel, case, air, temperature, measurement, number, mode, rate, filter, malfunction, monitoring, pressure, measured, torque, operating, systems, values, means, information, determined

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.48/Rev.5/Amend.5
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
February 22, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 49-05
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE:
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN AGAINST THE EMISSION OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE
POLLUTANTS FROM COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND POSITIVE-IGNITION
ENGINES FOR USE IN VEHICLES
Incorporating:
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 30.12.92
Corr. 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 11.09.92
Corr. 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 30.06.95
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.05.96
Corr. 1 to Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 23.06.97
Corr. 2 to Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 12.11.98
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.08.96
Corr. 1 to Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 12.11.98
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.12.01
04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.01.03
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.02.07
Supplement 2 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.06.07
05 series of amendments (including erratum)
Date of Entry into Force: 03.02.08
Supplement 1 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 17.03.10
Supplement 2 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 19.08.10
Corr. to Supplement 2 to the 05 series of amendments
Dated: 19.08.11
Supplement 3 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.12.10
Supplement 4 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 23.06.11
Corr. 1 to Revision 5 of the Regulation
Dated: 14.03.12
Supplement 5 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Supplement 6 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.06.14
Supplement 7 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.01.15
Supplement 8 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.02.17

REGULATION NO. 49
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE MEASURES TO BE TAKEN AGAINST THE
EMISSION OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS FROM COMPRESSION-IGNITION
ENGINES AND POSITIVE-IGNITION ENGINES FOR USE IN VEHICLES
CONTENTS
REGULATION
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for approval
4.
Approval
5.
Specifications and tests
6.
Installation on the vehicle
7.
Engine Family
8.
Conformity of production
9.
Conformity of in-service vehicles/engines
10.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
11.
Modification and extension of approval of the approved type
12.
Production definitely discontinued
13.
Transitional provisions
14.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests and of
administrative departments
Appendix 1 –
Appendix 2 –
Appendix 3 –
Appendix 4 −
Procedure for production conformity testing when standard deviation is
satisfactory
Procedure for production conformity testing when standard deviation is
unsatisfactory or unavailable
Procedure for production conformity testing at manufacturer's request
Determination of system equivalence
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Information document
Appendix 1 − Essential characteristics of the (parent) engine and information concerning
the conduct of tests
Appendix 2 – Essential characteristics of the engine family
Appendix 3 – Essential characteristics of the engine type within the family
Appendix 4 – Characteristics of the engine-related vehicle parts
Appendix 5 – OBD-related information

Annex 9B
Technical requirements for on-board diagnostic systems (OBD)
Appendix 1 − Approval of installation of OBD systems
Appendix 2 − Malfunctions − illustration of the DTC status − illustration of the MI and
counters activation schemes
Appendix 3 − Monitoring requirements
Appendix 4 − Technical compliance report
Appendix 5 − Freeze frame and data stream information
Appendix 6 − Reference standard documents
Appendix 7 − Documentation regarding OBD related information
Annex 9C Technical requirements for assessing the in-use performance of on-board diagnostic
systems (OBD)
Appendix 1 – Groups of monitors
Annex 10
Technical requirements on off-cycle emissions (OCE)


2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply:
2.1.1. "Approval of an engine (engine family)" means the approval of an engine type (engine
family) with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants, smoke
and the on-board diagnostic (OBD) system;
2.1.2. "approval of a vehicle" means the approval of vehicle type with regard to the level of the
emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants and smoke by its engine as well as the
on-board diagnostic (OBD) system and the engine installation on the vehicle;
2.1.3. "rated speed" means the maximum full load Engine Speed allowed by the governor, or, if
such a governor is not present, the speed at which the maximum power is obtained from the
engine, as specified by the manufacturer in Paragraph 2. of Appendix 2 to Annex 1.
2.1.4. "vehicle type" means a category of power driven vehicles which do not differ in such
essential respects as the vehicle and engine characteristics as specified in Annex 1 of this
Regulation.
2.1.5. "auxiliary emission control strategy (AECS)" means an emission control strategy that
becomes active or that modifies the base emission control strategy for a specific purpose or
purposes and in response to a specific set of ambient and/or operating conditions,
e.g. vehicle speed, Engine Speed, gear used, intake temperature, or intake pressure;
2.1.6. "base emission control strategy (BECS)" means an emission control strategy that is
active throughout the speed and load operating range of the engine unless an AECS is
activated. Examples for BECS are, but are not limited to:
(a)
(b)
(c)
engine timing map;
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) map;
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst reagent dosing map;
2.1.7. "combined deNO – particulate filter" means an exhaust aftertreatment system designed
to concurrently reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO ) and particulate pollutants (PT);
2.1.8. "continuous regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust aftertreatment
system that occurs either permanently or at least once per ETC test. Such a regeneration
process will not require a special test procedure;
2.1.9. "control area" means the area between the Engine Speeds A and C and between 25 to
100% load;
2.1.10. "declared maximum power (P )" means the maximum power in ECE kW (net power) as
declared by the manufacturer in his application for approval;

2.1.23. "element of design" means in respect of a vehicle or engine,
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
any control system, including computer software, electronic control systems and
computer logic;
any control system calibrations;
the result of systems interaction, or;
any hardware items;
2.1.24. "emissions-related defect" means a deficiency or deviation from normal production
tolerances in design, materials or workmanship in a device, system or assembly that affects
any parameter, specification or component belonging to the emission control system. A
missing component may be considered to be an "emissions-related defect";
2.1.25. "emission control strategy (ECS)" means an element or set of elements of design that is
incorporated into the overall design of an engine system or vehicle for the purposes of
controlling exhaust emissions that includes one BECS and one set of AECS;
2.1.26. "emission control system" means the exhaust aftertreatment system, the electronic
management controller(s) of the engine system and any emission related component of the
engine system in the exhaust which supplies an input to or receives an output from
this(these) controller(s), and when applicable the communication interface (hardware and
messages) between the engine system electronic control unit(s) (EECU) and any other
power train or vehicle control unit with respect to emissions management;
2.1.27. "emission control monitoring system" means the system that ensures correct operation
of the NO control measures implemented in the engine system according to the
requirements of Paragraph 5.5.
2.1.28. "emission default mode" means an AECS activated in the case of a malfunction of the
ECS detected by the OBD system that results in the malfunction indicator (MI) being
activated and that does not require an input from the failed component or system;
2.1.29. "engine-aftertreatment system family" means, for testing over a service accumulation
schedule to establish deterioration factors according to Annex 7 to this Regulation and for
checking the conformity of in-service vehicles/engines according to Annex 8 to this
Regulation, a manufacturer's grouping of engines that comply with the definition of engine
family but which are further grouped into engines utilising a similar exhaust after-treatment
system;
2.1.30. "engine system" means the engine, the emission control system and the communication
interface (hardware and messages) between the engine system electronic control unit(s)
(EECU) and any other powertrain or vehicle control unit;
2.1.31. "engine family" means a manufacturer's grouping of engine systems which, through their
design as defined in Paragraph 7. of this Regulation, have similar exhaust emission
characteristics; all members of the family shall comply with the applicable emission limit
values;

2.1.43. "malfunction" means:
(a)
(b)
any deterioration or failure, including electrical failures, of the emission control
system, that would result in emissions exceeding the OBD threshold limits or, when
applicable, in failing to reach the range of functional performance of the exhaust
aftertreatment system where the emission of any regulated pollutant would exceed
the OBD threshold limits;
any case where the OBD system is not able to fulfil the monitoring requirements of
this Regulation.
A manufacturer may nevertheless consider a deterioration or failure that would result in
emissions not exceeding the OBD threshold limits as a malfunction;
2.1.44. "malfunction indicator (MI)" means a visual indicator that clearly informs the driver of the
vehicle in the event of a malfunction in the sense of this Regulation;
2.1.45. "multi-setting engine" means an engine containing more than one engine setting;
2.1.46. "NG gas range" means one of the H or L range as defined in European Standard EN 437,
dated November 1993;
2.1.47. "net power" means the power in kW obtained on the test bench at the end of the
crankshaft, or its equivalent, measured in accordance with the method of measuring power
as set out in Regulation No. 85;
2.1.48. "OBD" means an on board diagnostic system for emission control, which has the capability
of detecting the occurrence of a malfunction and of identifying the likely area of malfunction
by means of fault codes stored in computer memory;
2.1.49. "OBD-engine family" means, for approval of the OBD system according to the
requirements of Annex 9A to this Regulation, a manufacturer's grouping of engine systems
having common OBD system design parameters according to Paragraph 7.3. of this
Regulation;
2.1.50. "opacimeter" means an instrument designed to measure the opacity of smoke particles by
means of the light extinction principle;
2.1.51. "parent engine" means an engine selected from an engine family in such a way that its
emissions characteristics will be representative for that engine family;
2.1.52. "particulate aftertreatment device" means an exhaust aftertreatment system designed to
reduce emissions of particulate pollutants (PT) through a mechanical, aerodynamic,
diffusional or inertial separation;
2.1.53. "particulate pollutants" means any material collected on a specified filter medium after
diluting the exhaust with clean filtered air so that the temperature does not exceed 325K
(52°C);
2.1.54. "% load" means the fraction of the maximum available torque at an Engine Speed;

2.1.69. "Wobbe index (lower Wl; or upper Wu)" means the ratio of the corresponding calorific
value of a gas per unit volume and the square root of its relative density under the same
reference conditions:
W = H
×
ρ
/ ρ
2.1.70. "λ-shift factor (S )" means an expression that describes the required flexibility of the
engine management system regarding a change of the excess-air ratio λ if the engine is
fuelled with a gas composition different from pure methane (see Annex 6 for the calculation
of S ).
2.1.71. "Reference mass" means the "unladen mass" of the vehicle increased by a uniform figure
of 100kg for test according to Annexes 4A and 8 of Regulation No. 83.
2.1.72. "Unladen mass" means the mass of the vehicle in running order without the uniform mass
of the driver of 75kg, passengers or load, but with the fuel tank 90% full and the usual set of
tools and spare wheel on board, where applicable;
2.1.73. "Running order mass" means the mass described in Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 1 to the
Regulation No. 83. and for vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of more than
9 persons (in addition to the driver), the mass of a crew member (75kg), if there is a crew
seat amongst the nine or more seats.

Symbols Unit Term
L
L
M
M
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
N
N
N
n
n
n
n
n
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
P(a)
P(b)
P(n)
P(m)
q
q
q
%
m
g/mol
g/mol
kg
kg
kg
kg
mg
mg
g/h or g
kg
kg
kg
kg
%


min
s
min
min
min
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kW
kW
kW
kW
kg/h or kg/s
kg/h or kg/s
kg/h or kg/s
% torque related to the maximum torque for the test engine
Effective optical path length
Molecular mass of the intake air
Molecular mass of the exhaust
Mass of the dilution air sample passed through the
particulate sampling filters
Total diluted exhaust mass over the cycle
Mass of equivalent diluted exhaust over the cycle
Total exhaust mass over the cycle
Particulate sample mass collected
Particulate sample mass of the diluent collected
Gaseous emissions mass flow (rate)
Sample mass over the cycle
Mass of the diluted exhaust sample passed through the
particulate sampling filters
Mass of the double diluted exhaust sample passed through
the particulate sampling filters
Mass of secondary diluent
Opacity
Total revolutions of PDP over the cycle
Revolutions of PDP during a time interval
Engine Speed
PDP speed
High Engine Speed
Low Engine Speed
Reference Engine Speed for ETC test
Saturation vapour pressure of the engine intake air
Total atmospheric pressure
Saturation vapour pressure of the diluent
Absolute pressure
Water vapour pressure after cooling bath
Dry atmospheric pressure
Pressure depression at pump inlet
Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted for test
Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed for test
Net power non-corrected
Power measured on test bed
Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis
Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis
Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis

2.2.2. Symbols for Chemical Components
CH
C H
C H OH
C H
CO
DOP
CO
HC
NMHC
NO
NO
NO
PT
Methane;
Ethane;
Ethanol
Propane;
Carbon monoxide;
Di-octylphtalate;
Carbon dioxide;
Hydrocarbons;
Non-methane hydrocarbons;
Oxides of nitrogen;
Nitric oxide;
Nitrogen dioxide;
Particulates.

2.2.5. Standards Referenced by this Regulation
ISO 15031-1
ISO 15031-2
ISO 15031-3
SAE J1939-13
ISO 15031-4
SAE J1939-73
ISO 15031-5
ISO 15031-6
SAE J2012
ISO 15031-7
ISO 15031-1: 2001 Road vehicles – Communication between vehicle
and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics – Part 1:
General information.
ISO/PRF TR 15031-2: 2004 Road vehicles – Communication between
vehicle and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics –
Part 2: Terms, definitions, abbreviations and acronyms.
ISO 15031-3: 2004 Road vehicles – Communication between vehicle
and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics – Part 3:
Diagnostic connector and related electrical circuits, specification and
use.
SAE J1939-13: Off-Board Diagnostic Connector.
ISO DIS 15031-4.3: 2004 Road vehicles – Communication between
vehicle and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics –
Part 4: External test equipment.
SAE J1939-73: Application Layer – Diagnostics.
ISO DIS 15031-5.4: 2004 Road vehicles – Communication between
vehicle and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics –
Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services.
ISO DIS 15031-6.4: 2004 Road vehicles – Communication between
vehicle and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics –
Part 6: Diagnostic trouble code definitions.
SAE J2012: Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions Equivalent to
ISO/DIS 15031-6, April 30, 2002.
ISO 15031-7: 2001 Road vehicles – Communication between vehicle
and external equipment for emissions related diagnostics – Part 7: Data
link security.
SAE J2186 SAE J2186: E/E Data Link Security, dated October 1996.
ISO 15765-4
SAE J1939
ISO 16185
ISO 15765-4: 2001 Road vehicles – Diagnostics on Controller Area
Network (CAN) – Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems.
SAE J1939: Recommended Practice for a Serial Control and
Communications Vehicle Network.
ISO 16185: 2000 Road vehicles – engine family for homologation.

3.2.4. A vehicle conforming to the "vehicle type" characteristics defined in Annex 1 shall be
submitted to the Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests defined in
Paragraphs 5 and 6.
3.3. Application for Approval for a Vehicle Type with an Approved Engine
3.3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of an approved
engine on the vehicle shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by a duly accredited
representative.
3.3.2. It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following
particulars:
3.3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type and of engine-related vehicle parts comprising the
particulars referred to in Annex 1, as applicable, and a copy of the approval communication
form (Annex 2A) for the engine or engine family, if applicable, as a separate technical unit
which is installed in the vehicle type.
3.3.3. The manufacturer shall provide a description of the malfunction indicator (MI) used by the
OBD system to signal the presence of a fault to a driver of the vehicle.
The manufacturer shall provide a description of the indicator and warning mode used to
signal the lack of required reagent to a driver of the vehicle.
3.3.4. A vehicle conforming to the "vehicle type" characteristics defined in Annex 1 shall be
submitted to the Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests defined in
Paragraph 6.
3.4. On-board Diagnostic Systems
3.4.1. The application for approval of a vehicle or an engine equipped with an on board diagnostic
(OBD) system shall be accompanied by the information required in Paragraph 9. of Annex 1
(essential characteristics of the (parent) engine and information concerning the conduct of
test) and/or Paragraph 6. of Appendix 3 to Annex 1 (essential characteristics of the engine
family) together with:
3.4.1.1. Detailed written information fully describing the functional operation characteristics of the
OBD system, including a listing of all relevant parts of the engine's emission control system,
i.e. sensors, actuators and components, that are monitored by the OBD system;
3.4.1.2. Where applicable, a declaration by the manufacturer of the parameters that are used as a
basis for major functional failure monitoring and, in addition:
3.4.1.2.1. The manufacturer shall provide the Technical Service with a description of potential failures
within the emission control system that will have an effect on emissions. This information
shall be subject to discussion and agreement between the Technical Service and the
vehicle manufacturer.
3.4.1.3. Where applicable, a description of the communication interface (hardware and messages)
between the engine electronic control unit (EECU) and any other powertrain or vehicle
control unit when the exchanged information has an influence on the correct functioning of
the emission control system.
3.4.1.4. Where appropriate, copies of other approvals with the relevant data to enable extensions of
approvals.

4.1.3.1. At the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel instead of
G (Fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (S ) lies between 0.89 (i.e. the lower range of G ) and 1.19
(i.e. the upper range of G ), for example when Fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this
test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.
4.1.4. In the case of CNG engines, including dual-fuel engines, the ratio of the emission results "r"
shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:
r =
emission result on reference Fuel 2
emission result on reference Fuel 1
or,
r =
emission result on reference Fuel 2
emission result on reference Fuel 3
and,
emission result on reference Fuel 1
r =
emission result on reference Fuel 3
4.1.5. In the case of LPG the parent engine, including in the case of a dual-fuel engine family,
should demonstrate its capability to adapt to any fuel composition that may occur across the
market. In the case of LPG there are variations in C /C composition. These variations are
reflected in the reference fuels. The parent engine should meet the emission requirements
on the reference Fuels A and B as specified in Annex 5 without any readjustment to the
fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without
measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing, the parent engine
shall be run-in using the procedure defined in Paragraph 3. of Appendix 2 to Annex 4A.
4.1.5.1. The ratio of emission results "r" shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:
emission result on reference Fuel B
r =
emission result on reference Fuel A
4.1.6. In the case of LNG the parent engine, including in the case of a dual-fuel engine family but
excluding the case of LNG , shall meet the requirements of this Regulation on the
reference fuels G (Fuel 1) and G (Fuel 2), as specified in Annex 5, without any manual
readjustment to the engine fuelling system between the two tests (self-adaptation is
required). One adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after
the change of the fuel.

4.2.2.2. At the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on the reference Fuels G and G ,
or on the reference Fuels G and G , in which case the approval is only valid for the
H-range or the L-range of gases respectively.
4.2.2.3. On delivery to the customer the engine shall bear a label (see Paragraph 4.11.) stating for
which fuel composition the engine has been calibrated.
4.2.3. In the case of a dual-fuel engine family the parent engine shall meet in addition the
requirements set out in Annex 11 on the reference fuels specified in Annex 5.

APPROVAL OF NG-FUELLED ENGINES
Para. 4.1
Granting of a universal
fuel approval
Number of
test runs
Calculation of "r"
Para. 4.2
Granting of a fuel
restricted approval
Number of test
runs
Calculation of "r"
Refer to
para. 4.2.1.
NG-engine
laid out for
operation on
either
H-range gas
or L-range
gas
G (1) and G (3) for H
or
G (2) and G (3) for L at
manufacturer's request
engine may be tested on a
market fuel (3) instead of
G , if S = 0,89 – 1,19
2 for the H-range
or
2 for the L-range
r
Fuel 1 (G )
=
Fuel 3 (G or market
for the H − range
or
fuel
2
r
Fuel 2 (G )
=
Fuel 3 G or market
(
fuel
for the L − range
Refer to
para. 4.2.2.
NG-engine
laid out for
operation on
one specific
fuel
composition
G (1) and G (2),
fine-tuning between the
tests allowed
at manufacturer's request
engine may be tested on
G (1) and G (3) for H
or
G (2) and G (3) for L
2
or
2 for the H-range
or
2 for the L-range
2

4.3. Exhaust Emissions Approval of a Member of a Family
4.3.1. With the exception of the case mentioned in Paragraph 4.3.2., the approval of a parent
engine shall be extended to all family members without further testing, for any fuel
composition within the range for which the parent engine has been approved (in the case of
engines described in Paragraph 4.2.2.) or the same range of fuels (in the case of engines
described in either Paragraphs 4.1. or 4.2.) for which the parent engine has been approved.
4.3.2. Secondary Test Engine
In case of an application for approval of an engine, or a vehicle in respect of its engine, that
engine belonging to an engine family, if the Technical Service determines that, with regard
to the selected parent engine the submitted application does not fully represent the engine
family defined in Annex I, Appendix 1, an alternative and if necessary an additional
reference test engine may be selected by the Technical Service and tested.
4.4. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
05, corresponding to 05 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number
to another engine type or vehicle type.
4.5. Notice of approval or of extension or of refusal of approval or production definitely
discontinued of an engine type or vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be
communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation, by means
of a form conforming to the model in Annexes 2A or 2B, as applicable, to this Regulation.
Values measured during the type test shall also be shown.
4.6. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place to every engine
conforming to an engine type approved under this Regulation, or to every vehicle
conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark
consisting of:
4.6.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval ;
4.6.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.6.1.

4.6.3.1.7. LNG in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific LNG composition
resulting in a λ-shift factor not differing by more than 3% the λ-shift factor of the G gas
specified in Annex 9, and the ethane content of which does not exceed 1.5%.
4.6.3.1.8. LNG in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for any other LNG composition.
4.6.3.2. For dual-fuel engines, the approval mark shall contain a series of digits after the national
symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish for which dual-fuel engine type and with which
range of gases the approval has been granted. The series of digits will be constituted of two
digits for the dual-fuel engine Type defined in Annex 11, followed by the letter(s) specified in
Paragraph 4.6.3.1. The two digits identifying the dual-fuel engine Types defined in Annex 11
are the following:
(a) 1A for dual-fuel engines of Type 1A, type as defined in Annex11;
(b) 1B for dual-fuel engines of Type 1B, type as defined in Annex11;
(c) 2B for dual-fuel engines of Type 2B, type as defined in Annex11;
(d) 3B for dual-fuel engines of Type 3B, type as defined in Annex11.
4.7. If the vehicle or engine conforms to an approved type under one or more other Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.6.1. need not be repeated. In such a
case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the
Regulations under which approval has been granted under this Regulation shall be placed
in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.6.1.
4.8. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the data plate affixed by the manufacturer
to the approved type.
4.9. Annex 3 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
4.10. The engine approved as a technical unit shall bear, in addition to the approved mark:
4.10.1. The trademark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;
4.10.2. The manufacturer's commercial description.

5. SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS
5.1. General
5.1.1. Emission Control Equipment
5.1.1.1. The components liable to affect, where appropriate, the emission of gaseous and particulate
pollutants from diesel and gas engines shall be so designed, constructed, assembled and
installed as to enable the engine, in normal use, to comply with the provisions of this
Regulation.
5.1.2. The use of a defeat strategy is forbidden.
5.1.2.1. The use of a multi-setting engine is forbidden until appropriate and robust provisions for
multi-setting engines are laid down in this Regulation.
5.1.3. Emission Control Strategy
5.1.3.1. Any element of design and emission control strategy (ECS) liable to affect the emission of
gaseous and particulate pollutants from diesel engines and the emission of gaseous
pollutants from gas engines shall be so designed, constructed, assembled and installed as
to enable the engine, in normal use, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation. ECS
consists of the base emission control strategy (BECS) and usually one or more auxiliary
emission control strategies (AECS).
5.1.4. Requirements for Base Emission Control Strategy
5.1.4.1. The base emission control strategy (BECS) shall be so designed as to enable the engine, in
normal use, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation. Normal use is not restricted to
the conditions of use as specified in Paragraph 5.1.5.4.
5.1.5. Requirements for Auxiliary Emission Control Strategy
5.1.5.1. An auxiliary emission control strategy (AECS) may be installed to an engine or on a vehicle
provided that the AECS:
(a)
(b)
Operates only outside the conditions of use specified in Paragraph 5.1.5.4. for the
purposes defined in Paragraph 5.1.5.5. or,
Is activated only exceptionally within the conditions of use specified in
Paragraph 5.1.5.4. for the purposes defined in Paragraph 5.1.5.6. and not longer than
is needed for these purposes.
5.1.5.2. An auxiliary emission control strategy (AECS) that operates within the conditions of use
specified in Paragraph 5.1.5.4. and which results in the use of a different or modified
emission control strategy (ECS) to that normally employed during the applicable emission
test cycles will be permitted if, in complying with the requirements of Paragraph 5.1.7., it is
fully demonstrated that the measure does not permanently reduce the effectiveness of the
emission control system. In all other cases, such strategy shall be considered to be a defeat
strategy.

5.1.6. Requirements for Torque Limiters
5.1.6.1. A torque limiter will be permitted if it complies with the requirements of Paragraph 5.1.6.2. or
5.5.5. In all other cases, a torque limiter shall be considered to be a defeat strategy.
5.1.6.2. A torque limiter may be installed to an engine, or on a vehicle, provided that:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The torque limiter is activated only by on-board signals for the purpose of protecting
the powertrain or vehicle construction from damage and/or for the purpose of vehicle
safety, or for power take-off activation when the vehicle is stationary, or for measures
to ensure the correct functioning of the deNO system, and;
The torque limiter is active only temporarily, and;
The torque limiter does not modify the emission control strategy (ECS), and;
In case of power take-off or powertrain protection the torque is limited to a constant
value, independent from the Engine Speed, while never exceeding the full-load
torque, and;
Is activated in the same manner to limit the performance of a vehicle in order to
encourage the driver to take the necessary measures in order to ensure the correct
functioning of NO control measures within the engine system.
5.1.7. Special Requirements for Electronic Emission Control Systems
5.1.7.1. Documentation Requirements
The manufacturer shall provide a documentation package that gives access to any element
of design and emission control strategy (ECS), and torque limiter of the engine system and
the means by which it controls its output variables, whether that control is direct or indirect.
The documentation shall be made available in two parts:
(a)
(b)
The formal documentation package, which shall be supplied to the Technical Service
at the time of submission of the approval application, shall include a full description of
the ECS and, if applicable, the torque limiter. This documentation may be brief,
provided that it exhibits evidence that all outputs permitted by a matrix obtained from
the range of control of the individual unit inputs have been identified. This information
shall be attached to the documentation required in Paragraph 3. of this Regulation;
Additional material that shows the parameters that are modified by any auxiliary
emission control strategy (AECS) and the boundary conditions under which the AECS
operates. The additional material shall include a description of the fuel system control
logic, timing strategies and switch points during all modes of operation. It shall also
include a description of the torque limiter described in Paragraph 5.5.5. of this
Regulation.
The additional material shall also contain a justification for the use of any AECS and include
additional material and test data to demonstrate the effect on exhaust emissions of any
AECS installed to the engine or on the vehicle. The justification for the use of an AECS may
be based on test data and/or sound engineering analysis.
This additional material shall remain strictly confidential, and be made available to the
Approval Authority on request. The Approval Authority will keep this material confidential.

5.2. Specifications concerning the Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants and
Smoke
For type approval testing to either Row B1 or B2 or Row C of the Tables in Paragraph 5.2.1.
the emissions shall be determined on the ESC, ELR and ETC tests.
For gas engines, the gaseous emissions shall be determined on the ETC test.
The ESC and ELR test procedures are described in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, the ETC test
procedure in Annex 4A, Appendices 2 and 3.
The emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate pollutants, if applicable, and smoke, if
applicable, by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured by the methods described
in Annex 4A, Appendix 4. Annex 4A, Appendix 7 describes the recommended analytical
systems for the gaseous pollutants, the recommended particulate sampling systems, and
the recommended smoke measurement system.
Other systems or analyzers may be approved by the Technical Service if it is found that they
yield equivalent results on the respective test cycle. The determination of system
equivalency shall be based upon a 7-sample pair (or larger) correlation study between the
system under consideration and one of the reference systems of this Regulation. For
particulate emissions, only the full flow dilution system or the partial flow dilution system
meeting the requirements of ISO 16183 are recognized as equivalent reference systems.
"Results" refer to the specific cycle emissions value. The correlation testing shall be
performed at the same laboratory, test cell, and on the same engine, and is preferred to be
run concurrently. The equivalency of the sample pair averages shall be determined by F-test
and t-test statistics as described in Appendix 4 to this Regulation obtained under these
laboratory, test cell and engine conditions. Outliers shall be determined in accordance with
ISO 5725 and excluded from the database. For introduction of a new system into this
Regulation, determination of equivalency shall be based upon the calculation of repeatability
and reproducibility, as described in ISO 5725.

5.2.2. Hydrocarbon Measurement for Diesel and Gas Fuelled Engines
5.2.2.1. A manufacturer may choose to measure the mass of total hydrocarbons (THC) on the ETC
test instead of measuring the mass of non-methane hydrocarbons. In this case, the limit for
the mass of total hydrocarbons is the same as shown in Table 2 for the mass of
non-methane hydrocarbons.
5.2.3. Specific Requirements for Diesel Engines
5.2.3.1. The specific mass of the oxides of nitrogen measured at the random check points within the
control area of the ESC test shall not exceed by more than 10% the values interpolated from
the adjacent test modes (reference Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraphs 5.6.2. and 5.6.3.).
5.2.3.2. The smoke value on the random test speed of the ELR shall not exceed the highest smoke
value of the two adjacent test speeds by more than 20%, or by more than 5% of the limit
value, whichever is greater.
5.3. Durability and Deterioration Factors
5.3.1. The manufacturer shall demonstrate that a compression-ignition or gas engine approved by
reference to the emission limits set out in Row B1 or Row B2 or Row C of the Tables in
Paragraph 5.2.1. will comply with those emission limits for a useful life of:
5.3.1.1. 100,000km or five years, whichever is the sooner, in the case of engines to be fitted to
vehicles of Category N , M > 3.5t and M ;
5.3.1.2. 200,000km or six years, whichever is the sooner, in the case of engines to be fitted to
vehicles of Category N , N with a maximum technically permissible mass not exceeding 16t
and M Class I, Class II and Class A, and Class B with a maximum technically permissible
mass not exceeding 7.5t;
5.3.1.3. 500,000km or seven years, whichever is the sooner, in the case of engines to be fitted to
vehicles of Category N with a maximum technically permissible mass exceeding 16t and
M , Class III and Class B with a maximum technically permissible mass exceeding 7.5t.
5.3.2. For the purposes of this Regulation, the manufacturer shall determine deterioration factors
that will be used to demonstrate that the gaseous and particulate emissions of an engine
family or engine-aftertreatment system family remain in conformity with the appropriate
emission limits specified in the Tables in Paragraph 5.2.1. over the appropriate durability
period laid down in Paragraph 5.3.1.
5.3.3. The procedures for demonstrating the compliance of an engine or engine-aftertreatment
system family with the relevant emission limits over the appropriate durability period are
given in Annex 7 to this Regulation.

5.4.5. Full and uniform access to OBD information shall be provided for the purposes of testing,
diagnosis, servicing and repair in keeping with the relevant provisions of
ECE Regulation No. 83 and provisions regarding replacement components ensuring
compatibility with OBD systems.
5.4.6. Small Batch Engine Production
As an alternative to the requirements of this Paragraph, engine manufacturers whose
world-wide annual production of a type of engine, belonging to an OBD engine family:
(a)
(b)
Is less than 500 units per year, may obtain approval on the basis of the requirements
of the present Regulation where the engine is monitored only for circuit continuity and
the after-treatment system is monitored for major functional failure;
Is less than 50 units per year, may obtain approval on the basis of the requirements
of the present Regulation where the complete emission control system (i.e. the
engine and after-treatment system) are monitored only for circuit continuity.
The Approval Authority shall inform the other Contracting Parties of the circumstances of
each approval granted under this provision.
5.5. Requirements to Ensure Correct Operation of NO Control Measures
5.5.1. General
5.5.1.1. This Paragraph is applicable to compression-ignition engine systems irrespective of the
technology used to comply with the emission limit values provided in the Tables in
Paragraph 5.2.1.
5.5.1.2. Application Dates
The application dates shall be in accordance with Paragraph 13. of this Regulation.
5.5.1.3. Any engine system covered by this Paragraph shall be designed, constructed and installed
so as to be capable of meeting these requirements over the useful life of the engine.
5.5.1.4. Information that fully describes the functional operational characteristics of an engine
system covered by this Paragraph shall be provided by the manufacturer in Annex 1.
5.5.1.5. In its application for approval, if the engine system requires a reagent, the manufacturer
shall specify the characteristics of all reagent(s) consumed by any exhaust aftertreatment
system, e.g. type and concentrations, operational temperature conditions, reference to
international standards etc.
5.5.1.6. Subject to requirements set out in Paragraph 5.1., any engine system covered by
Paragraph 5, shall retain its emission control function during all conditions regularly
pertaining in the territory of the Contracting Parties, especially at low ambient temperatures.
5.5.1.7. For the purpose of approval, the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the Technical Service
that for engine systems that require a reagent, any emission of ammonia does not exceed,
over the applicable emissions test cycle, a mean value of 25ppm.

5.5.3.4. If the NO level exceeds the OBD threshold limit values given in the Table in
Paragraph 5.4.4., a torque limiter shall reduce the performance of the engine according to
the requirements of Paragraph 5.5.5. in a manner that is clearly perceived by the driver of
the vehicle. When the torque limiter is activated the driver shall continue to be alerted
according to the requirements of Paragraph 5.5.3.2. and a non-erasable fault code shall be
stored in accordance with Paragraph 5.5.3.3.
5.5.3.5. In the case of engine systems that rely on the use of EGR and no other aftertreatment
system for NO emissions control, the manufacturer may utilise an alternative method to the
requirements of Paragraph 5.5.3.1. for the determination of the NO level. At the time of type
approval the manufacturer shall demonstrate that the alternative method is equally timely
and accurate in determining the NO level compared to the requirements of Paragraph
5.5.3.1. and that it triggers the same consequences as those referred to in Paragraphs
5.5.3.2., 5.5.3.3. and 5.5.3.4.
5.5.4. Reagent Control
5.5.4.1. For vehicles that require the use of a reagent to fulfil the requirements of this Paragraph, the
driver shall be informed of the level of reagent in the on-vehicle reagent storage tank
through a specific mechanical or electronic indication on the vehicle's dashboard. This shall
include a warning when the level of reagent goes:
(a)
(b)
Below 10% of the tank or a higher percentage at the choice of the manufacturer, or;
Below the level corresponding to the driving distance possible with the fuel reserve
level specified by the manufacturer.
The reagent indicator shall be placed in close proximity to the fuel level indicator.
5.5.4.2. The driver shall be informed, according to the requirements of Paragraph 3.6.5. of Annex 9A
to this Regulation, if the reagent tank becomes empty.
5.5.4.3. As soon as the reagent tank becomes empty, the requirements of Paragraph 5.5.5. shall
apply in addition to the requirements of Paragraph 5.5.4.2.
5.5.4.4. A manufacturer may choose to comply with the Paragraphs 5.5.4.5. to 5.5.4.12. as an
alternative to complying with the requirements of Paragraph 5.5.3.
5.5.4.5. Engine systems shall include a means of determining that a fluid corresponding to the
reagent characteristics declared by the manufacturer and recorded in Annex 1 to this
Regulation is present on the vehicle.
5.5.4.6. If the fluid in the reagent tank does not correspond to the minimum requirements declared
by the manufacturer as recorded in Annex 1 to this Regulation the additional requirements
of Paragraph 5.5.4.12. shall apply.
5.5.4.7. Engine systems shall include a means for determining reagent consumption and providing
off-board access to consumption information.
5.5.4.8. Average reagent consumption and average demanded reagent consumption by the engine
system either over the previous complete 48h period of engine operation or the period
needed for a demanded reagent consumption of at least 15 litres, whichever is longer, shall
be available via the serial port of the standard diagnostic connector as referred to in
Paragraph 6.8.3. of Annex 9A to this Regulation.

5.5.5.6. The torque limiter shall be deactivated when the Engine Speed is at idle if the conditions for
its activation have ceased to exist. The torque limiter shall not be automatically deactivated
without the reason for its activation being remedied.
5.5.5.7. Deactivation of the torque limiter shall not be feasible by means of a switch or a
maintenance tool.
5.5.5.8. The torque limiter shall not apply to engines or vehicles for use by the armed services, by
rescue services and by fire-services and ambulances. Permanent deactivation shall only be
done by the engine or vehicle manufacturer, and a special engine type within the engine
family shall be designated for proper identification.
5.5.6. Operating Conditions of the Emission Control Monitoring System
5.5.6.1. The emission control monitoring system shall be operational,
(a)
(b)
(c)
At all ambient temperatures between 266K and 308K (-7°C and 35°C);
At all altitudes below 1,600m;
At engine coolant temperatures above 343K (70°C).
This Paragraph does not apply in the case of monitoring for reagent level in the storage tank
where monitoring shall be conducted under all conditions of use.
5.5.6.2. The emission control monitoring system may be deactivated when a limp-home strategy is
active and which results in a torque reduction greater than the levels indicated in
Paragraph 5.5.5.3. for the appropriate vehicle category.
5.5.6.3. If an emission default mode is active, the emission control monitoring system shall remain
operational and comply with the provisions of Paragraph 5.5.
5.5.6.4. The incorrect operation of NO control measures shall be detected within four OBD test
cycles as referred to in the definition given in Paragraph 6.1. of Appendix 1 of Annex 9A to
this Regulation.
5.5.6.5. Algorithms used by the ECU for relating the actual NO concentration to the specific NO
emission (in g/kWh) on the ETC shall not be considered to be a defeat strategy.
5.5.6.6. If an AECS that has been approved by the Approval Authority in accordance with
Paragraph 5.1.5. becomes operational, any increase in NO due to the operation of the
AECS may be applied to the appropriate NO level referred to in Paragraph 5.5.3.2. In all
such cases, the influence of the AECS on the NO threshold shall be described in
accordance with Paragraph 5.5.5.5.
5.5.7. Failure of the Emission Control Monitoring System
5.5.7.1. The emission control monitoring system shall be monitored for electrical failures and for
removal or deactivation of any sensor that prevents it from diagnosing an emission increase
as required by Paragraphs 5.5.3.2. and 5.5.3.4.
Examples of sensors that affect the diagnostic capability are those directly measuring NO
concentration, urea quality sensors, and sensors used for monitoring reagent dosing
activity, reagent level, reagent consumption or EGR rate.

5.5.8.3. The testing of the emission control monitoring system consists of the following three phases:
(a)
Selection:
An incorrect operation of the NO control measures or a failure of the emission control
monitoring system is selected by the authority within a list of incorrect operations
provided by the manufacturer.
(b)
Qualification:
The influence of the incorrect operation is validated by measuring the NO level over
the ETC on an engine test bed.
(c)
Demonstration:
The reaction of the system (torque reduction, warning signal, etc.) shall be
demonstrated by running the engine on four OBD test cycles.
5.5.8.3.1. For the selection phase, the manufacturer shall provide the type Approval Authority with a
description of the monitoring strategies used to determine potential incorrect operation of
any NO control measure and potential failures in the emission control monitoring system
that would lead either to activation of the torque limiter or to activation of the warning signal
only.
Typical examples of incorrect operations for this list are an empty reagent tank, an incorrect
operation leading to an interruption of reagent dosing activity, an insufficient reagent quality,
an incorrect operation leading to low reagent consumption, an incorrect EGR flow or a
deactivation of the EGR.
A minimum of two and a maximum of three incorrect operations of the NO control system
or failures of the emission control monitoring system shall be selected by the type Approval
Authority from this list.
5.5.8.3.2. For the qualification phase, the NO emissions shall be measured over the ETC test cycle,
according to the provisions of Appendix 2 to Annex 4A. The result of the ETC test shall be
used to determine in which way the NO control monitoring system is expected to react
during the demonstration process (torque reduction and/or warning signal). The failure shall
be simulated in a way that the NO level does not exceed by more than 1g/kWh any of the
threshold levels given in Paragraphs 5.5.3.2. or 5.5.3.4.
Emissions qualification is not required in case of an empty reagent tank or for demonstrating
a failure of the emission control monitoring system.
The torque limiter shall be deactivated during the qualification phase.
5.5.8.3.3. For the demonstration phase, the engine shall be run over a maximum of four OBD test
cycles.
No failure other than the ones which are being considered for demonstration purposes shall
be present.
5.5.8.3.4. Prior to starting the test sequence of Paragraph 5.5.8.3.3., the emission control monitoring
system shall be set to a "no failure" status.

6. INSTALLATION ON THE VEHICLE
6.1. The engine installation on the vehicle shall comply with the following characteristics in
respect to the approval of the engine.
6.1.1. Intake depression shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex 2A.
6.1.2. Exhaust-back-pressure shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex 2A.
6.1.3. Power absorbed by the engine-driven auxiliaries shall not exceed that specified for the
approved engine in Annex 2A.
6.1.4. Volume of the exhaust system shall not differ by more than 40% of that specified for the
approved engine in Annex 2A.
6.2. Requirements Related to Dual-fuel Engines and Vehicles
6.2.1. Notwithstanding the requirements set out in Paragraph 6.1. of this Regulation, dual-fuel
engines and vehicles shall in addition meet the requirements set out in Annex 11 to this
Regulation.
7. ENGINE FAMILY
7.1. Parameters Defining the Engine Family
The engine family, as determined by the engine manufacturer shall comply with the
provisions of ISO 16185.
7.2. Choice of the Parent Engine
7.2.1. Diesel Engines
The parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criteria of the highest
fuel delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or
more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine shall be selected using the
secondary criteria of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed. Under certain
circumstances, the Approval Authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of
the family can best be characterized by testing a second engine. Thus, the Approval
Authority may select an additional engine for test based upon features which indicate that it
may have the highest emission level of the engines within that family.
If engines within the family incorporate other variable features which could be considered to
affect exhaust emissions, these features shall also be identified and taken into account in
the selection of the parent engine.

8.3. If emissions of pollutants are to be measured and an engine approval has had one or
several extensions, the tests will be carried out on the engine(s) described in the information
package relating to the relevant extension.
8.3.1. Conformity of the engine subjected to a pollutant test:
After submission of the engine to the authorities, the manufacturer shall not carry out any
adjustment to the engines selected.
8.3.1.1. Three engines are randomly taken in the series. Engines that are subject to testing only on
the ESC and ELR tests or only on the ETC test for type approval to Row A of the Tables in
Paragraph 5.2.1. are subject to those applicable tests for the checking of production
conformity. With the agreement of the authority, all other engines type approved to Row A,
B1 or B2, or C of the Tables in Paragraph 5.2.1. are subjected to testing either on the ESC
and ELR cycles or on the ETC cycle for the checking of the production conformity. The limit
values are given in Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation, or, in the case of a dual-fuel engine,
in Annex 11 of this Regulation.
8.3.1.1.1. Dual-fuel engines are tested in dual-fuel mode. When a diesel mode is available, dual-fuel
engines shall also be tested in diesel mode. In that case, the test shall be performed just
before or just after the test in dual-fuel mode, on the same engine, on the same engine
test-bed, and under the same laboratory conditions.
8.3.1.2. The tests are carried out according to Appendix 1 to this Regulation where the Competent
Authority is satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer.
The tests are carried out according to Appendix 2 to this Regulation, where the Competent
Authority is not satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer.
At the manufacturer's request, the tests may be carried out in accordance with Appendix 3
to this Regulation.
8.3.1.3. On the basis of a test of the engine by sampling, the production of a series is regarded as
conforming where a pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and non conforming
where a fail decision is reached for one pollutant, in accordance with the test criteria applied
in the appropriate Appendix.
In the case of dual-fuel engines tested both in dual-fuel and diesel mode, the production of a
series is regarded as conforming where a pass decision is reached for all the pollutants in
both dual-fuel and diesel modes and nonconforming where a fail decision is reached for one
pollutant in either of the operating modes.
When a pass decision has been reached for one pollutant, this decision may not be
changed by any additional tests made in order to reach a decision for the other pollutants.
If no pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and if no fail decision is reached for one
pollutant, a test is carried out on another engine (see Figure 2).
If no decision is reached, the manufacturer may at any time decide to stop testing. In that
case a fail decision is recorded.

8.3.2.5. In the case of dispute caused by the non-compliance of gas fuelled engines when using a
commercial fuel, the tests shall be performed with a reference fuel on which the parent
engine has been tested, or with the possible additional Fuel 3 as referred to in
Paragraphs 4.1.3.1. and 4.2.1.1. on which the parent engine may have been tested. Then,
the result has to be converted by a calculation applying the relevant factor(s) "r", "r " or "r "
as described in Paragraphs 4.1.4., 4.1.5.1. and 4.2.1.2. If "r", "r " or "r " are less than 1 no
correction shall take place. The measured results and the calculated results shall
demonstrate that the engine meets the limit values with all relevant fuels (Fuels 1, 2 and, if
applicable, Fuel 3 in the case of natural gas engines and Fuels A and B in the case of LPG
engines).
8.3.2.5.1. In the case of dispute caused by the non-compliance of engines approved for operating on
LNG , including dual-fuel engines, when using a market fuel, the tests shall be performed
with G , as specified in Annex 5.
8.3.2.6. Tests for conformity of production of a gas fuelled engine laid out for operation on one
specific fuel composition shall be performed on the fuel for which the engine has been
calibrated.
Figure 2
Schematic of Production Conformity Testing

11. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE APPROVED TYPE
11.1. Every modification of the approved type shall be notified to the Approval Authority which
approved the type. The department may then either:
11.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the modified type still complies with the requirement; or
11.1.2. Require a further test report from the Technical Service conducting the tests.
11.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.5. to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying
this Regulation.
11.3. The Competent Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for
such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annexes 2A or
2B to this Regulation.
12. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture the type approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a
communication form conforming to the model in Annexes 2A or 2B to this Regulation.
13. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
13.1. General
13.1.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 05 series of amendments, no Contracting
Party applying this Regulation may refuse to grant ECE approval under this Regulation as
amended by the 05 series of amendments.
13.1.2. As from the date of entry into force of the 05 series of amendments, Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation shall grant ECE approvals only if the engine meets the
requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 05 series of amendments.
The engine shall be subject to the relevant tests set out in Paragraph 5. and shall comply
with Paragraphs 13.2.1., 13.2.2. and 13.2.3.

13.2.3. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraphs 13.4.1. and 13.5., Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation shall, from October 1, 2008, grant an ECE approval to an engine
only if that engine satisfies:
(a) The relevant emission limits of Rows B2 or C in the Tables to Paragraph 5.2.1.
(b) The durability requirements set out in Paragraph 5.3.
(c) The OBD requirements set out in Paragraph 5.4. (OBD Stage 2)
(d) The additional provisions set out in Paragraph 5.5.
13.3. Limit of Validity of Old Type Approvals
13.3.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 05 series of amendments, type approvals
granted to this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments shall cease to be
valid.
13.3.2. As from October 1, 2007, type approvals granted to this Regulation as amended by the
05 series of amendments, which do not comply with the requirement of Paragraph 13.2.2.,
shall cease to be valid.
13.3.3. As from October 1, 2009, type approvals granted to this Regulation as amended by the
05 series of amendments, which do not comply with the requirements of Paragraph 13.2.3.,
shall cease to be valid.
13.4. Gas Engines
13.4.1. Gas engines do not need to comply with provisions set out in Paragraphs 5.5.
13.4.2. Gas engines do not need to comply with the provisions set out in Paragraph 5.4.1.
(OBD Stage 1).
13.5. Replacement Engines for Vehicles in Use
13.5.1. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may continue to grant approvals to those
engines which comply with the requirements of this Regulation as amended by any previous
series of amendments, or to any level of the Regulation as amended by the 05 series of
amendments, provided that the engine is intended as a replacement for a vehicle in-use and
for which that earlier standard was applicable at the date of that vehicle's entry into service.
14. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible
for conducting approval tests and the administrative departments which grant approval and
to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued
in other countries are to be sent.

Table 3
Pass and Fail Decision Numbers of Appendix 1
Sampling Plan
Minimum sample size: 3
Cumulative number
of engines tested
(sample size)
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Pass decision number
A
3.327
3.261
3.195
3.129
3.063
2.997
2.931
2.865
2.799
2.733
2.667
2.601
2.535
2.469
2.403
2.337
2.271
2.205
2.139
2.073
2.007
1.941
1.875
1.809
1.743
1.677
1.611
1.545
1.479
–2.112
Fail decision number
B
–4.724
–4.790
–4.856
–4.922
–4.988
–5.054
–5.120
–5.185
–5.251
–5.317
–5.383
–5.449
–5.515
–5.581
–5.647
–5.713
–5.779
–5.845
–5.911
–5.977
–6.043
–6.109
–6.175
–6.241
–6.307
–6.373
–6.439
–6.505
–6.571
–2.112

6. Remarks:
The following recursive formulae are useful for calculating successive values of the test statistic:
v
⎛ 1 ⎞
d = ⎜1
− ⎟ d +
⎝ n ⎠
⎛ 1 ⎞
= ⎜1
− ⎟ v
⎝ n ⎠
+
1
n
d
( d − d )
n − 1
( n = 2, 3, ...; d = d ; v = 0)

APPENDIX 3
PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING
AT MANUFACTURER'S REQUEST
1. This Appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify, at the manufacturer's request,
production conformity for the emissions of pollutants.
2. With a minimum sample size of three engines, the sampling procedure is set so that the probability
of a lot passing a test with 30% of the engines defective is 0.90 (producer's risk = 10%), while the
probability of a lot being accepted with 65% of the engines defective is 0.10 (consumer's risk
= 10%).
3. The following procedure is used for each of the pollutants given in Paragraph 5.2.1. of this
Regulation (see Figure 2):
Let:
L = the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant;
x
=
the natural logarithm of the measurement (after having applied the relevant DF) for
the i-th engine of the sample;
s
=
an estimate of the production standard deviation (after taking the natural logarithm of
the measurements);
n = the current sample number.
4. Calculate for the sample the test statistic quantifying the number of non-conforming engines,
i.e. x ≥ L.
5. Then:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If the test statistic is less than or equal to the pass decision number for the sample size
given in Table 5, a pass decision is reached for the pollutant;
If the test statistic is greater than or equal to the fail decision number for the sample size
given in Table 5, a fail decision is reached for the pollutant;
Otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to Paragraph 8.3.1. of this Regulation
and the calculation procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.
In Table 5 the pass and fail decision numbers are calculated by means of the International
Standard ISO 8422/1991.

APPENDIX 4
DETERMINATION OF SYSTEM EQUIVALENCE
The determination of system equivalency according to Paragraph 5.2. of this Regulation shall be based
on a 7-sample pair (or larger) correlation study between the candidate system and one of the accepted
reference systems of this Regulation using the appropriate test cycle(s). The equivalency criteria to be
applied shall be the F-test and the two-sided student t-test.
This statistical method examines the hypothesis that the population standard deviation and mean value
for an emission measured with the candidate system do not differ from the standard deviation and
population mean value for that emission measured with the reference system. The hypothesis shall be
tested on the basis of a 5% significance level of the F and t values. The critical F and t values for 7- to
10-sample pairs are given in the Table below. If the F and t values calculated according to the formulae
below are greater than the critical F and t values, the candidate system is not equivalent.
The following procedure shall be followed. The subscripts R and C refer to the reference and candidate
system, respectively:
(a)
Conduct at least 7 tests with the candidate and reference systems preferably operated in parallel.
The number of tests is referred to as n and n .
(b) Calculate the mean values x and x and the standard deviations s and s .
(c)
Calculate the F value, as follows:
s
F =
s
χ
(d)
(the greater of the two standard deviations S or S shall be in the numerator)
Calculate the t value, as follows:
t =
x − x
( n − 1) × + ( n − 1)
s
× s
×
n
× n
×
( n + n − 2)
n + n
(e)
Compare the calculated F and t values with the critical F and t values corresponding to the
respective number of tests indicated in Table below. If larger sample sizes are selected, consult
statistical Tables for 5% significance (95% confidence) level.

ANNEX 1
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
This information document is related to the approval according to Regulation No. 49. It is referring to
measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from
compression-ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from
positive-ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles.
Vehicle type/parent engine/engine type .....................................................................................................
0. GENERAL
0.1. Make (name of undertaking): ..............................................................................................................
0.2. Type and commercial description (mention any variants): ..................................................................
0.3. Means and location of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle: ...............................................
0.4. Category of vehicle (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
0.5. Category of engine: diesel/NG fuelled/LPG fuelled/ethanol fuelled .................................................
0.6. Name and address of manufacturer: ...................................................................................................
0.7. Location of statutory plates and inscriptions and method of affixing: .................................................
0.8. In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the
ECE approval mark: ............................................................................................................................
0.9. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): ........................................................................................................
Attachments:
1. Essential characteristics of the (parent) engine and information concerning the conduct of test (see
Appendix 1).
2. Essential characteristics of the engine family (see Appendix 2).
3. Essential characteristics of the engine types within the family (see Appendix 3).
4. Characteristics of the engine-related vehicle parts, if applicable (see Appendix 4).
5. Photographs and/or drawings of the parent engine type and, if applicable, of the engine
compartment.
6. List further attachments, if any.
Date and place

1.14. Fuel: Diesel/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol/LNG/LNG
1.15. Cooling system
1.15.1. Liquid
1.15.1.1. Nature of liquid: .........................................................................................................................
1.15.1.2. Circulating pump(s): yes/no
1.15.1.3. Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.15.1.4. Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
1.15.2. Air
1.15.2.1. Blower: yes/no
1.15.2.2. Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.15.2.3. Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
1.16. Temperature Permitted by the Manufacturer
1.16.1. Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: .................................................................... K
1.16.2. Air cooling: Reference point: .....................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point: ............................................................................. K
1.16.3. Maximum temperature of the air at the outlet of the intake intercooler (if applicable): .............
1.16.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer
flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s) or turbocharger(s): ........................................................ K
1.16.5. Fuel temperature: min ...... K, max ..... K for diesel engines at injection pump inlet, for gas
fuelled engines at pressure regulator final stage.
1.16.6.
Fuel pressure: min: ......................................... kPa, max: ............ kPa,
at
pressure
regulator final stage, NG fuelled gas engines only.
1.16.7. Lubricant temperature: min ........................... K, max: .......................................................... K
1.17. Pressure charger: yes/no
1.17.1. Make: ........................................................................................................................................
1.17.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
1.17.3. Description of the system (e.g. max. charge pressure, waste gate, if applicable): ..................
1.17.4. Intercooler: yes/no

2.2.1.13.
Consumable reagents (where appropriate):
2.2.1.13.1. Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action: ...............................................
2.2.1.13.2. Normal operational temperature range of reagent: ...................................................................
2.2.1.13.3. International standard (where appropriate): ..............................................................................
2.2.1.13.4. Frequency of reagent refill: continuous/maintenance
: ...........................................................
2.2.2.
Oxygen sensor: yes/no
..........................................................................................................
2.2.2.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.2.
Type: .........................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.3.
Location: ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.3.
Air injection: yes/no
2.2.3.1.
Type (pulse air, air pump, etc): .................................................................................................
2.2.4.
EGR: yes/no
2.2.4.1.
Characteristics (make, type, flow etc): ......................................................................................
2.2.5.
Particulate trap: yes/no
2.2.5.1.
Dimensions, shape and capacity of the particulate trap: ..........................................................
2.2.5.2.
Type and design of the particulate trap: ...................................................................................
2.2.5.3.
Location (reference distance in the exhaust line): ....................................................................
2.2.5.4.
Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing: ...............................................
2.2.5.5.
Normal operating temperature (K) and pressure (kPa) range: .................................................
2.2.5.6.
In case of periodic regeneration:
(a)
Number of ETC test cycles between 2 regenerations (n1): ............................................
(b)
Number of ETC test cycles during regeneration (n2): ....................................................
2.2.6.
Other systems yes/no
2.2.6.1.
Description and operation: ........................................................................................................

3.1.2.4.
Governor
3.1.2.4.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.1.2.4.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.1.2.4.3.
Speed at which cut-off starts under full load: ................................................................... min
3.1.2.4.4.
Maximum no-load speed: ................................................................................................. min
3.1.2.4.5.
Idling speed: ..................................................................................................................... min
3.1.3.
Cold Start System
3.1.3.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.1.3.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.1.3.3.
Description: ...............................................................................................................................
3.1.3.4.
Auxiliary starting aid: .................................................................................................................
3.1.3.4.1.
Make: ........................................................................................................................................
3.1.3.4.2.
Type: .........................................................................................................................................
3.2.
Gas fuelled engines, including dual-fuel engines
3.2.1.
Fuel: Natural gas/LPG
3.2.2.
Pressure regulator(s) or vaporiser/pressure regulator(s)
3.2.2.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.
Number of pressure reduction stages: ......................................................................................
3.2.2.4.
Pressure in final stage min: ....................................... kPa; max: .................................... kPa:
3.2.2.5.
Number of main adjustment points:
3.2.2.6.
Number of idle adjustment points: ............................................................................................
3.2.2.7.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................

3.2.5.5.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.5.5.3.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................
3.2.6.
Direct injection
3.2.6.1.
Injection pump/pressure regulator
3.2.6.1.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.1.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.1.3.
Injection timing: .........................................................................................................................
3.2.6.1.4.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................
3.2.6.2.
Injector(s)
3.2.6.2.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.2.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.2.3.
Opening pressure or characteristic diagram
: .........................................................................
3.2.6.2.4.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................
3.2.7.
Electronic control unit (ECU)
3.2.7.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.7.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.7.3.
Adjustment possibilities: ............................................................................................................
3.2.8.
NG fuel-specific equipment
3.2.8.1.
Variant 1 (only in the case of approvals of engines for several specific fuel compositions)
3.2.8.1.1.
Fuel composition:
methane (CH ):
ethane (C H ):
propane (C H ):
butane (C H ):
C5/C5+:
oxygen (O ):
inert (N , He etc):
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole
basis: ................% mole min ...............% mole max ............. % mole

6. ENGINE-DRIVEN EQUIPMENT
The engine shall be submitted for testing with the auxiliaries needed for operating the
engine (e.g. fan, water pump, etc.), as specified in and under the operating conditions of
Regulation No. 24, 03 series of amendments, Annex 10, Paragraph 5.1.1.
6.1. Auxiliaries to be Fitted for the Test
If it is impossible or inappropriate to install the auxiliaries on the test bench, the power
absorbed by them shall be determined and subtracted from the measured engine power
over the whole operating area of the test cycle(s).
6.2. Auxiliaries to be Removed for the Test
Auxiliaries needed only for the operation of the vehicle (e.g. air compressor, air-conditioning
system etc.) shall be removed for the test. Where the auxiliaries cannot be removed, the
power absorbed by them may be determined and added to the measured engine power
over the whole operating area of the test cycle(s).
7. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON TEST CONDITIONS
7.1. Lubricant used
7.1.1. Make: ........................................................................................................................................
7.1.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
(State percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel are mixed): ..........................................
7.2. Engine-Driven Equipment (if Applicable)
The power absorbed by the auxiliaries needs only be determined,
(a)
(b)
If auxiliaries needed for operating the engine, are not fitted to the engine and/or
If auxiliaries not needed for operating the engine, are fitted to the engine.
7.2.1. Enumeration and identifying details: .........................................................................................

8.2. Engine Power (measured in accordance with the provisions of Regulation No. 24, 03 series
of amendments) in kW
P(m)
Power measured on test bed
Engine speed
Idle Speed A Speed b Speed C Ref. speed
P(a)
Power absorbed by auxiliaries
to be fitted for test
Paragraph 5.1.1 of
Regulation No. 24/03,
Annex 10
(a) if fitted
(b) if not fitted

9.4.
Criteria for MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical method): .......................
9.5.
List of all OBD output codes and formats used (with explanation of each): .............................
10.
TORQUE LIMITER
10.1.
Description of the torque limiter activation
10.2.
Description of the full load curve limitation

2. ENGINE FAMILY LISTING
2.1. Name of diesel engine family: ...................................................................................................
2.1.1. Specification of engines within this family:
Engine Type
No. of cylinders
Rated speed (min )
Fuel delivery per stroke (mm )
Rated net power (kW)
Maximum torque speed (min )
Fuel delivery per stroke (mm )
Maximum torque (Nm)
Low idle speed (min )
Cylinder displacement
(in % of parent engine)
Parent Engine
100
2.2. Name of gas engine family: ......................................................................................................
2.2.1. Specification of engines within this family:
Engine Type
No. of cylinders
Rated speed (min )
Fuel delivery per stroke (mm )
Rated net power (kW)
Maximum torque speed (min )
Fuel delivery per stroke (mm )
Maximum torque (Nm)
Low idle speed (min )
Cylinder displacement
(in % of parent engine)
Spark timing
EGR flow
Air pump yes/no
Air pump actual flow
Parent Engine
100

1.14. Fuel: Diesel/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol/LNG/LNG
1.15. Cooling system
1.15.1. Liquid
1.15.1.1. Nature of liquid: .........................................................................................................................
1.15.1.2. Circulating pump(s): yes/no
1.15.1.3. Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.15.1.4. Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
1.15.2. Air
1.15.2.1. Blower: yes/no
1.15.2.2. Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.15.2.3. Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
1.16. Temperature Permitted by the Manufacturer
1.16.1. Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: ................................................................... K
1.16.2. Air cooling: Reference point: ....................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point: ............................................................................. K
1.16.3. Maximum temperature of the air at the outlet of the intake intercooler (if applicable): .......... K
1.16.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer
flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s) or turbocharger(s): ........................................................ K
1.16.5. Fuel temperature: min ..... K, max ... K for diesel engines at the injection pump inlet, for
gas fuelled engines at pressure regulator final stage.
1.16.6.
Fuel pressure: min: ......................................... kPa, max: ............ kPa,
at
pressure
regulator final stage, NG fuelled gas engines only.
1.16.7. Lubricant temperature: min .......................... K, max ........................................................... K

2.2.1.9.
Cell density: ...............................................................................................................................
2.2.1.10.
Type of casing for catalytic converter(s): ..................................................................................
2.2.1.11.
Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distance in the exhaust line): .......
2.2.1.12.
Normal operating temperature range (K): .................................................................................
2.2.1.13.
Consumable reagents (where appropriate): .............................................................................
2.2.1.13.1. Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action: ...............................................
2.2.1.13.2. Normal operational temperature range of reagent: ...................................................................
2.2.1.13.3. International standard (where appropriate): ..............................................................................
2.2.1.13.4. Frequency of reagent refill: continuous/maintenance
: ...........................................................
2.2.2.
Oxygen sensor: yes/no
: .........................................................................................................
2.2.2.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.2.
Type: .........................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.3.
Location: ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.3.
Air injection: yes/no
2.2.3.1.
Type (pulse air, air pump, etc): .................................................................................................
2.2.4.
(EGR): yes/no
2.2.4.1.
Characteristics (make, type, flow etc): ......................................................................................
2.2.5.
Particulate trap: yes/no
: .........................................................................................................
2.2.5.1.
Dimensions, shape and capacity of the particulate trap: ..........................................................
2.2.5.2.
Type and design of the particulate trap: ...................................................................................
2.2.5.3.
Location (reference distance in the exhaust line): ....................................................................
2.2.5.4.
Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing: ...............................................
2.2.5.5.
Normal operating temperature (K) and pressure (kPa) range: .................................................
2.2.5.6.
In case of periodic regeneration:
(a)
(b)
Number of ETC test cycles between 2 regenerations (n1)
Number of ETC test cycles during regeneration (n2)

3.1.2.4.
Governor
3.1.2.4.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.1.2.4.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.1.2.4.3.
Speed at which cut-off starts under full load: ................................................................... min
3.1.2.4.4.
Maximum no-load speed: ................................................................................................. min
3.1.2.4.5.
Idling speed: ..................................................................................................................... min
3.1.3.
Cold Start System
3.1.3.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.1.3.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.1.3.3.
Description: ...............................................................................................................................
3.1.3.4.
Auxiliary starting aid: .................................................................................................................
3.1.3.4.1.
Make: ........................................................................................................................................
3.1.3.4.2.
Type: .........................................................................................................................................
3.2.
Gas fuelled engines, including dual-fuel engines
3.2.1.
Fuel: Natural gas/LPG
3.2.2.
Pressure regulator(s) or vaporiser/pressure regulator(s)
3.2.2.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.
Number of pressure reduction stages: ......................................................................................
3.2.2.4.
Pressure in final stage: min ....................................... kPa; max: ..................................... kPa
3.2.2.5.
Number of main adjustment points: ..........................................................................................
3.2.2.6.
Number of idle adjustment points: ............................................................................................
3.2.2.7.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................

3.2.5.5.
Injector(s):
3.2.5.5.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.5.5.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.5.5.3.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................
3.2.6.
Direct injection
3.2.6.1.
Injection pump/pressure regulator
3.2.6.1.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.1.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.1.3.
Injection timing: .........................................................................................................................
3.2.6.1.4.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................
3.2.6.2.
Injector(s)
3.2.6.2.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.2.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.6.2.3.
Opening pressure or characteristic diagram
: .........................................................................
3.2.6.2.4.
Certification number: .................................................................................................................
3.2.7.
Electronic control unit (ECU)
3.2.7.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.7.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.7.3.
Adjustment possibilities: ............................................................................................................

5.5.
Spark plugs
5.5.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
5.5.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
5.5.3.
Gap setting: ........................................................................................................................ mm
5.6.
Ignition Coil(s)
5.6.1.
Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
5.6.2.
Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
6.
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC (OBD) SYSTEM
6.1.
Written description and/or drawing of the MI
:
6.2.
List and purpose of all components monitored by the OBD system: ........................................
6.3.
Written description (general OBD working principles) for:
6.3.1.
Diesel/gas engines
: ................................................................................................................
6.3.1.1.
Catalyst monitoring
: ...............................................................................................................
6.3.1.2.
deNO system monitoring
: .....................................................................................................
6.3.1.3.
Diesel particulate filter monitoring
: .........................................................................................
6.3.1.4.
Electronic fuelling system monitoring
: ....................................................................................
6.3.1.5.
Other components monitored by the OBD system
: ...............................................................
6.4.
Criteria for MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical method): .......................
6.5.
List of all OBD output codes and formats used (with explanation of each): .............................
7.
TORQUE LIMITER
7.1.
Description of the torque limiter activation
7.2.
Description of the full load curve limitation

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 5
OBD-RELATED INFORMATION
1. In accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 5. of Annex 9A to this Regulation, the following
additional information shall be provided by the vehicle manufacturer for the purposes of enabling
the manufacture of OBD-compatible replacement or service parts and diagnostic tools and test
equipment, unless such information is covered by intellectual property rights or constitutes
specific know-how of the manufacturer or the OEM supplier(s). The information given in this
Paragraph shall be repeated in Annex 2A to this Regulation:
1.1. A description of the type and number of the pre-conditioning cycles used for the original type
approval of the vehicle.
1.2. A description of the type of the OBD demonstration cycle used for the original approval of the
vehicle for the component monitored by the OBD system.
1.3. A comprehensive document describing all sensed components with the strategy for fault
detection and MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical method), including a list
of relevant secondary sensed parameters for each component monitored by the OBD system. A
list of all OBD output codes and format used (with an explanation of each) associated with
individual emission related powertrain components and individual non-emission related
components, where monitoring of the component is used to determine MI activation.
1.3.1. The information required by this Paragraph may, for example, be defined by completing a Table
as follows, which shall be attached to this Annex:
1.3.2. The information required by this Appendix may be limited to the complete list of the fault codes
recorded by the OBD system where Paragraph 5.1.2.1. of Annex 9A to this Regulation is not
applicable as in the case of replacement or service components. This information may, for
example, be defined by completing the two first columns of the Table of Paragraph 1.3.1. above.
The complete information package should be made available to the Approval Authority as part of
the additional material requested in Paragraph 5.1.7.1. "documentation requirements" of this
Regulation.
1.3.3. The information required by this Paragraph shall be repeated in Annex 2A to this Regulation.
Where Paragraph 5.1.2.1. of Annex 9A to this Regulation is not applicable in the case of
replacement or service components, the information provided in Annex 2A can be limited to the
one mentioned in Paragraph 1.3.2.

8. Maximum permissible power absorbed by the engine-driven equipment :
Idle: ........................... kW; Low Speed: ......................... kW; High Speed: ...................... kW
Speed A: .................. kW; Speed B: ............................. kW; Speed C: ........................... kW
Reference Speed: ............................................................................................................... kW
9. Volume of exhaust system: .......................................................................................................
10. Restrictions of use (if any): .......................................................................................................
11. Emission levels of the engine/parent engine :
11.1. Emission stage (according to Table in Paragraph 4.6.3.) .........................................................
11.2. ESC test (if applicable):
Deterioration factor (DF): calculated/fixed
Specify the DF values and the emissions on the ESC test in the Table below:
ESC test
DF:
CO
THC
NO
PT
Emissions
Measured:
Calculated with DF:
CO
(g/kWh)
THC
(g/kWh)
NO
(g/kWh)
PT
(g/kWh)
11.3. ELR test (if applicable):
smoke value: ....................................................................................................................... m
11.4. ETC test:
Deterioration factor (DF): calculated/fixed
Emissions
ETC test
DF:
CO
NMHC
CH
NO
PT
Measured with
regeneration:
Measured without
regeneration:
Measured/weighted
Calculated with DF:
CO
(g/kWh)
NMHC
(g/kWh)
CH
(g/kWh)
NO
(g/kWh)
PT
(g/kWh)

ANNEX 2A − APPENDIX
OBD-RELATED INFORMATION
As noted in Appendix 5 to Annex 1 to this Regulation, the information in this Appendix is provided by the
engine/vehicle manufacturer for the purposes of enabling the manufacture of OBD-compatible
replacement or service parts and diagnostic tools and test equipment. Such information need not be
supplied by the engine/vehicle manufacturer if it is covered by intellectual property rights or constitutes
specific know-how of the manufacturer or the OEM supplier(s).
Upon request, this Appendix will be made available to any interested component, diagnostic tools or test
equipment manufacturer, on a non-discriminatory basis.
In compliance with the provisions of Paragraph 1.3.3. of Appendix 5 to Annex 1, the information required
by this Paragraph shall be identical to that provided in that Appendix.
1. A description of the type and number of the pre-conditioning cycles used for the original type
approval of the vehicle.
2. A description of the type of the OBD demonstration cycle used for the original type approval of the
vehicle for the component monitored by the OBD system.
3. A comprehensive document describing all sensed components with the strategy for fault detection
and MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical method), including a list of relevant
secondary sensed parameters for each component monitored by the OBD system. A list of all
OBD output codes and format used (with an explanation of each) associated with individual
emission related powertrain components and individual non-emission related components, where
monitoring of the component is used to determine MI activation.

9.
Emission levels of the engine/parent engine:
9.1.
Emission stage (according to Table in Paragraph 4.6.3.): ........................................................
9.2.
ESC-test (if applicable):
Deterioration factor (DF): ............................................................................. calculated/fixed
Specify the DF values and the emissions on the ESC test in the Table below:
ESC test
DF:
CO
THC
NO
PT
Emissions
CO
(g/kWh)
THC
(g/kWh)
NO
(g/kWh)
PT
(g/kWh)
Measured:
Calculated with DF:
9.3. ELR test (if applicable):
smoke value: ....................................................................................................................... m
9.4. ETC test:
Deterioration factor (DF): calculated/fixed
ETC test
DF: CO NMHC CH NO PT
Emissions
CO
(g/kWh)
NMHC
(g/kWh)
CH
(g/kWh)
NO
(g/kWh)
PT
(g/kWh)
Measured with
regeneration:
Measured without
regeneration:
Measured/weighted
Calculated with DF:
10. Engine submitted for tests on: ..................................................................................................
11. Technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests: ............................................

ANNEX 3
ARRANGEMENT OF APPROVAL MARKS
(See Table in Paragraph 4.6.3. of this Regulation)
I. APPROVAL "B" (Row B1, OBD Stage 1, without NO control).
Diesel engines:
Example 1
a = 8mm min.
Example 2
Natural gas (NG) engines:
The suffix after the national symbol indicates the fuel qualification determined in accordance with
Paragraph 4.6.3.1. of this Regulation.
a = 8mm min.
The above approval marks affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type
concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No. 49 and
under approval number 052439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in
accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 49 with the 05 series of amendments
incorporated and satisfying the relevant emission stages detailed in Paragraph 4.6.3. of this
Regulation.

IV.
APPROVAL "G" (Row B2, OBD Stage 2, with NO control).
Example 5
Diesel engine:
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type
concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No. 49 and
under approval number 052439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in
accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 49 with the 05 series of amendments
incorporated and satisfying the relevant emission stages detailed in Paragraph 4.6.3. of this
Regulation.
V. APPROVAL "J" (Row C, OBD Stage 2, without NO control).
LPG engine:
Example 6
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type
concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No. 49 and
under approval number 052439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in
accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 49 with the 05 series of amendments
incorporated and satisfying the relevant emission stages detailed in Paragraph 4.6.3. of this
Regulation.

ANNEX 4A
TEST PROCEDURE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex describes the methods of determining emissions of gaseous components,
particulates and smoke from the engines to be tested. Three test cycles are described that
shall be applied according to the provisions of Paragraph 5.2.:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The ESC which consists of a steady state 13-Mode cycle,
The ELR which consists of transient load steps at different speeds, which are integral
parts of one test procedure, and are run concurrently,
The ETC which consists of a second-by-second sequence of transient modes.
1.2. The test shall be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a
dynamometer.
1.3. Measurement Principle
The emissions to be measured from the exhaust of the engine include the gaseous
components (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons for diesel and Type 3B dual-fuel engines on
the ESC test only; non-methane hydrocarbons for diesel, dual-fuel and gas engines on the ETC
test only; methane for gas and dual-fuel engines on the ETC test only and oxides of nitrogen),
the particulates (diesel and dual-fuel engines only) and smoke (diesel and dual-fuel engines on
the ELR test only). Additionally, carbon dioxide is often used as a tracer gas for determining the
dilution ratio of partial and full flow dilution systems. Good engineering practice recommends
the general measurement of carbon dioxide as an excellent tool for the detection of
measurement problems during the test run.
1.3.1. ESC Test
During a prescribed sequence of warmed-up engine operating conditions the amounts of the
above exhaust emissions shall be examined continuously by taking a sample from the raw or
diluted exhaust gas. The test cycle consists of a number of speed and power modes which
cover the typical operating range of diesel engines. During each mode the concentration of
each gaseous pollutant, exhaust flow and power output shall be determined, and the measured
values weighted. For particulate measurement, the exhaust gas shall be diluted with
conditioned ambient air using either a partial flow or full flow dilution system. The particulates
shall be collected on a single suitable filter in proportion to the weighting factors of each mode.
The grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt hour shall be calculated as described in
Appendix 1 to this Annex. Additionally, NO shall be measured at three test points within the
control area selected by the Technical Service and the measured values compared to the
values calculated from those modes of the test cycle enveloping the selected test points. The
NO control check ensures the effectiveness of the emission control of the engine within the
typical engine operating range.

(b)
For spark-ignition engines:
f
⎛ 99 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
⎝ p ⎠

x ⎜

T
298



2.1.2. Test Validity
For a test to be recognized as valid, the parameter f shall be such that:
2.2. Engines with Charge Air Cooling
0.96 ≤ f ≤ 1.06
The charge air temperature shall be recorded and shall be, at the speed of the declared
maximum power and full load, within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified in
Annex 1, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.16.3. The temperature of the cooling medium shall be at
least 293K (20°C).
If a test shop system or external blower is used, the charge air temperature shall be within ±5K
of the maximum charge air temperature specified in Annex 1, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.16.3. at
the speed of the declared maximum power and full load. The setting of the charge air cooler for
meeting the above conditions shall be used for the whole test cycle.
2.3. Engine Air Intake System
An engine air intake system shall be used presenting an air intake restriction within ±100 Pa of
the upper limit of the engine operating at the speed at the declared maximum power and full
load.
2.4. Engine Exhaust System
An exhaust system shall be used presenting an exhaust back pressure within ±1,000 Pa of the
upper limit of the engine operating at the speed of declared maximum power and full load and a
volume within ±40% of that specified by the manufacturer. A test shop system may be used,
provided it represents actual engine operating conditions. The exhaust system shall conform to
the requirements for exhaust gas sampling, as set out in Paragraph 3.4. of Appendix 4 to this
Annex, and in Appendix 7, Paragraph 2.2.1., EP exhaust pipe and Paragraph 2.3.1.,
EP exhaust pipe.
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment device, the exhaust pipe shall have the
same diameter as found in-use for at least 4 pipe diameters upstream to the inlet of the
beginning of the expansion section containing the aftertreatment device. The distance from the
exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust aftertreatment device shall be the
same as in the vehicle configuration or within the distance specifications of the manufacturer.
The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as above, and may be set
with a valve. The aftertreatment container may be removed during dummy tests and during
engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive catalyst support.
2.5. Cooling System
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating
temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer shall be used.

2.8.2. For an exhaust aftertreatment based on a periodic regeneration process, the emissions shall
be measured on at least two ETC tests, one during and one outside a regeneration event on a
stabilised aftertreatment system, and the results be weighted.
The regeneration process shall occur at least once during the ETC test. The engine may be
equipped with a switch capable of preventing or permitting the regeneration process provided
this operation has no effect on the original engine calibration.
The manufacturer shall declare the normal parameter conditions under which the regeneration
process occurs (soot load, temperature, exhaust back-pressure etc) and its duration time (n2).
The manufacturer shall also provide all the data to determine the time between two
regenerations (n1). The exact procedure to determine this time shall be agreed by the
Technical Service based upon good engineering judgement.
The manufacturer shall provide an aftertreatment system that has been loaded in order to
achieve regeneration during an ETC test. Regeneration shall not occur during this engine
conditioning phase.
Average emissions between regeneration phases shall be determined from the arithmetic
mean of several approximately equidistant ETC tests. It is recommended to run at least one
ETC as close as possible prior to a regeneration test and one ETC immediately after a
regeneration test. As an alternative, the manufacturer may provide data to show that the
emissions remain constant (±15%) between regeneration phases. In this case, the emissions of
only one ETC test may be used.
During the regeneration test, all the data needed to detect regeneration shall be recorded
(CO or NO emissions, temperature before and after the aftertreatment system, exhaust back
pressure etc).
During the regeneration process, the emission limits in Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2. can be
exceeded.
The measured emissions shall be weighted according to Paragraphs 5.5. and 6.3. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex and the final result shall not exceed the limits in Table 2 of
Paragraph 5.2.

1.2. Determination of Dynamometer Settings
The torque curve at full load shall be determined by experimentation to calculate the torque
values for the specified test modes under net conditions, as specified in Annex 1,
Appendix 1, Paragraph 8.2. The power absorbed by engine-driven equipment, if applicable,
shall be taken into account. The dynamometer setting for each test mode shall be calculated
using the formula:
s = P(n) × (L/100) if tested under net conditions
s = P(n) × (L/100) + (P(a) − P(b)) if not tested under net conditions
where:
s = dynamometer setting, kW
P(n) =
net engine power as indicated in Annex 1, Appendix 1, Paragraph 8.2., kW
L = % load as indicated in Paragraph 2.7.1. below, %
P(a) = power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted as indicated in Annex 1, Appendix 1,
Paragraph 6.1.
P(b) = power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed as indicated in Annex 1,
Appendix 1, Paragraph 6.2.
2. ESC TEST RUN
At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for conditioning of the engine and
exhaust system before the measurement cycle.
2.1. Preparation of the Sampling Filter
At least one hour before the test, each filter shall be placed in a partially covered petri dish
which is protected against dust contamination, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period each filter shall be weighed and the tare
weight shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter
holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the
weighing chamber. The tare weight shall be recorded.
2.2. Installation of the Measuring Equipment
The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. When using a full
flow dilution system for exhaust gas dilution, the tailpipe shall be connected to the system.
2.3. Starting the Dilution System and the Engine
The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures
and pressures have stabilised at maximum power according to the recommendation of the
manufacturer and good engineering practice.

2.7.2. Test Sequence
The test sequence shall be started. The test shall be performed in the order of the mode
numbers as set out in Paragraph 2.7.1.
The engine shall be operated for the prescribed time in each mode, completing Engine
Speed and load changes in the first 20s. The specified speed shall be held to within ±50min
and the specified torque shall be held to within ±2% of the maximum torque at the test
speed.
At the manufacturer's request, the test sequence may be repeated a sufficient number of
times for sampling more particulate mass on the filter. The manufacturer shall supply a
detailed description of the data evaluation and calculation procedures. The gaseous
emissions shall only be determined on the first cycle.
2.7.3. Analyzer Response
The output of the analyzers shall be recorded on a strip chart recorder or measured with an
equivalent data acquisition system with the exhaust gas flowing through the analyzers
throughout the test cycle.
2.7.4. Particulate Sampling
A single filter shall be used for the complete test procedure. The modal weighting factors
specified in the test cycle procedure shall be taken into account by taking a sample
proportional to the exhaust mass flow during each individual mode of the cycle. This can be
achieved by adjusting sample flow rate, sampling time, and/or dilution ratio, accordingly, so
that the criterion for the effective weighting factors in Paragraph 6.6. is met.
The sampling time per mode shall be at least 4s per 0.01 weighting factor. Sampling shall
be conducted as late as possible within each mode. Particulate sampling shall be completed
no earlier than 5s before the end of each mode.
2.7.5. Engine Conditions
The Engine Speed and load, intake air temperature and depression, exhaust temperature
and backpressure, fuel flow and air or exhaust flow, charge air temperature, fuel
temperature and humidity shall be recorded during each mode, with the speed and load
requirements (see Paragraph 2.7.2.) being met during the time of particulate sampling, but
in any case during the last . of each mode.
Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded (see Paragraphs 4. and 5.).

3.3. Test Cycle
3.3.1. Conditioning of the Engine
Warming up of the engine and the system shall be at maximum power in order to stabilise
the engine parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer. The
preconditioning phase should also protect the actual measurement against the influence of
deposits in the exhaust system from a former test.
When the engine is stabilised, the cycle shall be started within 20 ± 2s after the
preconditioning phase. At the manufacturer's request, a dummy test may be run for
additional conditioning before the measurement cycle.
3.3.2. Test Sequence
The test consists of a sequence of three load steps at each of the three Engine Speeds A
(Cycle 1), B (Cycle 2) and C (Cycle 3) determined in accordance with Annex 4A,
Paragraph 1.1., followed by Cycle 4 at a speed within the control area and a load between
10% and 100%, selected by the Technical Service . The following sequence shall be
followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3
Sequence of ELR Test

4.1.1. Direct Measurement Method
Direct measurement of the exhaust flow may be done by systems such as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
pressure differential devices, like flow nozzle;
ultrasonic flowmeter;
vortex flowmeter.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors which will impact emission value
errors. Such precautions include the careful installation of the device in the engine exhaust
system according to the instrument manufacturer's recommendations and to good
engineering practice. Especially, engine performance and emissions shall not be affected by
the installation of the device.
4.1.2. Air and Fuel Measurement Method
This involves measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow. Air flowmeters and fuel
flowmeters shall be used that meet the total accuracy requirement of Paragraph 4.1. The
calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:
q = q + q
In case of dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode, the fuel flows for both the gaseous
and the diesel fuel shall be measured and their masses added.
4.2. Determination of Diluted Exhaust Gas Mass Flow
For calculation of the emissions in the diluted exhaust using a full flow dilution system it is
necessary to know the diluted exhaust gas flow. The flow rate of the diluted exhaust (q )
shall be measured over each mode with a PDP-CVS, CFV CVS or SSV-CVS in line with the
general formulae given in Paragraph 4.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex. The accuracy shall
be ±2% of reading or better, and shall be determined according to the provisions of
Paragraph 2.4. of Appendix 5 to this Annex.
5. CALCULATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS
5.1. Data Evaluation
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 30s of each mode
shall be averaged and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO and NO during each
mode shall be determined from the average chart readings and the corresponding
calibration data. A different type of recording can be used if it ensures an equivalent data
acquisition.
For the NO check within the control area, the above requirements apply for NO only.
The exhaust gas flow q or the diluted exhaust gas flow q , if used optionally, shall be
determined in accordance with Paragraphs 4. to 4.2. of this Appendix.

For the diluted exhaust gas:
or,
K
⎛ α × % c
= ⎜1

⎝ 200

⎟ − K

K


= ⎜
⎜ α × % c
1 +
⎝ 200
( 1 − K )





For the diluent:
K = 1 − K
K
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤
1,608 × ⎢H
× ⎜1
− ⎟ + H × ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎣ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠
=

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤⎫
1000 + ⎨1,608
× ⎢H
× ⎜1
− ⎟ + H × ⎜ ⎟⎥⎬
⎩ ⎣ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠⎦⎭
For the intake air:
K = 1 − K
K
1.608 × H
=
1000 +
( 1.608 × H )
where:
H = intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
H = dilution air humidity, g water per kg dry air
and may be derived from relative humidity measurement, dewpoint measurement, vapour
pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted
formulae.

5.4. Calculation of the Emission Mass Flow Rates
The emission mass flow rate (g/h) for each mode shall be calculated as follows. For the
calculation of NO , the humidity correction factor k
, or k
, as applicable, as determined
according to Paragraph 5.3., shall be used.
The measured concentration shall be converted to a wet basis according to Paragraph 5.2.
if not already measured on a wet basis. Values for u are given in Table 6 for selected
components based on ideal gas properties and the fuels relevant for this Regulation.
(a)
for the raw exhaust gas
m = u × c × q
where:
u = ratio between density of exhaust component and density of exhaust gas
c = concentration of the respective component in the raw exhaust gas, ppm
q = exhaust mass flow rate, kg/h
(b)
for the diluted gas
m = u × c × q
where:
u = ratio between density of exhaust component and density of air
c = background corrected concentration of the respective component in the diluted
exhaust gas, ppm
q = diluted exhaust mass flow rate, kg/h
where:
c


⎡ 1
= c − c × 1 −
⎣ D⎥

The dilution factor D shall be calculated according to Paragraph 5.4.1. of Appendix 2 to this
Annex.

5.6. Calculation of the Area Control Values
For the three control points selected according to Paragraph 2.7.6., the NO emission shall
be measured and calculated according to Paragraph 5.6.1. and also determined by
interpolation from the modes of the test cycle closest to the respective control point
according to Paragraph 5.6.2. The measured values are then compared to the interpolated
values according to Paragraph 5.6.3.
5.6.1. Calculation of the Specific Emission
The NO emission for each of the Control Points (Z) shall be calculated as follows:
m = 0.001587 × c × k × q
m
NO =
P(n)
5.6.2. Determination of the Emission Value from the Test Cycle
The NO emission for each of the control points shall be interpolated from the four closest
modes of the test cycle that envelop the selected Control Point Z as shown in Figure 4. For
these modes (R, S, T, U), the following definitions apply:
Speed(R) = Speed(T) = n
Speed(S) = Speed(U) = n
% load(R) = % load(S)
% load(T) = % load(U).
The NO emission of the selected Control Point Z shall be calculated as follows:
E
E
=
+
( E − E ) × ( M − M )
M − M
and:
E
E
M
M
E
=
E
=
M
=
M
=
+
+
+
+
( E − E ) × ( n − n )
n
( E − E ) × ( n − n )
n
( M − M ) × ( n − n )
n
− n
− n
− n
( M − M ) × ( n − n )
n − n

6. CALCULATION OF THE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS
6.1. Data Evaluation
For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (m
be recorded for each mode.
) through the filter shall
The filter shall be returned to the weighing chamber and conditioned for at least one hour,
but not more than 80h, and then weighed. The gross weight of the filters shall be recorded
and the tare weight (see Paragraph 2.1.) subtracted, which results in the particulate sample
mass m .
If background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (m ) through the filter and the
particulate mass (m ) shall be recorded. If more than one measurement was made, the
quotient m /m shall be calculated for each single measurement and the values averaged.
6.2. Partial Flow Dilution System
The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be determined through the
following steps. Since various types of dilution rate control may be used, different calculation
methods for q apply. All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the
individual modes during the sampling period.
In case of dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode, the exhaust mass flow shall be
determined according to the direct measurement method as specified in 6.2.4.
6.2.1. Isokinetic Systems
q = q × r
r
q
=
+
( q × r )
q × r
where r corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the isokinetic probe and the
exhaust pipe:
A
r =
A

6.2.4. Systems with Flow Measurement
q = q × r
r
=
q
q
− q
6.3. Full Flow Dilution System
All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes during the
sampling period. The diluted exhaust gas flow q shall be determined in accordance with
Paragraph 4.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex. The total sample mass m shall be calculated
in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.1. of Appendix 2 to this Annex.
In case of dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode, the calculations shall be performed
according to Appendix 4 to Annex 11.
6.4. Calculation of the Particulate Mass Flow Rate
The particulate mass flow rate shall be calculated as follows. If a full flow dilution system is
used, q as determined according to Paragraph 6.2. shall be replaced with q as
determined according to Paragraph 6.3.
m q
PT = ×
m 1000
q
= ∑ q × W
m
= ∑ m
i = 1, ...n
The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:
⎪⎧
m ⎡m
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎤⎪⎫
q
PT = ⎨ − ⎢ × ∑ ⎜1
− ⎟ × W ⎥⎬
×
⎪⎩ m ⎣ m ⎝ Di ⎠ ⎦⎪⎭
1000
where D shall be calculated in accordance with Paragraph 5.4.1. of Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
6.5. Calculation of the Specific Emission
The particulate emission shall be calculated in the following way:
PT
PT =
∑ P × W

The Bessel constants E and K shall be calculated by the following equations:
E =
1 + Ω ×
1
( 3 × D) + D
× Ω
K = 2 × E ×
( D × Ω − 1) − 1
where:
D = 0.618034
Δt =
Ω =
1
sampling rate
1
[ tan( π × Δt
× f )]
7.1.2. Calculation of the Bessel Algorithm
Using the values of E and K, the 1s Bessel averaged response to a step input S shall be
calculated as follows:
where:
S = S = 0
S = 1
Y = Y = 0
Y = Y + E × (S + 2 × S + S − 4 × Y ) + K × (Y − Y )
The times t and t shall be interpolated. The difference in time between t and t defines
the response time t for that value of f . If this response time is not close enough to the
required response time, iteration shall be continued until the actual response time is within
1% of the required response as follows:
7.2. Data Evaluation
((t − t ) − t ) ≤ 0.01 × t
The smoke measurement values shall be sampled with a minimum rate of 20Hz.

7.3.3. Final Result
The mean smoke values (SV) from each cycle (test speed) shall be calculated as follows:
For Test Speed A: SV = (Y + Y + Y ) / 3
For Test Speed B: SV = (Y + Y + Y ) / 3
For Test Speed C: SV = (Y + Y + Y ) / 3
where:
Y
, Y
, Y
= highest 1s Bessel averaged smoke value at each of the three load
steps
The final value shall be calculated as follows:
SV = (0.43 × SV ) + (0.56 × SV ) + (0.01 × SV )

1.5. Replicate Tests
An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine shall be
remapped prior to a test cycle if:
(a)
an unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by
engineering judgement,
or,
(b)
physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine which may
potentially affect engine performance.
2. GENERATION OF THE REFERENCE TEST CYCLE
The transient test cycle is described in Appendix 3 to this Annex. The normalized values for
torque and speed shall be changed to the actual values, as follows, resulting in the
reference cycle.
2.1. Actual Speed
The speed shall be unnormalized using the following equation:
( reference speed − idle speed)
% speed
Actual speed =
+ idle speed
100
The reference speed (n ) corresponds to the 100% speed values specified in the engine
dynamometer schedule of Appendix 3. It is defined as follows:
n = n + 95% × (n − n )
where n and n are either specified according to Paragraph 2. or determined according to
Paragraph 1.1. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.

3. EMISSIONS TEST RUN
At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for conditioning of the engine and
exhaust system before the measurement cycle.
NG and LPG fuelled engines shall be run-in using the ETC test. The engine shall be run
over a minimum of two ETC cycles and until the CO emission measured over one ETC
cycle does not exceed by more than 10% the CO emission measured over the previous
ETC cycle.
3.1. Preparation of the Sampling Filters (If Applicable)
At least one hour before the test, each filter shall be placed in a partially covered petri dish,
which is protected against dust contamination, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period, each filter shall be weighed and the tare
weight shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter
holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the
weighing chamber. The tare weight shall be recorded.
3.2. Installation of the Measuring Equipment
The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. The tailpipe shall be
connected to the full flow dilution system, if used.
3.3. Starting the Dilution System and the Engine
The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures
and pressures have stabilised at maximum power according to the recommendation of the
manufacturer and good engineering practice.
3.4. Starting the Particulate Sampling System (Diesel and Dual-fuel Engines Only)
The particulate sampling system shall be started and running on by-pass. The particulate
background level of the diluent may be determined by passing diluent through the
particulate filters. If filtered diluent is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after
the test. If the diluent is not filtered, measurements at the beginning and at the end of the
cycle may be done and the values averaged.
The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures
and pressures have stabilised according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and
good engineering practice.
In case of periodic regeneration aftertreatment, the regeneration shall not occur during the
warm-up of the engine.
3.5. Adjustment of the Dilution System
The flow rates of the dilution system (full flow or partial flow) shall be set to eliminate water
condensation in the system, and to obtain a filter face temperature of maximum 325K (52°C)
or less (see Paragraph 2.3.1. of Appendix 7, DT dilution tunnel).

3.8.2.2 Raw Exhaust Measurement
At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from the
preconditioning,, the measuring equipment shall be started, simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
(c)
start analysing the raw exhaust gas concentrations;
start measuring the exhaust gas or intake air and fuel flow rate;
start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the emission concentrations (HC, CO and
NO ) and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be recorded and stored with at least 2Hz on
a computer system. The system response time shall be no greater than 10s. All other data
may be recorded with a sample rate of at least 1Hz. For analogue analyzers the response
shall be recorded, and the calibration data may be applied online or offline during the data
evaluation.
For calculation of the mass emission of the gaseous components the traces of the recorded
concentrations and the trace of the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be time aligned by the
transformation time as defined in Paragraph 2. of this Regulation. Therefore, the response
time of the exhaust gas mass flow system and each gaseous emissions analyzer shall be
determined according to the provisions of Paragraph 4.2.1. and Paragraph 1.5. of
Appendix 5 to this Annex and recorded.
3.8.3. Particulate Sampling (If Applicable)
3.8.3.1. Full Flow Dilution System
At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from the
preconditioning, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from by-pass to
collecting particulates.
If no flow compensation is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow rate
through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within ±5% of
the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is used, it
shall be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not
change by more than ±5% of its set value (except for the first 10s of sampling).
For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate
through the sample filters and the secondary dilution air flow rate.
The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet
shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle (within
±5%) because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test shall
be rerun using a lower flow rate and/or a larger diameter filter.

3.8.5. Operations After Test
At the completion of the test, the measurement of the diluted exhaust gas volume or raw
exhaust gas flow rate, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the particulate sample pump
shall be stopped. For an integrating analyzer system, sampling shall continue until system
response times have elapsed.
The concentrations of the collecting bags, if used, shall be analysed as soon as possible
and in any case not later than 20min after the end of the test cycle.
After the emission test, a zero gas and the same span gas shall be used for re-checking the
analyzers. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and
post-test results is less than 2% of the span gas value.
3.9. Verification of the Test Run
3.9.1. Data Shift
To minimize the biasing effect of the time lag between the feedback and reference cycle
values, the entire Engine Speed and torque feedback signal sequence may be advanced or
delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the feedback
signals are shifted, both speed and torque shall be shifted the same amount in the same
direction.
3.9.2. Calculation of the Cycle Work
The actual cycle work W (kWh) shall be calculated using each pair of engine feedback
speed and torque values recorded. This shall be done after any feedback data shift has
occurred, if this option is selected. The actual cycle work W is used for comparison to the
reference cycle work W and for calculating the brake specific emissions (see
Paragraphs 5.5. and 6.3. of this Appendix). The same methodology shall be used for
integrating both reference and actual engine power. If values are to be determined between
adjacent reference or adjacent measured values, linear interpolation shall be used.
In integrating the reference and actual cycle work, all negative torque values shall be set
equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a frequency of less than 5Hz, and
if, during a given time segment, the torque value changes from positive to negative or
negative to positive, the negative portion shall be computed and set equal to zero. The
positive portion shall be included in the integrated value.
W shall be between − 15% and + 5% of W

Point deletions from the regression analyses are permitted where noted in Table 8.
Table 8
Permitted Point Deletions from Regression Analysis
Conditions
Full load demand and torque feedback < 95% torque reference
Full load demand and speed feedback < 95% speed reference
No load, not an idle point, and torque feedback > torque reference
No load, speed feedback ≤ idle speed + 50min and torque feedback =
manufacturer defined/measured idle torque ±2% of max. torque
No load, speed feedback > idle speed + 50min and torque feedback >
105% of torque reference
No load and speed feedback > 105% speed reference
Points to be deleted
Torque and/or power
Speed and/or power
Torque and/or power
Speed and/or power
Torque and/or power
Speed and/or power
4. CALCULATION OF THE EXHAUST GAS FLOW
4.1. Determination of the Diluted Exhaust Gas Flow
The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle (kg/test) shall be calculated from the
measurement values over the cycle and the corresponding calibration data of the flow
measurement device (V for PDP, K for CFV, C for SSV), as determined in Paragraph 2.
of Appendix 5 to this Annex). The following formulae shall be applied, if the temperature of
the diluted exhaust is kept constant over the cycle by using a heat exchanger (±6K for a
PDP-CVS, ±11K for a CFV-CVS or ±11K for a SSV CVS), see Paragraph 2.3. of Appendix 7
to this Annex).
For the PDP-CVS system:
where:
m = 1.293 × V × N × (p - p ) × 273 / (101.3 × T)
V
= volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions, m³/rev
N = total revolutions of pump per test
p
p
T
= atmospheric pressure in the test cell, kPa
= pressure depression below atmospheric at pump inlet, kPa
= average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet over the cycle, K

For the PDP-CVS system:
m = 1.293 × V × N × (p - p ) × 273 / (101.3 × T)
where:
N = total revolutions of pump per time interval
For the CFV-CVS system:
m = 1.293 × Δt × K × p / T
where:
Δt
= time interval, s
For the SSV-CVS system:
m = 1.293 × Q × Δt
where:
Δt
= time interval, s
The real time calculation shall be initialised with either a reasonable value for C , such as
0.98, or a reasonable value of Q . If the calculation is initialised with Q , the initial value
of Q shall be used to evaluate R .
During all emissions tests, the Reynolds number at the SSV throat shall be in the range of
Reynolds numbers used to derive the calibration curve developed in Paragraph 2.4. of
Appendix 5 to this Annex.
4.2. Determination of Raw Exhaust Gas Mass Flow
For calculation of the emissions in the raw exhaust gas and for controlling of a partial flow
dilution system, it is necessary to know the exhaust gas mass flow rate. For the
determination of the exhaust mass flow rate, either of the methods described in
Paragraphs 4.2.2. to 4.2.5. of this Appendix may be used.
Only the direct measurement of the exhaust flow is applicable for dual-fuel engines
operating in dual-fuel mode. The use of the air and fuel measurement method is not allowed
in this mode.

4.2.4. Tracer Measurement Method
This involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust. A known
amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas flow as a
tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but shall not react in the exhaust
pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas sample.
In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall
be located at least 1m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger,
downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to
the injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration
with the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.
The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle
speed after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyzer.
The calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:
q
q
=
60 ×
× ρ
( c − c )
where:
q = instantaneous exhaust mass flow, kg/s
q
= tracer gas flow, cm³/min
c = instantaneous concentration of the tracer gas after mixing, ppm
ρ = density of the exhaust gas, kg/m³ (see Table 6)
c
= background concentration of the tracer gas in the intake air, ppm
When the background concentration is less than 1% of the concentration of the tracer gas
after mixing (c ) at maximum exhaust flow, the background concentration may be
neglected.
The total system shall meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow, and shall
be calibrated according to Paragraph 1.7. of Appendix 5 to this Annex.

5. CALCULATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS
The calculation procedures as specified in Annex 4B as adapted in Appendix 4 to Annex 11
shall be used for dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode.
5.1. Data Evaluation
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions in the diluted exhaust gas, the emission
concentrations (HC, CO and NO ) and the diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be
recorded according to Paragraph 3.8.2.1. of this Appendix and stored on a computer
system. For analogue analyzers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration data
may be applied online or offline during the data evaluation.
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions in the raw exhaust gas, the emission
concentrations (HC, CO and NO ) and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be recorded
according to Paragraph 3.8.2.2. of this Appendix and stored on a computer system. For
analogue analyzers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration data may be applied
online or offline during the data evaluation.
5.2. Dry/Wet Correction
If the concentration is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to a wet basis
according to the following formula. For continuous measurement, the conversion shall be
applied to each instantaneous measurement before any further calculation.
c = k × c
The conversion equations of Paragraph 5.2. of Appendix 1 to this Annex shall apply.
5.3. NO Correction for Humidity and Temperature
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity with the factors given in Paragraph 5.3.
of Appendix 1 to this Annex. The factors are valid in the range between 0 and 25g/kg dry air.

(c)
for the diluted exhaust gas with flow compensation:
where:
[ u ]
⎡ ⎛
1⎞⎤
⎢u ∑ ⎜

×
f

⎣ ⎝
⎠⎦
m = × c × q × − m × c × ( 1 − 1/D)
c
c
= instantaneous concentration of the respective component measured in the
diluted exhaust gas, ppm
= concentration of the respective component measured in the diluent, ppm
q = instantaneous diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate, kg/s
m
= total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle, kg
u = ratio between density of exhaust component and density of air from Table 6
D = dilution factor (see Paragraph 5.4.1.)
If applicable, the concentration of NMHC and CH shall be calculated by either of the
methods shown in Paragraph 3.3.4. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, as follows:
(a)
GC method (full flow dilution system, only):
c = c − c
(b)
NMC method:
c
c
c
=
c
=
× 1 − E
( ) ( ) ( )
E − E
− c
( ) − c ( ) × ( 1 − E )
E − E
where:
c = HC concentration with the sample gas flowing through the NMC
c = HC concentration with the sample gas bypassing the NMC

The stoichiometric factor shall be calculated as follows:
F
= 100 ×
1 +
α
2
1

+ 3.76 × ⎜1
+

α
4

ε ⎞

2 ⎠
where:
α, ε are the molar ratios referring to a Fuel C H O
Alternatively, if the fuel composition is not known, the following stoichiometric factors may
be used:
F (diesel) = 13.4
F (LPG) = 11.6
F (NG) = 9.5
F (Ethanol) = 12.3
5.5. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated in the following way:
(a) all components, except NO :
(b) NO :
m
M =
W
M
m × k
=
W
where:
W = actual cycle work as determined according to Paragraph 3.9.2.

If a double dilution system is used, the mass of the secondary diluent shall be subtracted
from the total mass of the double diluted exhaust gas sampled through the particulate filters.
m = m - m
where:
m = mass of double diluted exhaust gas through particulate filter, kg
m = mass of secondary diluent, kg
If the particulate background level of the diluent is determined in accordance with
Paragraph 3.4., the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this case, the
particulate mass (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:
where:
m , m , m : see above
⎡ m ⎛ m 1 ⎞⎤
m
m ⎢ ⎜
⎛ ⎞
= − 1 ⎟⎥
×
⎢⎣
m
× ⎜ − ⎟
m D
⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠⎥⎦
1,000
m
m
= mass of primary diluent sampled by background particulate sampler, kg
= mass of the collected background particulates of the primary diluent, mg
D = dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 5.4.1.
6.2.2. Partial Flow Dilution System
The mass of particulates (g/test) shall be calculated by either of the following methods:
(a)
m m
m = ×
m 1,000
where:
m
= particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg
m = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters, kg
m = mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle, kg

with:
m m
r = ×
m m
where:
m
= sample mass over the cycle, kg
m = total exhaust mass flow over the cycle, kg
m = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters, kg
m = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel, kg
Note: In case of the total sampling type system, m and M are identical.
6.3. Calculation of the Specific Emission
The particulate emission (g/kWh) shall be calculated in the following way:
where:
M =
W = actual cycle work as determined according to Paragraph 3.9.2., kWh.
6.3.1. In case of a periodic regeneration aftertreatment system, the emissions shall be weighted as
follows:
where:
m
W
( n1 × PT + n2 × PT ) / ( n1 n2)
PT =
+
n1
n2
= number of ETC tests between two regeneration events;
= number of ETC tests during a regeneration (minimum of one ETC);
PT = emissions during a regeneration;
PT = emissions outside a regeneration.

Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
59.7
52.8
45.9
38.7
32.4
27
21.7
19.1
34.7
16.4

Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
56.3
59.7
62.3
67.9
69.5
73.1
77.7
79.7
82.5
85.3
86.6
89.4
62.2
52.7
50.2
49.3
52.2
51.3
51.3
51.1
51.1
51.8
51.3
51.1
51.3
52.3
52.9
53.8
51.7
53.5
52
51.7
53.2
54.2
55.2
53.8
53.1
55
57
61.5
59.4
59
57.3
64.1
70.9
58
41.5
72.3
99.1
99
99.2
99.3
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.4
99.4
99.4

Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
59.2
59.7
61.2
62.2
62.8
63.5
64.7
64.7
65.4
66.1
64.3
64.3
63
62.2
61.6
62.4
62.2
61
58.7
55.5
51.7
49.2
48.8
47.9
46.2
45.6
45.6
45.5
43.8
41.9
41.3
41.4
41.2
41.8
41.8
43.2
45
44.2
43.9
38
56.8
57.1
52
44.4
40.2
39.2
38.9
98.8
98.8
98.8
49.4
37.2
46.3
72.3
72.3
77.4
69.3
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
40.4
'm'
'm'
9.8
34.5
37.1
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
17.4
29
'm'
'm'
10.7
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
16.5
73.2
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
39.9
42.3
43.7
45.5
45.6
48.1
49
49.8
49.8
51.9
52.3
53.3
52.9
54.3
55.5
56.7
61.7
64.3
64.7
66.2
49.1
52.1
52.6
52.9
52.3
54.2
55.4
56.1
56.8
57.2
58.6
59.5
61.2
62.1
62.7
62.8
64
63.2
62.4
60.3
58.7
57.2
56.1
56
55.2
54.8
55.7
89.8
98.6
98.8
99.1
99.2
99.7
100
99.9
99.9
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.2
99.1
99
98.8
47.4
1.8
'm'
'm'
46
61

Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
49
49.8
50.9
50.4
49.8
49.1
50.4
49.8
49.3
49.1
49.9
49.1
50.4
50.9
51.4
51.5
52.2
52.8
53.3
53.6
53.4
53.9
55.2
55.8
55.7
55.8
56.4
55.4
55.2
55.8
55.8
56.4
57.6
58.8
59.9
62.3
63.1
63.7
63.3
48
47.9
49.9
49.9
49.6
49.9
49.3
49.7
99.5
99.7
100
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.5
99.8
100
99.9
99.9
99.7
74.1
46
36.4
33.5
58.9
73.8
52.4
9.2
2.2
33.6
'm'
'm'
26.3
23.3
50.2
68.3
90.2
98.9
98.8
74.4
49.4
9.8

Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
59.6
60.1
60.6
59.6
60.7
60.5
59.7
59.6
59.8
59.6
60.1
59.9
59.7
59.6
59.7
59.8
59.9
60.6
60.5
60.2
60.6
60.6
61
61
61.3
61.2
61.5
61
61.1
60.5
60.2
60.2
60.2
59.9
59.4
59.6
59.3
58.9
58.8
58.9
58.9
58.9
58.7
58.7
59.3
60.1
60.5
'm'
'm'
'm'
4.1
7.1
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
4.9
5.9
6.1
'm'
'm'
22
10.3
10
6.2
7.3
14.8
8.2
5.5
14.3
12
34.2
17.1
15.7
9.5
9.2
4.3
7.8
5.9
5.3
4.6
21.5
15.8
10.1
9.4
9
35.4
30.7
25.9
22.9
24.4
61
56
50.6
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
59.5
59.7
59.7
60.1
60.8
60.9
61.3
61.8
62
62.2
62.6
62.7
62.9
63.1
63.5
63.6
64.3
63.7
63.8
63.6
63.4
63.2
63.3
62.9
63
63.1
61.8
61.6
61
61.2
60.8
61.1
60.7
60.6
60.5
60.6
60.9
60.9
61.4
61.3
61.5
61.3
61
60.8
60.9
61.2
60.9
16.2
50
31.4
43.1
38.4
40.2
49.7
45.9
45.9
45.8
46.8
44.3
44.4
43.7
46.1
40.7
49.5
27
15
18.7
8.4
8.7
21.6
19.7
22.1
20.3
19.1
17.1

Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
Time
s
Normal
speed
%
Normal
torque
%
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
58.5
59.1
59.4
59.6
59.5
59.6
59.3
59.4
59.1
59
58.8
58.7
57.5
57.4
57.1
57.1
57
57.1
57.3
57.3
58.2
58.7
58.3
58.6
59
59.8
59.3
59.7
60.1
60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7
61.1
61.1
60.8
60.1
60.7
60.4
60
59.9
60.8
60.4
60.2
59.6
59.9
59.8
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
'm'
0.5
9.2
11.2
26.8
11.7
6.4
5
'm'
'm'
1.1

A graphical display of the ETC dynamometer schedule is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5
ETC Dynamometer Schedule

2.2. Other Instruments
Measuring instruments for fuel consumption, air consumption, temperature of coolant and
lubricant, exhaust gas pressure and intake manifold depression, exhaust gas temperature,
air intake temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity and fuel temperature shall be used,
as required. These instruments shall satisfy the requirements given in Table 9:
Table 9
Accuracy of Measuring Instruments
Measuring instrument
Fuel consumption
Air consumption
Exhaust gas flow
Temperatures ≤600K (327°C)
Temperatures ≥ 600K (327°C)
Atmospheric pressure
Exhaust gas pressure
Intake depression
Other pressures
Relative humidity
Absolute humidity
Dilution air flow
Diluted exhaust gas flow
Accuracy
±2% of engine's maximum value
±2% of reading or ±1% of engine's maximum value
whichever is greater
±2.5% of reading or ±1.5% of engine's maximum
value whichever is greater
±2K absolute
±1% of reading
±0.1kPa absolute
±0.2kPa absolute
±0.05kPa absolute
±0.1kPa absolute
±3% absolute
±5% of reading
±2% of reading
±2% of reading

3.1.6. Rise Time
The rise time of the analyzer installed in the measurement system shall not exceed 3.5s.
Note:
Only evaluating the response time of the analyzer alone will not clearly define the
suitability of the total system for transient testing. Volumes and especially dead
volumes through out the system will not only effect the transportation time from the
probe to the analyzer, but also effect the rise time. Also transport times inside of an
analyzer would be defined as analyzer response time, like the converter or water
traps inside NO analyzers. The determination of the total system response time is
described in Paragraph 1.5. of Appendix 5 to this Annex.
3.2. Gas Drying
3.3. Analyzers
The optional gas drying device shall have a minimal effect on the concentration of the
measured gases. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from
the sample.
Paragraphs 3.3.1 to 3.3.4 describe the measurement principles to be used. A detailed
description of the measurement systems is given in Appendix 7. The gases to be measured
shall be analysed with the following instruments. For non-linear analyzers, the use of
linearizing circuits is permitted.
3.3.1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Analysis
The carbon monoxide analyzer shall be of the Non-Dispersive InfraRed (NDIR) absorption
type.
3.3.2. Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Analysis
The carbon dioxide analyzer shall be of the Non-Dispersive InfraRed (NDIR) absorption
type.
3.3.3. Hydrocarbon (HC) Analysis
For diesel and LPG fuelled gas engines, the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be of the Heated
Flame Ionisation Detector (HFID) type with detector, valves, pipework, etc. heated so as to
maintain a gas temperature of 463K ± 10K (190 ± 10°C). For NG fuelled gas engines, the
hydrocarbon analyzer may be of the non heated Flame Ionisation Detector (FID) type
depending upon the method used (see Paragraph 1.3. of Appendix 7).
3.3.4. Non-Methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC) Analysis (NG Fuelled Gas Engines Only)
Non-methane hydrocarbons shall be determined by either of the following methods:
3.3.4.1. Gas Chromatographic (GC) Method
Non-methane hydrocarbons shall be determined by subtraction of the methane analysed
with a Gas Chromatograph (GC) conditioned at 423K (150°C) from the hydrocarbons
measured according to Paragraph 3.3.3.

3.4.2. Diluted Exhaust Gas
The exhaust pipe between the engine and the full flow dilution system shall conform to the
requirements of Paragraph 2.3.1. of Appendix 7 (EP).
The gaseous emissions sample probe(s) shall be installed in the dilution tunnel at a point
where the dilution air and exhaust gas are well mixed, and in close proximity to the
particulates sampling probe.
Sampling can generally be done in two ways:
(a)
(b)
the pollutants are sampled into a sampling bag over the cycle and measured after
completion of the test;
the pollutants are sampled continuously and integrated over the cycle; this method is
mandatory for HC and NO .
4. DETERMINATION OF THE PARTICULATES
The determination of the particulates requires a dilution system. Dilution may be
accomplished by a partial flow dilution system or a full flow double dilution system. The flow
capacity of the dilution system shall be large enough to completely eliminate water
condensation in the dilution and sampling systems. The temperature of the diluted exhaust
gas shall be below 325K (52°C) immediately upstream of the filter holders. Humidity control
of the dilution before entering the dilution system is permitted, and especially dehumidifying
is useful if dilution humidity is high. The temperature of the dilution shall be higher than
288K (15°C) in close proximity to the entrance into the dilution tunnel.
The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to extract a proportional raw exhaust
sample from the engine exhaust stream, thus responding to excursions in the exhaust
stream flow rate, and introduce dilution to this sample to achieve a temperature of below
325K (52°C) at the test filter. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio or the sampling
ratio r or r be determined such that the accuracy limits of Paragraph 3.2.1. of Appendix 5
to this Annex are fulfilled. Different extraction methods can be applied, whereby the type of
extraction used dictates to a significant degree the sampling hardware and procedures to be
used (Paragraph 2.2. of Appendix 7).
In general, the particulate sampling probe shall be installed in close proximity to the
gaseous emissions sampling probe, but sufficiently distant as to not cause interference.
Therefore, the installation provisions of Paragraph 3.4.1. also apply to particulate sampling.
The sampling line shall conform to the requirements of Paragraph 2. of Appendix 7.
In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the
probe shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is
representative of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder engines
having distinct groups of manifolds, such as in a "Vee" engine configuration, it is
recommended to combine the manifolds upstream of the sampling probe. If this is not
practical, it is permissible to acquire a sample from the group with the highest particulate
emission. Other methods which have been shown to correlate with the above methods may
be used. For exhaust emission calculation the total exhaust mass flow shall be used.

4.1.5. Filter Holder
For the emissions test, the filters shall be placed in a filter holder assembly meeting the
requirements of Paragraph 2.2. of Appendix 7. The filter holder assembly shall be of a
design that provides an even flow distribution across the filter stain area. Quick acting
valves shall be located either upstream or downstream of the filter holder. An inertial
pre-classifier with a 50% cut point between 2.5µm and 10µm may be installed immediately
upstream of the filter holder. The use of the pre-classifier is strongly recommended if an
open tube sampling probe facing upstream into the exhaust flow is used.
4.2 Weighing Chamber and Analytical Balance Specifications
4.2.1. Weighing Chamber Conditions
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned
and weighed shall be maintained to within 295K ± 3K (22°C ± 3°C) during all filter
conditioning and weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dewpoint of 282.5K ± 3K
(9.5°C ± 3°C) and a relative humidity of 45% ± 8%.
4.2.2. Reference Filter Weighing
The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as
dust) that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilisation. Disturbances to
weighing room specifications as outlined in Paragraph 4.2.1. will be allowed if the duration
of the disturbances does not exceed 30min. The weighing room should meet the required
specifications prior to personal entrance into the weighing room. At least two unused
reference filters shall be weighed within 4h of, but preferably at the same time as the sample
filter weightings. They shall be the same size and material as the sample filters.
If the average weight of the reference filters changes between sample filter weightings by
more than 10µg, then all sample filters shall be discarded and the emissions test repeated.
If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in Paragraph 4.2.1. is not met, but the
reference filter weightings meet the above criteria, the engine manufacturer has the option
of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests, fixing the weighing room control
system and re-running the test.
4.2.3. Analytical Balance
The analytical balance used to determine the filter weight shall have a precision (standard
deviation) of at least 2µg and a resolution of at least 1µg (1 digit = 1µg) specified by the
balance manufacturer.
4.2.4. Elimination of Static Electricity Effects
To eliminate the effects of static electricity, the filters shall be neutralized prior to weighing,
e.g. by a Polonium neutralizer, a Faraday cage or a device of similar effect.

5.1. General Requirements
The ELR requires the use of a smoke measurement and data processing system which
includes three functional units. These units may be integrated into a single component or
provided as a system of interconnected components. The three functional units are:
(a) An opacimeter meeting the specifications of Appendix 7, Paragraph 3.
(b) A data processing unit capable of performing the functions described in Paragraph 7.
of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
(c)
A printer and/or electronic storage medium to record and output the required smoke
values specified in Paragraph 7.3. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
5.2. Specific Requirements
5.2.1. Linearity
5.2.2. Zero Drift
The linearity shall be within ±2% opacity.
The zero drift during a one hour period shall not exceed ±1% opacity.
5.2.3. Opacimeter Display and Range
For display in opacity, the range shall be 0-100% opacity, and the readability 0.1% opacity.
For display in light absorption coefficient, the range shall be 0-30m light absorption
coefficient, and the readability 0.01m light absorption coefficient.
5.2.4. Instrument Response Time
The physical response time of the opacimeter shall not exceed 0.2s. The physical response
time is the difference between the times when the output of a rapid response receiver
reaches 10 and 90% of the full deviation when the opacity of the gas being measured is
changed in less than 0.1s.
The electrical response time of the opacimeter shall not exceed 0.05s. The electrical
response time is the difference between the times when the opacimeter output reaches
10 and 90% of the full scale when the light source is interrupted or completely extinguished
in less than 0.01s.
5.2.5. Neutral Density Filters
Any neutral density filter used in conjunction with opacimeter calibration, linearity
measurements, or setting span shall have its value known to within 1.0% opacity. The filter's
nominal value shall be checked for accuracy at least yearly using a reference traceable to a
national or international standard.
Neutral density filters are precision devices and can easily be damaged during use.
Handling should be minimized and, when required, should be done with care to avoid
scratching or soiling of the filter.

1.2.2. Calibration and Span Gases
Mixtures of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available:
C H and purified synthetic air (see Paragraph 1.2.1.);
CO and purified nitrogen;
NO and purified nitrogen (the amount of NO contained in this calibration gas shall not
exceed 5% of the NO content);
CO and purified nitrogen
CH and purified synthetic air
C H and purified synthetic air
Note: Other gas combinations are allowed provided the gases do not react with one
another.
The true concentration of a calibration and span gas shall be within ±2% of the nominal
value. All concentrations of calibration gas shall be given on a volume basis (volume % or
volume ppm).
The gases used for calibration and span may also be obtained by means of a gas divider,
diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air. The accuracy of the mixing device shall
be such that the concentration of the diluted calibration gases may be determined to within
±2%.
1.2.3. Use of Precision Blending Devices
The gases used for calibration and span may also be obtained by means of precision
blending devices (gas dividers), diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air. The
accuracy of the mixing device shall be such that the concentration of the blended calibration
gases is accurate to within ±2%. This accuracy implies that primary gases used for blending
shall be known to an accuracy of at least ±1%, traceable to national or international gas
standards. The verification shall be performed at between 15 and 50% of full scale for each
calibration incorporating a blending device.
Optionally, the blending device may be checked with an instrument which by nature is
linear, e.g. using NO gas with a CLD. The span value of the instrument shall be adjusted
with the span gas directly connected to the instrument. The blending device shall be
checked at the used settings and the nominal value shall be compared to the measured
concentration of the instrument. This difference shall in each point be within ±1% of the
nominal value.
1.3. Operating Procedure for Analyzers and Sampling System
The operating procedure for analyzers shall follow the start-up and operating instructions of
the instrument manufacturer. The minimum requirements given in Paragraphs 1.4 to 1.9
shall be included.

1.6. Calibration
1.6.1. Instrument Assembly
The instrument assembly shall be calibrated and calibration curves checked against
standard gases. The same gas flow rates shall be used as when sampling exhaust.
1.6.2. Warming-up Time
The warming-up time should be according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. If
not specified, a minimum of 2h is recommended for warming up the analyzers.
1.6.3. NDIR and HFID Analyzer
The NDIR analyzer shall be tuned, as necessary, and the combustion flame of the HFID
analyzer shall be optimised (Paragraph 1.8.1.).
1.6.4. Establishment of the Calibration Curve
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Each normally used operating range shall be calibrated;
Using purified synthetic air (or nitrogen), the CO, CO , NO and HC analyzers shall be
set at zero;
The appropriate calibration gases shall be introduced to the analyzers, the values
recorded, and the calibration curve established;
The calibration curve shall be established by at least 6 calibration points (excluding
zero) approximately equally spaced over the operating range. The highest nominal
concentration shall be equal to or higher than 90% of full scale;
The calibration curve shall be calculated by the method of least-squares. A best-fit
linear or non-linear equation may be used;
The calibration points shall not differ from the least-squares best-fit line by more than
±2% of reading or ±0.3% of full scale whichever is larger;
The zero setting shall be rechecked and the calibration procedure repeated, if
necessary.
1.6.5. Alternative Methods
If it can be shown that alternative technology (e.g. computer, electronically controlled range
switch, etc.) can give equivalent accuracy, then these alternatives may be used.

1.7.3. Calculation
The efficiency of the NO converter is calculated as follows:
where,
⎛ a − b ⎞
Efficiency ×
⎝ c − d ⎠
(%) = ⎜1
+ ⎟ 100
a is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.6.
b is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.7.
c is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.4.
d is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.5.
1.7.4. Adding of Oxygen
Via a T-fitting, oxygen or zero air is added continuously to the gas flow until the
concentration indicated is about 20% less than the indicated calibration concentration given
in Paragraph 1.7.2. (the analyzer is in the NO mode). The indicated concentration "c" shall
be recorded. The ozonator is kept deactivated throughout the process.
1.7.5. Activation of the Ozonator
1.7.6. NO Mode
The ozonator is now activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO concentration
down to about 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 1.7.2. The indicated concentration "d" shall be recorded (the analyzer is in the
NO mode).
The NO analyzer is then switched to the NO mode so that the gas mixture (consisting of
NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. The indicated concentration "a"
shall be recorded (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
1.7.7. Deactivation of the Ozonator
1.7.8. NO Mode
The ozonator is now deactivated. The mixture of gases described in Paragraph 1.7.6.
passes through the converter into the detector. The indicated concentration "b" shall be
recorded (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
Switched to NO mode with the ozonator deactivated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air is
also shut off. The NO reading of the analyzer shall not deviate by more than ±5% from the
value measured according to Paragraph 1.7.2. (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
1.7.9. Test Interval
The efficiency of the converter shall be tested prior to each calibration of the NO analyzer.

1.8.2. Hydrocarbon Response factors
The analyzer shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air, according to
Paragraph 1.5.
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyzer into service and after
major service intervals. The response factor (R ) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the
ratio of the FID C1 reading to the gas concentration in the cylinder expressed by ppm C1.
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of approximately
80% of full scale. The concentration shall be known to an accuracy of ±2% in reference to a
gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall be
preconditioned for 24h at a temperature of 298K ± 5K (25°C ± 5°C).
The test gases to be used and the recommended relative response factor ranges are as
follows:
Methane and purified synthetic air 1.00 ≤ R ≤ 1.15
Propylene and purified synthetic air 0.90 ≤ R ≤ 1.10
Toluene and purified synthetic air 0.90 ≤ R ≤ 1.10
These values are relative to the response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified
synthetic air.
1.8.3. Oxygen Interference Check
The oxygen interference check shall be determined when introducing an analyzer into
service and after major service intervals.
The response factor is defined and shall be determined as described in Paragraph 1.8.2.
The test gas to be used and the recommended relative response factor range are as
follows:
Propane and nitrogen 0.95 ≤ R ≤ 1.05
This value is relative to the response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified synthetic
air.
The FID burner air oxygen concentration shall be within ±1mole % of the oxygen
concentration of the burner air used in the latest oxygen interference check. If the difference
is greater, the oxygen interference shall be checked and the analyzer adjusted, if necessary.
1.8.4. Efficiency of the Non-methane Cutter (NMC, for NG Fuelled Gas Engines Only)
The NMC is used for the removal of the non-methane hydrocarbons from the sample gas by
oxidizing all hydrocarbons except methane. Ideally, the conversion for methane is 0%, and
for the other hydrocarbons represented by ethane is 100%. For the accurate measurement
of NMHC, the two efficiencies shall be determined and used for the calculation of the NMHC
emission mass flow rate (see Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 5.4.).

1.9.2. NO Analyzer Quench Checks
The two gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO and water vapour.
Quench responses to these gases are proportional to their concentrations, and therefore
require test techniques to determine the quench at the highest expected concentrations
experienced during testing.
1.9.2.1. CO Quench Check
A CO span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the maximum
operating range shall be passed through the NDIR analyzer and the CO value recorded
as A. It shall then be diluted approximately 50% with NO span gas and passed through the
NDIR and (H)CLD, with the CO and NO values recorded as B and C, respectively. The CO
shall then be shut off and only the NO span gas be passed through the (H)CLD and the NO
value recorded as D.
The quench, which shall not be greater than 3% of full scale, shall be calculated as follows:
with:
⎡ ⎛ C × A ⎞⎤
% Quench = ⎢1
− ⎜
⎟ × 100
( D A) ( D B)

⎣ ⎝ × − × ⎠⎦
A is the undiluted CO concentration measured with NDIR in %
B is the diluted CO concentration measured with NDIR in %
C
D
is the diluted NO concentration measured with (H)CLD in ppm
is the undiluted NO concentration measured with (H)CLD in ppm
Alternative methods of diluting and quantifying of CO and NO span gas values such as
dynamic mixing/blending can be used.
1.9.2.2. Water Quench Check
This check applies to wet gas concentration measurements only. Calculation of water
quench shall consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapour and scaling of water
vapour concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing.
A NO span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the normal operating
range shall be passed through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded as D. The NO span
gas shall then be bubbled through water at room temperature and passed through the
(H)CLD and the NO value recorded as C. The analyzer's absolute operating pressure and
the water temperature shall be determined and recorded as E and F, respectively. The
mixture's saturation vapour pressure that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature F
shall be determined and recorded as G. The water vapour concentration (H, in %) of the
mixture shall be calculated as follows:
H = 100 × (G/E)

2.2. Calibration of the Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
All parameters related to the pump shall be simultaneously measured with the parameters
related to the flowmeter which is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flow rate
(in m /min at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) shall be plotted versus a
correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters. The
linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function shall then be
determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, the calibration shall be performed for each
range used. Temperature stability shall be maintained during calibration.
2.2.1. Data Analysis
The air flowrate (Q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /min from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
air flow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
where,
q T
V = × ×
n 273
101.3
p
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T
p
n
= temperature at pump inlet, K
= absolute pressure at pump inlet (p -p ), kPa
= pump speed, rev/s
To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the
correlation function (X ) between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet to pump
outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:
1
X = ×
n
∆p
p
where,
∆p
p
pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, kPa
absolute outlet pressure at pump outlet, kPa

2.4. Calibration of the Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is a
function of inlet pressure and temperature, pressure drop between the SSV inlet and throat.
2.4.1. Data Analysis
The air flowrate (Q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 16 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /min from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.
The discharge coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as
follows:
where:

( )
⎥ ⎥ ⎤


⎜ ⎛
1
r − r


1 − r r
⎠⎦


1
Q = A d C p
x
⎢T

Q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T = temperature at the venturi inlet, K
d = diameter of the SSV throat, m
r = ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute, static pressure =
∆p
1 −
p
r = ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d, to the inlet pipe inner diameter D

2.5.2. Metering by Means of a Gravimetric Technique
The weight of a small cylinder filled with carbon monoxide or propane shall be determined
with a precision of ±0.01gram. For about 5 to 10min, the CVS system shall be operated as
in a normal exhaust emission test, while carbon monoxide or propane is injected into the
system. The quantity of pure gas discharged shall be determined by means of differential
weighing. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment (sampling bag or
integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated. The mass so determined shall be
within ±3% of the known mass of the gas injected.
3. CALIBRATION OF THE PARTICULATE MEASURING SYSTEM
3.1. Introduction
The calibration of the particulate measurement is limited to the flow meters used to
determine sample flow and dilution ratio. Each flow meter shall be calibrated as often as
necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements of this Regulation. The calibration method that
shall be used is described in Paragraph 3.2.
3.2. Flow Measurement
3.2.1. Periodical Calibration
(a)
(b)
To fulfil the absolute accuracy of the flow measurements as specified in
Paragraph 2.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, the flow meter or the flow measurement
instrumentation shall be calibrated with an accurate flow meter traceable to
international and/or national standards.
If the sample gas flow is determined by differential flow measurement the flow meter
or the flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated in one of the following
procedures, such that the probe flow q into the tunnel shall fulfil the accuracy
requirements of Paragraph 4.2.5.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex:
(i) The flow meter for q shall be connected in series to the flow meter for q ,
the difference between the two flow meters shall be calibrated for at least 5 set
points with flow values equally spaced between the lowest q value used
during the test and the value of q used during the test. The dilution tunnel
may be bypassed.
(ii)
(iii)
A calibrated mass flow device shall be connected in series to the flowmeter for
q and the accuracy shall be checked for the value used for the test. Then
the calibrated mass flow device shall be connected in series to the flow meter
for q , and the accuracy shall be checked for at least 5 settings
corresponding to dilution ratio between 3 and 50, relative to q used during
the test.
The transfer tube TT shall be disconnected from the exhaust, and a calibrated
flow measuring device with a suitable range to measure q shall be connected
to the transfer tube. Then q shall be set to the value used during the test,
and q shall be sequentially set to at least 5 values corresponding to dilution
ratios q between 3 and 50. Alternatively, a special calibration flow path, may be
provided, in which the tunnel is bypassed, but the total and dilution flow through
the corresponding meters as in the actual test.

3.3. Determination of Transformation Time (for Partial Flow Dilution Systems on ETC
Only)
The system settings for the transformation time evaluation shall be exactly the same as
during measurement of the test run. The transformation time shall be determined by the
following method:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
An independent reference flowmeter with a measurement range appropriate for the
probe flow shall be put in series with and closely coupled to the probe. This flowmeter
shall have a transformation time of less than 100ms for the flow step size used in the
response time measurement, with flow restriction sufficiently low as to not affect the
dynamic performance of the partial flow dilution system, and consistent with good
engineering practice.
A step change shall be introduced to the exhaust flow (or air flow if exhaust flow is
calculated) input of the partial flow dilution system, from a low flow to at least 90% of
full scale. The trigger for the step change should be the same one used to start the
look-ahead control in actual testing. The exhaust flow step stimulus and the flowmeter
response shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least 10Hz.
From this data, the transformation time shall be determined for the partial flow dilution
system, which is the time from the initiation of the step stimulus to the 50% point of
the flowmeter response. In a similar manner, the transformation times of the q
signal of the partial flow dilution system and of the q signal of the exhaust flow
meter shall be determined. These signals are used in the regression checks
performed after each test (see Paragraph 3.8.3.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex).
The calculation shall be repeated for at least 5 rise and fall stimuli, and the results
shall be averaged. The internal transformation time (< 100msec) of the reference
flowmeter shall be subtracted from this value. This is the "look ahead" value of the
partial flow dilution system, which shall be applied in accordance with
Paragraph 3.8.3.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex.
3.4. Checking the Partial Flow Conditions
The range of the exhaust gas velocity and the pressure oscillations shall be checked and
adjusted according to the requirements of Paragraph 2.2.1. of Appendix 7 (EP), if
applicable.
3.5. Calibration Intervals
The flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated at least every 3 months or
whenever a system repair or change is made that could influence calibration.
4. CALIBRATION OF THE SMOKE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
4.1. Introduction
The opacimeter shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements
of this Regulation. The calibration method to be used is described in this Paragraph for the
components indicated in Appendix 4, Paragraph 5 and Appendix 7, Paragraph 3. to this
Annex.

ANNEX 4A − APPENDIX 6
CARBON FLOW CHECK
1. INTRODUCTION
All but a tiny part of the carbon in the exhaust comes from the fuel, and all but a minimal part of
this is manifest in the exhaust gas as CO . This is the basis for a system verification check
based on CO measurements.
The flow of carbon into the exhaust measurement systems is determined from the fuel flow
rate. The flow of carbon at various sampling points in the emissions and particulate sampling
systems is determined from the CO concentrations and gas flow rates at those points.
In this sense, the engine provides a known source of carbon flow, and observing the same
carbon flow in the exhaust pipe and at the outlet of the partial flow PM sampling system verifies
leak integrity and flow measurement accuracy. This check has the advantage that the
components are operating under actual engine test conditions of temperature and flow.
The following diagram shows the sampling points at which the carbon flows shall be checked.
The specific equations for the carbon flows at each of the sample points are given below.
Figure 7
Measuring Points for Carbon Flow Check

2.3. Carbon Flow Rate in the Dilution System (Location 3)
The carbon flow rate shall be determined from the dilute CO concentration, the exhaust gas
mass flow rate and the sample flow rate:
where:
⎛ c − c ⎞ 12.011 q
q = ⎜
⎟ × q × ×
⎝ 100 ⎠
M q
c = wet CO concentration in the dilute exhaust gas at the outlet of the dilution tunnel, %
c = wet CO concentration in the ambient air, % (around 0.04%)
q = diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis, kg/s
q = exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis, kg/s (partial flow system only)
q = sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system, kg/s (partial flow system
only)
M
= molecular mass of exhaust gas
If CO is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to wet basis according to
Paragraph 5.2. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.

ANNEX 4A − APPENDIX 7
ANALYTICAL AND SAMPLING SYSTEMS
1. DETERMINATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS
1.1. Introduction
Paragraph 1.2. and Figures 7 and 8 contain detailed descriptions of the recommended
sampling and analysing systems. Since various configurations can produce equivalent results,
exact conformance with Figures 7 and 8 is not required. Additional components such as
instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, and switches may be used to provide additional
information and co-ordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components which
are not needed to maintain the accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion
is based upon good engineering judgement.
Figure 7
Flow Diagram of Raw Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, CO , NO , HC ESC only

1.2.1. Components of Figures 7 and 8
EP Exhaust Pipe
Exhaust Gas Sampling Probe (Figure 7 Only)
A stainless steel straight closed end multi-hole probe is recommended. The inside diameter
shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the sampling line. The wall thickness of the
probe shall not be greater than 1mm. There shall be a minimum of 3 holes in 3 different radial
planes sized to sample approximately the same flow. The probe shall extend across at least
80% of the diameter of the exhaust pipe. One or two sampling probes may be used.
SP2 Diluted Exhaust Gas HC Sampling Probe (Figure 8 Only)
The probe shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
be defined as the first 254mm to 762mm of the heated sampling line HSL1;
have a 5mm minimum inside diameter;
be installed in the dilution tunnel DT (see Paragraph 2.3., Figure 20) at a point where the
diluent and exhaust gas are well mixed (i.e. approximately 10 tunnel diameters
downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel);
be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free
from the influence of any wakes or eddies;
be heated so as to increase the gas stream temperature to 463K ± 10K (190°C ± 10°C)
at the exit of the probe.
SP3 Diluted Exhaust Gas CO, CO , NO Sampling Probe (Figure 8 Only)
The probe shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
be in the same plane as SP2;
be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free
from the influence of any wakes or eddies;
be heated and insulated over its entire length to a minimum temperature of 328K (55°C)
to prevent water condensation.

P Heated Sampling Pump
The pump shall be heated to the temperature of HSL1.
HC
Heated flame ionisation detector (HFID) for the determination of the hydrocarbons. The
temperature shall be kept at 453K to 473K (180°C to 200°C).
CO, CO
NDIR analyzers for the determination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (optional for the
determination of the dilution ratio for PT measurement).
NO
CLD or HCLD analyzer for the determination of the oxides of nitrogen. If a HCLD is used it shall
be kept at a temperature of 328K to 473K (55°C to 200°C).
C Converter
A converter shall be used for the catalytic reduction of NO to NO prior to analysis in the CLD
or HCLD.
B Cooling Bath (Optional)
To cool and condense water from the exhaust sample. The bath shall be maintained at a
temperature of 273K to 277K (0°C to 4°C) by ice or refrigeration. It is optional if the analyzer is
free from water vapour interference as determined in Paragraphs 1.9.1. and 1.9.2. of Appendix
5 to this Annex. If water is removed by condensation, the sample gas temperature or dew point
shall be monitored either within the water trap or downstream. The sample gas temperature or
dew point shall not exceed 280K (7°C). Chemical dryers are not allowed for removing water
from the sample.
T1, T2, T3 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the gas stream.
T4 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the NO -NO converter.
T5 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the cooling bath.
G1, G2, G3 Pressure Gauge
To measure the pressure in the sampling lines.
R1, R2 Pressure Regulator
To control the pressure of the air and the fuel, respectively, for the HFID.

Figure 9 shows a typical GC assembled to routinely determine CH . Other GC methods can
also be used based on good engineering judgement.
Components of Figure 9
PC Porapak Column
Figure 9
Flow Diagram for Methane Analysis (GC Method)
Porapak N, 180/300 μm (50/80mesh), 610mm length × 2.16mm ID shall be used and
conditioned at least 12 h at 423K (150°C) with carrier gas prior to initial use.
MSC Molecular Sieve Column
Type 13X, 250/350 μm (45/60mesh), 1,220mm length × 2.16mm ID shall be used and
conditioned at least 12 h at 423K (150°C) with carrier gas prior to initial use.
OV Oven
To maintain columns and valves at stable temperature for analyzer operation, and to condition
the columns at 423K (150°C).
SLP Sample Loop
A sufficient length of stainless steel tubing to obtain approximately 1 cm volume.

1.3.2. Non-Methane Cutter Method (NMC, Figure 10)
The cutter oxidizes all hydrocarbons except CH to CO and H O, so that by passing the
sample through the NMC only CH is detected by the FID. If bag sampling is used, a flow
diverter system shall be installed at SL (see Paragraph 1.2., Figure 8) with which the flow can
be alternatively passed through or around the cutter according to the upper part of Figure 10.
For NMHC measurement, both values (HC and CH ) shall be observed on the FID and
recorded. If the integration method is used, an NMC in line with a second FID shall be installed
parallel to the regular FID into HSL1 (see Paragraph 1.2., Figure 8) according to the lower part
of Figure 10. For NMHC measurement, the values of the two FID's (HC and CH ) shall be
observed and recorded.
The cutter shall be characterized at or above 600K (327°C) prior to test work with respect to its
catalytic effect on CH and C H at H O values representative of exhaust stream conditions.
The dewpoint and O level of the sampled exhaust stream shall be known. The relative
response of the FID to CH shall be recorded (see Paragraph 1.8.2. of Appendix 5 to this
Annex).
Bag Sampling Method
Integrating Method
Figure 10
Flow Diagram for Methane Analysis with the Non-methane Cutter (NMC)

2.2. Partial Flow Dilution System
A dilution system is described in Figures 11 to 19 based upon the dilution of a part of the
exhaust stream. Splitting of the exhaust stream and the following dilution process may be done
by different dilution system types. For subsequent collection of the particulates, the entire dilute
exhaust gas or only a portion of the dilute exhaust gas is passed to the particulate sampling
system (Paragraph 2.4., Figure 21). The first method is referred to as total sampling type, the
second method as fractional sampling type.
The calculation of the dilution ratio depends upon the type of system used. The following types
are recommended:
Isokinetic Systems (Figures 11, 12)
With these systems, the flow into the transfer tube is matched to the bulk exhaust flow in terms
of gas velocity and/or pressure, thus requiring an undisturbed and uniform exhaust flow at the
sampling probe. This is usually achieved by using a resonator and a straight approach tube
upstream of the sampling point. The split ratio is then calculated from easily measurable values
like tube diameters. It should be noted that isokinesis is only used for matching the flow
conditions and not for matching the size distribution. The latter is typically not necessary, as the
particles are sufficiently small as to follow the fluid streamlines.
Flow Controlled Systems with Concentration Measurement (Figures 13 to 17)
With these systems, a sample is taken from the bulk exhaust stream by adjusting the diluent
flow and the total dilute exhaust flow. The dilution ratio is determined from the concentrations of
tracer gases, such as CO or NO naturally occurring in the engine exhaust. The concentrations
in the dilute exhaust gas and in the diluent are measured, whereas the concentration in the raw
exhaust gas can be either measured directly or determined from fuel flow and the carbon
balance equation, if the fuel composition is known. The systems may be controlled by the
calculated dilution ratio (Figures 13 and 14) or by the flow into the transfer tube (Figures 12, 13
and 14).
Flow Controlled Systems with Flow Measurement (Figures 18 and 19)
With these systems, a sample is taken from the bulk exhaust stream by setting the diluent flow
and the total dilute exhaust flow. The dilution ratio is determined from the difference of the two
flows rates. Accurate calibration of the flow meters relative to one another is required, since the
relative magnitude of the two flow rates can lead to significant errors at higher dilution ratios (of
15 and above). Flow control is very straight forward by keeping the dilute exhaust flow rate
constant and varying the diluent flow rate, if needed.
When using partial flow dilution systems, attention shall be paid to avoiding the potential
problems of loss of particulates in the transfer tube, ensuring that a representative sample is
taken from the engine exhaust, and determination of the split ratio. The systems described pay
attention to these critical areas.

Figure 12
Partial Flow Dilution System with Isokinetic Probe and
Fractional Sampling (PB Control)
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through the
transfer tube TT by the isokinetic sampling probe ISP. The differential pressure of the exhaust
gas between exhaust pipe and inlet to the probe is measured with the pressure transducer
DPT. This signal is transmitted to the flow controller FC1 that controls the pressure blower PB
to maintain a differential pressure of zero at the tip of the probe. This is done by taking a small
fraction of the diluent whose flow rate has already been measured with the flow measurement
device FM1, and feeding it to TT by means of a pneumatic orifice. Under these conditions,
exhaust gas velocities in EP and ISP are identical, and the flow through ISP and TT is a
constant fraction (split) of the exhaust gas flow. The split ratio is determined from the cross
sectional areas of EP and ISP. The diluent is sucked through DT by the suction blower SB, and
the flow rate is measured with FM1 at the inlet to DT. The dilution ratio is calculated from the
diluent flow rate and the split ratio.

Figure 14
Partial Flow Dilution System with CO Concentration Measurement,
Carbon Balance and Total Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through the
sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The CO concentrations are measured in the
diluted exhaust gas and in the diluent with the exhaust gas analyzer(s) EGA. The CO and fuel
flow G signals are transmitted either to the flow controller FC2, or to the flow controller FC3
of the particulate sampling system (see Figure 21). FC2 controls the pressure blower PB, FC3
the sampling pump P (see Figure 21), thereby adjusting the flows into and out of the system so
as to maintain the desired exhaust split and dilution ratio in DT. The dilution ratio is calculated
from the CO concentrations and G using the carbon balance assumption.

Figure 16
Partial Flow Dilution System with Twin Venturi or Twin Orifice,
Concentration Measurement and Fractional Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through the
sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT by a flow divider that contains a set of orifices or
venturis. The first one (FD1) is located in EP, the second one (FD2) in TT. Additionally, two
pressure control valves (PCV1 and PCV2) are necessary to maintain a constant exhaust split
by controlling the backpressure in EP and the pressure in DT. PCV1 is located downstream of
SP in EP, PCV2 between the pressure blower PB and DT. The tracer gas concentrations (CO
or NO ) are measured in the raw exhaust gas, the diluted exhaust gas, and the diluent with the
exhaust gas analyzer(s) EGA. They are necessary for checking the exhaust split, and may be
used to adjust PCV1 and PCV2 for precise split control. The dilution ratio is calculated from the
tracer gas concentrations.

Figure 18
Partial Flow Dilution System with Flow Control and Total Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through the
sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The total flow through the tunnel is adjusted with
the flow controller FC3 and the sampling pump P of the particulate sampling system
(see Figure 18). The diluent flow is controlled by the flow controller FC2, which may use G ,
G , or G as command signals, for the desired exhaust split. The sample flow into DT is
the difference of the total flow and the diluent flow. The diluent flow rate is measured with the
flow measurement device FM1, the total flow rate with the flow measurement device FM3 of the
particulate sampling system (see Figure 21). The dilution ratio is calculated from these two flow
rates.

For systems without isokinetic probe, it is recommended to have a straight pipe of 6-pipe
diameters upstream and 3-pipe diameters downstream of the tip of the probe.
SP Sampling Probe (Figures 10, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 19)
The minimum inside diameter shall be 4mm. The minimum diameter ratio between exhaust
pipe and probe shall be 4. The probe shall be an open tube facing upstream on the exhaust
pipe centreline, or a multiple hole probe as described under SP1 in Paragraph 1.2.1., Figure 5.
ISP Isokinetic Sampling Probe (Figures 11 and 12)
The isokinetic sampling probe shall be installed facing upstream on the exhaust pipe centreline
where the flow conditions in Paragraph EP are met, and designed to provide a proportional
sample of the raw exhaust gas. The minimum inside diameter shall be 12mm.
A control system is necessary for isokinetic exhaust splitting by maintaining a differential
pressure of zero between EP and ISP. Under these conditions exhaust gas velocities in EP and
ISP are identical and the mass flow through ISP is a constant fraction of the exhaust gas flow.
ISP has to be connected to a differential pressure transducer DPT. The control to provide a
differential pressure of zero between EP and ISP is done with the flow controller FC1.
FD1, FD2 Flow Divider (Figure 16)
A set of venturis or orifices is installed in the exhaust pipe EP and in the transfer tube TT,
respectively, to provide a proportional sample of the raw exhaust gas. A control system
consisting of two pressure control valves PCV1 and PCV2 is necessary for proportional splitting
by controlling the pressures in EP and DT.
FD3 Flow Divider (Figure 17)
A set of tubes (multiple tube unit) is installed in the exhaust pipe EP to provide a proportional
sample of the raw exhaust gas. One of the tubes feeds exhaust gas to the dilution tunnel DT,
whereas the other tubes exit exhaust gas to a damping chamber DC. The tubes shall have the
same dimensions (same diameter, length, bend radius), so that the exhaust split depends on
the total number of tubes. A control system is necessary for proportional splitting by
maintaining a differential pressure of zero between the exit of the multiple tube unit into DC and
the exit of TT. Under these conditions, exhaust gas velocities in EP and FD3 are proportional,
and the flow TT is a constant fraction of the exhaust gas flow. The two points have to be
connected to a differential pressure transducer DPT. The control to provide a differential
pressure of zero is done with the flow controller FC1.
EGA Exhaust Gas Analyzer (Figures 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17)
CO or NO analyzers may be used (with carbon balance method CO only). The analyzers
shall be calibrated like the analyzers for the measurement of the gaseous emissions. One or
several analyzers may be used to determine the concentration differences. The accuracy of the
measuring systems has to be such that the accuracy of G is within ±4%.

VN Venturi (Figure 15)
A venturi is installed in the dilution tunnel DT to create a negative pressure in the region of the
exit of the transfer tube TT. The gas flow rate through TT is determined by the momentum
exchange at the venturi zone, and is basically proportional to the flow rate of the pressure
blower PB leading to a constant dilution ratio. Since the momentum exchange is affected by the
temperature at the exit of TT and the pressure difference between EP and DT, the actual
dilution ratio is slightly lower at low load than at high load.
FC2 Flow Controller (Figures 13, 14, 18 and 19, Optional)
A flow controller may be used to control the flow of the pressure blower PB and/or the suction
blower SB. It may be connected to the exhaust, intake air, or fuel flow signals and/or to the CO
or NO differential signals. When using a pressurised air supply (Figure 18), FC2 directly
controls the air flow.
FM1 Flow Measurement Device (Figures 11, 12, 18 and 19)
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluent flow. FM1 is optional if the
pressure blower PB is calibrated to measure the flow.
FM2 Flow Measurement Device (Figure 19)
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluted exhaust gas flow. FM2 is
optional if the suction blower SB is calibrated to measure the flow.
PB Pressure Blower (Figures 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 19)
To control the diluent flow rate, PB may be connected to the flow controllers FC1 or FC2. PB is
not required when using a butterfly valve. PB may be used to measure the diluent flow, if
calibrated.
SB Suction Blower (Figures 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19)
For fractional sampling systems only. SB may be used to measure the diluted exhaust gas
flow, if calibrated.
DAF Diluent Filter (Figures 11 to 19)
It is recommended that the diluent be filtered and charcoal scrubbed to eliminate background
hydrocarbons. At the engine manufacturers request the diluent shall be sampled according to
good engineering practice to determine the background particulate levels, which can then be
subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust.

2.3. Full Flow Dilution System
A dilution system is described in Figure 20 based upon the dilution of the total exhaust using
the CVS (constant volume dampling) concept. The total volume of the mixture of exhaust and
diluent shall be measured. Either a PDP or a CFV system may be used.
For subsequent collection of the particulates, a sample of the dilute exhaust gas is passed to
the particulate sampling system (Paragraph 2.4., Figures 21 and 22). If this is done directly, it is
referred to as single dilution. If the sample is diluted once more in the secondary dilution tunnel,
it is referred to as double dilution. This is useful, if the filter face temperature requirement
cannot be met with single dilution. Although partly a dilution system, the double dilution system
is described as a modification of a particulate sampling system in Paragraph 2.4., Figure 22,
since it shares most of the parts with a typical particulate sampling system.
Figure 20
Full Flow Dilution System to Background Filter
The total amount of raw exhaust gas is mixed in the dilution tunnel DT with the diluent. The
diluted exhaust gas flow rate is measured either with a positive displacement pump PDP or
with a critical flow venturi CFV. A heat exchanger HE or electronic flow compensation EFC may
be used for proportional particulate sampling and for flow determination. Since particulate mass
determination is based on the total diluted exhaust gas flow, the dilution ratio is not required to
be calculated.

DT Dilution Tunnel
The dilution tunnel:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
shall be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds number greater than
4,000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and diluent; a
mixing orifice may be used;
shall be at least 460mm in diameter with a single dilution system;
shall be at least 210mm in diameter with a double dilution system;
may be insulated.
The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the
dilution tunnel, and thoroughly mixed.
When using single dilution, a sample from the dilution tunnel is transferred to the particulate
sampling system (Paragraph 2.4., Figure 21). The flow capacity of the PDP or CFV shall be
sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust at a temperature of less than or equal to 325K (52°C)
immediately before the primary particulate filter.
When using double dilution, a sample from the dilution tunnel is transferred to the secondary
dilution tunnel where it is further diluted, and then passed through the sampling filters
(Paragraph 2.4., Figure 22). The flow capacity of the PDP or CFV shall be sufficient to maintain
the diluted exhaust stream in the DT at a temperature of less than or equal to 464K (191°C) at
the sampling zone. The secondary dilution system shall provide sufficient secondary diluent to
maintain the doubly-diluted exhaust stream at a temperature of less than or equal to 325K
(52°C) immediately before the primary particulate filter.
DAF Diluent Filter
It is recommended that the diluent be filtered and charcoal scrubbed to eliminate background
hydrocarbons. At the engine manufacturers request the diluent shall be sampled according to
good engineering practice to determine the background particulate levels, which can then be
subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust.
PSP Particulate Sampling Probe
The probe is the leading section of PTT and:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the diluent and exhaust gas are well
mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel (DT) centreline approximately 10 tunnel diameters
downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel;
shall be of 12mm minimum inside diameter;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct heating or by
diluent pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52°C) prior to
the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
may be insulated.

Figure 22
Double Dilution System (Full Flow System Only)
A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is transferred from the dilution tunnel DT of a full flow
dilution system through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer tube
PTT to the secondary dilution tunnel SDT, where it is diluted once more. The sample is then
passed through the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The diluent
flow rate is usually constant whereas the sample flow rate is controlled by the flow controller
FC3. If electronic flow compensation EFC (see Figure 20) is used, the total diluted exhaust gas
flow is used as command signal for FC3.
2.4.1. Components of Figures 21 and 22
PTT Particulate Transfer Tube (Figures 21 and 22)
The particulate transfer tube shall not exceed 1,020mm in length, and shall be minimized in
length whenever possible. As indicated below (i.e. for partial flow dilution fractional sampling
systems and for full flow dilution systems), the length of the sampling probes (SP, ISP, PSP,
respectively, see Paragraphs 2.2. and 2.3.) shall be included.
The dimensions are valid for:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the partial flow dilution fractional sampling type and the full flow single dilution system
from the tip of the probe (SP, ISP, PSP, respectively) to the filter holder;
the partial flow dilution total sampling type from the end of the dilution tunnel to the filter
holder;
the full flow double dilution system from the tip of the probe (PSP) to the secondary
dilution tunnel.
The transfer tube:
(a)
(b)
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct heating or by
diluent pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52°C) prior to
the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
may be insulated.

BV Ball Valve (Optional)
The ball valve shall have an inside diameter not less than the inside diameter of the particulate
transfer tube PTT, and a switching time of less than 0.5s.
Note: If the ambient temperature in the vicinity of PSP, PTT, SDT, and FH is below 293K
(20°C), precautions should be taken to avoid particle losses onto the cool wall of these
parts. Therefore, heating and/or insulating these parts within the limits given in the
respective descriptions is recommended. It is also recommended that the filter face
temperature during sampling be not below 293K (20°C).
At high engine loads, the above parts may be cooled by a non-aggressive means such as a
circulating fan, as long as the temperature of the cooling medium is not below 293K (20°C).
3. DETERMINATION OF SMOKE
3.1. Introduction
Paragraphs 3.2. and 3.3. and Figures 23 and 24 contain detailed descriptions of the
recommended opacimeter systems. Since various configurations can produce equivalent
results, exact conformance with Figures 23 and 24 is not required. Additional components such
as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, and switches may be used to provide additional
information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components which
are not needed to maintain the accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion
is based upon good engineering judgement.
The principle of measurement is that light is transmitted through a specific length of the smoke
to be measured and that proportion of the incident light which reaches a receiver is used to
assess the light obscuration properties of the medium. The smoke measurement depends upon
the design of the apparatus, and may be done in the exhaust pipe (full flow in-line opacimeter),
at the end of the exhaust pipe (full flow end-of-line opacimeter) or by taking a sample from the
exhaust pipe (partial flow opacimeter). For the determination of the light absorption coefficient
from the opacity signal, the optical path length of the instrument shall be supplied by the
instrument manufacturer.
3.2. Full Flow Opacimeter
Two general types of full flow opacimeters may be used (Figure 23). With the in-line
opacimeter, the opacity of the full exhaust plume within the exhaust pipe is measured. With this
type of opacimeter, the effective optical path length is a function of the opacimeter design.
With the end-of-line opacimeter, the opacity of the full exhaust plume is measured as it exits
the exhaust pipe. With this type of opacimeter, the effective optical path length is a function of
the exhaust pipe design and the distance between the end of the exhaust pipe and the
opacimeter.

LD Light Detector
The detector shall be a photocell or a photodiode (with a filter, if necessary). In the case of an
incandescent light source, the receiver shall have a peak spectral response similar to the
phototopic curve of the human eye (maximum response) in the range of 550 to 570nm, to less
than 4% of that maximum response below 430nm and above 680nm. The light detector shall
be protected against sooting by means that do not influence the optical path length beyond the
manufacturers specifications.
CL Collimating Lens
The light output shall be collimated to a beam with a maximum diameter of 30mm. The rays of
the light beam shall be parallel within a tolerance of ±3° of the optical axis.
T1 Temperature Sensor (optional)
The exhaust gas temperature may be monitored over the test.
3.3. Partial Flow Opacimeter
With the partial flow opacimeter (Figure 24), a representative exhaust sample is taken from the
exhaust pipe and passed through a transfer line to the measuring chamber. With this type of
opacimeter, the effective optical path length is a function of the opacimeter design. The
response times referred to in the following Paragraph apply to the minimum flow rate of the
opacimeter, as specified by the instrument manufacturer.
Figure 24
Partial Flow Opacimeter

OPL Optical Path Length
The length of the smoke obscured optical path between the opacimeter light source and the
receiver, corrected as necessary for non-uniformity due to density gradients and fringe effect.
The optical path length shall be submitted by the instrument manufacturer taking into account
any measures against sooting (e.g. purge air). If the optical path length is not available, it shall
be determined in accordance with ISO 11614, Paragraph 11.6.5.
LS Light Source
The light source shall be an incandescent lamp with a colour temperature in the range of 2,800
to 3,250K or a green light emitting diode (LED) with a spectral peak between 550 and 570nm.
The light source shall be protected against sooting by means that do not influence the optical
path length beyond the manufacturer's specifications.
LD Light Detector
The detector shall be a photocell or a photodiode (with a filter, if necessary). In the case of an
incandescent light source, the receiver shall have a peak spectral response similar to the
phototopic curve of the human eye (maximum response) in the range of 550 to 570nm, to less
than 4% of that maximum response below 430nm and above 680nm. The light detector shall
be protected against sooting by means that do not influence the optical path length beyond the
manufacturer's specifications.
CL Collimating Lens
The light output shall be collimated to a beam with a maximum diameter of 30mm. The rays of
the light beam shall be parallel within a tolerance of ±3° of the optical axis.
T1 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the exhaust gas temperature at the entrance to the measuring chamber.
P Sampling Pump (Optional)
A sampling pump downstream of the measuring chamber may be used to transfer the sample
gas through the measuring chamber.

3.1.9. "exhaust after-treatment system" means a catalyst (oxidation or 3-way), particulate filter,
deNO system, combined deNO particulate filter or any other emission-reducing device that
is installed downstream of the engine. This definition excludes exhaust gas recirculation
(EGR), which is considered an integral part of the engine.
3.1.10. "full flow dilution method" means the process of mixing the total exhaust flow with diluent
prior to separating a fraction of the diluted exhaust stream for analysis.
3.1.11. "gaseous pollutants" means carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and/or non-methane
hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of CH for diesel, CH for LPG and CH for NG, and
an assumed molecule CH O for ethanol fuelled diesel engines), methane (assuming a
ratio of CH for NG) and oxides of nitrogen (expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO ) equivalent).
3.1.12. "high speed (n )" means the highest Engine Speed where 70% of the declared maximum
power occurs.
3.1.13. "low speed (n )" means the lowest Engine Speed where 55% of the declared maximum
power occurs.
3.1.14.
"maximum power (P
)" means the maximum power in kW as specified by the
manufacturer.
3.1.15. "maximum torque speed" means the Engine Speed at which the maximum torque is
obtained from the engine, as specified by the manufacturer.
3.1.16. "normalized torque" means engine torque in % normalized to the maximum available
torque at an Engine Speed.
3.1.17. "operator demand" means an engine operator's input to control engine output. The
operator may be a person (i.e., manual), or a governor (i.e., automatic) that mechanically or
electronically signals an input that demands engine output. Input may be from an
accelerator pedal or signal, a throttle control lever or signal, a fuel lever or signal, a speed
lever or signal, or a governor setpoint or signal.
3.1.18. "parent engine" means an engine selected from an engine family in such a way that its
emissions characteristics are representative for that engine family.
3.1.19. "particulate after-treatment device" means an exhaust after-treatment system designed
to reduce emissions of particulate pollutants (PM) through a mechanical, aerodynamic,
diffusional or inertial separation.
3.1.20. "partial flow dilution method" means the process of separating a part from the total
exhaust flow, then mixing it with an appropriate amount of dilution air prior to the particulate
sampling filter.
3.1.21. "particulate matter (PM)" means any material collected on a specified filter medium after
diluting exhaust with clean filtered air to a temperature between 315K (42°C) and 325K
(52°C); this is primarily carbon, condensed hydrocarbons, and sulphates with associated
water.
3.1.22. "periodic regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust after-treatment
system that occurs periodically in typically less than 100h of normal engine operation.
During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards may be exceeded.

Figure 1
Definitions of System Response
3.2. General Symbols
Symbol Unit Term
a
-
Slope of the regression
a
-
y intercept of the regression
A/Fst
-
Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio
c
ppm/Vol %
Concentration
c
ppm/Vol %
Background concentration
c
ppm/Vol %
Concentration on dry basis
c
ppm/Vol %
Concentration of the gaseous components
c
ppm/Vol %
Concentration on wet basis
C
-
Discharge coefficient of SSV
d
m
Diameter
d
m
Throat diameter of venturi
D
m /s
PDP calibration intercept
D
-
Dilution factor
Δt
s
Time interval
e
g/kWh
Specific emission of gaseous components
e
g/kWh
Specific emission of particulates
e
g/kWh
Specific emission during regeneration
e
g/kWh
Weighted specific emission
E
%
CO quench of NO analyzer
E
%
Ethane efficiency
E
O
%
Water quench of NO analyzer
E
%
Methane efficiency
E
%
Efficiency of NO converter
f
Hz
Data sampling rate
f
-
Laboratory atmospheric factor
F
-
Stoichiometric factor
H
g/kg
Absolute humidity of the intake air
H
g/kg
Absolute humidity of the diluent

Symbol Unit Term
P kW
Power
PkW
Power absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted
PkW
Power absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be removed
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the raw exhaust gas
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate into the engine
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the partial flow dilution system
q
kg/s
Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Diluent mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Sample mass flow rate extracted from dilution tunnel
q
kg/s
Fuel mass flow rate
q
kg/s
Sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system
q
m³/s
CVS volume rate
q
dm³/min
System flow rate of exhaust analyzer system
q
cm³/min
Tracer gas flow rate
r
-
Coefficient of determination
r
-
Dilution ratio
r
-
Diameter ratio of SSV
r
-
Hydrocarbon response factor of the FID
r
-
Methanol response factor of the FID
r
-
Pressure ratio of SSV
r
-
Average sample ratio
s
Standard deviation
ρ
kg/m³
Density
ρ
kg/m³
Exhaust gas density
σ
Standard deviation
T
K
Absolute temperature
T
K
Absolute temperature of the intake air
t
s
Time
t
s
Time between step input and 10% of final reading
t
s
Time between step input and 50% of final reading
t
s
Time between step input and 90% of final reading
u
-
Ratio between densities of gas component and exhaust gas
V
m /r
PDP gas volume pumped per revolution
V
dm³
System volume of exhaust analyzer bench
W
kWh
Actual cycle work of the test cycle
W
kWh
Reference cycle work of the test cycle
X
m /r
PDP calibration function

4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The engine system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the
engine in normal use to comply with the provisions of this Annex during its useful life, as
defined in this Regulation.
5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1. Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants
The emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants by the engine shall be determined on
the WHTC and WHSC test cycles, as described in Paragraph 7. The measurement systems
shall meet the linearity requirements in Paragraph 9.2. and the specifications in Paragraph
9.3. (gaseous emissions measurement), Paragraph 9.4. (particulate measurement) and in
Appendix 3 to this Annex.
Other systems or analyzers may be approved by the type Approval Authority, if it is found
that they yield equivalent results in accordance with Paragraph 5.1.1.
5.1.1. Equivalency
The determination of system equivalency shall be based on a seven-sample pair (or larger)
correlation study between the system under consideration and one of the systems of this
Annex.
"Results" refer to the specific cycle weighted emissions value. The correlation testing is to
be performed at the same laboratory, test cell, and on the same engine, and is preferred to
be run concurrently. The equivalency of the sample pair averages shall be determined by F-
test and t-test statistics as described in Appendix 4, Paragraph A.4.3., obtained under the
laboratory test cell and the engine conditions described above. Outliers shall be determined
in accordance with ISO 5725 and excluded from the database. The systems to be used for
correlation testing shall be subject to the approval by the type Approval Authority.
5.2. Engine Family
5.2.1. General
An engine family is characterized by design parameters. These shall be common to all
engines within the family. The engine manufacturer may decide, which engines belong to an
engine family, as long as the membership criteria listed in Paragraph 5.2.3. are respected.
The engine family shall be approved by the type Approval Authority. The manufacturer shall
provide to the type Approval Authority the appropriate information relating to the emission
levels of the members of the engine family.

5.2.3.4. Individual Cylinder Displacement
5.2.3.4.1. Engine with a unit cylinder displacement ≥0.75 dm³
In order for engines with a unit cylinder displacement of ≥0.75 dm³ to be considered to
belong to the same engine family, the spread of their individual cylinder displacements shall
not exceed 15% of the largest individual cylinder displacement within the family.
5.2.3.4.2. Engine with a unit cylinder displacement < 0.75 dm³
In order for engines with a unit cylinder displacement of < 0.75 dm³ to be considered to
belong to the same engine family, the spread of their individual cylinder displacements shall
not exceed 30% of the largest individual cylinder displacement within the family.
5.2.3.4.3. Engine with other unit cylinder displacement limits
Engines with an individual cylinder displacement that exceeds the limits defined in
Paragraphs 5.2.3.4.1. and 5.2.3.4.2. may be considered to belong to the same family with
the approval of the type Approval Authority. The approval shall be based on technical
elements (calculations, simulations, experimental results etc.) showing that exceeding the
limits does not have a significant influence on the exhaust emissions.
5.2.3.5. Method of Air Aspiration
(a)
(b)
(c)
Naturally aspirated
Pressure charged
Pressure charged with charge cooler
5.2.3.6. Fuel Type
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Diesel
Natural gas (NG)
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Ethanol
5.2.3.7. Combustion Chamber Type
(a)
(b)
(c)
Open chamber
Divided chamber
Other types
5.2.3.8. Ignition Type
(a)
(b)
Positive ignition
Compression ignition

5.2.3.12. Electronic Control Strategy
The presence or absence of an electronic control unit (ECU) on the engine is regarded as a
basic parameter of the family.
In the case of electronically controlled engines, the manufacturer shall present the technical
elements explaining the grouping of these engines in the same family, i.e. the reasons why
these engines can be expected to satisfy the same emission requirements.
These elements can be calculations, simulations, estimations, description of injection
parameters, experimental results, etc.
Examples of controlled features are:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Timing
Injection pressure
Multiple injections
Boost pressure
VGT
EGR
5.2.3.13. Exhaust After-Treatment Systems
The function and combination of the following devices are regarded as membership criteria
for an engine family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Oxidation catalyst
Three-way catalyst
deNO system with selective reduction of NO (addition of reducing agent)
Other deNO systems
Particulate trap with passive regeneration
Particulate trap with active regeneration
Other particulate traps
Other devices
When an engine has been certified without after-treatment system, whether as parent
engine or as member of the family, then this engine, when equipped with an oxidation
catalyst, may be included in the same engine family, if it does not require different fuel
characteristics.

6. TEST CONDITIONS
6.1. Laboratory Test Conditions
The absolute temperature (T ) of the intake air at the inlet to the engine expressed in Kelvin,
and the dry atmospheric pressure (p ), expressed in kPa shall be measured and the
parameter f shall be determined according to the following provisions. In multi-cylinder
engines having distinct groups of intake manifolds, such as in a "Vee" engine configuration,
the average temperature of the distinct groups shall be taken. The parameter f shall be
reported with the test results. For better repeatability and reproducibility of the test results, it
is recommended that the parameter f be such that: 0.93 ≤ f ≤ 1.07.
(a)
Compression-ignition engines:
Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines:
⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛ T ⎞
f = ⎜ ⎟
× ⎜ ⎟
p
(1)
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 298 ⎠
Turbocharged engines with or without cooling of the intake air:
⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛ T ⎞
f = ⎜ ⎟
× ⎜ ⎟
p
(2)
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 298 ⎠
(b)
Positive ignition engines:
6.2. Engines with Charge Air-Cooling
⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛ T ⎞
f = ⎜ ⎟
× ⎜ ⎟
p
(3)
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 298 ⎠
The charge air temperature shall be recorded and shall be, at the rated speed and full load,
within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer. The
temperature of the cooling medium shall be at least 293K (20°C).
If a test laboratory system or external blower is used, the coolant flow rate shall be set to
achieve a charge air temperature within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature
specified by the manufacturer at the rated speed and full load. Coolant temperature and
coolant flow rate of the charge air cooler at the above set point shall not be changed for the
whole test cycle, unless this results in unrepresentative overcooling of the charge air. The
charge air cooler volume shall be based upon good engineering practice and shall be
representative of the production engine's in-use installation. The laboratory system shall be
designed to minimize accumulation of condensate. Any accumulated condensate shall be
drained and all drains shall be completely closed before emission testing.
If the engine manufacturer specifies pressure-drop limits across the charge-air cooling
system, it shall be ensured that the pressure drop across the charge-air cooling system at
engine conditions specified by the manufacturer is within the manufacturer's specified
limit(s). The pressure drop shall be measured at the manufacturer's specified locations.

6.3.5. Engine Cycle Work
The calculation of reference and actual cycle work (see Paragraphs 7.4.8. and 7.8.6.) shall
be based upon engine power according to Paragraph 6.3.1. In this case, P and P of
Equation 4 are zero, and P equals P .
If auxiliaries/equipment are installed according to Paragraphs 6.3.2. and/or 6.3.3., the power
absorbed by them shall be used to correct each instantaneous cycle power value P , as
follows:
where:
P is the measured engine power, kW
P = P – P + P (4)
P
P
is the power absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted, kW
is the power absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be removed, kW.
6.4. Engine Air Intake System
An engine air intake system or a test laboratory system shall be used presenting an air
intake restriction within ±300 Pa of the maximum value specified by the manufacturer for a
clean air cleaner at the rated speed and full load. The static differential pressure of the
restriction shall be measured at the location specified by the manufacturer.
6.5. Engine Exhaust System
An engine exhaust system or a test laboratory system shall be used presenting an exhaust
backpressure within 80 to 100% of the maximum value specified by the manufacturer at the
rated speed and full load. If the maximum restriction is 5kPa or less, the set point shall be
no less than 1.0kPa from the maximum. The exhaust system shall conform to the
requirements for exhaust gas sampling, as set out in Paragraphs 9.3.10. and 9.3.11.
6.6. Engine with Exhaust After-treatment System
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust pipe shall
have the same diameter as found in-use, or as specified by the manufacturer, for at least
four pipe diameters upstream of the expansion section containing the after-treatment
device. The distance from the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust
after-treatment system shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration or within the
distance specifications of the manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall
follow the same criteria as above, and may be set with a valve. For variable-restriction
aftertreatment devices, the maximum exhaust restriction is defined at the aftertreatment
condition (degreening/aging and regeneration/loading level) specified by the manufacturer.
If the maximum restriction is 5kPa or less, the set point shall be no less than 1.0kPa from
the maximum. The after-treatment container may be removed during dummy tests and
during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive
catalyst support.

The manufacturer shall declare the normal parameter conditions under which the
regeneration process occurs (soot load, temperature, exhaust back-pressure, etc.) and its
duration based on the number of cycles (n ). The manufacturer shall also provide the
frequency of the regeneration event in terms of number of tests during which the
regeneration occurs compared to number of tests without regeneration. The exact
procedure to determine this frequency shall be based upon in use data using good
engineering judgement, and shall be agreed by the type approval or certification authority.
The manufacturer shall provide an after-treatment system that has been loaded in order to
achieve regeneration during a WHTC test. For the purpose of this testing, the engine shall
be warmed up in accordance with Paragraph 7.4.1., the engine be soaked according to
Paragraph 7.6.3. and the WHTC hot start test be started. Regeneration shall not occur
during the engine warm-up.
Average specific emissions between regeneration phases shall be determined from the
arithmetic mean of several approximately equidistant WHTC hot start test results (g/kWh).
As a minimum, at least one WHTC hot start test as close as possible prior to a regeneration
test and one WHTC hot start test immediately after a regeneration test shall be conducted.
As an alternative, the manufacturer may provide data to show that the emissions remain
constant (±25% or 0.005g/kWh, whichever is greater) between regeneration phases. In this
case, the emissions of only one WHTC hot start test may be used.
During the regeneration test, all the data needed to detect regeneration shall be recorded
(CO or NO emissions, temperature before and after the after-treatment system, exhaust
back pressure, etc.).
During the regeneration process, the applicable emission limits may be exceeded.
The test procedure is schematically shown in Figure 2.

For the determination of e , the following provisions apply:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If regeneration takes more than one hot start WHTC, consecutive full hot start WHTC
tests shall be conducted and emissions continued to be measured without soaking
and without shutting the engine off, until regeneration is completed, and the average
of the hot start WHTC tests be calculated;
If regeneration is completed during any hot start WHTC, the test shall be continued
over its entire length. In agreement with the type approval authority, the regeneration
adjustment factors may be applied either multiplicative (c) or additive (d) based upon
good engineering analysis.
The multiplicative adjustment factors shall be calculated as follows:
k
e
= (upward)
(6)
e
k
e
= (downward)
(7)
e
(d)
The additive adjustment factors shall be calculated as follows:
k = e - e (upward) (7)
k = e - e (downward) (8)
With reference to the specific emission calculations in Paragraph 8.6.3., the regeneration
adjustment factors shall be applied, as follows:
(e) For a test without regeneration, k shall be multiplied with or be added to,
respectively, the specific emission e in Equations 69 or 70;
(f) For a test with regeneration, k shall be multiplied with or be added to, respectively,
the specific emission e in Equations 69 or 70. At the request of the manufacturer, the
regeneration adjustment factors:
(g)
(h)
May be extended to other members of the same engine family;
May be extended to other engine families using the same aftertreatment system with
the prior approval of the type approval or certification authority based on technical
evidence to be supplied by the manufacturer, that the emissions are similar.
6.7. Cooling System
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating
temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer shall be used.
6.8. Lubricating Oil
The lubricating oil shall be specified by the manufacturer and be representative of
lubricating oil available on the market; the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the
test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test.

7. TEST PROCEDURES
7.1. Principles of Emissions Measurement
To measure the specific emissions, the engine shall be operated over the test cycles
defined in Paragraphs 7.2.1. and 7.2.2. The measurement of specific emissions requires the
determination of the mass of components in the exhaust and the corresponding engine
cycle work. The components are determined by the sampling methods described in
Paragraphs 7.1.1. and 7.1.2.
7.1.1. Continuous Sampling
In continuous sampling, the component's concentration is measured continuously from raw
or dilute exhaust. This concentration is multiplied by the continuous (raw or dilute) exhaust
flow rate at the emission sampling location to determine the component's mass flow rate.
The component's emission is continuously summed over the test cycle. This sum is the total
mass of the emitted component.
7.1.2. Batch Sampling
In batch sampling, a sample of raw or dilute exhaust is continuously extracted and stored for
later measurement. The extracted sample shall be proportional to the raw or dilute exhaust
flow rate. Examples of batch sampling are collecting diluted gaseous components in a bag
and collecting particulate matter (PM) on a filter. The batch sampled concentrations are
multiplied by the total exhaust mass or mass flow (raw or dilute) from which it was extracted
during the test cycle. This product is the total mass or mass flow of the emitted component.
To calculate the PM concentration, the PM deposited onto a filter from proportionally
extracted exhaust shall be divided by the amount of filtered exhaust.
7.1.3. Measurement Procedures
This Annex applies two measurement procedures that are functionally equivalent. Both
procedures may be used for both the WHTC and the WHSC test cycle:
(a)
(b)
The gaseous components are sampled continuously in the raw exhaust gas, and the
particulates are determined using a partial flow dilution system;
The gaseous components and the particulates are determined using a full flow
dilution system (CVS system).
Any combination of the two principles (e.g. raw gaseous measurement and full flow
particulate measurement) is permitted.

7.2.2. Ramped Steady State Test Cycle WHSC
The ramped steady state test cycle WHSC consists of a number of normalized speed and
load modes which shall be converted to the reference values for the individual engine under
test based on the engine-mapping curve. The engine shall be operated for the prescribed
time in each mode, whereby Engine Speed and load shall be changed linearly within
20 ± 1s. In order to validate the test run, a regression analysis between reference and actual
speed, torque and power values shall be conducted upon completion of the test.
The concentration of each gaseous pollutant, exhaust flow and power output shall be
determined over the test cycle. The gaseous pollutants may be recorded continuously or
sampled into a sampling bag. The particulate sample shall be diluted with a conditioned
diluent (such as ambient air). One sample over the complete test procedure shall be taken,
and collected on a single suitable filter.
For calculation of the brake specific emissions, the actual cycle work shall be calculated by
integrating actual engine power over the cycle.
The WHSC is shown in Table 1. Except for mode 1, the start of each mode is defined as the
beginning of the ramp from the previous mode.
Mode
Normalized
Speed
(%)
Table 1
WHSC Test Cycle
Normalized
Torque
(%)
Mode length (s)
incl. 20s ramp
1 0 0 210
2 55 100 50
3 55 25 250
4 55 70 75
5 35 100 50
6 25 25 200
7 45 70 75
8 45 25 150
9 55 50 125
10 75 100 50
11 35 50 200
12 35 25 250
13 0 0 210
Sum 1895


7.4.4. Alternate Mapping
If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or
unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used. These
alternate techniques shall satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures to
determine the maximum available torque at all Engine Speeds achieved during the test
cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified in this Paragraph for reasons of
safety or representativeness shall be approved by the type Approval Authority along with the
justification for their use. In no case, however, the torque curve shall be run by descending
Engine Speeds for governed or turbocharged engines.
7.4.5. Replicate Tests
An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine shall be
remapped prior to a test cycle if:
(a)
(b)
An unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by
engineering judgement, or
Physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine which potentially
affect engine performance.
7.4.6. Denormalization of Engine Speed
For generating the reference cycles, the normalized speeds of Appendix 1 (WHTC) and
Table 1 (WHSC) shall be denormalized using the following equation:
n = n x (0,45 x n + 0,45 x n + 0,1 x n − nidle) x 2,0327 + n (9)
For determination of n , the integral of the maximum torque shall be calculated from n to
n from the engine mapping curve, as determined in accordance with Paragraph 7.4.3.
The Engine Speeds in Figures 4 and 5 are defined, as follows:
n
is the lowest speed where the power is 55% of maximum power
n is the Engine Speed where the integral of maximum mapped torque is 51% of the
whole integral between nidle and n
n
is the highest speed where the power is 70% of maximum power
n is the idle speed
n
is the highest speed where the power is 95% of maximum power
For engines (mainly positive ignition engines) with a steep governor droop curve, where fuel
cut off does not permit to operate the engine up to n or n9 , the following provisions apply:
n in Equation 9 is replaced with n x 1.02
n is replaced with n x 1.02

7.4.7. Denormalization of Engine Torque
The torque values in the engine dynamometer schedule of Appendix 1 (WHTC) and in
Table 1 (WHSC) are normalized to the maximum torque at the respective speed. For
generating the reference cycles, the torque values for each individual reference speed value
as determined in Paragraph 7.4.6. shall be denormalized, using the mapping curve
determined according to Paragraph 7.4.3., as follows:
M
M
= x M + M − M
(10)
100
where:
M is the normalized torque, %
M is the maximum torque from the mapping curve, Nm
M
M
is the torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted, Nm
is the torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be removed, Nm
If auxiliaries/equipment are fitted in accordance with Paragraph 6.3.1. and Appendix 7, M
and M are zero.
The negative torque values of the motoring points (m in Appendix 1) shall take on, for
purposes of reference cycle generation, reference values determined in either of the
following ways:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Negative 40% of the positive torque available at the associated speed point;
Mapping of the negative torque required to motor the engine from maximum to
minimum mapping speed;
Determination of the negative torque required to motor the engine at idle and at n
and linear interpolation between these two points.
7.4.8. Calculation of Reference Cycle Work
Reference cycle work shall be determined over the test cycle by synchronously calculating
instantaneous values for engine power from reference speed and reference torque, as
determined in Paragraphs 7.4.6. and 7.4.7. Instantaneous engine power values shall be
integrated over the test cycle to calculate the reference cycle work W (kWh). If auxiliaries
are not fitted in accordance with Paragraph 6.3.1., the instantaneous power values shall be
corrected using Equation (4) in Paragraph 6.3.5.
The same methodology shall be used for integrating both reference and actual engine
power. If values are to be determined between adjacent reference or adjacent measured
values, linear interpolation shall be used. In integrating the actual cycle work, any negative
torque values shall be set equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a
frequency of less than 5Hz, and if, during a given time segment, the torque value changes
from positive to negative or negative to positive, the negative portion shall be computed and
set equal to zero. The positive portion shall be included in the integrated value.

7.5.4. Preparation of the Particulate Sampling Filter
At least one hour before the test, the filter shall be placed in a petri dish, which is protected
against dust contamination and allows air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilization. At the end of the stabilization period, the filter shall be weighed and the tare
weight shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter
holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the
weighing chamber.
7.5.5. Adjustment of the Dilution System
The total diluted exhaust gas flow of a full flow dilution system or the diluted exhaust gas
flow through a partial flow dilution system shall be set to eliminate water condensation in the
system, and to obtain a filter face temperature between 315K (42°C) and 325K (52°C).
7.5.6. Starting the Particulate Sampling System
The particulate sampling system shall be started and operated on by-pass. The particulate
background level of the diluent may be determined by sampling the diluent prior to the
entrance of the exhaust gas into the dilution tunnel. The measurement may be done prior to
or after the test. If the measurement is done both at the beginning and at the end of the
cycle, the values may be averaged. If a different sampling system is used for background
measurement, the measurement shall be done in parallel to the test run.
7.6. WHTC Cycle Run
7.6.1. Engine Cool-down
A natural or forced cool-down procedure may be applied. For forced cooldown, good
engineering judgment shall be used to set up systems to send cooling air across the engine,
to send cool oil through the engine lubrication system, to remove heat from the coolant
through the engine cooling system, and to remove heat from an exhaust after-treatment
system. In the case of a forced after-treatment system cool down, cooling air shall not be
applied until the after-treatment system has cooled below its catalytic activation
temperature. Any cooling procedure that results in unrepresentative emissions is not
permitted.
7.6.2. Cold Start Test
The cold-start test shall be started when the temperatures of the engine's lubricant, coolant,
and after-treatment systems are all between 293 and 303K (20 and 30°C). The engine shall
be started using one of the following methods:
(a)
(b)
The engine shall be started as recommended in the owners manual using a
production starter motor and adequately charged battery or a suitable power supply,
or
The engine shall be started by using the dynamometer. The engine shall be motored
within ±25% of its typical in-use cranking speed. Cranking shall be stopped within 1s
after the engine is running. If the engine does not start after 15s of cranking, cranking
shall be stopped and the reason for the failure to start determined, unless the owners
manual or the service-repair manual describes the longer cranking time as normal.

If a full flow dilution system is used, HC and NO shall be measured continuously in the
dilution tunnel with a frequency of at least 2Hz. The average concentrations shall be
determined by integrating the analyzer signals over the test cycle. The system response
time shall be no greater than 20s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and
sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO, CO , and NMHC may be determined by
integration of continuous measurement signals or by analyzing the concentrations in the
sample bag, collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the
diluent shall be determined prior to the point where the exhaust enters into the dilution
tunnel by integration or by collecting into the background bag. All other parameters that
need to be measured shall be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second
(1Hz).
7.6.7. Particulate Sampling
At the start of the test sequence, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from bypass
to collecting particulates.
If a partial flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be controlled, so that the
flow rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained proportional to
the exhaust mass flow rate as determined in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
If a full flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow
rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within
±2.5% of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is
used, it shall be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow
does not change by more than ±2.5% of its set value (except for the first 10s of sampling).
The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet
shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle within
±2.5% because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test
shall be rerun using a lower sample flow rate.
7.6.8. Engine Stalling and Equipment Malfunction
If the engine stalls anywhere during the cold start test, the test shall be voided. The engine
shall be preconditioned and restarted according to the requirements of Paragraph 7.6.2.,
and the test repeated.
If the engine stalls anywhere during the hot start test, the hot start test shall be voided. The
engine shall be soaked according to Paragraph 7.6.3., and the hot start test repeated. In this
case, the cold start test need not be repeated. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required
test equipment during the test cycle, the test shall be voided and repeated in line with the
above provisions.

If a full flow dilution system is used, HC and NO shall be measured continuously in the
dilution tunnel with a frequency of at least 2Hz. The average concentrations shall be
determined by integrating the analyzer signals over the test cycle. The system response
time shall be no greater than 20s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and
sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO, CO , and NMHC may be determined by
integration of continuous measurement signals or by analyzing the concentrations in the
sample bag, collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the
diluent shall be determined prior to the point where the exhaust enters into the dilution
tunnel by integration or by collecting into the background bag. All other parameters that
need to be measured shall be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second
(1Hz).
7.7.5. Particulate Sampling
At the start of the test sequence, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from
by-pass to collecting particulates. If a partial flow dilution system is used, the sample
pump(s) shall be controlled, so that the flow rate through the particulate sample probe or
transfer tube is maintained proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate as determined in
accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
If a full flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow
rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within
±2.5% of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is
used, it shall be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow
does not change by more than ±2.5% of its set value (except for the first 10s of sampling).
The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet
shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle within
±2.5% because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test
shall be rerun using a lower sample flow rate.
7.7.6. Engine Stalling and Equipment Malfunction
If the engine stalls anywhere during the cycle, the test shall be voided. The engine shall be
preconditioned according to Paragraph 7.7.1. and restarted according to Paragraph 7.7.2.,
and the test repeated.
If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the test cycle, the test
shall be voided and repeated in line with the above provisions.
7.8. Post-Test Procedures
7.8.1. Operations After Test
At the completion of the test, the measurement of the exhaust gas mass flow rate, the
diluted exhaust gas volume, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the particulate sample
pump shall be stopped. For an integrating analyzer system, sampling shall continue until
system response times have elapsed.
7.8.2. Verification of Proportional Sampling
For any proportional batch sample, such as a bag sample or PM sample, it shall be verified
that proportional sampling was maintained according to Paragraphs 7.6.7. and 7.7.5. Any
sample that does not fulfil the requirements shall be voided.

7.8.6. Validation of Cycle Work
Before calculating actual cycle work, any points recorded during engine starting shall be
omitted. Actual cycle work shall be determined over the test cycle by synchronously using
actual speed and actual torque values to calculate instantaneous values for engine power.
Instantaneous engine power values shall be integrated over the test cycle to calculate the
actual cycle work W (kWh). If auxiliaries/equipment are not fitted in accordance with
Paragraph 6.3.1., the instantaneous power values shall be corrected using Equation (4) in
Paragraph 6.3.5.
The same methodology as described in Paragraph 7.4.8. shall be used for integrating actual
engine power.
The actual cycle work W is used for comparison to the reference cycle work Wref and for
calculating the brake specific emissions (see Paragraph 8.6.3.).
W shall be between 85% and 105% of W .
7.8.7. Validation Statistics of the Test Cycle
Linear regressions of the actual values (n , M , P ) on the reference values (n , M ,
P ) shall be performed for both the WHTC and the WHSC.
To minimize the biasing effect of the time lag between the actual and reference cycle
values, the entire Engine Speed and torque actual signal sequence may be advanced or
delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the actual
signals are shifted, both speed and torque shall be shifted by the same amount in the same
direction.
The method of least squares shall be used, with the best-fit equation having the form:
where:
y = a x + a (11)
y
a
x
a
is the actual value of speed (min ), torque (Nm), or power (kW)
is the slope of the regression line
is the reference value of speed (min ), torque (Nm), or power (kW)
is the y intercept of the regression line
The standard error of estimate (SEE) of y on x and the coefficient of determination (r²) shall
be calculated for each regression line.
It is recommended that this analysis be performed at 1Hz. For a test to be considered valid,
the criteria of Table 2 (WHTC) or Table 3 (WHSC) shall be met.

Table 4
Permitted point omissions from regression analysis
Event
n = 0%
and
Conditions
Permitted point
omissions
Minimum operator
demand (idle point)
Minimum operator
demand (motoring point)
Minimum operator
Demand
Maximum operator
Demand
M
= 0%
And
M
> (M
- 0.02M
)
And
M
< (M
+ 0.02M
)
M
< 0%
n
≤ 1.02 n
and M
> M
or
n
> n
and M
≤ M
or
n
> 1.02 n
and M
< M
≤ (M
+
0.02M
)
n
< n
and M
≥ M
or
n
≥0.98 n
and M
< M
or
n
< 0.98 n
and M
> M
≥ (M
-
0.02M
)
speed and
power
power and
torque
power and
either torque or
speed
power and
either torque or
speed

and
k
1.608 × H
= (17)
1.000 +
( 1.608 × H )
where:
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
w is the hydrogen content of the fuel, % mass
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
q is the instantaneous dry intake air mass flow rate, kg/s
p
p
is the water vapour pressure after cooling bath, kPa
is the total atmospheric pressure, kPa
w is the nitrogen content of the fuel, % mass
w is the oxygen content of the fuel, % mass
α
is the molar hydrogen ratio of the fuel
c is the dry CO concentration, %
c is the dry CO concentration, %
Equations (13) and (14) are principally identical with the factor 1.008 in Equations (13) and
(15) being an approximation for the more accurate denominator in Equation (14).
8.1.2. Diluted Exhaust Gas
or
⎡⎛ α × c ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢⎜1


− k ⎥ × 1.008
⎢⎣
200
(18)

⎠ ⎥⎦
k
⎡⎛
⎞⎤
⎢⎜

( 1 k )

⎢⎜

= ⎟⎥
x 1.008
(19)
⎢⎜
α × c ⎟⎥
⎢⎜
1 + ⎟⎥
⎣⎝
200 ⎠⎦

8.2. NO Correction for Humidity
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for humidity with the factors given in Paragraph 8.2.1. or 8.2.2. The intake air
humidity H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, dew point measurement,
vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using generally accepted
equation.
8.2.1. Compression-ignition Engines
where:
15.698 × H
k = + 0.832
(23)
1,000
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
8.2.2. Positive Ignition Engines
where:
k = 0.6272 + 44.030 × 10 × H – 0.862 × 10 × H ² (19)
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
8.3. Particulate Filter Buoyancy Correction
The sampling filter mass shall be corrected for its buoyancy in air. The buoyancy correction
depends on sampling filter density, air density and the density of the balance calibration
weight, and does not account for the buoyancy of the PM itself. The buoyancy correction
shall be applied to both tare filter mass and gross filter mass.
If the density of the filter material is not known, the following densities shall be used:
(a) Teflon coated glass fiber filter: 2,300kg/m ;
(b) Teflon membrane filter: 2,144kg/m ;
(c) Teflon membrane filter with polymethylpentene support ring: 920kg/m .
For stainless steel calibration weights, a density of 8,000kg/m shall be used. If the material
of the calibration weight is different, its density shall be known.

8.4. Partial Flow Dilution (PFS) and Raw Gaseous Measurement
The instantaneous concentration signals of the gaseous components are used for the
calculation of the mass emissions by multiplication with the instantaneous exhaust mass
flow rate. The exhaust mass flow rate may be measured directly, or calculated using the
methods of intake air and fuel flow measurement, tracer method or intake air and air/fuel
ratio measurement. Special attention shall be paid to the response times of the different
instruments. These differences shall be accounted for by time aligning the signals. For
particulates, the exhaust mass flow rate signals are used for controlling the partial flow
dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The quality of
proportionality shall be checked by applying a regression analysis between sample and
exhaust flow in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1. The complete test set up is
schematically shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6
Scheme of Raw/Partial Flow Measurement System
8.4.1. Determination of Exhaust Gas Mass Flow
8.4.1.1. Introduction
For calculation of the emissions in the raw exhaust gas and for controlling of a partial flow
dilution system, it is necessary to know the exhaust gas mass flow rate. For the
determination of the exhaust mass flow rate-one of the methods described in
Paragraphs 8.4.1.3. to 8.4.1.7. may be used.

8.4.1.5. Tracer Measurement Method
This involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust.
A known amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas
flow as a tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but shall not react in the
exhaust pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas
sample.
In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall
be located at least 1m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger,
downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to
the injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration
with the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.
The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle
speed after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyzer.
The calculation of the exhaust gas flow shall be as follows:
q
q × p
= (29)
60 ×
( c − c )
where:
q is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
q
is tracer gas flow rate, cm³/min
c is the instantaneous concentration of the tracer gas after mixing, ppm
p is the density of the exhaust gas, kg/m³ (cf. Table 5)
c
is the background concentration of the tracer gas in the intake air, ppm
The background concentration of the tracer gas (c ) may be determined by averaging the
background concentration measured immediately before the test run and after the test run.
When the background concentration is less than 1% of the concentration of the tracer gas
after mixing (c ) at maximum exhaust flow, the background concentration may be
neglected.
The total system shall meet the linearity requirements for the exhaust gas flow of
Paragraph 9.2.

8.4.1.7. Carbon Balance Method
This involves exhaust mass calculation from the fuel flow and the gaseous exhaust
components that include carbon. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass
flow is as follows:
with
and
where:



w x 1.4 ⎛ H ⎞
q = q x
⎜1
+ ⎟ + 1 (33)

( c − c )
( 1.0828 x w + k x k ) x k ⎝ 1,000 ⎠ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠
c c
k = x 0.5441 + +
(34)
18.522 17.355
k = – 0.055594 x w + 0.0080021 x w + 0.0070046 x w (35)
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
w is the carbon content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the hydrogen content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the nitrogen content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the oxygen content of the fuel, per cent mass
c is the dry CO concentration, per cent
c s the dry CO concentration of the intake air, per cent
c is the dry CO concentration, ppm
c is the wet HC concentration, ppm

The following equation shall be applied:
m
=
u
× ∑ c
× q
1
×
f
(in g/test)
(36)
where:
u
is the respective value of the exhaust component from Table 5
c
is the instantaneous concentration of the component in the exhaust gas, ppm
q
is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow, kg/s
f
n
is the data sampling rate, Hz
is the number of measurements
Table 5
Raw Exhaust Gas u Values and component Densities

The molar mass of the exhaust, M , shall be derived for a general fuel composition
CH O N S under the assumption of complete combustion, as follows:
M
q
1 +
q
= (41)
α ε δ
H × 10
1
+ +
+
q
4 2 2
2 × 1.00794 + 15.994 M
×
+
q 12.011 + 1.00794 × α + 15.9994 × ε + 14.0067 × δ 32.065 × γ 1 + H × 10
where:
q is the instantaneous intake air mass flow rate on wet basis, kg/s
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
H
M
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
is the molar mass of the dry intake air = 28.965g/mol
The exhaust density ρ shall be derived, as follows:
ρ
where:
( q /q )
× ( q /q )
1,000 + H + 1,000 ×
= (42)
773.4 + 1.2434 × H + k × 1,000
q is the instantaneous intake air mass flow rate on dry basis, kg/s
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
k is the fuel specific factor according to Equation 11 in Paragraph 8.1.1.
8.4.3. Particulate Determination
8.4.3.1. Data Evaluation
The particulate mass shall be calculated according to Equation 27 of Paragraph 8.3. For the
evaluation of the particulate concentration, the total sample mass (m ) through the filter
over the test cycle shall be recorded.
With the prior approval of the type approval authority, the particulate mass may be corrected
for the particulate level of the diluent, as determined in Paragraph 7.5.6., in line with good
engineering practice and the specific design features of the particulate measurement
system used.

The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle shall be determined
as follows:
1
m = ∑ q ×
(46)
f
q = q × r
(47)
r
q
= (48)
( q − q )
where:
q is the instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
q is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
r
is the instantaneous dilution ratio
q is the instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
q is the instantaneous diluent mass flow rate, kg/s
f
n
is the data sampling rate, Hz
is the number of measurements
8.5. Full Flow Dilution Measurement (CVS)
The concentration signals, either by integration over the cycle or by bag sampling, of the
gaseous components shall be used for the calculation of the mass emissions by
multiplication with the diluted exhaust mass flow rate. The exhaust mass flow rate shall be
measured with a constant volume sampling (CVS) system, which may use a positive
displacement pump (PDP), a critical flow venturi (CFV) or a subsonic venturi (SSV) with or
without flow compensation.

8.5.1.2. PDP-CVS System
The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle is as follows, if the temperature of the diluted
exhaust is kept within ±6K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:
where:
m = 1.293 × V × n × p × 273/(101.3 × T) (49)
V
n
p
T
is the volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions, m³/rev
is the total revolutions of pump per test
is the absolute pressure at pump inlet, kPa
is the average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet, K
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous
mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the
instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
where:
m = 1.293 × V × n × p × 273/(101.3 × T) (50)
n is the total revolutions of pump per time interval
8.5.1.3. CFV-CVS System
The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle is as follows, if the temperature of the diluted
exhaust is kept within ±11K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:
where:
m = 1.293 × t × K × p / T (51)
t
K
p
T
is the cycle time, s
is the calibration coefficient of the critical flow venturi for standard conditions,
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa
is the absolute temperature at venturi inlet, K

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous
mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the
instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
where:
m = 1.293 × Q × Δt (55)
Δt
is the time interval, s
The real time calculation shall be initialized with either a reasonable value for C , such as
0.98, or a reasonable value of Q . If the calculation is initialized with Q , the initial value of
Q shall be used to evaluate the Reynolds number.
During all emissions tests, the Reynolds number at the SSV throat shall be in the range of
Reynolds numbers used to derive the calibration curve developed in Paragraph 9.5.4.
8.5.2. Determination of the Gaseous Components
8.5.2.1. Introduction
The gaseous components in the diluted exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for
testing shall be measured by the methods described in Appendix 3. Dilution of the exhaust
shall be done with filtered ambient air, synthetic air or nitrogen. The flow capacity of the full
flow system shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution
and sampling systems. Data evaluation and calculation procedures are described in
Paragraphs 8.5.2.2. and 8.5.2.3.
8.5.2.2. Data Evaluation
The emission relevant data shall be recorded and stored in accordance with
Paragraph 7.6.6.
8.5.2.3. Calculation of Mass Emission
8.5.2.3.1. Systems with constant mass flow
For systems with heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants shall be determined from the
following equation:
where:
m = u × c × m (in g/test) (46)
u is the respective value of exhaust component from Table 6
c is the average background corrected concentration of the component, ppm
m
is the total diluted exhaust mass over the cycle, kg
If measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet correction according to Paragraph 8.1. shall be
applied.

8.5.2.3.2. Determination of the background corrected concentrations
The average background concentration of the gaseous pollutants in the diluent shall be
subtracted from measured concentrations to get the net concentrations of the pollutants.
The average values of the background concentrations can be determined by the sample
bag method or by continuous measurement with integration. The following equation shall be
used:
where:
C = c - c × (1 - (1/D)) (58)
c is the concentration of the component measured in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm
c
D
is the concentration of the component measured in the dilution air, ppm
is the dilution factor
The dilution factor shall be calculated as follows:
(a)
for diesel and LPG fueled gas engines
F
D = (59)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
(b)
for NG fueled gas engines
F
D = (60)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
where:
c is the wet concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas, % vol
c is the wet concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm C1
c is the wet concentration of NMHC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm C1
c is the wet concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm
F
is the stoichiometric factor

8.5.3. Particulate Determination
8.5.3.1. Calculation of Mass Emission
The particulate mass (g/test) shall be calculated after buoyancy correction of the particulate
sample mass according to Paragraph 8.3., as follows:
where:
m m
m = ×
(63)
m 1,000
m
is the particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg
m is the mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters, kg
m
is the mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle, kg
with
m = m - m (64)
where:
m is the mass of double diluted exhaust gas through particulate filter, kg
m is the mass of secondary dilution air, kg
If the particulate background level of the diluent is determined in accordance with
Paragraph 7.5.6., the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this case, the
particulate mass (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:
where:
⎡ m ⎛ m ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞⎤
m
m = ⎢ − ⎜ 1 ⎟⎥
×
⎢⎣
m
× ⎜ − ⎟
m D
(65)
⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠⎥⎦
1,000
m is the mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters, kg
m
m
m
is the mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle, kg
is the mass of dilution air sampled by background particulate sampler, kg
is the mass of the collected background particulates of the dilution air, mg
D is the dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.

8.6.2. Calculation of NMHC and CH
The calculation of NMHC and CH depends on the calibration method used. The FID for the
measurement without NMC (lower path of Appendix 3, Figure 11), shall be calibrated with
propane. For the calibration of the FID in series with NMC (upper path of Appendix 3, Figure
11), the following methods are permitted.
(a)
(b)
Calibration gas – propane; propane bypasses NMC;
Calibration gas – methane; methane passes through NMC.
The concentration of NMHC and CH shall be calculated as follows for (a):
c
c
( E − E )
( 1 − E )
c − c
x
= (67)
r x
( 1 − E )
c
x − c
= (68)
E − E
The concentration of NMHC and CH shall be calculated as follows for (b):
c
( 1 − E ) − c x r ( 1 − E )
c
x
= (67a)
E − E
c
( 1 − E ) − c
x ( 1 − E )
c x r x
= (68a)
r × (E − E )
where:
c
c
is the HC concentration with sample gas flowing through the NMC, ppm
is the HC concentration with sample gas bypassing the NMC, ppm
r is the methane response factor as determined per Paragraph 9.3.7.2.
E is the methane efficiency as determined per Paragraph 9.3.8.1.
E is the ethane efficiency as determined per Paragraph 9.3.8.2.
If r < 1.05, it may be omitted in Equations 67, 67a and 68a.

9.2. Linearity Requirements
The calibration of all measuring instruments and systems shall be traceable to national
(international) standards. The measuring instruments and systems shall comply with the
linearity requirements given in Table 7. The linearity verification according to
Paragraph 9.2.1. shall be performed for the gas analyzers at least every 3 months or
whenever a system repair or change is made that could influence calibration. For the other
instruments and systems, the linearity verification shall be done as required by internal audit
procedures, by the instrument manufacturer or in accordance with ISO 9000 requirements.
Table 7
Linearity Requirements of Instruments and Measurement Systems
Measurement
system
/χ x (a – 1) + a /
Slope
a
Standard
error
SEE
Coefficient of
determination
r
Engine Speed ≤0.05% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥0.990
Engine torque ≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥0.990
Fuel flow ≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥0.990
Airflow ≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥ 0.990
Exhaust gas flow ≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥ 0.990
Diluent flow ≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥ 0.990
Diluted exhaust
gas flow
≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥ 0.990
Sample flow ≤1% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥ 0.990
Gas analyzers ≤0.5% max 0.99 - 1.01 ≤1% max ≥ 0.998
Gas dividers ≤0.5% max 0.98 - 1.02 ≤2% max ≥ 0.990
Temperatures ≤1% max 0.99 - 1.01 ≤1% max ≥ 0.998
Pressures ≤1% max 0.99 - 1.01 ≤1% max ≥ 0.998
PM balance ≤1% max 0.99 - 1.01 ≤1% max ≥ 0.998
9.2.1. Linearity Verification
9.2.1.1. Introduction
A linearity verification shall be performed for each measurement system listed in Table 7. At
least 10 reference values, or as specified otherwise, shall be introduced to the
measurement system. For stand-alone pressure and temperature linearity verifications, at
least three reference values shall be selected. The measured values shall be compared to
the reference values by using a least squares linear regression in accordance with
Equation 11. The maximum limits in Table 7 refer to the maximum values expected during
testing.

9.3.1.3. Precision
9.3.1.4. Noise
9.3.1.5. Zero Drift
9.3.1.6. Span Drift
9.3.1.7. Rise Time
9.3.1.8. Gas Drying
The precision, defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation of 10 repetitive responses to a
given calibration or span gas, shall be no greater than 1% of full scale concentration for
each range used above 155ppm (or ppm C) or 2% of each range used below 155ppm (or
ppm C).
The analyzer peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10s
period shall not exceed 2% of full scale on all ranges used.
The drift of the zero response shall be specified by the instrument manufacturer.
The drift of the span response shall be specified by the instrument manufacturer.
The rise time of the analyzer installed in the measurement system shall not exceed 2.5s.
Exhaust gases may be measured wet or dry. A gas-drying device, if used, shall have a
minimal effect on the composition of the measured gases. Chemical dryers are not an
acceptable method of removing water from the sample.
9.3.2. Gas Analyzers
9.3.2.1. Introduction
Paragraphs 9.3.2.2 to 9.2.3.7 describe the measurement principles to be used. A detailed
description of the measurement systems is given in Appendix 3. The gases to be measured
shall be analysed with the following instruments. For non-linear analyzers, the use of
linearizing circuits is permitted.
9.3.2.2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Analysis
The carbon monoxide analyzer shall be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption
type.
9.3.2.3. Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Analysis
The carbon dioxide analyzer shall be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type.

9.3.2.7. Air to Fuel Measurement
The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified
in Paragraph 8.4.1.6. shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of
Zirconia type. The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust
gas temperature is high enough to eliminate water condensation.
The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:
±3% of reading for λ < 2
±5% of reading for 2 ≤ λ < 5
±10% of reading for 5 ≤ λ
To fulfill the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the
instrument manufacturer.
9.3.3. Calibration Gases
The shelf life of all calibration gases shall be respected. The expiration date of the
calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.
9.3.3.1. Pure Gases
(a)
For raw exhaust gas
Purified nitrogen
(Contamination ≤1ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO)
Purified oxygen
(Purity > 99.5% vol O )
Hydrogen-helium mixture (FID burner fuel)
(40 ± 1% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤1ppm C1, ≤400ppm CO )
Purified synthetic air
(Contamination ≤1ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 18 - 21% vol.)

9.3.3.3. Gas Dividers
The gases used for calibration and span may also be obtained by means of gas dividers
(precision blending devices), diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air. The
accuracy of the gas divider shall be such that the concentration of the blended calibration
gases is accurate to within ±2%. This accuracy implies that primary gases used for blending
shall be known to an accuracy of at least ±1%, traceable to national or international gas
standards. The verification shall be performed at between 15 and 50% of full scale for each
calibration incorporating a gas divider. An additional verification may be performed using
another calibration gas, if the first verification has failed.
Optionally, the blending device may be checked with an instrument which by nature is
linear, e.g. using NO gas with a CLD. The span value of the instrument shall be adjusted
with the span gas directly connected to the instrument. The gas divider shall be checked at
the settings used and the nominal value shall be compared to the measured concentration
of the instrument. This difference shall in each point be within ±1% of the nominal value.
For conducting the linearity verification according to Paragraph 9.2.1., the gas divider shall
be accurate to within ±1%.
9.3.3.4. Oxygen Interference Check Gases
Oxygen interference check gases are a blend of propane, oxygen and nitrogen. They shall
contain propane with 350ppm C ±75ppm C hydrocarbon. The concentration value shall be
determined to calibration gas tolerances by chromatographic analysis of total hydrocarbons
plus impurities or by dynamic blending. The oxygen concentrations required for positive
ignition and compression ignition engine testing are listed in Table 8 with the remainder
being purified nitrogen.
Table 8
Oxygen Interference Check Gases
Type of engine O concentration (%)
Compression ignition
Compression and positive ignition
Compression and positive ignition
Positive ignition
21 (20 to 22)
10 (9 to 11)
5 (4 to 6)
0 (0 to 1)

9.3.6. Efficiency Test of NO Converter
The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO into NO is tested as given in
Paragraphs 9.3.6.1 to 9.3.6.8 (see Figure 8).
9.3.6.1. Test Setup
9.3.6.2. Calibration
9.3.6.3. Calculation
Figure 8
Scheme of NO Converter Efficiency Device
Using the test setup as schematically shown in Figure 8 and the procedure below, the
efficiency of the converter shall be tested by means of an ozonator.
The CLD and the HCLD shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following
the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which shall
amount to about 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas mixture
to less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyzer shall be in the NO mode so that
the span gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated concentration has to be
recorded.
The % efficiency of the converter shall be calculated as follows:
where:
⎛ a − b ⎞
E = ⎜1
+ ⎟ × 100
(72)
⎝ c − d ⎠
a is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 9.3.6.6.
b is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 9.3.6.7.
c is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 9.3.6.4.
d is the NO concentration according to Paragraph 9.3.6.5.

9.3.7. Adjustment of the FID
9.3.7.1. Optimization of the Detector Response
The FID shall be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. A propane in air span
gas shall be used to optimize the response on the most common operating range.
With the fuel and airflow rates set at the manufacturer's recommendations, a 350 ±75ppm C
span gas shall be introduced to the analyzer. The response at a given fuel flow shall be
determined from the difference between the span gas response and the zero gas response.
The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the manufacturer's specification.
The span and zero response at these fuel flows shall be recorded. The difference between the
span and zero response shall be plotted and the fuel flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve.
This is the initial flow rate setting which may need further optimization depending on the results
of the hydrocarbon response factors and the oxygen interference check according to
Paragraphs 9.3.7.2. and 9.3.7.3. If the oxygen interference or the hydrocarbon response
factors do not meet the following specifications, the airflow shall be incrementally adjusted
above and below the manufacturer's specifications, repeating Paragraphs 9.3.7.2. and 9.3.7.3.
for each flow.
The optimization may optionally be conducted using the procedures outlined in SAE paper
No. 770141.
9.3.7.2. Hydrocarbon Response Factors
A linearity verification of the analyzer shall be performed using propane in air and purified
synthetic air according to Paragraph 9.2.1.3.
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyzer into service and after
major service intervals. The response factor (r ) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the ratio
of the FID C1 reading to the gas concentration in the cylinder expressed by ppm C1.
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of approximately 80% of
full scale. The concentration shall be known to an accuracy of ±2% in reference to a gravimetric
standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall be preconditioned for 24h at a
temperature of 298K ± 5K (25 °C ± 5 °C).
The test gases to be used and the relative response factor ranges are as follows:
(a) Methane and purified synthetic air 1.00 ≤ r ≤ 1.15
(b) Propylene and purified synthetic air 0.90 ≤ r ≤ 1.1
(c) Toluene and purified synthetic air 0.90 ≤ r ≤ 1.1
These values are relative to a r of 1 for propane and purified synthetic air.

9.3.8. Efficiency of the Non-methane Cutter (NMC)
The NMC is used for the removal of the non-methane hydrocarbons from the sample gas by
oxidizing all hydrocarbons except methane. Ideally, the conversion for methane is 0%, and for
the other hydrocarbons represented by ethane is 100%. For the accurate measurement of
NMHC, the two efficiencies shall be determined and used for the calculation of the NMHC
emission mass flow rate (see Paragraph 8.6.2.).
9.3.8.1. Methane Efficiency
Methane calibration gas shall be flown through the FID with and without bypassing the NMC
and the two concentrations recorded. The efficiency shall be determined as follows:
E
c ( )
= 1 −
(75)
c ( )
where:
c is the HC concentration with CH flowing through the NMC, ppm C
c is the HC concentration with CH bypassing the NMC, ppm C
9.3.8.2. Ethane Efficiency
Ethane calibration gas shall be flown through the FID with and without bypassing the NMC and
the two concentrations recorded. The efficiency shall be determined as follows:
E
c ( )
= 1 −
(76)
c ( )
where:
c
is the HC concentration with C H flowing through the NMC, ppm C
c is the HC concentration with C H bypassing the NMC, ppm C
9.3.9. Interference Effects
Other gases than the one being analysed can interfere with the reading in several ways.
Positive interference occurs in NDIR instruments where the interfering gas gives the same
effect as the gas being measured, but to a lesser degree. Negative interference occurs in NDIR
instruments by the interfering gas broadening the absorption band of the measured gas, and in
CLD instruments by the interfering gas quenching the reaction. The interference checks in
Paragraphs 9.3.9.1. and 9.3.9.2. shall be performed prior to an analyzer's initial use and after
major service intervals.

9.3.9.2.2. Water quench check
This check applies to wet gas concentration measurements only. Calculation of water quench
shall consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapour and scaling of water vapour
concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing.
A NO span gas having a concentration of 80% to 100% of full scale of the normal operating
range shall be passed through the (H) CLD and the NO value recorded as D. The NO span gas
shall then be bubbled through water at room temperature and passed through the (H) CLD and
the NO value recorded as C. The water temperature shall be determined and recorded as F.
The mixture's saturation vapour pressure that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature (F)
shall be determined and recorded as G.
The water vapour concentration (in %) of the mixture shall be calculated as follows:
H = 100 × (G/p ) (78)
and recorded as H. The expected diluted NO span gas (in water vapour) concentration shall be
calculated as follows:
D = D × ( 1- H/100) (79)
and recorded as D . For diesel exhaust, the maximum exhaust water vapour concentration
(in %) expected during testing shall be estimated, under the assumption of a fuel H/C ratio of
1.8/1, from the maximum CO concentration in the exhaust gas A as follows:
and recorded as H
The % water quench shall be calculated as follows:
where:
H = 0.9 × A (80)
E = 100 × ( (D - C)/D ) × (H /H) (81)
D
C
is the expected diluted NO concentration, ppm
is the measured diluted NO concentration, ppm
H is the maximum water vapour concentration, %
H is the actual water vapour concentration, %
9.3.9.2.3. Maximum allowable quench
The combined Co and water quench shall not exceed 2% of full scale.

9.3.9.3.2. Maximum allowable quench
The combined HC and water quench shall not exceed 2% of the NO concentration expected
during testing.
9.3.9.4. Sample Dryer
A sample dryer removes water, which can otherwise interfere with a NO measurement.
9.3.9.4.1. Sample dryer efficiency
For dry CLD analyzers, it shall be demonstrated that for the highest expected water vapour
concentration H (see Paragraph 9.3.9.2.2.), the sample dryer maintains CLD humidity at ≤5g
water/kg dry air (or about 0.008% H O), which is 100% relative humidity at 3.9°C and
101.3kPa. This humidity specification is also equivalent to about 25% relative humidity at 25°C
and 101.3kPa. This may be demonstrated by measuring the temperature at the outlet of a
thermal dehumidifier, or by measuring humidity at a point just upstream of the CLD. Humidity of
the CLD exhaust might also be measured as long as the only flow into the CLD is the flow from
the dehumidifier.
9.3.9.4.2. Sample dryer NO penetration
Liquid water remaining in an improperly designed sample dryer can remove NO from the
sample. If a sample dryer is used in combination with an NDUV analyzer without an NO /NO
converter upstream, it could therefore remove NO from the sample prior NO measurement.
The sample dryer shall allow for measuring at least 95% of the total NO at the maximum
expected concentration of NO .
9.3.10. Sampling for Raw Gaseous Emissions, if applicable
The gaseous emissions sampling probes shall be fitted at least 0.5m or three times the
diameter of the exhaust pipe - whichever is the larger - upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas
system but sufficiently close to the engine as to ensure an exhaust gas temperature of at least
343K (70°C) at the probe.
In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe
shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative of
the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder engines having distinct
groups of manifolds, such as in a "Vee" engine configuration, it is recommended to combine the
manifolds upstream of the sampling probe. If this is not practical, it is permissible to acquire a
sample from the group with the highest CO emission. For exhaust emission calculation the
total exhaust mass flow shall be used.
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust sample shall be
taken downstream of the exhaust after-treatment system.

9.4.3. Particulate Sampling
9.4.3.1. Partial Flow Dilution System
The particulate sampling probe shall be installed in close proximity to the gaseous emissions
sampling probe, but sufficiently distant as to not cause interference. Therefore, the installation
provisions of Paragraph 9.3.10. also apply to particulate sampling. The sampling line shall
conform to the requirements laid down in Appendix 3.
In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe
shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative of
the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder engines having distinct
groups of manifolds, such as in a "Vee" engine configuration, it is recommended to combine the
manifolds upstream of the sampling probe. If this is not practical, it is permissible to acquire a
sample from the group with the highest particulate emission. For exhaust emission calculation
the total exhaust mass flow of the manifold shall be used.
9.4.3.2. Full Flow Dilution System
The particulate sampling probe shall be installed in close proximity to the gaseous emissions
sampling probe, but sufficiently distant as to not cause interference, in the dilution tunnel.
Therefore, the installation provisions of Paragraph 9.3.11 also apply to particulate sampling.
The sampling line shall conform to the requirements laid down in Appendix 3.
9.4.4. Particulate Sampling Filters
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a filter that meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 9.4.4.1 to 9.4.4.3 during the test sequence.
9.4.4.1. Filter Specification
All filter types shall have a 0.3µm DOP (di-octylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least 99%.
The filter material shall be either:
(a)
(b)
Fluorocarbon (PTFE) coated glass fiber, or
Fluorocarbon (PTFE) membrane.
9.4.4.2. Filter Size
The filter shall be circular with a nominal diameter of 47mm (tolerance of 46.50 ± 0.6mm) and
an exposed diameter (filter stain diameter) of at least 38mm.
9.4.4.3. Filter Face Velocity
The face velocity through the filter shall be between 0.90 and 1.00m/s with less than 5% of the
recorded flow values exceeding this range. If the total PM mass on the filter exceeds 400µg,
the filter face velocity may be reduced to 0.50m/s. The face velocity shall be calculated as the
volumetric flow rate of the sample at the pressure upstream of the filter and temperature of the
filter face, divided by the filter's exposed area.

9.4.5.4. Elimination of Static Electricity Effects
The filter shall be neutralized prior to weighing, e.g. by a Polonium neutralizer or a device of
similar effect. If a PTFE membrane filter is used, the static electricity shall be measured and is
recommended to be within ±2.0 V of neutral.
Static electric charge shall be minimized in the balance environment. Possible methods are as
follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The balance shall be electrically grounded;
Stainless steel tweezers shall be used if PM samples are handled manually;
Tweezers shall be grounded with a grounding strap, or a grounding strap shall be
provided for the operator such that the grounding strap shares a common ground with
the balance. Grounding straps shall have an appropriate resistor to protect operators
from accidental shock.
9.4.5.5. Additional Specifications
All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the filter
holder, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, shall be designed to minimize
deposition or alteration of the particulates. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive
materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be electrically grounded to
prevent electrostatic effects.
9.4.5.6. Calibration of the Flow Measurement Instrumentation
Each flowmeter used in a particulate sampling and partial flow dilution system shall be
subjected to the linearity verification, as described in Paragraph 9.2.1., as often as necessary
to fulfil the accuracy requirements of this Regulation. For the flow reference values, an accurate
flowmeter traceable to international and/or national standards shall be used. For differential
flow measurement calibration see Paragraph 9.4.6.2.
9.4.6. Special Requirements for the Partial Flow Dilution System
The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to extract a proportional raw exhaust
sample from the engine exhaust stream, thus responding to excursions in the exhaust stream
flow rate. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio or the sampling ratio r or r be determined
such that the accuracy requirements of Paragraph 9.4.6.2. are fulfilled.

9.4.6.2. Specifications for Differential Flow Measurement
For partial flow dilution systems, the accuracy of the sample flow q is of special concern, if
not measured directly, but determined by differential flow measurement:
q = q – q (83)
In this case, the maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of q is
within ±5% when the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking root-meansquare
of the errors of each instrument.
Acceptable accuracies of q can be obtained by either of the following methods:
(a) The absolute accuracies of q and q are ±0.2% which guarantees an accuracy
of q of ≤5% at a dilution ratio of 15. However, greater errors will occur at higher
dilution ratios.
(b) Calibration of q relative to q is carried out such that the same accuracies for
q as in (a) are obtained. For details see Paragraph 9.4.6.3.
(c) The accuracy of q is determined indirectly from the accuracy of the dilution ratio as
determined by a tracer gas, e.g. CO . Accuracies equivalent to method (a) for q are
required.
(d) The absolute accuracy of q and q is within ±2% of full scale, the maximum
error of the difference between q and q is within 0.2%, and the linearity error is
within ±0.2% of the highest q observed during the test.
9.4.6.3. Calibration of differential flow measurement
The flowmeter or the flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated in one of the
following procedures, such that the probe flow q into the tunnel shall fulfil the accuracy
requirements of Paragraph 9.4.6.2.:
(a) The flowmeter for q shall be connected in series to the flowmeter for q , the
difference between the two flowmeters shall be calibrated for at least five set points
with flow values equally spaced between the lowest q value used during the test
and the value of q used during the test. The dilution tunnel may be bypassed;
(b) A calibrated flow device shall be connected in series to the flowmeter for q and
the accuracy shall be checked for the value used for the test. The calibrated flow
device shall be connected in series to the flowmeter for q , and the accuracy shall
be checked for at least five settings corresponding to dilution ratio between 3 and 50,
relative to q used during the test;
(c)
The transfer tube (TT) shall be disconnected from the exhaust, and a calibrated
flow-measuring device with a suitable range to measure q shall be connected to the
transfer tube. q shall be set to the value used during the test, and q shall be
sequentially set to at least five values corresponding to dilution ratios between 3 and
50. Alternatively, a special calibration flow path may be provided, in which the tunnel
is bypassed, but the total and diluent flow through the corresponding meters as in the
actual test;

A step change shall be introduced to the exhaust flow (or airflow if exhaust flow is
calculated) input of the partial flow dilution system, from a low flow to at least 90% of
maximum exhaust flow. The trigger for the step change shall be the same one used to start
the look-ahead control in actual testing. The exhaust flow step stimulus and the flowmeter
response shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least 10Hz.
From this data, the transformation time shall be determined for the partial flow dilution
system, which is the time from the initiation of the step stimulus to the 50% point of the
flowmeter response. In a similar manner, the transformation times of the q signal of the
partial flow dilution system and of the q signal of the exhaust flowmeter shall be
determined. These signals are used in the regression checks performed after each test (see
Paragraph 9.4.6.1.)
The calculation shall be repeated for at least 5 rise and fall stimuli, and the results shall be
averaged. The internal transformation time (< 100ms) of the reference flowmeter shall be
subtracted from this value. This is the "look-ahead" value of the partial flow dilution system,
which shall be applied in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
9.5. Calibration of the CVS System
9.5.1. General
The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow meter and a restricting
device. The flow through the system shall be measured at different restriction settings, and
the control parameters of the system shall be measured and related to the flow.
Various types of flow meters may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi, calibrated laminar flow
meter, calibrated turbine meter.
9.5.2. Calibration of the Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
All the parameters related to the pump shall be simultaneously measured along with the
parameters related to a calibration venturi which is connected in series with the pump. The
calculated flow rate (in m /s at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) shall be
plotted versus a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump
parameters. The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function
shall be determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, the calibration shall be performed
for each range used.
Temperature stability shall be maintained during calibration.
Leaks in all the connections and ducting between the calibration venturi and the CVS pump
shall be maintained lower than 0.3% of the lowest flow point (highest restriction and lowest
PDP speed point).

9.5.3. Calibration of the Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi. Gas flow is a
function of venturi inlet pressure and temperature.
To determine the range of critical flow, K shall be plotted as a function of venturi inlet
pressure. For critical (choked) flow, K will have a relatively constant value. As pressure
decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and K decreases, which
indicates that the CFV is operated outside the permissible range.
9.5.3.1. Data Analysis
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 8 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /s from the flow meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
calibration coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as
follows:
K
q × T
= (88)
P
where:
q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T
p
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, K
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa
The average KV and the standard deviation shall be calculated. The standard deviation
shall not exceed ±0.3% of the average K .
9.5.4. Calibration of the Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is a
function of inlet pressure and temperature, pressure drop between the SSV inlet and throat,
as shown in Equation 53 (see Paragraph 8.5.1.4.).

Because Q is an input to the Re equation, the calculations must be started with an initial
guess for Q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until Q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to 0.1% of point or better.
For a minimum of sixteen points in the region of subsonic flow, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured Cd for
each calibration point.
9.5.5. Total System Verification
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated in
the normal manner. The pollutant is analysed, and the mass calculated according to
Paragraph 8.5.2.3. except in the case of propane where a u factor of 0.000472 is used in
place of 0.000480 for HC. Either of the following two techniques shall be used.
9.5.5.1. Metering with a Critical Flow Orifice
A known quantity of pure gas (carbon monoxide or propane) shall be fed into the CVS
system through a calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow rate,
which is adjusted by means of the critical flow orifice, is independent of the orifice outlet
pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as in a normal exhaust emission
test for about 5 to 10 . s. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment
(sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated.
The mass so determined shall be within ±3% of the known mass of the gas injected.
9.5.5.2. Metering by means of a Gravimetric Technique
The mass of a small cylinder filled with carbon monoxide or propane shall be determined
with a precision of ±0.01g. For about 5 to 10 . s, the CVS system shall be operated as in a
normal exhaust emission test, while carbon monoxide or propane is injected into the
system. The quantity of pure gas discharged shall be determined by means of differential
weighing. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment (sampling bag or
integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated.
The mass so determined shall be within ±3% of the known mass of the gas injected.







Cetene number
Density at 15°C
Parameter
Distillation:
- 50% vol.
- 95% vol.
- final boiling point
Flash point
Cold filter plugging point
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C
Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons
Conradson carbon residue (10%
DR)
ANNEX 4B - APPENDIX 2
DIESEL REFERENCE FUEL
Unit
kg/m
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
mm /s
% m/m
Minimum
52
833
Limits
Maximum
54
837
245
345 350
370
55
2.3
2.0
-5
3.3
6.0
Test method
ISO 5165
ISO 3675
ISO 3405
ISO 2719
EN 116
ISO 3104
EN 12916
% m/m 0.2 ISO 10370
Ash content % m/m 0.01 EN-ISO 6245
Water content % m/m 0.02 EN-ISO 12937
Sulphur content mg/kg 10 EN-ISO 14596
Copper corrosion at 50°C 1 EN-ISO 2160
Lubricity (HFRR at 60°C) μm 400 CEC F-06-A-96
Neutralisation number mg KOH/g 0.02
Oxidation stability @ 110°C h 20 EN 14112
FAME % v/v 4.5 5.5 EN 14078

a = vent b = zero, span gas c = dilution tunnel d = optional
Figure 10
Schematic Flow Diagram of Diluted Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, CO , NO , HC
A.3.1.3. Components of Figures 9 and 10
EP
SP
Exhaust pipe
Raw exhaust gas sampling probe (Figure 9 only)
A stainless steel straight closed end multi-hole probe is recommended. The inside diameter
shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the sampling line. The wall thickness of the
probe shall not be greater than 1mm. There shall be a minimum of 3 holes in 3 different radial
planes sized to sample approximately the same flow. The probe shall extend across at least
80% of the diameter of the exhaust pipe. One or two sampling probes may be used.
SP2 Dilute exhaust gas HC sampling probe (Figure 10 only)
The probe shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
be defined as the first 254mm to 762mm of the heated sampling line HSL1;
have a 5mm minimum inside diameter;
be installed in the dilution tunnel DT (Figure 15) at a point where the diluted and exhaust
gas are well mixed (i.e. approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point
where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel);

HSL2
Heated NO sampling line
The sampling line shall:
(a)
(b)
HP
maintain a wall temperature of 328K to 473K (55 °C to 200 °C), up to the converter for
dry measurement, and up to the analyzer for wet measurement;
be made of stainless steel or PTFE.
Heated sampling pump
The pump shall be heated to the temperature of HSL.
SL
Sampling line for CO and CO
The line shall be made of PTFE or stainless steel. It may be heated or unheated.
HC
HFID analyzer
Heated flame ionization detector (HFID) or flame ionization detector (FID) for the determination
of the hydrocarbons. The temperature of the HFID shall be kept at 453K to 473K (180 °C to
200 °C).
CO, CO
NDIR analyzer
NDIR analyzers for the determination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (optional for the
determination of the dilution ratio for PT measurement).
NO
CLD analyzer
CLD, HCLD or NDUVanalyzer for the determination of the oxides of nitrogen. If a HCLD is used
it shall be kept at a temperature of 328K to 473K (55 °C to 200 °C).
B
Sample dryer (optional for NO measurement)
To cool and condense water from the exhaust sample. It is optional if the analyzer is free from
water vapour interference as determined in Paragraph 9.3.9.2.2. If water is removed by
condensation, the sample gas temperature or dew point shall be monitored either within the
water trap or downstream. The sample gas temperature or dew point shall not exceed 280K (7
°C). Chemical dryers are not allowed for removing water from the sample.
BK
Background bag (optional; Figure 10 only)
For the measurement of the background concentrations.
BG
Sample bag (optional; Figure 10 only)
For the measurement of the sample concentrations.

To select zero and span gas.
R
Pressure regulator
To control the pressure in the sampling line and the flow to the HFID.
A.3.2.
Dilution and Particulate Sampling System
A.3.2.1. Description of Partial Flow System
A dilution system is described based upon the dilution of a part of the exhaust stream. Splitting
of the exhaust stream and the following dilution process may be done by different dilution
system types. For subsequent collection of the particulates, the entire dilute exhaust gas or
only a portion of the dilute exhaust gas is passed to the particulate sampling system. The first
method is referred to as total sampling type, the second method as fractional sampling type.
The calculation of the dilution ratio depends upon the type of system used.
With the total sampling system as shown in Figure 12, raw exhaust gas is transferred from the
exhaust pipe (EP) to the dilution tunnel (DT) through the sampling probe (SP) and the transfer
tube (TT). The total flow through the tunnel is adjusted with the flow controller FC2 and the
sampling pump (P) of the particulate sampling system (see Figure 16). The diluent flow is
controlled by the flow controller FC1, which may use q or q and q as command signals,
for the desired exhaust split. The sample flow into DT is the difference of the total flow and the
dilution airflow. The diluent flow rate is measured with the flow measurement device FM1, the
total flow rate with the flow measurement device FM3 of the particulate sampling system (see
Figure 16). The dilution ratio is calculated from these two flow rates.

a = exhaust b = to PB or SB c = details see Figure 16 d = to particulate sampling system
e = vent
Figure 13
Scheme of Partial Flow Dilution System (Fractional Sampling Type)
A.3.2.2. Components of Figures 12 and 13
EP
Exhaust pipe
The exhaust pipe may be insulated. To reduce the thermal inertia of the exhaust pipe a
thickness to diameter ratio of 0.015 or less is recommended. The use of flexible sections shall
be limited to a length to diameter ratio of 12 or less. Bends shall be minimized to reduce inertial
deposition. If the system includes a test bed silencer the silencer may also be insulated. It is
recommended to have a straight pipe of 6 pipe diameters upstream and 3 pipe diameters
downstream of the tip of the probe.
SP
Sampling probe
The type of probe shall be either of the following:
(a)
(b)
open tube facing upstream on the exhaust pipe centreline
open tube facing downstream on the exhaust pipe centreline

FM1 Flow measurement device
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluent flow. FM1 is optional if the
pressure blower PB is calibrated to measure the flow.
DAF Diluent filter
The diluent (ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen) shall be filtered with a high-efficiency
(HEPA) filter that has an initial minimum collection efficiency of 99.97% according to EN 1822-1
(filter Class H14 or better), ASTM F 1471-93 or equivlant standard.
FM2 Flow measurement device (fractional sampling type, Figure 13 only)
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluted exhaust gas flow. FM2 is
optional if the suction blower SB is calibrated to measure the flow.
PB
Pressure blower (fractional sampling type, Figure 13 only)
To control the diluent flow rate, PB may be connected to the flow controllers FC1 or FC2. PB is
not required when using a butterfly valve. PB may be used to measure the dilution airflow, if
calibrated.
SB
Suction blower (fractional sampling type, Figure 13 only)
SB may be used to measure the diluted exhaust gas flow, if calibrated.
DT
Dilution tunnel (partial flow)
The dilution tunnel:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
shall be of a sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and diluent under
turbulent flow conditions (Reynolds number, Re, greater than 4,000, where Re is based
on the inside diameter of the dilution tunnerl) for a fractional sampling system, i.e.
complete mixing is not required for a total sampling system;
shall be constructed of stainless steel;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
may be insulated

a = analyzer system b = background air c = exhaust d = details see Figure 17
e = to double dilution system f = if EFC is used i = vent g = optional h = or
Figure 15
Scheme of Full Flow Dilution System (CVS)
A.3.2.4. Components of Figure 15
EP
Exhaust pipe
The exhaust pipe length from the exit of the engine exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet or
after-treatment device to the dilution tunnel shall be not more than 10m. If the system exceeds
4m in length, then all tubing in excess of 4m shall be insulated, except for an in-line smoke
meter, if used. The radial thickness of the insulation shall be at least 25mm. The thermal
conductivity of the insulating material shall have a value no greater than 0.1 W/mK measured at
673K. To reduce the thermal inertia of the exhaust pipe a thickness-to-diameter ratio of 0.015
or less is recommended. The use of flexible sections shall be limited to a length-to-diameter
ratio of 12 or less.
PDP Positive displacement pump
The PDP meters total diluted exhaust flow from the number of the pump revolutions and the
pump displacement. The exhaust system backpressure shall not be artificially lowered by the
PDP or diluent inlet system. Static exhaust backpressure measured with the PDP system
operating shall remain within ±1.5kPa of the static pressure measured without connection to
the PDP at identical Engine Speed and load. The gas mixture temperature immediately ahead
of the PDP shall be within ±6K of the average operating temperature observed during the test,
when no flow compensation (EFC) is used. Flow compensation is only permitted, if the
temperature at the inlet to the PDP does not exceed 323K (50 °C).

DAF Dilution air filter
The diluent (ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen) shall be filtered with a high-efficiency
(HEPA) filter that has an initial minimum collection efficiency of 99.97% according to EN 1822-1
(Filter Class H14 or better), ASTM F 1471-93 or equivalent standard.
PSP Particulate sampling probe
The probe is the leading section of PTT and
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the diluent and exhaust gases are
well mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centreline of the dilution systems, approximately
10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution
tunnel;
shall be of 8mm minimum inside diameter;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52 °C) wall temperature by direct heating or by
diluent pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52 °C) prior to
the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
may be insulated.
A.3.2.5. Description of Particulate Sampling System
The particulate sampling system is required for collecting the particulates on the particulate
filter and is shown in Figures 16 and 17. In the case of total sampling partial flow dilution, which
consists of passing the entire diluted exhaust sample through the filters, the dilution and
sampling systems usually form an integral unit (see Figure 12). In the case of fractional
sampling partial flow dilution or full flow dilution, which consists of passing through the filters
only a portion of the diluted exhaust, the dilution and sampling systems usually form different
units.
For a partial flow dilution system, a sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the dilution
tunnel DT through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer tube PTT by
means of the sampling pump P, as shown in Figure 16. The sample is passed through the filter
holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The sample flow rate is controlled by
the flow controller FC3.
For of full flow dilution system, a double dilution particulate sampling system shall be used, as
shown in Figure 17. A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is transferred from the dilution tunnel
DT through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer tube PTT to the
secondary dilution tunnel SDT, where it is diluted once more. The sample is then passed
through the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The diluent flow rate
is usually constant whereas the sample flow rate is controlled by the flow controller FC3. If
electronic flow compensation EFC (see Figure 15) is used, the total diluted exhaust gas flow is
used as command signal for FC3.

A.3.2.6. Components of Figures 16 (partial flow system only) and 17 (full flow system only)
PTT Particulate transfer tube
The transfer tube:
(a)
(b)
(c)
shall be inert with respect to PM;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
may be insulated.
SDT Secondary dilution tunnel (Figure 17 only)
The secondary dilution tunnel:
(a)
(b)
(c)
FH
shall be of sufficient length and diameter so as to comply with the residence time
requirements of Paragraph 9.4.2(f);
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
may be insulated.
Filter holder
The filter holder:
(a)
(b)
(c)
shall have a 12.5° (from center) divergent cone angle to transition from the transfer line
diameter to the exposed diameter of the filter face;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
may be insulated.
Multiple filter changers (auto changers) are acceptable, as long as there is no interaction
between sampling filters.
PTFE membrane filters shall be installed in a specific cassette within the filter holder.
An inertial pre-classifier with a 50% cut point between 2.5µm and
10µm shall be installed immediately upstream of the filter holder, if an open tube sampling
probe facing upstream is used.
P
Sampling pump
FC2 Flow controller
A flow controller shall be used for controlling the particulate sample flow rate.

ANNEX 4B - APPENDIX 4
STATISTICS
A.4.1.
Mean Value and Standard Deviation
The arithmetic mean value shall be calculated as follows:

The standard deviation shall be calculated as follows:
x
x = (92)
n
s =
∑ ( x − x)
n − 1
(93)
A.4.2.
Regression Analysis
The slope of the regression shall be calculated as follows:
a
=

( y − y) × ( x − x)
∑ ( x − x)
(94)
The y intercept of the regression shall be calculated as follows:
( a x)
a = y − ×
(95)
The standard error of estimate (SEE) shall be calculated as follows:
SEE =

[ y − a − ( a × x )]
n − 2
(96)
The coefficient of determination shall be calculated as follows:

[ y − a − ( a × x )]
r 2 = 1 −
(97)
∑ ( y − y)

(g)
Determine the equivalency, as follows:
(i) if F < F and t < t , then the candidate system is equivalent to the reference
system of this Annex;
(ii) if F ≥ F or t ≥ t , then the candidate system is different from the reference
system of this Annex.
Table 9
t and F Values for Selected Sample Sizes
Sample Size
F-test
t-test
Df
F
df
t
7
6,6
3.055
6
1.943
8
7,7
2.785
7
1.895
9
8,8
2.589
8
1.860
10
9,9
2.440
9
1.833

A.5.2. Carbon Flow Rate into the Engine (Location 1)
The carbon mass flow rate into the engine for a fuel CH O is given by:
12 β
q = × q
(102)
12 β + α + 16 ε
where:
q
is the fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
A.5.3. Carbon Flow Rate in the Raw Exhaust (Location 2)
The carbon mass flow rate in the exhaust pipe of the engine shall be determined from the raw
CO concentration and the exhaust gas mass flow rate:
where:
⎛ c − c ⎞ 12.011
q = ⎜
× q ×
100

(103)


M
c is the wet CO concentration in the raw exhaust gas, %
c is the wet CO concentration in the ambient air, %
q is the exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis, kg/s
M
is the molar mass of exhaust gas, g/mol
If CO is measured on a dry basis it shall be converted to a wet basis according to
Paragraph 8.1.

ANNEX 4B - APPENDIX 6
EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION PROCEDURE
A.6.1.
Speed and Torque Denormalization Procedure
As an example, the following test point shall be denormalized:
% speed
=
43%
% torque =
82%
Given the following values:
n
=
1,015min
n
=
2,200min
n
=
1,300min
n
=
600min
results in:
( 0.45 × 1,015 + 0.45 × 1,300 + 0.1×
2,200 − 600)
43 ×
× 2.0327
actual speed =
+ 600 = 1,178 min
With the maximum torque of 700Nm observed from the mapping curve at 1,178min
82 × 700
actual torque = = 574 Nm
100
A.6.2.
Basic Data for Stoichiometric Calculations
Atomic mass of hydrogen
Atomic mass of carbon
Atomic mass of sulphur
Atomic mass of nitrogen
Atomic mass of oxygen
Atomic mass of argon
Molar mass of water
Molar mass of carbon dioxide
Molar mass of carbon monoxide
Molar mass of oxygen
Molar mass of nitrogen
Molar mass of nitric oxide
Molar mass of nitrogen dioxide
Molar mass of sulphur dioxide
Molar mass of dry air
1.00794g/atom
12.011g/atom
32.065g/atom
14.0067g/atom
15.9994g/atom
39.9g/atom
18.01534g/mol
44.01g/mol
28.011g/mol
31.9988g/mol
28.011g/mol
30.008g/mol
46.01g/mol
64.066g/mol
28.965g/mol
Assuming no compressibility effects, all gases involved in the engine
intake/combustion/exhaust process can be considered to be ideal and any volumetric
calculations shall therefore be based on a molar volume of 22.414 l/mol according to
Avogadro's hypothesis.

Step 3: Calculation of the instantaneous emission of each individual point of the cycle
(Paragraph 8.4.2.3. of this Annex):
Equation (36): m = 10 × 3 × 0.155 = 4.650
m = 37.3 × 0.155 = 5.782
m = 466.6 × 0.9576 × 0.155 = 69.26
Step 4: Calculation of the mass emission over the cycle by integration of the instantaneous
emission values and the u values from Table 5 (Paragraph 8.4.2.3. of this Annex):
The following calculation is assumed for the WHTC cycle (1,800s) and the same emission in
each point of the cycle.
Equation (36): m = 0.000479 × ∑ 4 . 650 = 4.01g/test
m = 0.000966 × ∑ 5 . 782 = 10.05g/test
m = 0.001586 × ∑ 69 . 26 = 197.72g/test
Step 5: Calculation of the specific emissions (Paragraph 8.5.2.1.):
Equation (69): e
= 4.01 / 40
= 0.10g/kWh
e
= 10.05 / 40
= 0.25g/kWh
e
= 197.72 / 40
= 4.94g/kWh

ANNEX 4B - APPENDIX 7
INSTALLATION OF AUXILIARIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR EMISSIONS TEST
Number Auxiliaries Fitted for emission test
1 Inlet system
Inlet manifold
Crankcase emission control system
Control devices for dual induction inlet manifold system
Air flow meter
Air inlet duct work
Air filter
Inlet silencer
Speed-limiting device
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, or test cell equipment
Yes, or test cell equipment
Yes, or test cell equipment
Yes
2
Induction-heating device of inlet manifold
Yes, if possible to be set in the
most favourable condition
3 Exhaust system
Exhaust manifold
Connecting pipes
Silencer
Tail pipe
Exhaust brake
Pressure charging device
4 Fuel supply pump Yes
5 Equipment for gas engines
Electronic control system, air flow meter, etc.
Pressure reducer
Evaporator
Mixer
6 Fuel injection equipment
Prefilter
Filter
Pump
High-pressure pipe
Injector
Air inlet valve
Electronic control system, sensors, etc.
Governor/control system
Automatic full-load stop for the control rack depending
on atmospheric conditions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No, or fully open
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

ANNEX 4C
PARTICLE NUMBER MEASUREMENT TEST PROCEDURE
1. APPLICABILITY
This Annex is not applicable for the purpose of type approval according to this Regulation for
the time being. It will be made applicable in the future.
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. This Annex describes the method of determining particle number emissions of engines being
tested according to the test procedures defined in Annex 4B. Unless otherwise stated, all test
conditions, procedures and requirements are as stated in Annex 4B.
3. SAMPLING
3.1. Particle Number Emissions
Particle number emissions shall be measured by continuous sampling from either a partial flow
dilution system, as described in Annex 4B, Appendix 3, Paragraph A.3.2.1. and A.3.2.2. or a
full flow dilution system as described in Annex 4B, Appendix 3, Paragraph A.3.2.3. and A.3.2.4.
3.2. Diluent Filtration
Diluent used for both the primary and, where applicable, secondary dilution of the exhaust in
the dilution system shall be passed through filters meeting the High-Efficiency Particulate Air
(HEPA) filter requirements defined in the Diluent Filter (DAF) subparagraphs of Annex 4B,
Appendix 3, Paragraphs A.3.2.2. or A.3.2.4. The diluent may optionally be charcoal scrubbed
before being passed to the HEPA filter to reduce and stabilize the hydrocarbon concentrations
in the diluent. It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the
HEPA filter and after the charcoal scrubber, if used.
4. OPERATION OF THE SAMPLING SYSTEM
4.1. Compensating for Particle Number Sample Flow – Full Flow Dilution Systems
4.1.1. To compensate for the mass flow extracted from the dilution system for particle number
sampling the extracted mass flow (filtered) shall be returned to the dilution system.
Alternatively, the total mass flow in the dilution system may be mathematically corrected for the
particle number sample flow extracted. Where the total mass flow extracted from the dilution
system for particle number sampling is less than 0.5% of the total dilute exhaust gas flow in
the dilution tunnel (med) this correction, or flow return, may be neglected.
4.2. Compensating for Particle Number Sample Flow – Partial Flow Dilution Systems
4.2.1. For partial flow dilution systems the mass flow extracted from the dilution system for particle
number sampling shall be accounted for in controlling the proportionality of sampling. This shall
be achieved either by feeding the particle number sample flow back into the dilution system
upstream of the flow measuring device or by mathematical correction as outlined in Paragraph
4.2.2. In the case of total sampling type partial flow dilution systems, the mass flow extracted
for particle number sampling shall also be corrected for in the particulate mass calculation as
outlined in Paragraph 4.2.3.

4.2.3. Correction of PM measurement
When a particle number sample flow is extracted from a total sampling partial flow dilution
system, the mass of particulates (m ) calculated in Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.4.3.2.1. or
8.4.3.2.2. shall be corrected as follows to account for the flow extracted. This correction is
required even where filtered extracted flow is fed back into the partial flow dilution systems.
m
= m
×
m
( m − m )
where:
m
=
mass of particulates corrected for extraction of particle number sample flow,
g/test,
m
=
mass of particulates determined according to Annex 4B Paragraph 8.4.3.2.1. or
8.4.3.2.2., g/test,
m = total mass of diluted exhaust gas passing through the dilution tunnel, kg,
m
=
total mass of diluted exhaust gas extracted from the dilution tunnel for particle
number sampling, kg.
4.3. Proportionality of Partial Flow Dilution Sampling
4.3.1. For particle number measurement, exhaust mass flow rate, determined according to any of the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraphs 8.4.1.3. to 8.4.1.7., is used for controlling the
partial flow dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The
quality of proportionality shall be checked by applying a regression analysis between sample
and exhaust flow in accordance with Annex 4B, Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
5. Determination of Particle Numbers
5.1. Time Alignment
For partial flow dilution systems residence time in the particle number sampling and
measurement system shall be accounted for by time aligning the particle number signal with
the test cycle and the exhaust gas mass flow rate according to the procedures defined in
Annex 4B Paragraphs 3.1.30. and 8.4.2.2. The transformation time of the particle number
sampling and measurement system shall be determined according to Paragraph 1.3.7. of
Appendix 1 to this Annex.

5.3. Determination of Particle Numbers with a Full Flow Dilution System
5.3.1. Where particle numbers are sampled using a full flow dilution system according to the
procedures set out in Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.5., the number of particles emitted over the test
cycle shall be calculated by means of the following equation:
N =
m
1.293
.k.c
.f
.10
where:
N = number of particles emitted over the test cycle,
m
=
total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle calculated according to any one of the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraphs 8.5.1.2. to 8.5.1.4., kg/test,
k
=
calibration factor to correct the particle number counter measurements to the level
of the reference instrument where this is not applied internally within the particle
number counter. Where the calibration factor is applied internally within the
particle number counter, a value of 1 shall be used for k in the above equation,
c
=
average corrected concentration of particles from the diluted exhaust gas
corrected to standard conditions (273.2K and 101.33kPa), particles per cubic
centimetre,
f
=
mean particle concentration reduction factor of the volatile particle remover
specific to the dilution settings used for the test.
c shall be calculated from the following equation:
c =

c
n
where:
c
=
a discrete measurement of particle concentration in the diluted gas exhaust from
the particle counter, corrected for coincidence and to standard conditions (273.2K
and 101.33kPa), particles per cubic centimetre,
n
=
number of particle concentration measurements taken over the duration of the
test.

For the determination of e , the following provisions apply:
(a)
(b)
If regeneration takes more than one hot start WHTC, consecutive full hot start WHTC
tests shall be conducted and emissions continued to be measured without soaking and
without shutting the engine off, until regeneration is completed, and the average of the
hot start WHTC tests be calculated.
If regeneration is completed during any hot start WHTC, the test shall be continued over
its entire length.
In agreement with the type approval authority, regeneration adjustment may be applied
by either multiplicative or additive adjustment based on good engineering analysis.
Multiplicative regeneration adjustment factors kr shall be determined as follows:
k =
e
e
(upward)
k =
e
e
(downward)
Additive regeneration adjustment (k ) shall be determined as follows:
k
= e – e (upward)
k
= e – e (downward)
The regeneration adjustment k :
(c) Shall be applied to the weighted WHTC test result as per Paragraph 5.4.3.,
(d)
(e)
(f)
May be applied to the WHSC and cold WHTC, if a regeneration occurs during the cycle,
May be extended to other members of the same engine family,
May be extended to other engine families using the same aftertreatment system with the
prior approval of the type Approval Authority based on technical evidence to be supplied
by the manufacturer that the emissions are similar.

ANNEX 4C - APPENDIX 1
PARTICLE NUMBER EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
1. SPECIFICATION
1.1. System overview
1.1.1. The particle sampling system shall consist of a probe or sampling point extracting a sample
from a homogenously mixed flow in a dilution system as described in Annex 4B, Appendix 3,
Paragraph A3.2.1. and A.3.2.2. or A3.2.3. and A.3.2.4., a volatile particle remover (VPR)
upstream of a particle number counter (PNC) and suitable transfer tubing.
1.1.2. It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) be located
prior to the inlet of the VPR. However, a sample probe acting as an appropriate
size-classification device, such as that shown in Annex 4B, Appendix 3, Figure 14, is an
acceptable alternative to the use of a particle size pre-classifier. In the case of partial flow
dilution systems it is acceptable to use the same pre-classifier for particulate mass and particle
number sampling, extracting the particle number sample from the dilution system downstream
of the pre-classifier. Alternatively separate pre-classifiers may be used, extracting the particle
number sample from the dilution system upstream of the particulate mass pre-classifier.
1.2. General requirements
1.2.1. The particle sampling point shall be located within a dilution system.
The sampling probe tip or particle sampling point and particle transfer tube (PTT) together
comprise the particle transfer system (PTS). The PTS conducts the sample from the dilution
tunnel to the entrance of the VPR. The PTS shall meet the following conditions:
In the case of full flow dilution systems and partial flow dilution systems of the fractional
sampling type (as described in Annex 4B, Appendix 3, Paragraph A.3.2.1.) the sampling probe
shall be installed near the tunnel centre line, 10 to 20 tunnel diameters downstream of the gas
inlet, facing upstream into the tunnel gas flow with its axis at the tip parallel to that of the
dilution tunnel. The sampling probe shall be positioned within the dilution tract so that the
sample is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture.
In the case of partial flow dilution systems of the total sampling type (as described in Annex 4B,
Paragraph A.3.2.1.) the particle sampling point or sampling probe shall be located in the
particulate transfer tube, upstream of the particulate filter holder, flow measurement device and
any sample/bypass bifurcation point. The sampling point or sampling probe shall be positioned
so that the sample is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture. The dimensions of
the particle sampling probe should be sized not to interfere with the operation of the partial flow
dilution system.
Sample gas drawn through the PTS shall meet the following conditions:
In the case of full flow dilution systems, it shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of < 1700;
In the case of partial flow dilution systems, it shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of < 1700
in the PTT i.e. downstream of the sampling probe or point;

1.3.4. The PNC shall:
1.3.4.1. Operate under full flow operating conditions;
1.3.4.2. Have a counting accuracy of ±10% across the range 1 cm to the upper threshold of the single
particle count mode of the PNC against a traceable standard. At concentrations below 100 cm
measurements averaged over extended sampling periods may be required to demonstrate the
accuracy of the PNC with a high degree of statistical confidence;
1.3.4.3. Have a readability of at least 0.1 particles cm at concentrations below 100 cm ;
1.3.4.4. Have a linear response to particle concentrations over the full measurement range in single
particle count mode;
1.3.4.5. Have a data reporting frequency equal to or greater than 0.5Hz;
1.3.4.6. Have a t response time over the measured concentration range of less than 5s;
1.3.4.7. Incorporate a coincidence correction function up to a maximum 10% correction, and may make
use of an internal calibration factor as determined in Paragraph 2.1.3., but shall not make use
of any other algorithm to correct for or define the counting efficiency;
1.3.4.8. Have counting efficiencies at particle sizes of 23nm (±1nm) and 41nm (±1nm) electrical mobility
diameter of 50% (±12%) and > 90% respectively. These counting efficiencies may be achieved
by internal (for example; control of instrument design) or external (for example; size preclassification)
means;
1.3.4.9. If the PNC makes use of a working liquid, it shall be replaced at the frequency specified by the
instrument manufacturer.
1.3.5. Where they are not held at a known constant level at the point at which PNC flow rate is
controlled, the pressure and/or temperature at inlet to the PNC shall be measured and reported
for the purposes of correcting particle concentration measurements to standard conditions.
1.3.6. The sum of the residence time of the PTS, VPR and OT plus the t response time of the PNC
shall be no greater than 20s.
1.3.7. The transformation time of the entire particle number sampling system (PTS, VPR, OT and
PNC) shall be determined by aerosol switching directly at the inlet of the PTS. The aerosol
switching shall be done in less than 0.1s. The aerosol used for the test shall cause a
concentration change of at least 60% full scale (FS).
The concentration trace shall be recorded. For time alignment of the particle number
concentration and exhaust flow signals, the transformation time is defined as the time from the
change (t ) until the response is 50% of the final reading (t ).

Figure 15
Schematic of Recommended Particle Sampling System – Full Flow Sampling
1.4.1. Sampling system description
The particle sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe tip or particle sampling point in
the dilution system, a particle transfer tube (PTT), a particle pre-classifier (PCF) and a volatile
particle remover (VPR) upstream of the particle number concentration measurement (PNC)
unit. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution (particle number diluters: PND1 and
PND2) and particle evaporation (Evaporation Tube, ET). The sampling probe or sampling point
for the test gas flow shall be so arranged within the dilution tract that a representative sample
gas flow is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture. The sum of the residence time
of the system plus the t response time of the PNC shall be no greater than 20s.

1.4.4. Volatile particle remover (VPR)
The VPR shall comprise one particle number diluter (PND1), an evaporation tube and a second
diluter (PND2) in series. This dilution function is to reduce the number concentration of the
sample entering the particle concentration measurement unit to less than the upper threshold
of the single particle count mode of the PNC and to suppress nucleation within the sample. The
VPR shall provide an indication of whether or not PND1 and the evaporation tube are at their
correct operating temperatures.
The VPR shall achieve > 99.0% vaporisation of 30nm tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH ) particles,
with an inlet concentration of ≥10,000 cm , by means of heating and reduction of partial
pressures of the tetracontane. It shall also achieve a particle concentration reduction factor (f )
for particles of 30nm and 50nm electrical mobility diameters, that is no more than 30% and
20% respectively higher, and no more than 5% lower than that for particles of 100nm electrical
mobility diameter for the VPR as a whole.
1.4.4.1. First particle number dilution device (PND1)
The first particle number dilution device shall be specifically designed to dilute particle number
concentration and operate at a (wall) temperature of 150°C to 400°C. The wall temperature
setpoint should be held at a constant nominal operating temperature, within this range, to a
tolerance of ±10°C and not exceed the wall temperature of the ET (Paragraph 1.4.4.2.). The
diluter should be supplied with HEPA filtered dilution air and be capable of a dilution factor of
10 to 200 times.
1.4.4.2. Evaporation tube
The entire length of the ET shall be controlled to a wall temperature greater than or equal to
that of the first particle number dilution device and the wall temperature held at a fixed nominal
operating temperature between 300°C and 400°C, to a tolerance of ±10°C.
1.4.4.3. Second particle number dilution device (PND2)
PND2 shall be specifically designed to dilute particle number concentration. The diluter shall be
supplied with HEPA filtered dilution air and be capable of maintaining a single dilution factor
within a range of 10 to 30 times. The dilution factor of PND2 shall be selected in the range
between 10 and 15 such that particle number concentration downstream of the second diluter
is less than the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC and the gas
temperature prior to entry to the PNC is < 35°C.
1.4.5. Particle number counter (PNC)
The PNC shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 1.3.4.

2.1.4. Calibration shall also include a check, against the requirements in Paragraph 1.3.4.8., on the
PNC’s detection efficiency with particles of 23nm electrical mobility diameter. A check of the
counting efficiency with 41nm particles is not required.
2.2. Calibration/Validation of the volatile particle remover
2.2.1. Calibration of the VPR’s particle concentration reduction factors across its full range of dilution
settings, at the instrument’s fixed nominal operating temperatures, shall be required when the
unit is new and following any major maintenance. The periodic validation requirement for the
VPR’s particle concentration reduction factor is limited to a check at a single setting, typical of
that used for measurement on diesel particulate filter equipped vehicles. The Technical Service
shall ensure the existence of a calibration or validation certificate for the volatile particle
remover within a 6-month period prior to the emissions test. If the volatile particle remover
incorporates temperature monitoring alarms a 12 month validation interval shall be permissible.
The VPR shall be characterised for particle concentration reduction factor with solid particles of
30nm, 50nm and 100nm electrical mobility diameter. Particle concentration reduction factors
(f (d)) for particles of 30nm and 50nm electrical mobility diameters shall be no more than 30%
and 20% higher respectively, and no more than 5% lower than that for particles of 100nm
electrical mobility diameter. For the purposes of validation, the mean particle concentration
reduction factor shall be within ±10% of the mean particle concentration reduction factor ( f )
determined during the primary calibration of the VPR.
2.2.2. The test aerosol for these measurements shall be solid particles of 30, 50 and 100nm electrical
mobility diameter and a minimum concentration of 5,000 particles cm at the VPR inlet. Particle
concentrations shall be measured upstream and downstream of the components.
The particle concentration reduction factor at each particle size (f (d )) shall be calculated as
follows;
N
f ( d ) =
N
( d )
( d )
where:
N (d ) =
upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
N
(d ) =
downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ; and
di
=
particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100nm).
N (d ) and N
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The mean particle concentration reduction ( f ) at a given dilution setting shall be calculated as
follows;
f
=
f
( 30nm) + f ( 50nm) + f ( 100nm)
3
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit.

ANNEX 5
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REFERENCE FUEL PRESCRIBED FOR
APPROVAL TESTS AND TO VERIFY THE CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
1.1. DIESEL REFERENCE FUEL FOR TESTING ENGINES TO THE EMISSION LIMITS GIVEN IN
ROW A OF THE TABLES IN PARAGRAPH 5.2.1. OF THIS REGULATION

1.3. ETHANOL FOR DIESEL ENGINES
Parameter
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test method
Alcohol, mass % m/m 92.4 − ASTM D 5501
Other alcohol than
ethanol contained in total
alcohol, mass
% m/m − 2 ASTM D 5501
Density at 15 °C kg/m 795 815 ASTM D 4052
Ash content % m/m 0.001 ISO 6245
Flash point °C 10 ISO 2719
Acidity, calculated as
acetic acid
Neutralisation (strong
acid) number
Colour
% m/m − 0.0025 ISO 1388-2
KOH mg/1 − 1
According to
scale
− 10 ASTM D 1209
Dry residue at 100 °C mg/kg 15 ISO 759
Water content % m/m 6.5 ISO 760
Aldehydes calculated as
acetic acid
% m/m 0.0025 ISO 1388-4
Sulphur content mg/kg − 10 ASTM D 5453
Esters, calculated as
ethylacetate
% m/m − 0.1 ASTM D 1617

Reference fuel G
Characteristics
Units
Basis
Limits
Minimum Maximum
Test Method
Composition:
Methane
% mole
92.5
91.5
93.5
Balance
% mole


1
ISO 6974
N
7.5
6.5
8.5
Sulphur content
mg/m


10
ISO 6326-5
Reference fuel G
Characteristics
Units
Basis
Limits
Minimum Maximum
Test Method
Composition:
Methane
% mole
86
84
88
Balance
% mole


1
ISO 6974
N
14
12
16
Sulphur content
mg/m


10
ISO 6326-5

B. TECHNICAL DATA OF THE LPG REFERENCE FUELS USED FOR TESTING VEHICLES
TO THE EMISSION LIMITS GIVEN IN ROW B1, B2 OR C OF THE TABLES IN
PARAGRAPH 5.2.1. OF THIS REGULATION
Parameter
Unit
Fuel A
Fuel B
Test method
Composition:
ISO 7941
C -content
% vol
50 ± 2
85 ± 2
C -content
% vol
balance
balance
< C , > C
% vol
max. 2
max. 2
Olefins
% vol
max. 12
max. 14
Evaporation residue
mg/kg
max. 50
max. 50
ISO 13757
Water at 0 °C
free
free
visual inspection
Total sulphur content
mg/kg
max. 10
max. 10
EN 24260
Hydrogen sulphide
none
none
ISO 8819
Copper strip corrosion
rating
Class 1
Class 1
ISO 6251
Odour
characteristic
characteristic
Motor octane number
min. 92.5
min. 92.5
EN 589 Annex B

Calculation of the emission mass flow rates (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 5.4.):
NO = 0.001587 × 457 × 0.9625 × 563.38 = 393.27g/h
CO = 0.000966 × 38.1 × 563.38 = 20.735g/h
HC = 0.000479 × 6.3 × 3 × 563.38 = 5.100g/h
Calculation of the specific emissions (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 5.5.):
The following example calculation is given for CO; the calculation procedure is identical for the
other components.
The emission mass flow rates of the individual modes are multiplied by the respective
weighting factors, as indicated in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.7.1., and summed up to
result in the mean emission mass flow rate over the cycle:
CO
=
(6.7 × 0.15) + (24.6 × 0.08) + (20.5 × 0.10) + (20.7 × 0.10) + (20.6 × 0.05) +
(15.0 × 0.05) + (19.7 × 0.05) + (74.5 × 0.09) + (31.5 × 0.10) + (81.9 × 0.08) +
(34.8 × 0.05) + (30.8 × 0.05) + (27.3 × 0.05) = 30.91g/h
The engine power of the individual modes is multiplied by the respective weighting factors, as
indicated in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.7.1., and summed up to result in the mean
cycle power:
P(n) = (0.1 × 0.15) + (96.8 × 0.08) + (55.2 × 0.10) + (82.9 × 0.10) + (46.8 × 0.05) +
(70.1 × 0.05) + (23.0 × 0.05) + (114.3 × 0.09) + (27.0 × 0.10) + (122.0 × 0.08) +
(28.6 × 0.05) + (87.4 × 0.05) + (57.9 × 0.05) = 60.006kW
30.91
CO = = 0.0515g / kWh
60.006
Calculation of the specific NO emission of the random point (Annex 4A, Appendix 1,
Paragraph 5.6.1.):
Assume the following values have been determined on the random point:
n
M
1,600min
495Nm
NO 487.9g/h (calculated according to the previous formulae)
P(n)Z
83kW
NO 487.9/83 = 5.878g/kWh

(b)
flow measurement method
6.0
q =
= 10.78
6.0 − 5.4435
G = 334.02 × 10.78 = 3,600.7kg/h
Calculation of the mass flow rate (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 6.4.):
The G flow rates of the individual modes are multiplied by the respective weighting factors,
as indicated in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.7.1., and summed up to result in the mean
G over the cycle. The total sample rate M is summed up from the sample rates of the
individual modes.
G
=
(3,567 × 0.15) + (3,592 × 0.08) + (3,611 × 0.10) + (3,600 × 0.10) + (3,618 ×
0.05) + (3,600 × 0.05) + (3,640 × 0.05) + (3,614 × 0.09) + (3,620 × 0.10) +
(3,601 × 0.08) + (3,639 × 0.05) + (3,582 × 0.05) + (3,635 × 0.05)
= 3,604.6kg/h
M
=
0.226 + 0.122 + 0.151 + 0.152 + 0.076 + 0.076 + 0.076 + 0.136 + 0.151
+ 0.121 + 0.076 + 0.076 + 0.075
= 1.515kg
Assume the particulate mass on the filters to be 2.5mg, then
Background correction (optional)
2.5 360.4
PT = × =
1.515 1,000
5.948 g / h
Assume one background measurement with the following values. The calculation of the dilution
factor DF is identical to Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex and not shown here.
M = 0.1mg; M = 1.5kg
Sum of DF
=
[(1−1/119.15) × 0.15] + [(1−1/8.89) × 0.08] + [(1−1/14.75) × 0.10] +
[(1−1/10.10) × 0.10] + [(1−1/18.02) × 0.05] + [(1−1/12.33) × 0.05] +
[(1−1/32.18) × 0.05] + [(1−1/6.94) × 0.09] + [(1−1/25.19) × 0.10] +
[(1−1/6.12) × 0.08] + [(1−1/20.87) × 0.05] + [(1−1/8.77) × 0.05] +
[(1−1/12.59) × 0.05] = 0.923
2.5 ⎛ 0.1 ⎞ 3,604.6
PT = × ⎜ × 0.923⎟
× =
1.515 ⎝ 1.5 ⎠ 1,000
5.726 g / h

The goal of applying a Bessel filter is to guarantee a uniform overall filter characteristic of the
whole opacimeter system, consisting of:
(a) physical response time of the opacimeter (t )
(b) electrical response time of the opacimeter (t )
(c) filter response time of the applied Bessel filter (t )
The resulting overall response time of the system t is given by:
t = t + t + t
and shall be equal for all kinds of opacimeters in order to give the same smoke value.
Therefore, a Bessel filter has to be created in such a way, that the filter response time (t )
together with the physical (t ) and electrical response time (t ) of the individual opacimeter shall
result in the required overall response time (t ). Since t and t are given values for each
individual opacimeter, and t is defined to be 1.0s in this Regulation, t can be calculated as
follows:
t = t + t + t
By definition, the filter response time t is the rise time of a filtered output signal between 10%
and 90% on a step input signal. Therefore the cut-off frequency of the Bessel filter has to be
iterated in such a way, that the response time of the Bessel filter fits into the required rise time.
Figure a
Traces of a Step Input Signal and the Filtered Output Signal
In Figure a, the traces of a step input signal and Bessel filtered output signal as well as the
response time of the Bessel filter (t ) are shown.

2.2. Calculation of the Bessel Algorithm
In this example a Bessel algorithm is designed in several steps according to the above iteration
procedure which is based upon Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 7.1.
For the opacimeter and the data acquisition system, the following characteristics are assumed:
(a) physical response time t 0.15s
(b) electrical response time t 0.05s
(c) overall response time t 1.00s (by definition in this Regulation)
(d)
sampling rate 150Hz
Step 1: Required Bessel filter response time t :
t = 1 − 0.15 + 0.05 = 0.987421s
Step 2: Estimation of cut-off frequency and calculation of Bessel constants E, K for first
iteration:
3.1415
f = = 0.318152 Hz
10 × 0.987421
Δt = 1/150 = 0.006667s
Ω =
[ × 0.006667 × 0.318152]
tan 3.1415
1
= 150.07664
1
E = = 7.07948 × 10
1 + 150.076644 × 3 × 0.618034 + 0.618034 × 150.076644
K = 2 × 7.07948 × 10 × (0.618034 × 150.076644 − 1) − 1 = 0.970783
This gives the Bessel algorithm:
Y = Y + 7.07948 E − 5 × (S + 2 × S + S − 4 × Y ) + 0.970783 × (Y − Y )
where S represents the values of the step input signal (either "0" or "1") and Y represents the
filtered values of the output signal.
Step 3: Application of Bessel filter on step input:
The Bessel filter response time t is defined as the rise time of the filtered output signal
between 10% and 90% on a step input signal. For determining the times of 10% (t ) and 90%
(t ) of the output signal, a Bessel filter has to be applied to a step input using the above values
of f , E and K.

Table A
Values of the First and Second Iteration
Parameter 1. Iteration 2. Iteration
f (Hz) 0.318152 0.344126
E (−) 7.07948 × 10 8.272777 × 10
K (−) 0.970783 0.968410
t (s) 0.200945 0.185523
t (s) 1.276147 1.179562
t (s) 1.075202 0.994039
Δ (−) 0.081641 0.006657
f (Hz) 0.344126 0.346417
Step 7: Final Bessel algorithm:
As soon as the iteration criterion has been met, the final Bessel filter constants and the final
Bessel algorithm are calculated according to step 2. In this example, the iteration criterion has
been met after the second iteration (Δ = 0.006657 ≤ 0.01). The final algorithm is then used for
determining the averaged smoke values (see next Paragraph 2.3.).
Y = Y + 8.272777 × 10 × (S + 2 × S + S − 4 × Y ) + 0.968410 × (Y − Y )

2.3. Calculation of the Smoke Values
In the scheme below the general procedure of determining the final smoke value is presented.

Calculation of the k-value (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 7.3.1.):
k = − (1/0.430) × ln (1 − (16.783/100)) = 0.427252m
This value corresponds to S in the following equation.
Calculation of Bessel averaged smoke (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 7.3.2.):
In the following equation, the Bessel constants of the previous Paragraph 2.2. are used. The
actual unfiltered k-value, as calculated above, corresponds to S
(S ). S
(S ) and S
(S )
are the two preceding unfiltered k-values, Y
(Y ) and Y
(Y ) are the two preceding filtered
k-values.
Y
=
0.542383 + 8.272777 × 10 × (0.427252 + 2 × 0.427392 + 0.427532 − 4 ×
0.542337) + 0.968410 × (0.542383 − 0.542337)
= 0.542389m
This value corresponds to Y
in the following Table.
Calculation of the final smoke value (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 7.3.3.):
From each smoke trace, the maximum filtered k-value is taken for the further calculation.
Assume the following values
Speed
Y (m )
Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3
A 0.5424 0.5435 0.5587
B 0.5596 0.5400 0.5389
C 0.4912 0.5207 0.5177
SV = (0.5424 + 0.5435 + 0.5587)/3 = 0.5482m
SV = (0.5596 + 0.5400 + 0.5389)/3 = 0.5462m
SV = (0.4912 + 0.5207 + 0.5177)/3 = 0.5099m
SV = (0.43 × 0.5482) + (0.56 × 0.5462) + (0.01 × 0.5099) = 0.5467m
Cycle validation (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 3.4.)
Before calculating SV, the cycle shall be validated by calculating the relative standard
deviations of the smoke of the three cycles for each speed.
Speed Mean SV (m )
absolute standard
deviation (m )
relative standard
deviation (%)
A 0.5482 0.0091 1.7
B 0.5462 0.0116 2.1
C 0.5099 0.0162 3.2
In this example, the validation criteria of 15% are met for each speed.

Values of opacity N, unfiltered and filtered k-value around Y (peak value, indicated in bold number)
Index i
[−]
Time
[s]
Opacity N
[%]
unfiltered k-value
[m ]
filtered k-value
[m ]





259
1.726667
17.182000
0.438429
0.538856
260
1.733333
16.949000
0.431896
0.539423
261
1.740000
16.788000
0.427392
0.539936
262
1.746667
16.798000
0.427671
0.540396
263
1.753333
16.788000
0.427392
0.540805
264
1.760000
16.798000
0.427671
0.541163
265
1.766667
16.798000
0.427671
0.541473
266
1.773333
16.788000
0.427392
0.541735
267
1.780000
16.788000
0.427392
0.541951
268
1.786667
16.798000
0.427671
0.542123
269
1.793333
16.798000
0.427671
0.542251
270
1.800000
16.793000
0.427532
0.542337
271
1.806667
16.788000
0.427392
0.542383
272
1.813333
16.783000
0.427252
0.542389
273
1.820000
16.780000
0.427168
0.542357
274
1.826667
16.798000
0.427671
0.542288
275
1.833333
16.778000
0.427112
0.542183
276
1.840000
16.808000
0.427951
0.542043
277
1.846667
16.768000
0.426833
0.541870
278
1.853333
16.010000
0.405750
0.541662
279
1.860000
16.010000
0.405750
0.541418
280
1.866667
16.000000
0.405473
0.541136
281
1.873333
16.010000
0.405750
0.540819
282
1.880000
16.000000
0.405473
0.540466
283
1.886667
16.010000
0.405750
0.540080
284
1.893333
16.394000
0.416406
0.539663
285
1.900000
16.394000
0.416406
0.539216
286
1.906667
16.404000
0.416685
0.538744
287
1.913333
16.394000
0.416406
0.538245
288
1.920000
16.394000
0.416406
0.537722
289
1.926667
16.384000
0.416128
0.537175
290
1.933333
16.010000
0.405750
0.536604
291
1.940000
16.010000
0.405750
0.536009
292
1.946667
16.000000
0.405473
0.535389
293
1.953333
16.010000
0.405750
0.534745
294
1.960000
16.212000
0.411349
0.534079
295
1.966667
16.394000
0.416406
0.533394
296
1.973333
16.394000
0.416406
0.532691
297
1.980000
16.192000
0.410794
0.531971
298
1.986667
16.000000
0.405473
0.531233
299
1.993333
16.000000
0.405473
0.530477
300
2.000000
16.000000
0.405473
0.529704






Calculation of the background corrected concentrations (Annex 4A, Appendix 2,
Paragraph 5.4.1.):
Assuming a diesel fuel of the composition C H
1
F = 100 ×
= 13.6
1.8 ⎡ ⎛ 1.8 ⎞⎤
1 + + 3.76 1
2
⎢ × ⎜ + ⎟
4

⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦
13.6
DF =
= 18.69
0.723 +
× 10
( 9.00 + 38.9)
NO = 53.7 − 0.4 × (1 − (1/18.69)) = 53.3ppm
CO = 38.9 − 1.0 × (1 − (1/18.69)) = 37.9ppm
HC = 9.00 − 3.02 × (1 − (1/18.69)) = 6.14ppm
Calculation of the emissions mass flow (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 5.4.):
NO = 0.001587 × 53.3 × 1.039 × 4,237.2 = 372.391g
CO = 0.000966 × 37.9 × 4,237.2 = 155.129g
HC = 0.000479 × 6.14 × 4,237.2 = 12.462g
Calculation of the specific emissions (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 5.5.):
NO = 372.391/62.72 = 5.94g/kWh
CO = 155.129/62.72 = 2.47g/kWh
HC = 12.462/62.72 = 0.199g/kWh

3.3.
Gaseous Emissions (CNG Engine)
Assume the following test results for a PDP-CVS system with double dilution
M
(kg)
4237.2
H (g/kg)
12.8
NO
(ppm)
17.2
NO
(ppm)
0.4
CO
(ppm)
44.3
CO
(ppm)
1.0
HC
(ppm)
27.0
HC
(ppm)
3.02
CH
(ppm)
18.0
CH
(ppm)
1.7
CO
(%)
0.723
W
(kWh)
62.72
Calculation of the NO , correction factor (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 5.3.):
1
K =
= 1.074
1 − 0.0329 ×
( 12.8 − 10.71)
Calculation of the NMHC concentration (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 5.4.):
(a)
GC method
NMHC = 27.0 − 18.0 = 9.0ppm
(b)
NMC method
Assuming a methane efficiency of 0.04 and an ethane efficiency of 0.98 (see Annex 4A,
Appendix 5, Paragraph 1.8.4.)
( 1 − 0.04)
27.0 × − 18.0
NMHC =
= 8.4 ppm
0.98 − 0.04

4. λ -SHIFT FACTOR (S )
4.1. Calculation of the λ-shift Factor (S )
S
=
2
⎛ inert% ⎞⎛
⎜1
− ⎟⎜n
+
⎝ 100 ⎠⎝
m ⎞ O
⎟ −
4 ⎠ 100
where:
Sλ = λ-shift factor;
inert % = % by volume of inert gases in the fuel (i.e. N , CO , He, etc.);
O = % by volume of original oxygen in the fuel;
N and m = refer to average C H representing the fuel hydrocarbons, i.e:
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤

⎢ 2
3
4
5 + ..
100
⎥ + × ⎢
+ ×
100
⎥ + × ⎢ + ×
100
⎥ ⎢
100
⎥ ⎢
100

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
n =
1 − diluent %
100
m =
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
H % ⎤ ⎡C
H % ⎤ ⎡C
H % ⎤
4 × ⎢ 4
6
...8
+ ..
100
⎥ + × ⎢
+ ×
100
⎥ + × ⎢
100
⎥ ⎢
100

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
1 − diluent %
100
where:
CH
=
% by volume of methane in the fuel;
C
=
% by volume of all C hydrocarbons (e.g.: C H , C H , etc.) in the fuel;
C
=
% by volume of all C hydrocarbons (e.g.: C H , C H , etc.) in the fuel;
C
=
% by volume of all C hydrocarbons (e.g.: C H , C H , etc.) in the fuel
C
=
% by volume of all C hydrocarbons (e.g.: C H , C H , etc.) in the fuel;
diluent
=
% by volume of dilution gases in the fuel (i.e.: O *, N , CO , He, etc.).

Example 3: USA: CH = 89%, C H = 4.5%, C H = 2.3%, C H = 0.2%, O = 0.6%, N = 4%
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤

⎢ 2
..
100
⎥ + × ⎢
100
⎥ +
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 1×
0.89 + 2 × 0.045 + 3 × 0.023 + 4 × 0.002
n =
=
= 1.11
1 − diluent %
0.64 + 4
1 −
100
100
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
H % ⎤ ⎡C
H
4 × ⎢ 4
6
100
⎥ + × ⎢ + ×
100
⎥ ⎢
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 100
m =
1 − diluent %
100
4 × 0.89 + 4 × 0.045 + 8 × 0.023 + 14 × 0.002
= 4.24
0.6 + 4
1 −
100



⎡C
H
+ ... + 8 × ⎢
⎣ 100
2
2
S =
=
= 0.96
⎛ inert% ⎞⎛
m ⎞ O ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 4.24 ⎞ 0.6
⎜1
− ⎟⎜n
+ ⎟ − ⎜1
− ⎟ × ⎜1.11
+ ⎟ −
⎝ 100 ⎠⎝
4 ⎠ 100 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 100



=

3.2. Service Accumulation Schedule
Service accumulation schedules may be carried out at the choice of the manufacturer by
running a vehicle equipped with the selected parent engine over an "in-service accumulation"
schedule or by running the selected parent engine over a "dynamometer service accumulation"
schedule.
3.2.1. In-service and Dynamometer Service Accumulation
3.2.1.1. The manufacturer shall determine the form and extent of the distance and service accumulation
for engines, consistent with good engineering practice.
3.2.1.2. The manufacturer will determine when the engine will be tested for gaseous and particulate
emissions over the ESC and ETC tests.
3.2.1.3. A single engine-operating schedule shall be used for all engines in an engine-aftertreatment
system family.
3.2.1.4. At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the Approval Authority, only one
test cycle (either the ESC or ETC test) need be run at each test point with the other test cycle
run only at the beginning and at the end of the service accumulation schedule.
3.2.1.5. Operating schedules may be different for different engine-aftertreatment system families.
3.2.1.6. Operating schedules may be shorter than the useful life period provided that the number of test
points allows for a proper extrapolation of the test results, according to Paragraph 3.5.2. In any
case, the service accumulation shall not be shorter than shown in the Table in
Paragraph 3.2.1.8.
3.2.1.7. The manufacturer has to provide the applicable correlation between minimum service
accumulation period (driving distance) and engine dynamometer hours, for example, fuel
consumption correlation, vehicle speed versus engine revolutions correlation etc.
3.2.1.8. Minimum Service Accumulation
Category of vehicle in which engine will be
installed
Minimum service
accumulation period
Useful life (Paragraph of
this Regulation)
Category N vehicles
100,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.1.
Category N vehicles
125,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.2.
Category N vehicles with a maximum
technically permissible mass not exceeding 16t
125,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.2.
Category N vehicles with a maximum
technically permissible mass exceeding 16t
167,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.3.
Category M vehicles
100,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.1.
Category M vehicles of Classes I, II, A and B,
with a maximum technically permissible mass
125,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.2.
not exceeding 7.5t
Category M vehicles of Classes III and B, with a
maximum technically permissible mass
exceeding 7.5t
167,000km
Paragraph 5.3.1.3.

3.5. Determination of Deterioration Factors
3.5.1. For each pollutant measured on the ESC and ETC tests and at each test point during the
service accumulation schedule, a "best fit" regression analysis shall be made on the basis of all
test results. The results of each test for each pollutant shall be expressed to the same number
of decimal places as the limit value for that pollutant, as shown in the Tables in
Paragraph 5.2.1. to this Regulation, plus one additional decimal place. In accordance with
Paragraph 3.2., if it has been agreed that only one test cycle (ESC or ETC) be run at each test
point and the other test cycle (ESC or ETC) run only at the beginning and end of the service
accumulation schedule, the regression analysis shall be made only on the basis of the test
results from the test cycle run at each test point.
3.5.2. On the basis of the regression analysis, the manufacturer shall calculate the projected emission
values for each pollutant at the start of the service accumulation schedule and at the useful life
that is applicable for the engine under test by extrapolation of the regression equation as
determined in Paragraph 3.5.1.
3.5.3. For engines not equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system, the deterioration factor for
each pollutant is the difference between the projected emission values at the useful life period
and at the start of the service accumulation schedule.
For engines equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system, the deterioration factor for each
pollutant is the ratio of the projected emission values at the useful life period and at the start of
the service accumulation schedule.
In accordance with Paragraph 3.2., if it has been agreed that only one test cycle (ESC or ETC)
be run at each test point and the other test cycle (ESC or ETC) run only at the beginning and
end of the service accumulation schedule, the deterioration factor calculated for the test cycle
that has been run at each test point shall be applicable also for the other test cycle, provided
that for both test cycles, the relationship between the measured values run at the beginning
and at the end of the service accumulation schedule are similar.
3.5.4. The deterioration factors for each pollutant on the appropriate test cycles shall be recorded in
Paragraph 1.4. of Appendix 1 to Annex 6 to this Regulation.
3.6. As an alternative to using a service accumulation schedule to determine deterioration factors,
engine manufacturers may choose to use the following deterioration factors:
Engine type Test cycle CO HC NMHC CH NO PM
Diesel engine
ESC 1.1 1.05 − − 1.05 1.1
ETC 1.1 1.05 − − 1.05 1.1
Gas engine ETC 1.1 1.05 1.05 1.2 1.05 −
3.6.1. The manufacturer may select to carry across the DF's determined for an engine or
engine/aftertreatment combination to engines or engine/aftertreatment combinations that do not
fall into the same engine family category as determined according to Paragraph 2.1. In such
cases, the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the Approval Authority that the base engine or
engine/aftertreatment combination and the engine or engine/aftertreatment combination for
which the DF's are being carried over have the same technical specifications and installation
requirements on the vehicle and that the emissions of such engine or engine/aftertreatment
combinations are similar.

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Electronic engine control unit and its associated sensors and actuators;
Particulate filter system (including related components);
Exhaust gas re-circulation system, including all related control valves and tubing;
Any exhaust aftertreatment system.
4.1.5. For the purposes of maintenance, the following components are defined as critical
emission-related items:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Any exhaust aftertreatment system;
Electronic engine control unit and its associated sensors and actuators;
Exhaust gas re-circulation system including all related filters, coolers, control valves and
tubing;
Positive crankcase ventilation valve.
4.1.6. All critical emission-related scheduled maintenance shall have a reasonable likelihood of being
performed in-use. The manufacturer shall demonstrate to the Approval Authority the
reasonable likelihood of such maintenance being performed in-use and such demonstration
shall be made prior to the performance of the maintenance during the service accumulation
schedule.
4.1.7. Critical emission-related scheduled maintenance items that satisfy any of the conditions
defined in Paragraphs 4.1.7.1. to 4.1.7.4. will be accepted as having a reasonable likelihood of
the maintenance item being performed in-use.
4.1.7.1. Data is submitted which establishes a connection between emissions and vehicle performance
such that as emissions increase due to lack of maintenance, vehicle performance will
simultaneously deteriorate to a point unacceptable for typical driving.
4.1.7.2. Survey data is submitted which demonstrates that, at an 80% confidence level, 80% of such
engines already have this critical maintenance item performed in-use at the recommended
interval(s).
4.1.7.3. In association with the requirements of Paragraph 3.6. of Annex 9A to this Regulation, a clearly
visible indicator shall be installed on the dashboard of the vehicle to alert the driver that
maintenance is due. The indicator shall be actuated at the appropriate distance or by
component failure. The indicator shall remain activated while the engine is in operation and
shall not be erased without the required maintenance being carried out. Re-setting of the signal
shall be a required step in the maintenance schedule. The system shall not be designed to
deactivate upon the end of the appropriate useful life period of the engine or thereafter.
4.1.7.4. Any other method which the Approval Authority determines as establishing a reasonable
likelihood that the critical maintenance will be performed in-use.

ANNEX 8
CONFORMITY OF IN-SERVICE VEHICLES/ENGINES
1. GENERAL
1.1. With reference to approvals granted for emissions, measures are appropriate for confirming the
functionality of the emission control devices during the useful life of an engine installed in a
vehicle under normal conditions of use (conformity of in-service vehicles/engines properly
maintained and used).
1.2. For the purpose of this Regulation these measures shall be checked over a period
corresponding to the appropriate useful life period defined in Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation
for vehicles or engines which are approved to either Row B1, Row B2 or Row C of the Tables
in Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.
1.3. The checking of conformity of in-service vehicles/engines is done on the basis of information
provided by the manufacturer to the Approval Authority conducting an audit of the
emissions-performance of a range of representative vehicles or engines of which the
manufacturer holds the approval.
Figures 1 in this Annex illustrates the procedure for in-service conformity checking.
2. PROCEDURES FOR AUDIT
2.1. Audit of in-service conformity by the Approval Authority is conducted on the basis of any
relevant information that the manufacturer has, under procedures similar to those defined in
Appendix 2 of the 1958 Agreement (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2). Alternatives are inservice
monitoring reports supplied by the manufacturer, Approval Authority surveillance testing
and/or information on surveillance testing performed by a Contracting Party. The procedures to
be used are given in Paragraph 3.
3. AUDIT PROCEDURES
3.1. An audit of in-service conformity will be conducted by the Approval Authority on the basis of
information supplied by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's in-service monitoring (ISM)
report should be based on in-use testing of engines or vehicles using proven and relevant
testing protocols. Such information (the ISM report) shall include, but is not limited to, the
following (see Paragraphs 3.1.1. to 3.1.13.):
3.1.1. The name and address of the manufacturer.
3.1.2. The name, address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address of his authorized
representative within the areas covered by the manufacturer's information.

3.1.3. The model name(s) of the engines included in the manufacturer's information.
3.1.4. The list of engine types covered within the manufacturer's information, i.e. the
engine-after-treatment system family.
3.1.5. The vehicle identification number (VIN) codes applicable to the vehicles equipped with an
engine that is part of the audit.
3.1.6. The numbers of the type approvals applicable to the engine types within the in-service family,
including, where applicable, the numbers of all extensions and field fixes/recalls (re-works):
3.1.7. Details of extensions, field fixes/recalls to those type approvals for the engines covered within
the manufacturer's information (if requested by the Approval Authority).
3.1.8. The period of time over which the manufacturer's information was collected.
3.1.9. The engine build period covered within the manufacturer's information (e.g. "vehicles or
engines manufactured during the 2005 calendar year").
3.1.10. The manufacturer's in-service conformity checking procedure, including:
3.1.10.1. Vehicle or engine location method;
3.1.10.2. Selection and rejection criteria for vehicle or engine;
3.1.10.3. Test types and procedures used for the programme;
3.1.10.4. The manufacturer's acceptance/rejection criteria for the in-service family group;
3.1.10.5. Geographical area(s) within which the manufacturer has collected information;
3.1.10.6. Sample size and sampling plan used.
3.1.11. The results from the manufacturer's in-service conformity procedure, including:
3.1.11.1. Identification of the engines included in the programme (whether tested or not). The
identification will include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
model name;
vehicle identification number (VIN);
engine identification number;
vehicle registration number equipped with an engine that is part of the audit;
date of manufacture;
region of use (where known);
type of use of the vehicle (where known), i.e. urban delivery, long haul etc.

3.3. The manufacturer may whish to run in-service monitoring comprising fewer engines/vehicles
than the number given in Paragraph 3.1.11.5., Item (g), and using a procedure defined under
Paragraph 3.1.11.5., Item (h). The reason could be that the engines in the engine family(-ies)
covered by the report are in a small number. The conditions should have been agreed on
beforehand by the Approval Authority.
3.4. On the basis of the monitoring report referred to in this Paragraph, the Approval Authority shall
either:
(a)
(b)
(c)
decide that the in-service conformity of an engine type or an engine family is satisfactory
and not to take any further action;
decide that the data provided by the manufacturer is insufficient to reach a decision and
request additional information and/or test data from the manufacturer. Where requested,
and depending on the approval of the engine, such additional test data shall include
ESC, ELR, and ETC test results, or from other proven procedures according to
Paragraph 3.1.11.5., Item (h);
decide that the in-service conformity of an engine family is unsatisfactory and proceed to
have confirmatory testing carried out on a sample of engines from the engine family,
according to Paragraph 5. of this Annex.
3.5. A Contracting Party may conduct and report its surveillance testing, based on the audit
procedure spelled out in this Paragraph. Information on the procurement, maintenance, and
manufacturer's participation in the activities may be recorded. Likewise, the Contracting Party
may use alternative emission test protocols, according to Paragraph 3.1.11.5., Item (h).
3.6. The Approval Authority may take up surveillance testing conducted and reported by a
Contracting Party as a basis for the decisions according to Paragraph 3.4.
3.7. The manufacturer should report to the Approval Authority and the Contracting Party(s) where
the subject engines/vehicles are kept in service when planning to conduct a voluntary remedial
action. The reporting shall be supplied by the manufacturer in conjunction with taking the
decision to take action, specifying the particulars of the action, describe the groups of
engines/vehicles to be included in the action, and regularly thereafter on the commencement of
the campaign. The applicable particulars of Paragraph 7. of this Annex may be used.
4. EMISSION TESTS
4.1. An engine selected from the engine family shall be tested over the ESC and ETC test cycles for
gaseous and particulate emissions and over the ELR test cycle for smoke emission. The
engine shall be representative of the type of use expected for this type of engine, and come
from a vehicle in normal use. The procurement, inspection, and restorative maintenance of the
engine/vehicle shall be conducted using a protocol such as is specified in Paragraph 3., and
shall be documented.
The appropriate maintenance schedule, referred to in Paragraph 4. of Annex 7, shall have
been carried out on the engine.
4.2. The emission values determined from the ESC, ETC and ELR tests shall be expressed to the
same number of decimal places as the limit value for that pollutant, as shown in the Tables in
Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation, plus one additional decimal place.

Then, subject to the provision of the Agreement, the Competent Authority of the Contracting
Party to the Agreement which granted the original type approval shall inform the manufacturer
that a vehicle type fails to satisfy the requirements of these provisions and that certain
measures are expected from the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall submit to the authority,
within two months after this notification, a plan of measures to overcome the defects, the
substance of which should correspond with the requirements of Paragraph 7. The Competent
Authority which granted the original approval shall, within two months, consult the manufacturer
in order to secure agreement on a plan of measures and on carrying out the plan. If the
Competent Authority which granted the original type approval establishes that no agreement
can be reached, the relevant procedures to the Agreement shall be initiated.
7. PLAN OF REMEDIAL MEASURES
7.1. The plan of remedial measures, requested according to Paragraph 6.1, shall be filed with the
Approval Authority not later than 60 working days from the date of the notification referred to in
Paragraph 6.2. The Approval Authority shall within 30 working days declare its approval or
disapproval of the plan of remedial measures. However, where the manufacturer can
demonstrate to the satisfaction of the competent Approval Authority, that further time is
required to investigate the non-compliance in order to submit a plan of remedial measures, an
extension is granted.
7.2. The remedial measures shall apply to all engines likely to be affected by the same defect. The
need to amend the approval documents shall be assessed.
7.3. The manufacturer shall provide a copy of all communications related to the plan of remedial
measures, shall also maintain a record of the recall campaign, and supply regular status
reports to the Approval Authority.
7.4. The plan of remedial measures shall include the requirements specified in Paragraphs 7.4.1. to
7.4.11. The manufacturer shall assign a unique identifying name or number to the plan of
remedial measures.
7.4.1. A description of each engine type included in the plan of remedial measures.
7.4.2. A description of the specific modifications, alterations, repairs, corrections, adjustments, or
other changes to be made to bring the engines into conformity including a brief summary of the
data and technical studies which support the manufacturer's decision as to the particular
measures to be taken to correct the non-conformity.
7.4.3. A description of the method by which the manufacturer informs the engine or vehicle owners
about the remedial measures.
7.4.4. A description of the proper maintenance or use, if any, which the manufacturer stipulates as a
conditions of eligibility for repair under the plan of remedial measures, and an explanation of
the manufacturer's reasons for imposing any such condition. No maintenance or use conditions
may be imposed unless it is demonstrably related to the non-conformity and the remedial
measures.
7.4.5. A description of the procedure to be followed by engine owners to obtain correction of the
non-conformity. This shall include a date after which the remedial measures may be taken, the
estimated time for the workshop to perform the repairs and where they can be done. The repair
shall be done expediently, within a reasonable time after delivery of the vehicle.

ANNEX 9A
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS (OBD)
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex describes the provisions specific to the on-board diagnostic (OBD) system for the
emission control systems of motor vehicles.
2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. For the purposes of this Annex, the following definitions, in addition to the definitions contained
in Paragraph 2. of this Regulation, apply:
2.1.1. "warm-up cycle" means sufficient engine operation such that the coolant temperature has
risen by at least 22K from engine starting and reaches a minimum temperature of 343K
(70°C);
2.1.2. "access" means the availability of all emission related OBD data including all fault codes
required for the inspection, diagnosis, servicing or repair of emissions related parts of the
vehicle, via the serial interface of the standard diagnostic connector;
2.1.3. "deficiency" means, in respect of engine OBD systems, that up to two separate components
or systems that are monitored contain temporary or permanent operating characteristics that
impair the otherwise efficient OBD monitoring of those components or systems or do not meet
all the other detailed requirements for OBD. Engines or vehicles in respect of their engine may
be approved, registered and sold with such deficiencies according to the requirements of
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex;
2.1.4. "deteriorated component/system" means an engine or exhaust aftertreatment
component/system that has been intentionally deteriorated in a controlled manner by the
manufacturer for the purpose of conducting a approval test on the OBD system;
2.1.5. "OBD test cycle" means a driving cycle which is a version of the ESC test cycle having the
same running-order of the 13 individual modes as described in Paragraph 2.7.1. of Appendix 1
to Annex 4A to this Regulation but where the length of each mode is reduced to 60s;
2.1.6. "operating sequence" means the sequence used for determining the conditions for
extinguishing the MI. It consists of an engine start-up, an operating period, an engine shut-off,
and the time until the next start-up, where the OBD monitoring is running and a malfunction
would be detected if present;
2.1.7. "preconditioning cycle" means the running of at least three consecutive OBD test cycles or
emission test cycles for the purpose of achieving stability of the engine operation, the emission
control system and OBD monitoring readiness;

3.1.4. Access to the OBD system required for the inspection, diagnosis, servicing or repair of the
engine shall be unrestricted and standardized. All emission related fault codes shall be
consistent with those described in Paragraph 6.8.5. of this Annex.
3.2. OBD Stage 1 Requirements
3.2.1. From the dates given in Paragraph 5.4.2. of this Regulation, the OBD system of all diesel
engines and of vehicles equipped with a diesel engine shall indicate the failure of an emission
related component or system when that failure results in an increase in emissions above the
appropriate OBD thresholds given in the Table in Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation.
3.2.2. In satisfying the Stage 1 requirements, the OBD system shall monitor for:
3.2.2.1. complete removal of a catalyst, where fitted in a separate housing, that may or may not be part
of a deNO system or particulate filter.
3.2.2.2. reduction in the efficiency of the deNO system, where fitted, with respect to the emissions of
NO only.
3.2.2.3. reduction in the efficiency of the particulate filter, where fitted, with respect to the emissions of
particulate only.
3.2.2.4. reduction in the efficiency of a combined deNO -particulate filter system, where fitted, with
respect to both the emissions of NO and particulate.
3.2.3. Major Functional Failure
3.2.3.1. As an alternative to monitoring against the appropriate OBD threshold limits with respect to
Paragraphs 3.2.2.1. to 3.2.2.4., OBD systems of diesel engines may in accordance with
Paragraph 5.4.1.1. of this Regulation monitor for major functional failure of the following
components:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
a catalyst, where fitted as a separate unit, that may or may not be part of a deNO
system or particulate filter;
a deNO system, where fitted;
a particulate filter, where fitted;
a combined deNO -particulate filter system.
3.2.3.2. In the case of an engine equipped with a deNO system, examples of monitoring for major
functional failure are for complete removal of the system or replacement of the system by a
bogus system (both intentional major functional failure), lack of required reagent for a deNO
system, failure of any SCR electrical component, any electrical failure of a component
(e.g. sensors and actuators, dosing control unit) of a deNO system including, when applicable,
the reagent heating system, failure of the reagent dosing system (e.g. missing air supply,
clogged nozzle, dosing pump failure).
3.2.3.3. In the case of an engine equipped with a particulate filter, examples of monitoring for major
functional failure are for major melting of the trap substrate or a clogged trap resulting in a
differential pressure out of the range declared by the manufacturer, any electrical failure of a
component (e.g. sensors and actuators, dosing control unit) of a particulate filter, any failure,
when applicable, of a reagent dosing system (e.g. clogged nozzle, dosing pump failure).

3.4. Stage 1 and Stage 2 Requirements
3.4.1. In satisfying both the Stage 1 or Stage 2 requirements the OBD system shall monitor:
3.4.1.1. The fuel injection system electronic, fuel quantity and timing actuator(s) for circuit continuity
(i.e. open circuit or short circuit) and total functional failure.
3.4.1.2. All other engine or exhaust aftertreatment emission-related components or systems, which are
connected to a computer, the failure of which would result in tailpipe emissions exceeding the
OBD threshold limits given in the Table in Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation. At a minimum,
examples include the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, systems or components for
monitoring and control of air mass-flow, air volumetric flow (and temperature), boost pressure
and inlet manifold pressure (and relevant sensors to enable these functions to be carried out),
sensors and actuators of a deNO system, sensors and actuators of an electronically activated
active particulate filter.
3.4.1.3. Any other emission-related engine or exhaust aftertreatment component or system connected
to an electronic control unit shall be monitored for electrical disconnection unless otherwise
monitored.
3.4.1.4. In the case of engines equipped with an aftertreatment system using a consumable reagent,
the OBD system shall monitor for:
(a)
(b)
(c)
lack of any required reagent;
the quality of the required reagent being within the specifications declared by the
manufacturer in Annex 1 to this Regulation;
reagent consumption and dosing activity;
according to Paragraph 5.5.4. of this Regulation.
3.5. OBD Operation and Temporary Disablement of Certain OBD Monitoring Capabilities
3.5.1. The OBD system shall be so designed, constructed and installed in a vehicle as to enable it to
comply with the requirements of this Annex during the conditions of use defined in
Paragraph 5.1.5.4. of this Regulation.
Outside these normal operating conditions the emission control system may show some
degradation in OBD system performance such that the thresholds given in the Table in
Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation may be exceeded before the OBD system signals a failure
to the driver of the vehicle.
The OBD system shall not be disabled unless one or more of the following conditions for
disablement are met:
3.5.1.1. The affected OBD monitoring systems may be disabled if its ability to monitor is affected by low
fuel levels. For this reason, disablement is permitted when the fuel tank level falls below 20% of
the nominal capacity of the fuel tank.
3.5.1.2. The affected OBD monitoring systems may be temporarily disabled during the operation of an
auxiliary emission control strategy as described in Paragraph 5.1.5.1. of this Regulation.
3.5.1.3. The affected OBD monitoring systems may be temporarily disabled when operational safety or
limp-home strategies are activated.

3.7. Fault Code Storage
The OBD system shall record fault code(s) indicating the status of the emission control system.
A fault code shall be stored for any detected and verified malfunction causing MI activation and
shall identify the malfunctioning system or component as uniquely as possible. A separate code
should be stored indicating the expected MI activation status (e.g. MI commanded "ON", MI
commanded "OFF").
Separate status codes shall be used to identify correctly functioning emission control systems
and those emission control systems that need further engine operation to be fully evaluated. If
the MI is activated due to malfunction or emission default modes of operation, a fault code shall
be stored that identifies the likely area of malfunction. A fault code shall also be stored in the
cases referred to in Paragraphs 3.4.1.1. and 3.4.1.3. of this Annex.
3.7.1. If monitoring has been disabled for 10 driving cycles due to the continued operation of the
vehicle under conditions conforming to those specified in Paragraph 3.5.1.2. of this Annex,
readiness for the subject monitoring system may be set to "ready" status without monitoring
having been completed.
3.7.2. The hours run by the engine while the MI is activated shall be available upon request at any
instant through the serial port on the standard link connector, according to the specifications
given in Paragraph 6.8. of this Annex.
3.8. Extinguishing the MI
3.8.1. The MI may be de-activated after three subsequent sequential operating sequences or
24 engine running hours during which the monitoring system responsible for activating the MI
ceases to detect the malfunction and if no other malfunction has been identified that would
independently activate the MI.
3.8.2. In the case of MI activation due to lack of reagent for the deNO system, or combined
deNO -particulate after-treatment device or use of a reagent outside the specifications declared
by the manufacturer, the MI may be switched back to the previous state of activation after filling
or replacement of the storage medium with a reagent having the correct specifications.
3.8.3. In the case of MI activation due to incorrect operation of the engine system with respect to NO
control measures, or incorrect reagent consumption and dosing activity, the MI may be
switched back to the previous state of activation if the conditions given in Paragraphs 5.5.3.,
5.5.4 and 5.5.7. of this Regulation no longer apply.
3.9. Erasing a Fault Code
3.9.1. The OBD system may erase a fault code and the hours run by the engine and freeze frame
information if the same fault is not re-registered in at least 40 engine warm-up cycles or
100 engine running hours, whichever occurs first, with the exception of the cases referred to in
Paragraph 3.9.2.

4.3. Approval of an OBD System Containing Deficiencies
4.3.1. A manufacturer may request to the authority that an OBD system be accepted for approval
even though the system contains one or more deficiencies such that the specific requirements
of this Annex are not fully met.
4.3.2. In considering the request, the authority shall determine whether compliance with the
requirements of this Annex is feasible or unreasonable.
The authority shall take into consideration data from the manufacturer that details such factors
as, but not limited to, technical feasibility, lead time and production cycles including phase-in or
phase-out of engines designs and programmed upgrades of computers, the extend to which
the resultant OBD system will be effective in complying with the requirements of this Regulation
and that the manufacturer has demonstrated an acceptable level of effort toward the
requirements of this Regulation.
4.3.3. The authority will not accept any deficiency request that includes the complete lack of a
required diagnostic monitor.
4.3.4. The authority shall not accept any deficiency request that does not respect the OBD threshold
limits given in the Table in Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation.
4.3.5. In determining the identified order of deficiencies, deficiencies relating to OBD Stage 1 in
respect of Paragraphs 3.2.2.1., 3.2.2.2., 3.2.2.3., 3.2.2.4. and 3.4.1.1. and OBD Stage 2 in
respect of Paragraphs 3.3.2.1., 3.3.2.2., 3.3.2.3., 3.3.2.4. and 3.4.1.1. of this Annex shall be
identified first.
4.3.6. Prior to or at the time of approval, no deficiency shall be granted in respect of the requirements
of Paragraph 3.2.3. and Paragraph 6., except sub-paragraph 6.8.5. of this Annex.
4.3.7. Deficiency Period
4.3.7.1. A deficiency may be carried-over for a period of two years after the date of approval of the
engine type or vehicle in respect of its engine type, unless it can be adequately demonstrated
that substantial engine modifications and additional lead-time beyond two years would be
necessary to correct the deficiency. In such a case, the deficiency may be carried-out for a
period not exceeding three years.
4.3.7.2. A manufacturer may request that the original Approval Authority grant a deficiency
retrospectively when such a deficiency is discovered after the original approval. In this case,
the deficiency may be carried-over for a period of two years after the date of notification to the
Approval Authority unless it can be adequately demonstrated that substantial engine
modifications and additional lead-time beyond two years would be necessary to correct the
deficiency. In such a case, the deficiency may be carried-out for a period not exceeding three
years.
4.3.7.3. The authority shall notify its decision in granting a deficiency request to all Contracting Parties.

6. DIAGNOSTIC SIGNALS
6.1. Upon determination of the first malfunction of any component or system, "freeze frame" engine
conditions present at the time shall be stored in computer memory. Stored engine conditions
shall include, but are not limited to calculated load value, Engine Speed, coolant temperature,
intake manifold pressure (if available), and the fault code which caused the data to be stored.
For freeze-frame storage, the manufacturer shall choose the most appropriate set of conditions
facilitating effective repairs.
6.2. Only one frame of data is required. Manufacturers may choose to store additional frames
provided that at least the required frame can be read by a generic scan tool meeting the
specifications of Paragraphs 6.8.3. and 6.8.4. If the fault code causing the conditions to be
stored is erased in accordance with Paragraph 3.9. of this Annex, the stored engine conditions
may also be erased.
6.3. If available, the following signals in addition to the required freeze frame information shall be
made available on demand through the serial port on the standardized data link connector, if
the information is available to the on board computer or can be determined using information
available to the on board computer: diagnostic trouble codes, engine coolant temperature,
injection timing, intake air temperature, manifold air pressure, air flow rate, engine speed, pedal
position sensor output value, calculated load value, vehicle speed and fuel pressure.
The signals shall be provided in standard units based on the specifications given in
Paragraph 6.8. Actual signals shall be clearly identified separately from default value or
limp-home signals.
6.4. For all emission control systems for which specific on-board evaluation tests are conducted,
separate status codes, or readiness codes, shall be stored in computer memory to identify
correctly functioning emission control systems and those emission control systems which
require further vehicle operation to complete a proper diagnostic evaluation. A readiness code
need not be stored for those monitors that can be considered continuously operating monitors.
Readiness codes should never be set to "not ready" status upon "key-on" or "key-off". The
intentional setting of readiness codes to "not ready" status via service procedures shall apply to
all such codes, rather than applying to individual codes.
6.5. The OBD requirements to which the vehicle is certified (i.e. Stage 1 OBD or Stage 2 OBD) and
the major emission control systems monitored by the OBD system consistent with
Paragraph 6.8.4. shall be available through the serial data port on the standardized data link
connector according to the specifications given in Paragraph 6.8.
6.6. The software calibration identification number as declared in Annexes 1 and 2A to this
Regulation shall be made available through the serial port of the standardized diagnostic
connector. The software calibration identification number shall be provided in a standardized
format.
6.7. The vehicle identification number (VIN) number shall be made available through the serial port
of the standardized diagnostic connector. The VIN number shall be provided in a standardized
format.

ANNEX 9A - APPENDIX
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC (OBD) SYSTEM APPROVAL TESTS
1. INTRODUCTION
This Appendix describes the procedure for checking the function of the on board diagnostic
(OBD) system installed on the engine by failure simulation of relevant emission-related systems
in the engine management or emission control system. It also sets procedures for determining
the durability of OBD systems.
1.1. Deteriorated Components/Systems
In order to demonstrate the efficient monitoring of an emission control system or component,
the failure of which may result in tailpipe emissions exceeding the appropriate OBD threshold
limits, the manufacturer shall make available the deteriorated components and/or electrical
devices which would be used to simulate failures.
Such deteriorated components or devices shall not cause emissions to exceed the OBD
threshold limits referred to in the Table in Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation by more than
20%.
In the case of approval of an OBD system according to Paragraph 5.4.1. of this Regulation, the
emissions shall be measured over the ESC test cycle (see Appendix 1 to Annex 4A to this
Regulation). In the case of approval of an OBD system according to Paragraph 5.4.2. of this
Regulation, the emissions shall be measured over the ETC test cycle (see Appendix 2 to
Annex 4A to this Regulation).
1.1.1. If it is determined that the installation of a deteriorated component or device on an engine
means that a comparison with the OBD threshold limits is not possible (e.g. because the
statistical conditions for validating the ETC test cycle are not met), the failure of that component
or device may be considered as qualified upon the agreement of the Approval Authority based
on technical argumentation provided by the manufacturer.
1.1.2. In the case that the installation of a deteriorated component or device on an engine means that
the full load curve (as determined with a correctly operating engine) cannot (even partially) be
attained during the test, the deteriorated component or device is considered as qualified upon
the agreement of the Approval Authority based on technical argumentation provided by the
manufacturer.
1.1.3. The use of deteriorated components or devices that cause engine emissions to exceed the
OBD threshold limits referred to in the Table in Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation by no more
than 20% may not be required in some very specific cases (for example, if a limp home
strategy is activated, if the engine cannot run any test, or in case of EGR sticking valves, etc).
This exception shall be documented by the manufacturer. It is subject to the agreement of the
Technical Service.

3. TEST ENGINE AND FUEL
3.1. Engine
3.2. Fuel
The test engine shall comply with the specifications laid down in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
The appropriate reference fuel as described in Annex 5 to this Regulation shall be used for
testing.
4. TEST CONDITIONS
The test conditions shall satisfy the requirements of the emission test described in the present
Regulation.
5. TEST EQUIPMENT
The engine dynamometer shall meet the requirements of Annex 4A to this Regulation.
6. OBD TEST CYCLE
6.1. The OBD test cycle is a single shortened ESC test cycle. The individual modes shall be
performed in the same order as the ESC test cycle, as defined in Paragraph 2.7.1. of
Appendix 1 to Annex 4A to this Regulation .
The engine shall be operated for a maximum of 60s in each mode, completing Engine Speed
and load changes in the first 20s. The specified speed shall be held to within
±50min and the specified torque shall be held to within ±2% of the maximum torque at each
speed.
Exhaust emissions are not required to be measured during the OBD test cycle.
6.2. Preconditioning Cycle
6.2.1. After introduction of one of the failure modes given in Paragraph 6.3., the engine and its OBD
system shall be preconditioned by performing a preconditioning cycle.
6.2.2. At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the Approval Authority, an
alternative number of a maximum of nine consecutive OBD test cycles may be used.
6.3. OBD System Test
6.3.1. Diesel engines and vehicles equipped with a diesel engine
6.3.1.1. After preconditioning according to Paragraph 6.2., the test engine is operated over the OBD
test cycle described in Paragraph 6.1. of this Appendix. The MI shall activate before the end of
this test under any of the conditions given in Paragraphs 6.3.1.2. to 6.3.1.7. The Technical
Service may substitute those conditions by others in accordance with Paragraph 6.3.1.7. For
the purposes of approval, the total number of failures subject to testing, in the case of different
systems or components, shall not exceed four.

6.3.1.5. Where fitted, replacement of a combined deNO -particulate filter system (including any sensors
that are an integral part of the device) with a deteriorated or defective system or electronic
simulation of a deteriorated or defective system that results in emissions exceeding the OBD
NO and particulate threshold limits given in the Table in Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation.
In the case that the engine is being approved according to Paragraph 5.4.1. of this Regulation
in relation to monitoring for major functional failure, the test of the combined deNO -particulate
filter system shall determine that the MI illuminates under any of the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
complete removal of the system or replacement of the system by a bogus system;
lack of any required reagent for a combined deNO -particulate filter system;
any electrical failure of a component (e.g. sensors and actuators, dosing control unit) of a
combined deNO -particulate filter system, including, when applicable, the reagent
heating system;
failure of a reagent dosing system (e.g. missing air supply, clogged nozzle, dosing pump
failure) of a combined deNO -particulate filter system;
major breakdown of a NO trap system;
major melting of the particulate filter substrate;
major cracking of the particulate filter substrate;
a clogged particulate filter resulting in a differential pressure out of the range declared by
the manufacturer.
6.3.1.6. Disconnection of any fuelling system electronic fuel quantity and timing actuator that results in
emissions exceeding any of the OBD thresholds referred to in the Table given in
Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation.
6.3.1.7. Disconnection of any other emission-related engine component connected to a computer that
results in emissions exceeding any of the thresholds referred to in the Table given in
Paragraph 5.4.4. of this Regulation.
6.3.1.8. In demonstrating compliance with the requirements of Paragraphs 6.3.1.6. and 6.3.1.7. and
with the agreement of the Approval Authority, the manufacturer may take appropriate steps to
demonstrate that the OBD system will indicate a fault when disconnection occurs.

3.10. "Emission OBD family" means a manufacturer's grouping of engine systems having common
methods of monitoring/diagnosing emission-related malfunctions.
3.11. "Emission threshold monitoring" means monitoring of a malfunction that leads to an excess
of the OTLs. It consists of:
(a)
(b)
direct emissions measurement via a tailpipe emissions sensor(s) and a model to
correlate the direct emissions to test cycle specific emissions; and/or
indication of an emissions increase via correlation of computer input/output information
to test cycle specific emissions.
3.12. "Engine system" means the engine as it would be configured when tested for its exhaust
emissions on a approval test-bed, including:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
the engine's electronic management controller(s);
the exhaust after-treatment system(s);
any emission-related component of the engine or the exhaust system which supplies
input to, or receives output from, the engine's electronic management controller(s); and
the communication interface (hardware and messages) between the engine's electronic
management controller(s) and any other power train or vehicle control unit if the
exchanged information has an influence on the control of emissions.
3.13. "Functionality failure" means a malfunction where an output component does not respond to
a computer command in the expected way.
3.14. "Malfunction emission control strategy (MECS)" means a strategy within the engine system
that is activated as a result of an emission-related malfunction.
3.15. "Malfunction indicator (MI)" is an indicator which clearly informs the driver of the vehicle in
the event of a malfunction. The MI is part of the alert system (see "continuous-MI",
"on-demand-MI", and "short-MI").
3.16. "Malfunction" means a failure or deterioration of an engine system, including the OBD
system, that may lead either to an increase in any of the regulated pollutants emitted by the
engine system or to a reduction in the effectiveness of the OBD system.
3.17. "MI status" means the command status of the MI, being either continuous-MI, Short-MI,
on-demand-MI, or off.
3.18. "Monitoring" (see "emission threshold monitoring", "performance monitoring", and "total
functional failure monitoring")
3.19. "OBD test cycle" means the cycle over which an engine system is operated on an engine
test-bed to evaluate the response of an OBD system to the presence of a qualified deteriorated
component.
3.20. "OBD-parent engine system" means an engine system that has been selected from an
emission-OBD family for which most of its OBD elements of design are representative of that
family.

3.32. "Short-MI" means the malfunction indicator showing a steady indication from the time the key
is moved to on (run) position and the engine is started (ignition on - engine on) and
extinguishing after 15s or the key is moved to off, whichever occurs first.
3.33. "Software calibration identification" means a series of alphanumeric characters that
identifies the emission-related calibration / software version(s) installed in the engine system.
3.34. "Total functional failure monitoring" means monitoring a malfunction which is leading to a
complete loss of the desired function of a system.
3.35. "Warm-up cycle" means sufficient engine operation such that the coolant temperature has
risen by at least 295K (22 °C/40 °F) from engine starting and reaches a minimum temperature
of 333K (60 °C/140 °F) .
3.36. Abbreviations
CV
DOC
DPF
DTC
EGR
HC
LNT
LPG
MECS
NG
NO
OTL
PM
SCR
SW
TFF
VGT
VVT
Crankcase Ventilation
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
Diesel Particulate Filter or Particulate Trap including catalyzed DPFs and
Continuously Regenerating Traps (CRT)
Diagnostic trouble code
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Hydrocarbon
Lean NO Trap (or NO absorber)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Malfunction Emission Control Strategy
Natural Gas
Oxides of Nitrogen
OBD Threshold Limit
Particulate Matter
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Screen Wipers
Total Functional Failure monitoring
Variable Geometry Turbocharger
Variable Valve Timing

4.1.2.2. Extension to Address a Design Change that Affects the OBD System
At the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Approval Authority, an extension
of an existing certificate may be granted in the case of a design change of the OBD system if
the manufacturer demonstrates that the design changes comply with the provisions of this
Annex.
The documentation package shall be modified according to Paragraph 8. of this Annex.
If the existing certificate applies to an emission-OBD family, the manufacturer shall justify to the
Approval Authority that the methods of monitoring/diagnosing emission-related malfunctions
are still common within the family and that the OBD-parent engine system remains
representative of the family.
4.1.2.3. Certificate Modification to Address a Malfunction Reclassification
This Paragraph applies when, following a request by the authority that granted the approval, or
at its own initiative, the manufacturer applies for a modification of an existing certificate in order
to reclassify one or several malfunctions.
The compliance of the new classification shall then be demonstrated according to the
provisions of this Annex and the documentation package shall be modified according to
Paragraph 8 of this Annex.
4.2. Monitoring Requirements
All emission-related components and systems included in an engine system shall be monitored
by the OBD system in accordance with the requirements set in Appendix 3. However, the OBD
system is not required to use a unique monitor to detect each malfunction referred to in
Appendix 3.
The OBD system shall also monitor its own components.
The items of Appendix 3 list the systems or components required to be monitored by the OBD
system and describes the types of monitoring expected for each of these components or
systems (i.e. emission threshold monitoring, performance monitoring, total functional failure
monitoring, or component monitoring).
The manufacturer can decide to monitor additional systems and components.
4.2.1. Selection of the Monitoring Technique
Approval authorities may approve a manufacturer's use of another type of monitoring technique
than the one mentioned in Appendix 3. The chosen type of monitoring shall be shown by the
manufacturer, to be robust, timely and efficient (i.e. through technical considerations, test
results, previous agreements, etc.).
In case a system and/or component is not covered by Appendix 3 the manufacturer shall
submit for approval to the Approval Authority an approach to monitoring. The Approval
Authority will approve the chosen type of monitoring and monitoring technique (i.e. emission
threshold monitoring, performance monitoring, total functional failure monitoring, or component
monitoring) if it has been shown by the manufacturer, by reference to those detailed in
Appendix 3, to be robust, timely and efficient (i.e. through either technical considerations, test
results, previous agreements, etc.).

4.2.2.1. Exception to Component Monitoring
Monitoring of electrical circuit failures, and to the extent feasible, functionality, and rationality
failures of the engine system shall not be required if all the following conditions are met:
(a)
the failure results in an emission increase of any pollutant of less than 50% of the
regulated emission limit, and
(b) the failure does not cause any emission to exceed the regulated emission limit , and
(c)
(d)
the failure does not affect a component or system enabling the proper performance of
the OBD system, and
The failure does not substantially delay or affect the ability of the emission control
system to operate as originally designed (for example a breakdown of the reagent
heating system under cold conditions cannot be considered as an exception).
Determination of the emissions impact shall be performed on a stabilized engine system in an
engine dynamometer test cell, according to the demonstration procedures of this Annex.
When such a demonstration would not be conclusive regarding criterion (d), the manufacturer
shall submit to the approval authority appropriate design elements such as good engineering
practice, technical considerations, simulations, test results, etc.
4.2.3. Monitoring Frequency
Monitors shall run continuously, at any time where the monitoring conditions are fulfilled, or
once per operating sequence (e.g. for monitors that lead to an increase of emission when it
runs).
When a monitor does not run continuously, the manufacturer shall clearly inform the Approval
Authority and describe the conditions under which the monitor runs.
The monitors shall run during the applicable OBD test cycle as specified in Paragraph 7.2.2.
At the request of the manufacturer, the approval authority may approve monitors that do not
run continuously. In that case the manufacturer shall clearly inform the Approval Authority and
describe the conditions under which the monitor runs and justify the proposal by appropriate
design elements (such as good engineering practice).
A monitor shall be regarded as running continuously, if it samples at a rate not less than twice
per second and concludes the presence or the absence of the failure relevant to that monitor
within 15s. If a computer input or output component is sampled less frequently than twice per
second for engine control purpose, a monitor shall also be regarded as running continuously, if
the system concludes the presence or absence of the failure relevant to that monitor each time
sampling occurs.

4.5. Requirements for Malfunction Classification
Malfunction classification specifies the class to which a malfunction is assigned when such a
malfunction is detected, according to the requirements of Paragraph 4.2. of this Annex.
A malfunction shall be assigned to one class for the actual life of the vehicle unless the
authority that granted the certificate or the manufacturer determines that reclassification of that
malfunction is necessary.
If a malfunction would result in a different classification for different regulated pollutant
emissions or for its impact on other monitoring capability, the malfunction shall be assigned to
the class that takes precedence in the discriminatory display strategy.
If an MECS is activated as a result of the detection of a malfunction, this malfunction shall be
classified based on either the emission impact of the activated MECS or its impact on other
monitoring capability. The malfunction shall then be assigned to the class that takes
precedence in the discriminatory display strategy.
4.5.1. Class A Malfunction
A malfunction shall be identified as Class A when the relevant OBD threshold limits (OTLs) are
assumed to be exceeded.
It is accepted that the emissions may not be above the OTLs when this class of malfunction
occurs.
4.5.2. Class B1 Malfunction
A malfunction shall be identified as Class B1 where circumstances exist that have the potential
to lead to emissions being above the OTLs but for which the exact influence on emission
cannot be estimated and thus the actual emissions according to circumstances may be above
or below the OTLs.
Examples of Class B1 malfunctions may include malfunctions detected by monitors that infer
emission levels based on readings of sensors or restricted monitoring capability.
Class B1 malfunctions shall include malfunctions that restrict the ability of the OBD system to
carry out monitoring of Class A or B1 malfunctions.
4.5.3. Class B2 Malfunction
A malfunction shall be identified as Class B2 when circumstances exist that are assumed to
influence emissions but not to a level that exceeds the OTL.
Malfunctions that restrict the ability of the OBD system to carry out monitoring of Class B2
malfunctions of shall be classified into Class B1 or B2.
4.5.4. Class C malfunction
A malfunction shall be identified as Class C when circumstances exist that, if monitored, are
assumed to influence emissions but to a level that would not exceed the regulated emission
limits.
Malfunctions that restrict the ability of the OBD system to carry out monitoring of Class C
malfunctions shall be classified into Class B1 or B2.

Figures B1 and B2 illustrate the prescribed activation strategies at key on, engine on or off.
Figure B1
Bulb Test and Readiness Indication

4.6.3. MI Activation at "engine on"
When the key is placed in the on position and the engine is started (engine on), the MI shall be
commanded off unless the provisions of Paragraph 4.6.3.1. have been met.
4.6.3.1. MI Display Strategy
For the purpose of activating the MI, continuous-MI shall take precedence to short-MI and
on-demand-MI. For the purpose of activating the MI, short-MI shall take precedence to
on-demand-MI.
4.6.3.1.1. Class A malfunctions
The OBD system shall command a continuous-MI upon storage of a confirmed DTC associated
with a Class A malfunction.
4.6.3.1.2. Class B malfunctions
The OBD system shall command a "short-MI" at the next key-on event following storage of a
confirmed and active DTC associated with a Class B malfunction.
Whenever a B1 counter reaches 200h, the OBD system shall command a continuous-MI.
4.6.3.1.3. Class C malfunctions
The manufacturer may make available information on Class C malfunctions through the use of
an on-demand-MI that shall be available until the engine is started.
4.6.3.1.4. MI De-activation scheme
The "continuous-MI" shall switch to a "short-MI" if a single monitoring event occurs and the
malfunction that originally activated the continuous-MI is not detected during the current
operating sequence and a continuous-MI is not activated due to another malfunction.
The "short-MI" shall be deactivated if the malfunction is not detected during the 3 subsequent
sequential operating sequences following the operating sequence when the monitor has
concluded the absence of the considered malfunction and the MI is not activated due to
another Class A or B malfunction.
Figures 1, 4A and 4B in Appendix 2 to this Annex illustrate respectively the short and
continuous MI deactivation in different use-cases.

4.6.4.2.4. Activation Mode 4 - "continuous-MI"
The MI shall remain continuously ON ("continuous-MI") if the OBD system would command a
continuous-MI according to the discriminatory display strategy described in Paragraph 4.6.3.1.
4.6.5. Counters Associated with Malfunctions
4.6.5.1. MI Counters
4.6.5.1.1. Continuous-MI Counter
The OBD system shall contain a continuous-MI counter to record the number of hours during
which the engine has been operated while a continuous-MI is activated.
The continuous-MI counter shall count up to the maximum value provided in a 2 byte counter
with 1 hour resolution and hold that value unless the conditions allowing the counter to be reset
to zero are met.
The continuous-MI counter shall operate as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
if starting from zero, the continuous-MI counter shall begin counting as soon as a
continuous-MI is activated;
the continuous-MI counter shall halt and hold its present value when the continuous-MI is
no longer activated;
the continuous-MI counter shall continue counting from the point at which it had been
held if a malfunction that results in a continuous-MI is detected within 3 operating
sequences;
the continuous-MI counter shall start again counting from zero when a malfunction that
results in a continuous-MI is detected after 3 operating sequences since the counter was
last held;
the continuous-MI counter shall be reset to zero when:
(i)
(ii)
no malfunction that results in a continuous-MI is detected during 40 warm-up
cycles or 200 engine operating hours since the counter was last held whichever
occurs first; or
the OBD scan tool commands the OBD System to clear OBD information.

4.6.5.1.2. Cumulative Continuous-MI Counter
The OBD system shall contain a cumulative continuous-MI counter to record the cumulative
number of hours during which the engine has been operated over its life while a continuous-MI
is activated.
The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall count up to the maximum value provided in a
2-byte counter with 1 hour resolution and hold that value.
The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall not be reset to zero by the engine system, a scan
tool or a disconnection of a battery.
The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall operate as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the cumulative continuous-MI counter shall begin counting when the continuous-MI is
activated.
the cumulative continuous-MI counter shall halt and hold its present value when the
continuous-MI is no longer activated.
the cumulative continuous-MI counter shall continue counting from the point it had been
held when a continuous-MI is activated.
Figure C1 illustrates the principle of the cumulative continuous-MI counter and Appendix 2
contains examples that illustrate the logic.
4.6.5.2. Counters Associated with Class B1 Malfunctions
4.6.5.2.1. Single B1-counter
The OBD system shall contain a B1 counter to record the number of hours during which the
engine has operated while a Class B1 malfunction is present.
The B1 counter shall operate as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the B1 counter shall begin counting as soon as a Class B1 malfunction is detected and a
confirmed and active DTC has been stored.
the B1 counter shall halt and hold its present value if no Class B1 malfunction is
confirmed and active, or when all Class B1 malfunction have been erased by a scan tool.
the B1 counter shall continue counting from the point it had been held if a subsequent
Class B1 malfunction is detected within 3 operating sequences.
In the case where the B1 counter has exceeded 200 engine running hours, the OBD system
shall set the counter to 190 engine running hours when the OBD system has determined that a
Class B1 malfunction is no longer confirmed and active, or when all Class B1 malfunctions
have been erased by a scan tool. The B1 counter shall begin counting from 190 engine running
hours if a subsequent Class B1 malfunction is present within 3 operating sequences.
The B1 counter shall be reset to zero when three consecutive operating sequences have
occurred during which no Class B1 malfunctions have been detected.

(d)
(e)
the readiness of the OBD system;
the number of engine operating hours during which a continuous-MI was last activated
(continuous-MI counter).
This information shall be read only access (i.e. no clearing).
4.7.1.2. Information about Active Emission-related Malfunctions
This information will provide any inspection station with a subset of engine related OBD data
including the malfunction indicator status and associated data (MI counters), a list of
active/confirmed malfunctions of Classes A and B and associated data (e.g. B1-counter).
The OBD system shall provide all information (according to the applicable standard set in
Appendix 6) for the external inspection test equipment to assimilate the data and provide an
inspector with the following information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
the GTR (and revision) number, to be integrated into Regulation No. 49 type approval
marking;
discriminatory/ non-discriminatory display strategy;
the VIN (vehicle identification number);
the Malfunction Indicator status;
the Readiness of the OBD system;
number of warm-up cycles and number of engine operating hours since recorded OBD
information was last cleared;
the number of engine operating hours during which a continuous-MI was last activated
(continuous-MI counter);
the cumulated operating hours with a continuous-MI (cumulative continuous-MI counter);
the value of the B1 counter with the highest number of engine operating hours;
the confirmed and active DTCs for Class A malfunctions;
the confirmed and active DTCs for Classes B (B1 and B2) malfunctions;
the confirmed and active DTCs Class B1 malfunctions;
the software calibration identification(s);
the calibration verification number(s).
This information shall be read only access (i.e. no clearing).

The OBD system shall clear all the recorded malfunctions of the engine system and related
data (operating time information, freeze frame, etc.) in accordance with the provisions of this
Annex, when this request is provided via the external repair test equipment according to the
applicable standard set in Appendix 6.
4.7.1.4. Freeze Frame Information
At least one "freeze frame" of information shall be stored at the time that either a potential DTC
or a confirmed and active DTC is stored at the decision of the manufacturer. The manufacturer
is allowed to update the freeze frame information whenever the pending DTC is detected again.
The freeze frame shall provide the operating conditions of the vehicle at the time of malfunction
detection and the DTC associated with the stored data. The freeze frame shall include the
information as shown in Table 1 in Appendix 5 of this Annex. The freeze frame shall also
include all of the information in Tables 2 and 3 of Appendix 5 of this Annex that are used for
monitoring or control purposes in the specific control unit that stored the DTC.
Storage of freeze frame information associated with a Class A malfunction shall take
precedence over information associated with a Class B1 malfunction which shall take
precedence over information associated with a Class B2 malfunction and likewise for
information associated with a Class C malfunction. The first malfunction detected shall take
precedence over the most recent malfunction unless the most recent malfunction is of a higher
class.
In case a device is monitored by the OBD system and is not be covered by Appendix 5 the
freeze frame information shall include elements of information for the sensors and actuators of
this device in a way similar to those described in Appendix 5. This shall be submitted for
approval by the Approval Authority at the time of approval.
4.7.1.5. Readiness
With the exceptions specified in Paragraphs 4.7.1.5.1., 4.7.1.5.2. and 4.7.1.5.3., a readiness
shall only be set to "complete" when a monitor or a group of monitors addressed by this status
have run and concluded the presence (that means stored a confirmed and active DTC) or the
absence of the failure relevant to that monitor since the last erasing by an external request or
command (for example through an OBD scan-tool). Readiness shall be set to "not complete" by
erasing the fault code memory (see Paragraph 4.7.4.) by an external request or command (for
example through an OBD scan-tool).
4.7.1.5.1. The manufacturer may request, subject to approval by the Approval Authority, that the ready
status for a monitor be set to indicate "complete" without the monitor having run and concluded
the presence or the absence of the failure relevant to that monitor if monitoring is disabled for a
multiple number of operating sequences (minimum 9 operating sequences or 72 operation
hours) due to the continued presence of extreme operating conditions (e.g. cold ambient
temperatures, high altitudes). Any such request must specify the conditions for monitoring
system disablement and the number of operating sequences that would pass without monitor
completion before ready status would be indicated as "complete". The extreme ambient or
altitude conditions considered in the manufacturer's request shall never be less severe than the
conditions specified by this Annex for temporary disablement of the OBD system.

4.7.3. Access to OBD Information
Access to OBD information shall be provided only in accordance with the standards mentioned
in Appendix 6 of this Annex and the following sub-paragraphs .
Access to the OBD information shall not be dependent on any access code or other device or
method obtainable only from the manufacturer or its suppliers. Interpretation of the OBD
information shall not require any unique decoding information, unless that information is
publicly available.
A single access method (e.g. a single access point/node) to OBD information shall be
supported to retrieve all OBD information. This method shall permit access to the complete
OBD information required by this Annex. This method shall also permit access to specific
smaller information packages as defined in this Annex (e.g. road worthiness information
packages in case of emission related OBD).
Access to OBD information shall be provided using, at least one of the following series of
standards mentioned in Appendix 6:
(a)
(b)
ISO 27145 with ISO 15765-4 (CAN-based)
ISO 27145 with ISO 13400 (TCP/IP-based)
(c) SAE J1939-73
Manufacturers shall use appropriate ISO or SAE-defined fault codes (for example, P0xxx,
P2xxx, etc.) whenever possible. If such identification is not possible, the manufacturer may use
diagnostic trouble codes according to the relevant clauses in ISO 27145 or SAE J1939. The
fault codes must be fully accessible by standardized diagnostic equipment complying with the
provisions of this Annex.
The manufacturer shall provide the ISO or SAE standardization body through the appropriate
ISO or SAE process with emission-related diagnostic data not specified by ISO 27145 or
SAE J1939 but related to this Annex.
4.7.3.1. CAN Based Wired Communication
The communication speed on the wired data link of the OBD system shall be either 250kbps or
500kbps.
It is the manufacturer's responsibility to select the baud-rate and to design the OBD system
according to the requirements specified in the standards mentioned in Appendix 6, and referred
to in this Annex. The OBD system shall be tolerant against the automatic detection between
these two baud-rates exercised by the external test equipment.
The connection interface between the vehicle and the external diagnostic test equipment (e.g.
scan-tool) shall be standardised and shall meet all of the requirements of ISO 15031-3 Type A
(12 VDC power supply), Type B (24 VDC power supply) or SAE J1939-13 (12 or 24 VDC
power supply).

4.8. Electronic Security
Any vehicle with an emission control unit must include features to deter modification, except as
authorized by the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall authorize modifications if these
modifications are necessary for the diagnosis, servicing, inspection, retrofitting or repair of the
vehicle.
Any reprogramable computer codes or operating parameters shall be resistant to tampering
and afford a level of protection at least as good as the provisions in ISO 15031-7 (SAE J2186)
or J1939-73 provided that the security exchange is conducted using the protocols and
diagnostic connector as prescribed in this Annex. Any removable calibration memory chips
shall be potted, encased in a sealed container or protected by electronic algorithms and shall
not be changeable without the use of specialised tools and procedures.
Computer-coded engine operating parameters shall not be changeable without the use of
specialised tools and procedures (e.g. soldered or potted computer components or sealed (or
soldered) computer enclosures).
Manufacturers shall take adequate steps to protect the maximum fuel delivery setting from
tampering while a vehicle is in-service.
Manufacturers may apply to the Approval Authority for an exemption from one of these
requirements for those vehicles that are unlikely to require protection. The criteria that the
Approval Authority will evaluate in considering an exemption will include, but are not limited to,
the current availability of performance chips, the high-performance capability of the vehicle and
the projected sales volume of the vehicle.
Manufacturers using programmable computer code systems (e.g. electrical erasable
programmable read-only memory, EEPROM) shall deter unauthorized reprogramming.
Manufacturers shall include enhanced tamper-protection strategies and write protect features
requiring electronic access to an off-site computer maintained by the manufacturer. Alternative
methods giving an equivalent level of tamper protection may be approved by the Approval
Authority
4.9. Durability of the OBD System
The OBD system shall be designed and constructed so as to enable it to identify types of
malfunctions over the complete life of the vehicle or engine system.
Any additional provisions addressing the durability of OBD systems are contained in this
Annex.
An OBD system shall not be programmed or otherwise designed to partially or totally
deactivate based on age and/or mileage of the vehicle during the actual life of the vehicle, nor
shall the system contain any algorithm or strategy designed to reduce the effectiveness of the
OBD system over time.

5.2.3. Low Fuel Level
Manufacturers may request approval to disable monitoring systems that are affected by low
fuel level or running out of fuel (e.g. diagnosis of a malfunction of the fuelling system or
misfiring) as follows:
Diesel
NG
Gas
LPG
(a) The low fuel level considered for such
disablement sall not exceed 100 litres or
20% of this nominal capacity of the fuel
tank, whichever is lower.
X
X
(b) The low fuel pressure in the tank
considered for such a disablement shall not
exceed 20% of the usable range of fuel tank
pressure.
X
5.2.4. Vehicle Battery or System Voltage Levels
Manufacturers may request approval to disable monitoring systems that can be affected by
vehicle battery or system voltage levels.
5.2.4.1. Low Voltage
For monitoring systems affected by low vehicle battery or system voltages, manufacturers may
request approval to disable monitoring systems when the battery or system voltage is below
90% of the nominal voltage (or 11.0 Volts for a 12 Volt battery, 22.0 Volts for a 24 volt battery).
Manufacturers may request approval to utilize a voltage threshold higher than this value to
disable system monitoring.
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that monitoring at the voltages would be unreliable and
that either operation of a vehicle below the disablement criteria for extended periods of time is
unlikely or the OBD system monitors the battery or system voltage and will detect a malfunction
at the voltage used to disable other monitors.
5.2.4.2. High Voltage
For emission related monitoring systems affected by high vehicle battery or system voltages,
manufacturers may request approval to disable monitoring systems when the battery or system
voltage exceeds a manufacturer-defined voltage.
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that monitoring above the manufacturer-defined voltage
would be unreliable and that either the electrical charging system/alternator warning light is
illuminated (or voltage gauge is in the "red zone") or the OBD system monitors the battery or
system voltage and will detect a malfunction at the voltage used to disable other monitors.
5.2.5. Active PTO (power take-off units)
The manufacturer may request approval to temporarily disable affected monitoring systems in
vehicles equipped with a PTO unit, under the condition where that PTO unit is temporarily
active.

6.1.1. Parameters Defining an Emission-OBD Family
An emission-OBD family is characterised by basic design parameters that shall be common to
engine systems within the family.
In order that engine systems are considered to belong to the same OBD-engine family, the
following list of basic parameters shall be similar:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
mission control systems
methods of OBD monitoring
criteria for performance and component monitoring
monitoring parameters (e.g. frequency)
These similarities shall be demonstrated by the manufacturer by means of relevant engineering
demonstration or other appropriate procedures and subject to the approval of the Approval
Authority.
The manufacturer may request approval by the Approval Authority of minor differences in the
methods of monitoring/diagnosing the engine emission control system due to engine system
configuration variation, when these methods are considered similar by the manufacturer and:
(a)
(b)
they differ only to match specificities of the considered components (e.g. size, exhaust
flow, etc.); or
their similarities are based on good engineering judgement.
6.1.2. OBD-Parent Engine System
Compliance of an emission-OBD family with the requirements of this Annex is achieved by
demonstrating the compliance of the OBD-parent engine system of this family.
The selection of the OBD-parent engine system is made by the manufacturer and subject to the
approval of the Approval Authority.
Prior to testing the Approval Authority may decide to request the manufacturer to select an
additional engine for demonstration.
The manufacturer may also propose to the Approval Authority to test additional engines to
cover the complete emission-OBD family.

6.2.2. Demonstration of Classification into B1 (Distinguishing between A and B1)
In order to justify the classification of a malfunction into Class B1 the documentation shall
clearly demonstrate that, in some circumstances , the malfunction results in emissions that are
lower than the OTLs.
In the case that the Approval Authority requires an emission test for demonstrating the
classification of a malfunction into Class B1 the manufacturer shall demonstrate that the
emissions due to that particular malfunction are, in selected circumstances, below the OTLs:
(a)
(b)
the manufacturer selects the circumstances of the test in agreement with the Approval
Authority;
the manufacturer shall not be required to demonstrate that in other circumstances the
emissions due to the malfunction are actually above the OTLs.
If the manufacturer fails to demonstrate the classification as Class B1, the malfunction is
classified as Class A.
6.2.3. Demonstration of Classification into B1 (Distinguishing between B2 and B1)
If the Approval Authority disagrees with a manufacturer's classification of a malfunction as
Class B1 because it considers that the OTLs are not exceeded, the Approval Authority requires
the reclassification of that malfunction into Class B2 or C. In that case the approval documents
shall record that the malfunction classification has been assigned according to the request of
the Approval Authority.
6.2.4. Demonstration of Classification into B2 (Distinguishing between B2 and B1)
In order to justify the classification of a malfunction into Class B2 the manufacturer shall
demonstrate that emissions are lower than the OTLs.
In case the Approval Authority disagrees with the classification of a malfunction as Class B2
because it considers that the OTLs are exceeded, the manufacturer may be required to
demonstrate by testing that the emissions due to the malfunction are below the OTLs.
If the test fails, then the Approval Authority shall require the reclassification of that malfunction
into A or B1 and the manufacturer shall subsequently demonstrate the appropriate
classification and the documentation shall be updated.

6.3.2. Procedures for Qualifying a Deteriorated Component (or system)
This Paragraph applies to the cases where the malfunction selected for an OBD demonstration
test is monitored against tailpipe emissions (emission threshold monitoring - see
Paragraph 4.2.) and it is required that the manufacturer demonstrates, by an emission test, the
qualification of that deteriorated component.
In very specific cases the qualification of deteriorated components or systems by testing may
not be possible (for example, if an MECS is activated and the engine cannot run the applicable
test, etc.). In such cases, the deteriorated component shall be qualified without testing. This
exception shall be documented by the manufacturer and is subject to the agreement of the
Approval Authority.
6.3.2.1. Procedure for Qualifying a Deteriorated Component used to Demonstrate the Detection of
Classes A and B1 Malfunctions
In the case the malfunction selected by the Approval Authority results in tailpipe emissions that
may exceed an OBD threshold limit, the manufacturer shall demonstrate by an emission test
according to Paragraph 7. that the deteriorated component or device does not result in the
relevant emission exceeding its OTL by more than 20%.
6.3.2.1.1. Emission Threshold Monitoring
In the case the malfunction selected by the Approval Authority results in tailpipe emissions that
may exceed an OBD threshold limit, the manufacturer shall demonstrate by an emission test
according to Paragraph 7. that the deteriorated component or device does not result in the
relevant emission exceeding its OTL by more than 20%.
6.3.2.1.2. Performance Monitoring
At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the approval authority, in the
case of performance monitoring, the OTL may be exceeded by more than 20%. Such request
shall be justified on a case by case basis.
6.3.2.1.3. Component Monitoring
In the case of component monitoring, a deteriorated component is qualified without reference to
the OTL.
6.3.2.2. Qualification of Deteriorated Components used to Demonstrate the Detection of Class B2
Malfunctions
In the case of Class B2 malfunctions, and upon request of the Approval Authority, the
manufacturer shall demonstrate by an emission test according to Paragraph 7. that the
deteriorated component or device does not lead the relevant emission to exceed its applicable
OTL.

7. TEST PROCEDURES
7.1. Testing Process
The demonstration by testing of the proper malfunction classification and the demonstration by
testing of the proper monitoring performance of an OBD system are issues that shall be
considered separately during the testing process. For example, a Class A malfunction will not
require a classification test while it may be subject to an OBD performance test.
Where appropriate, the same test may be used to demonstrate the correct classification of a
malfunction, the qualification of a deteriorated component provided by the manufacturer and
the correct monitoring by the OBD system.
The engine system on which the OBD system is tested shall comply with the emission
requirements of this Regulation.
7.1.1. Testing Process for Demonstrating the Malfunction Classification
When, according to Paragraph 6.2., the Approval Authority requests the manufacturer to justify
by testing the classification of a specific malfunction, the compliance demonstration will consist
of a series of emission tests.
According to Paragraph 6.2.2., when testing is required by the Approval Authority to justify the
classification of a malfunction into Class B1 rather than in Class A, the manufacturer shall
demonstrate that the emissions due to that particular malfunction are, in selected
circumstances, below the OTLs:
(a)
(b)
the manufacturer selects these circumstances of test in agreement with the Approval
Authority
the manufacturer shall not be required to demonstrate that in other circumstances the
emissions due to the malfunction are actually above the OTLs.
The emission test may be repeated upon request of the manufacturer up to three times.
If any of these tests leads to emissions below the considered OTL, then the malfunction
classification into Class B1 shall be approved.
When testing is required by the Approval Authority to justify the classification of a malfunction
into Class B2 rather than in Class B1 or into Class C rather than in Class B2, the emission test
shall not be repeated. If the emissions measured in the test are above the OTL or the emission
limit, respectively, then the malfunction shall require a reclassification.
Note:
According to Paragraph 6.2.1., this Paragraph does not apply to malfunctions classified
into Class A.

7.2. Applicable Tests
(a)
(b)
The emission test is the test cycle used for the measurement of the regulated emissions
when qualifying a deteriorated component system;
The OBD test cycle is the test cycle used to demonstrate the capacity of the OBD
monitors to detect malfunctions.
7.2.1. Emission Test Cycle
The test cycle considered in this Annex for measuring emissions is the WHTC test cycle as
described in Annex 4B.
7.2.2. OBD Test Cycle
The OBD test cycle considered in this Annex is the hot part of the WHTC cycle as described in
Annex 4B.
On request of the manufacturer and with approval of the Approval Authority, an alternative
OBD test-cycle can be used (e.g. the cold part of the WHTC cycle) for a specific monitor. The
request shall contain documentation (technical considerations, simulation, test results, etc.)
showing that:
(a)
(b)
the requested test cycle appropriate to demonstrate monitoring occurs under real world
driving conditions;
the hot part of the WHTC cycle appears as less appropriate for the considered
monitoring (e.g. fluid consumption monitoring).
7.2.3. Test Operating Conditions
The conditions (i.e. temperature, altitude, fuel quality etc.) for conducting the tests referred to in
Paragraphs 7.2.1. and 7.2.2. shall be those required for operating the WHTC test cycle as
described in Annex 4B.
In the case of an emission test aimed at justifying the classification of a specific malfunction
into Class B1, the test operating conditions may, per decision of the manufacturer, deviate from
the ones in the Paragraphs above according to Paragraph 6.2.2.
7.3. Test Reports
The test report shall contain, at a minimum, the information set out in Appendix 4.

8.1.3. Documentation Associated with the Emission-OBD Family
The documentation package included in the second part shall contain but shall not be limited to
the following information for emission OBD-family:
A description of the emission-OBD family shall be provided. This description shall include a list
and a description of the engine types within the family, the description of the OBD-parent
engine system, and all elements that characterise the family according to Paragraph 6.1.1. of
this Annex.
In the case where the emission-OBD family includes engines belonging to different engine
families, a summary description of these engine families shall be provided.
In addition, the manufacturer shall provide a list of all electronic input and output an
identification of the communication protocol utilized by each emission-OBD family.
8.2. Documentation for Installing in a Vehicle an OBD Equipped Engine System
The engine manufacturer shall include in the installation documents of its engine system the
appropriate requirements that will ensure the vehicle, when used on the road or elsewhere as
appropriate, will comply with the requirements of this Annex. This documentation shall include
but is not limited to:
(a)
(b)
the detailed technical requirements, including the provisions ensuring the compatibility
with the OBD system of the engine system;
the verification procedure to be completed.
The existence and the adequacy of such installation requirements may be checked during the
approval process of the engine system.
Note:
In the case a vehicle manufacturer applies for a direct approval of the installation of the
OBD system on the vehicle, this documentation is not required.
8.3. Documentation Regarding OBD Related Information
Requirements of Appendix 7 have to be fulfilled.
9. APPENDICES
Appendix 1:
Appendix 2:
Appendix 3:
Appendix 4:
Appendix 5:
Appendix 6:
Appendix 7:
Approval of installation of OBD systems
Malfunctions - Illustration of the DTC status - illustration of the MI and counters
activation schemes
Monitoring Requirements
Technical compliance report
Freeze frame and data stream information
Reference Standard Documents
Documentation regarding OBD related information

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 2
MALFUNCTIONS
ILLUSTRATION OF THE DTC STATUS
ILLUSTRATION OF THE MI AND COUNTERS ACTIVATION SCHEMES
This Appendix aims at illustrating the requirements set in Paragraphs 4.3. and 4.6.5. of this Annex.
It contains the following figures:
Figure 1:
Figure 2
Figure 3:
Figure 4A:
Figure 4B:
Figure 5:
DTC status in case of a Class B1 malfunction
DTC status in case of 2 consecutive different Class B1 malfunctions
DTC status in case of the re-occurrence of a Class B1 malfunction
Class A malfunction - activation of the MI and MI counters
Illustration of the continuous MI deactivation principle
Class B1 malfunction - activation of the B1 counter in 5 use cases.
Figure 1
DTC Status in Case of a Class B1 Malfunction
Notes:
means the point a monitoring of the concerned malfunction occurs
N, M The Annex requires the identification of "key" operating sequences during which some events
occurs, and the counting of the subsequent operating sequences. For the purpose of illustrating
this requirement, the "key" operating sequences have been given the values N and M.
E.g. M means the first operating sequence following the detection of a potential malfunction,
and N means the operating sequence during which the MI is switched OFF.

Figure 3
DTC Status in Case of the Re-occurrence of a Class B1 Malfunction
Notes:
means the point a monitoring of the concerned malfunction occurs
N, M,
N', M'
The Annex requires the identification of "key" operating sequences during which some events
occurs, and the counting of the subsequent operating sequences. For the purpose of illustrating
this requirement, the "key" operating sequences have been given the values N and M for the
first occurrence of a malfunction, respectively N' and M' for the second one.
E.g. M means the first operating sequence following the detection of a potential malfunction,
and N means the operating sequence during which the MI is switched OFF.

Figure 4B
Illustration
of the Continuous MI Deactivation Principle
Note:

M
means the point wheree monitoring of the concerned malfunction occurs. .
means the
operating sequence when the monitor concludes for the firstt time that a confirmed
and active failure is no longer present.
Case 1
means the
case where the monitor does not
conclude the presencee of failure
operating sequence M. .
during the
Case 2
means the
case where the monitor has
sequence M, the presence of the malfunction.
previously concluded, c
during the
operating
Case 3
means the
case wheree the monitorr concludes during the operating sequence M the
presence
of the malfunction afterr having first concluded to
its absence.

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 3
MONITORING REQUIREMENTS
The Items of this Appendix list the systems or components required to be monitored by the OBD system,
according to Paragraph 4.2. Unless specified otherwise, the requirements apply to both diesel and gas
engines.
APPENDIX 3 - Item 1
ELECTRIC / ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MONITORING
Electric/electronic components used to control or monitor the emission control systems described in this
Appendix shall be subject to Component Monitoring according to the provisions of Paragraph 4.2. of this
Annex. This includes, but is not limited to, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, exhaust gas sensors,
and oxygen sensors when present, knock sensors, in-exhaust fuel or reagent injector(s), in-exhaust
burners or heating elements, glow plugs, intake air heaters.
Wherever a feedback control loop exists, the OBD system shall monitor the system's ability to maintain
feedback control as designed (e.g. to enter feedback control within a manufacturer specified time
interval, system fails to maintain feedback control, feedback control has used up all the adjustment
allowed by the manufacturer) - component monitoring.
APPENDIX 3 - Item 2
DPF SYSTEM
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the DPF system on engines so-equipped for
proper operation:
(a)
(b)
(c)
DPF substrate: the presence of the DPF substrate - total functional failure monitoring
DPF performance: clogging of the DPF - total functional failure
DPF performance: filtering and regeneration processes (e.g. particulate accumulation during the
filtering process and particulate removal during a forced regeneration process) - performance
monitoring (for example, evaluation of measurable DPF properties such as backpressure or
differential pressure, which may not detect all failure modes that reduce trapping efficiency).

APPENDIX 3 - Item 6
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM MONITORING
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the EGR system on engines so-equipped for
proper operation:
Diesel Gas
(a)
EGR low/high flow: the EGR system's ability to maintain the
commanded EGR flow rate, detecting both "flow rate too low"
and "flow rate too high" conditions - emission threshold
monitoring.
(a2) EGR low/high flow: the EGR system's ability to maintain the
commanded EGR flow rate, detecting both "flow rate too low"
and "flow rate too high" conditions - performance monitoring
(monitoring requirement to be further discussed).
(b)
(c)
slow response of the EGR actuator: the EGR system's ability to
achieve the commanded flow rate within a manufacturer
specified time interval following the command - performance
monitoring.
EGR cooler undercooling performance: the EGR cooler system's
ability to achieve the manufacturer's specified cooling
performance - performance monitoring
X
X
X
X
X
X
APPENDIX 3 - Item 7
FUEL SYSTEM MONITORING
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the Fuel system on engines so-equipped for
proper operation:
Diesel Gas
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fuel system pressure control: fuel system ability to achieve the
commanded fuel pressure in closed loop control - performance
monitoring.
Fuel system pressure control: fuel system ability to achieve the
commanded fuel pressure in closed loop control in the case
where the system is so constructed that the pressure can be
controlled independently of other parameters - performance
monitoring.
Fuel injection timing: fuel system ability to achieve the
commanded fuel timing for at least one of the injection events
when the engine is equipped with the appropriate sensors -
performance monitoring.
Fuel injection system: ability to maintain the desired air-fuel ratio
(incl. but not limited to self adaptation features) - performance
monitoring.
X
X
X
X

APPENDIX 3 - Item 10
MISFIRE MONITORING
(a) No prescriptions. X
(b)
Misfire that may cause catalyst damage (e.g. by monitoring a
certain percentage of misfiring in a certain period of time) –
performance monitoring (monitoring requirement to be further
discussed together with Items 6 and 8).
Diesel
Gas
X
APPENDIX 3 - Item 11
CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM MONITORING
No prescriptions.
APPENDIX 3 - Item 12
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM MONITORING
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the Engine cooling system for proper operation:
(a)
Engine coolant temperature (thermostat): Stuck open thermostat Manufacturers need not monitor
the thermostat if its failure will not disable any other OBD monitors - total functional failure.
Manufacturers need not monitor the engine coolant temperature or the engine coolant temperature
sensor if the engine coolant temperature or the engine coolant temperature sensor is not used to enable
closed-loop/feedback control of any emissions control systems and/or will not disable any other monitor.
Manufacturers may suspend or delay the monitor for the time to reach close loop enable temperature if
the engine is subjected to conditions that could lead to false diagnosis (e.g. vehicle operation at idle for
more than 50 to 75% of the warm-up time).

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 4
TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE REPORT
This report is issued by the Approval Authority, according to Paragraphs 6.3.3. and 7.3., after
examination of an OBD system or an emission OBD family when that system or family complies with the
requirements of this Appendix.
The exact reference (including its version number) of this Appendix shall be included in this report.
The exact reference (including its version number) to this Regulation shall be included.
This report contains a cover page indicating the final compliance of the OBD system or emission OBD
family and the following 5 items:
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Item 5
INFORMATION CONCERNING THE OBD SYSTEM
INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONFORMITY OF THE OBD SYSTEM
INFORMATION CONCERNING DEFICIENCIES
INFORMATION CONCERNING DEMONSTRATION TESTS OF THE OBD SYSTEM
TEST PROTOCOL
The content of the technical report, including its Items, shall, at a minimum, include the elements given in
the following examples.
This report shall state that reproduction or publication in extracts of this report is not permitted without the
written consent of the undersigned Approval Authority.
FINAL COMPLIANCE REPORT
The documentation package and the herewith described OBD system / emission OBD family comply with
the requirements of the following Regulation:
Regulation … / version …/ enforcement date …. / type of fuel ….
GTR …/ A + B / version …/ date ….
The technical compliance report encompasses … pages.
Place, date: . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Author (name and signature)
Approval Authority (name, stamp)

Extension to include a new engine system into an emission OBD family
-
List (extended if necessary) of the engine families concerned by the
emission OBD family (when applicable, see Paragraph 6.1.)
-
List (extended if necessary) of the engine types 1
within the emission
OBD family
-
Actualised (new or unchanged) type 1
of the parent engine system
within the emission OBD family
-
Extended OBD description (issued by the manufacturer): reference and
date
Extension to address a design change that affects the OBD system
-
List of the engine families (when applicable) concerned by the design
change
-
List of the engine types 1
concerned by the design change
-
Actualised (when applicable, new or unchanged) type 1
of the parent
engine system within the emission OBD family
-
Modified OBD description (issued by the manufacturer): reference and
date
Extension to address a malfunction reclassification
-
List of the engine families (when applicable) concerned by the
reclassification
-
List of the engine types 1
concerned by the reclassification
-
Modified OBD description (issued by the manufacturer): reference and
date
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
Item 2 to the technical compliance report (example)
INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONFORMITY OF THE OBD SYSTEM
1. Documentation package
The elements provided by the manufacturer in the documentation package of
the emission OBD family, is complete and complies with the requirements of
Paragraph 8. of this Annex, on the following issues:
- documentation associated with each monitored component or system
- documentation associated with each DTC
- documentation associated with the malfunction classification
- documentation associated with the emission OBD family
The documentation required in Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex for installing an
OBD system in a vehicle has been provided by the manufacturer in the
documentation package, is complete, and complies with the requirements of
this Annex:
The installation of the engine system equipped with the OBD system
complies with Appendix 1 of this Annex:
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO

Item 3 to the technical compliance report (example)
INFORMATION CONCERNING DEFICIENCIES
Number of deficiencies of OBD system
The deficiencies comply with the requirements of
Paragraph 6.4. of this Annex
Deficiency No. 1
- Object of the deficiency
- Period of the deficiency
- (Description of deficiencies 2 to n-1)
Deficiency No. n
- Object of the deficiency
- Period of the deficiency
(ex: 4 deficiencies)
YES/NO
e.g. measuring of the Urea concentration
(SCR) within defined tolerances
e.g. one year/six months after the date of
approval
e.g. measuring of NH concentration
behind SCR system
e.g. one year/six months after the date of
approval
1. Test result of the OBD system
Item 4 to the technical compliance report (example)
DEMONSTRATION TESTS OF THE OBD SYSTEM
Results of the tests
The OBD system described in the above complying documentation
package has been tested with success according to Paragraph 6 of this
Annex for demonstrating the compliance of monitors and of malfunction
classifications as listed in Item 5:
YES/NO
Details to the conducted demonstration tests are given in Item 5.

Item 5 to the technical compliance report (example)
TEST PROTOCOL

Table 3
Optional Information, if used by the Emission or the OBD System to
Enable or Disable any OBD Information
Freeze frame
Data stream
Fuel level x x
Fuel level (e.g. percentage of the nominal capacity of the fuel tank)
or tank fuel pressure (e.g. percentage of the usable range of fuel
tank pressure), as appropriate
Vehicle speed x x
Status of the fuel quality adaption (active / not active) in case of gas
engines)
Engine control computer system voltage (for the main control chip) x x
Table 4
Optional Information, if the Engine is so Equipped, Senses or Calculates the Information
Absolute throttle position/intake air throttle position (position of
valve used to regulate intake air)
Diesel fuel control system status in case of a close loop system
(e.g. in case of a fuel pressure close loop system)
x
Freeze frame
x
x
x
Data stream
Fuel rail pressure x x
Injection control pressure (i.e. pressure of the fluid controlling fuel
injection)
Representative fuel injection timing (beginning of first main
injection)
Commanded fuel rail pressure x x
Commanded injection control pressure (i.e. pressure of the fluid
controlling fuel injection)
Intake air temperature x x
Ambient air temperature x x
Turbocharger inlet/outlet air temperature (compressor and turbine) x x
Turbocharger inlet / outlet pressure(compressor and turbine) x x
Charge air temperature (post intercooler if fitted) x x
Actual boost pressure x x
Air flow rate from mass air flow sensor x x
Commanded EGR valve duty cycle/position, (provided EGR is so
controlled)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 6
REFERENCE STANDARD DOCUMENTS
This Appendix contains the references to the industry standards that are to be used in accordance to the
provisions of this Annex to provide the serial communications interface to the vehicle/engine. There are
two allowed solutions identified:
(a)
(b)
ISO 27145 with either ISO 15765-4 (CAN based) with either ISO 15765-4 (CAN based) or with
ISO 13400 (TCP/IP based),
SAE J1939-73.
In addition there are other ISO or SAE standards that are applicable in accordance with the provisions of
this Annex.
Reference by this Annex to ISO 27145 means reference to:
(a) ISO 27145-1 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements – Part 1
– General Information and use case definitions
(b) ISO 27145-2 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements – Part 2
– Common emissions-related data dictionary;
(c) ISO 27145-3 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements – Part 3
– Common message dictionary;
(d) ISO 27145-4 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements – Part 4
– Connection between vehicle and test equipment.
Reference by this Annex to J1939-73 means reference to:
J1939-73 "APPLICATION LAYER - DIAGNOSTICS", dated on year 2011.
Reference by this Annex to ISO 13400 means reference to:
(a) FDIS 13400-1: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) –
Part 1: General information and use case definition;
(b) FDIS 13400-3: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) –
Part 2 – Network and transport layer requirements and services;
(c) FDIS 13400-3: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) –
Part 3: IEEE 802.3 based wired vehicle interface;
(d)
not yet finalised [13400-4: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol
(DoIP) – Part 4: Ethernet-based high-speed data link connector].

ANNEX 9C
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSING THE IN-USE PERFORMANCE OF
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS (OBD)
1. APPLICABILITY
In its current version, this Annex is only applicable to road-vehicles equipped with a Diesel
engine
2. (RESERVED)
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1. "In-Use Performance Ratio"
The in-use performance ratio (IUPR) of a specific monitor m of the OBD system is:
IUPR = Numerator / Denominator
3.2. "Numerator"
The numerator of a specific monitor m (Numerator ) is a counter indicating the number of times
a vehicle has been operated such that all monitoring conditions necessary for that specific
monitor to detect a malfunction have been encountered.
3.3. "Denominator"
The denominator of a specific monitor m (Denominator ) is a counter indicating the number of
vehicle driving events, taking into account conditions specific to that specific monitor.
3.4. "General Denominator"
The general denominator is a counter indicating the number of times a vehicle has been
operated, taking into account general conditions.
3.5. "Ignition Cycle Counter"
The ignition cycle counter is a counter indicating the number of engine starts a vehicle has
experienced.
3.6. "Engine start"
An engine start consists of ignition-On, cranking and start of combustion, and is completed
when the engine speed reaches 150min below the normal, warmed-up idle speed.

5. REQUIREMENTS FOR CALCULATING IN-USE PERFORMANCE RATIOS
5.1. Calculation of the In-Use Performance Ratio
For each monitor m considered in the present Annex, the in-use performance ratio is calculated
with the following formula:
IUPR = Numerator / Denominator
where the Numerator and Denominator are incremented according to the specifications of
this Paragraph.
5.1.1. Requirements for the Ratio when Calculated and Stored by System
Each IUPRm ratio shall have a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 7.99527 with a
resolution of 0.000122 .
A ratio for a specific component shall be considered to be zero whenever the corresponding
numerator is equal to zero and the corresponding denominator is not zero.
A ratio for a specific component shall be considered to be the maximum value of 7.99527 if the
corresponding denominator is zero or if the actual value of the numerator divided by the
denominator exceeds the maximum value of 7.99527.
5.2. Requirements for Incrementing the Numerator
The numerator shall not be incremented more than once per driving cycle.
The numerator for a specific monitor shall be incremented within 10s if and only if the following
criteria are satisfied on a single driving cycle:
(a)
Every monitoring condition necessary for the monitor of the specific component to detect
a malfunction and store a potential DTC has been satisfied, including enable criteria,
presence or absence of related DTCs, sufficient length of monitoring time, and diagnostic
executive priority assignments (e.g., diagnostic "A" shall execute prior to diagnostic "B").
Note: For the purpose of incrementing the numerator of a specific monitor, it may not be
sufficient to satisfy all the monitoring conditions necessary for that monitor to determine
the absence of a malfunction.
(b)
(c)
For monitors that require multiple stages or events in a single driving cycle to detect a
malfunction, every monitoring condition necessary for all events to have been completed
shall be satisfied.
For monitors which are used for failure identification and that run only after a potential
DTC has been stored, the numerator and denominator may be the same as those of the
monitor detecting the original malfunction.

5.3.2.5. Specific Senominator for DPF
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 5.3.1. (a) and (b), in at least one driving cycle the
denominator(s) for DPF shall be incremented if at least 800 cumulative kilometres of vehicle
operation or alternatively at least 750 . s of engine run time have been experienced since the
last time the denominator was incremented.
5.3.2.6. Specific denominator for oxidation catalysts
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 5.3.1 (a) and (b), in at least one driving cycle the
denominator(s) for monitors of oxidation catalyst used for the purpose of DPF active
regeneration shall be incremented if a regeneration event is commanded for a time greater
than or equal to 10s.
5.3.2.7. Specific denominator for hybrids (reserved)
5.4. Requirements for Incrementing the General Denominator
The general denominator shall be incremented within 10s, if and only if, all the following criteria
are satisfied on a single driving cycle:
(a)
Cumulative time since start of driving cycle is greater than or equal to 600s while
remaining:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
At an elevation of less than 2,500m above sea level;
At an ambient temperature of greater than or equal to 266K (-7°C);
At an ambient temperature of lower than or equal to 308K (35°C).
(b)
(c)
Cumulative engine operation at or above 1150min for greater than or equal to 300s
while under the conditions specified in the above subparagraph (a); as alternatives left to
the manufacturer an engine operation at or above 15% calculated load or a vehicle
operation at or above 40km/h may be used in lieu of the 1150min criterion.
Continuous vehicle operation at idle (e.g., accelerator pedal released by driver and either
vehicle speed less than or equal to 1.6km/h or engine speed less than or equal to
200min above normal warmed-up idle) for greater than or equal to 30s while under the
conditions specified in the above subparagraph (a).
5.5. Requirements for Incrementing the Ignition Cycle Counter
The ignition cycle counter shall be incremented once and only once per engine start.
5.6. Incrementing disablement of the numerators, of the denominators and of the general
denominator

In order to determine without bias the lowest ratio of a group, only the monitors specifically
mentioned in that group shall be taken into consideration (e.g. a NOx sensor when used to
perform one of the monitors listed in Annex 9B, Appendix 3, Item 3 "SCR" will be taken into
consideration into the "exhaust gas sensor" group of monitors and not in the "SCR" group of
monitors)
The OBD system shall also track and report the general denominator and the ignition cycle
counter.
Note: according to Paragraph 4.1.1., manufacturers are not required to implement software
algorithms in the OBD system to individually track and report numerators and denominators of
monitors running continuously.
7. REQUIREMENTS FOR STORING AND COMMUNICATING IN-USE PERFORMANCE DATA
Communication of the in-use performance data is a new use-case and is not included in the
three existing use-cases which are dedicated to the presence of possible malfunctions
7.1. Information about in-use Performance Data
The information about in-use performance data recorded by the OBD system shall be available
upon off-board request according to Paragraph 7.2.
This information will provide type approval authorities with in use performance data.
The OBD system shall provide all information (according to the applicable standard set in
Appendix 6 to Annex 9B) for the external IUPR test equipment to assimilate the data and
provide an inspector with the following information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The VIN (vehicle identification number),
The numerator and denominator for each group of monitors recorded by the system
according to Paragraph 6.,
The general denominator,
The value of the ignition cycle counter,
The total engine running hours.
Confirmed and active DTCs for Class A malfunctions
Confirmed and active DTCs for Class B (B1 and B2) malfunctions.
This information shall be available through "read-only" access (i.e. no clearing).

ANNEX 9C - APPENDIX 1
GROUPS OF MONITORS
The groups of monitors considered in this Annex are the following:
A. OXIDATION CATALYSTS
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 5 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
B. SELECTIVE CATALYTICAL REDUCTION SYSTEMS (SCR)
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 3 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
C. EXHAUST GAS AND OXYGEN SENSORS
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 13 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
D. EGR SYSTEMS AND VVT
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Items 6 and 9 and of Appendix 3 to
Annex 9B.
E. DPF SYSTEMS
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 2 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
F. BOOST PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 8 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
G. NO ADSORBER
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 4 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
H. THREE-WAY CATALYST
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in Item 15 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
I. EVAPORATIVE SYSTEMS
(Reserved)
J. SECONDARY AIR SYSTEM
(Reserved)
A specific monitor shall belong only to one of these groups.

3.8. "Engine starting" means the process from the initiation of engine cranking until the engine
reaches a speed 150min below the normal, warmed up idle speed (as determined in the drive
position for vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission).
3.9. "Engine system" means the engine, the emission control system and the communication
interface (hardware and messages) between the engine electronic control unit(s) and any other
powertrain or vehicle control unit.
3.10. "Engine warm-up" means sufficient vehicle operation such that the coolant temperature
reaches a minimum temperature of at least 70 °C.
3.11. "Periodic regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust aftertreatment system
that occurs periodically in typically less than 100h of normal engine operation.
3.12. "Rated speed" means the maximum full load speed allowed by the governor as specified by
the manufacturer in his sales and service literature, or, if such a governor is not present, the
speed at which the maximum power is obtained from the engine, as specified by the
manufacturer in his sales and service literature.
3.13. "Regulated emissions" means "gaseous pollutants" defined as carbon monoxide,
hydrocarbons and/or non-methane hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of CH for diesel, CH
for LPG and CH for NG, and an assumed molecule CH O for ethanol fuelled diesel
engines), methane (assuming a ration of CH for NG) and oxides of nitrogen (expressed in
nitrogen dioxide (NO ) equivalent) and "particulate matter" (PM) defined as any material
collected on a specified filter medium after diluting exhaust with clean filtered air to a
temperature between 315K (42 °C) and 325K (52 °C), as measured at a point immediately
upstream of the filter, this is primarily carbon, condensed hydrocarbons, and sulphates with
associated water.
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Any engine system and any element of design liable to affect the emission of regulated
pollutants shall be designed, constructed, assembled and installed so as to enable the engine
and vehicle to comply with the provisions of this Annex.
4.1. Prohibition of Defeat Strategies
Engine systems and vehicles shall not be equipped with a defeat strategy.
4.2. World-harmonized Not-To-Exceed Emission Requirement
This Annex requires that engine systems and vehicles comply with the WNTE emission limit
values described in Paragraph 5.2. For laboratory based testing according to Paragraph 7.4.,
no test result shall exceed the emissions limits specified in Paragraph 5.2.

5.2.3. The applicable WNTE components shall be determined using the following equations, when the
ELs are expressed in g/kWh:
For NO :
WNTE Component = 0.25 × EL + 0.1
(1)
For HC:
WNTE Component = 0.15 × EL + 0.07
(2)
For CO:
WNTE Component = 0.20 × EL + 0.2
(3)
For PM:
WNTE Component = 0.25 × EL + 0.003
(4)
Where the applicable ELs are expressed in units other than units of g/kWh, the additive
constants in the equations shall be converted from g/kWh to the appropriate units.
The WNTE component shall be rounded to the number of places to the right of the decimal
point indicated by the applicable EL in accordance with the rounding method of ASTM E 29-06.
6. APPLICABLE AMBIENT AND OPERATING CONDITIONS
The WNTE emission limits shall apply at:
(a)
(b)
All atmospheric pressures greater than or equal to 82.5kPa;
All temperatures less than or equal to the temperature determined by Equation 5 at the
specified atmospheric pressure:
T = -0.4514 × (101.3 – p ) + 311 (5)
Where:
T
p
is the ambient air temperature, K
is the atmospheric pressure, kPa
(c)
All engine coolant temperature above 343K (70 °C).
The applicable ambient atmospheric pressure and temperature conditions are shown in
Figure 1.
WNTE Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature Range

7.1.2. Engine Torque Range
The WNTE control area shall include all engine load points with a torque value greater than or
equal to 30% of the maximum torque value produced by the engine.
7.1.3. Engine Power Range
Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraphs 7.1.1. and 7.1.2., speed and load points below
30% of the maximum power value produced by the engine shall be excluded from the WNTE
Control Area for all emissions.
7.1.4. Application of Engine Family Concept
In principal, any engine within a family with a unique torque/power curve will have its individual
WNTE control area. For in-use testing, the individual WNTE control area of the respective
engine shall apply. For type approval (certification) testing under the engine family concept of
the WHDC GTR the manufacturer may optionally apply a single WNTE control area for the
engine family under the following provisions:
(a)
(b)
A single Engine Speed range of the WNTE control area may be used; if the measured
Engine Speeds n and n are within ±3% of the Engine Speeds as declared by the
manufacturer. If the tolerance is exceeded for any of the Engine Speeds, the measured
Engine Speeds shall be used for determining the WNTE control area;
A single engine torque/power range of the WNTE control area may be used, if it covers
the full range from the highest to the lowest rating of the family. Alternatively, grouping of
engine ratings into different WNTE control areas is permitted.
Figure 2
Example WNTE Control Area

7.2.2. For engines equipped with emission controls that include periodic regeneration events, if a
regeneration event occurs during the WNTE test, then the averaging period shall be at least as
long as the time between the events multiplied by the number of full regeneration events within
the sampling period. This requirement only applies for engines that send an electronic signal
indicating the start of the regeneration event.
7.2.3. A WNTE event is a sequence of data collected at the frequency of at least 1Hz during engine
operation in the WNTE control area for the minimum event duration or longer. The measured
emission data shall be averaged over the duration of each WNTE event.
7.3. World-harmonized Not-To-Exceed in-use Testing
Where the provisions of this Annex are used as basis for in-use testing, the engine shall be
operated under actual in-use conditions. The test results out of the total data set that comply
with the provisions of Paragraphs 6., 7.1. and 7.2. shall be used for determining compliance
with the WNTE emission limits specified in Paragraph 5.2. It is understood that emission during
some WNTE events may not be expected to comply with the WNTE emission limits. Therefore,
statistical methods should be defined and implemented for determining compliance that are
consistent with Paragraphs 7.2. and 7.3.
7.4. World-harmonized Not-To-Exceed Laboratory Testing
Where the provisions of this Annex are used as the basis for laboratory testing the following
provision shall apply:
7.4.1. The specific mass emissions of regulated pollutants shall be determined on the basis of
randomly defined test points distributed across the WNTE control area. All the test points shall
be contained within 3 randomly selected grid cells imposed over the control area. The grid shall
comprise of 9 cells for engines with a rated speed less than 3000min and 12 cells for engines
with a rated speed greater than or equal to 3000min . The grids are defined as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The outer boundaries of the grid are aligned to the WNTE control area;
2 vertical lines spaced at equal distance between Engine Speeds n and n for 9 cell
grids, or 3 vertical lines spaced at equal distance between Engine Speeds n and n for
12 cell grids; and
2 lines spaced at equal distance of engine torque (⅓) at each vertical line within the
WNTE control area.
Examples of the grids applied to specific engines are shown in Figures 5 and 6.
7.4.2. The 3 selected grid cells shall each include 5 random test points, so a total of 15 random points
shall be tested within the WNTE control area. Each cell shall be tested sequentially; therefore
all 5 points in one grid cell are tested before transiting to the next grid cell. The test points are
combined into a single ramped steady state cycle.

Figures 5 and 6
WNTE Test Cycle Grids

10.2. Basis for Off-Cycle Emission Compliance Statement
The manufacturer shall maintain records at the manufacturer's facility which contain all test
data, engineering analyses, and other information which provides the basis for the OCE
compliance statement. The manufacturer shall provide such information to the Certification or
Type Approval Authority upon request.
11. DOCUMENTATION
The Approval Authority may decide to require that the manufacturer provides a documentation
package. This should describe any element of design and emission control strategy of the
engine system and the means by which it controls its output variables, whether that control is
direct or indirect.
The information may include a full description of the emission control strategy. In addition, this
could include information on the operation of all AES and BES, including a description of the
parameters that are modified by any AES and the boundary conditions under which the AES
operate, and indication of which AES and BES are likely to be active under the conditions of
the test procedures in this Annex.

3. DUAL-FUEL SPECIFIC ADDITIONAL APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1. Dual-fuel Engine Family
3.1.1. Criteria for Belonging to a Dual-fuel Engine Family
All engines within a dual-fuel engine family shall belong to the same type of dual-fuel
engines defined in Paragraph 2. and operate with the same types of fuel or when
appropriate with fuels declared according to this Regulation as being of the same range(s).
All engines within a dual-fuel engine family shall meet the criteria defined by this Regulation
for belonging to a compression ignition engine family.
The difference between the highest and the lowest GER (i.e. the highest GER minus
the lowest GER ) within a dual-fuel engine family shall not exceed 30%.
3.1.2. Selection of the Parent Engine
The parent engine of a dual-fuel engine family shall be selected according to the criteria
defined by this Regulation for selecting the parent engine of a compression ignition engine
family.
3.1.3. Extension to Include a New Engine System into a Dual-fuel Engine Family
At the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Type Approval Authority, a new
dual-fuel engine may be included as a member of a certified dual-fuel engine family if the
criteria specified in Paragraph 3.2.2.1. are met.
If the elements of design of the parent engine system are representative of those of the new
engine system, then the parent engine system shall remain unchanged and the
manufacturer shall modify the documentation package according to Paragraph 12. of this
Annex.
If the new engine system contains elements of design that are not represented by the parent
engine system but itself would represent the whole family, then the new engine system shall
become the new dual-fuel-parent engine. In this case the new elements of design shall be
demonstrated to comply with the provisions of this Regulation, and the documentation
package shall be modified according to Paragraph 12. of this Annex.
3.1.4. Extension to Address a Design Change that Affects the Dual-fuel Engine System
At the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Type Approval Authority, an
extension of an existing certificate may be granted in the case of a design change of the
dual-fuel engine system if the manufacturer demonstrates that the design changes comply
with the provisions of this Annex.
The documentation package shall be modified according to Paragraph 12. of this Annex.

4.2.2. Requirements Regarding Operability Restriction
4.2.2.1. Operability restriction and requirements to ensure the correct operation of NO control
measures
An operability restriction as set out in Paragraph 4.2. shall not be deactivated by either the
activation or deactivation of the warning and torque reduction systems specified in
Paragraph 5.5.5. of this Regulation.
The activation and the deactivation of an operability restriction as set out in Paragraph 4.2.
shall not activate or deactivate the warning and torque reduction systems specified in
Paragraph 5.5.5. of this Regulation
4.2.2.2. Activation of an Operability Restriction
In the case where an operability restriction is required according to Paragraph 4.2.3.
"Unavailability of gaseous fuel when operating in a dual-fuel mode" because of a
malfunction of the gas supply system, the operability restriction shall become active after the
next time the vehicle is stationary or within 30min after the operability restriction is
required, whichever comes first.
In the case where the operability restriction is required because of an empty gas tank, the
operability restriction shall become active as soon as it is required.
4.2.3. Unavailability of Gaseous Fuel when Operating in a Dual-fuel Mode
Upon detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank, or of a malfunctioning gas supply system
according to Paragraph 7.3.1.1.:
(a)
(b)
Dual-fuel engines of Type 1A shall activate one of the operability restrictions
considered in this Paragraph;
Dual-fuel engines of Types 1B, 2B and 3B shall operate in diesel mode.
4.2.3.1. Unavailability of Gaseous Fuel – Empty Gaseous Fuel Tank
In the case of an empty gaseous fuel tank, an operability restriction or, as appropriate
according to Paragraph 4.2.3., the diesel mode shall be activated according to
Paragraph 4.2.2.2. as soon as the engine system has detected that the tank is empty.
When the gas availability in the tank again reaches the level that justified the activation of
the empty tank warning system specified in Paragraph 4.3.2., the operability restriction may
be deactivated, or, when appropriate, the dual-fuel mode may be reactivated.

4.3.2. Empty Gaseous Fuel Tank Warning System (Dual-fuel Warning System)
A dual-fuel vehicle shall be equipped with a dual-fuel warning system that alerts the driver
that the gaseous fuel tank will soon become empty.
The dual-fuel warning system shall remain active until the tank is refuelled to a level above
which the warning system is activated.
The dual-fuel warning system may be temporarily interrupted by other warning signals
providing important safety-related messages.
It shall not be possible to turn off the dual-fuel warning system by means of a scan-tool as
long as the cause of the warning activation has not been rectified.
4.3.2.1. Characteristics of the Dual-fuel Warning System
The dual-fuel warning system shall consist of a visual alert system (icon, pictogram, etc...)
left to the choice of the manufacturer.
It may include, at the choice of the manufacturer, an audible component. In that case, the
cancelling of that component by the driver is permitted.
The visual element of the dual-fuel warning system shall not be the same as the one used
for the OBD system (that is, the MI – malfunction indicator), for the purpose of ensuring the
correct operation of NO control measures, or for other engine maintenance purposes.
In addition the dual-fuel warning system may display short messages, including messages
indicating clearly the remaining distance or time before the activation of the operability
restriction.
The system used for displaying the messages referred to in this Paragraph may be the
same as the one used for displaying additional OBD messages, messages related to correct
operation of NO control measures, or messages for other maintenance purposes.
A facility to permit the driver to dim the visual alarms provided by the warning system may
be provided on vehicles for use by the rescue services or on vehicles designed and
constructed for use by the armed services, civil defense, fire services and forces
responsible for maintaining public order.
4.4. Malfunctioning Gas Supply Counter
Type 1A dual-fuel engines shall contain a counting system to record the number of hours
during which the engine has been operated while the system has detected a malfunctioning
gas supply system according to Paragraph 7.3.1.1.
4.4.1. The activation and deactivation criteria and mechanisms of the counter dedicated to
abnormality of the gaseous fuel consumption shall comply with the specifications of
Appendix 2.

5.2. Emission Limits Applicable to Type 2B Dual-fuel Engines
5.2.1. Emission Limits Applicable Over the ESC Test-cycle
The emission limits over the ESC test-cycle applicable to Type 2B dual-fuel engines
operating in diesel mode are those applicable to Diesel engines over the ESC test-cycle and
defined in Rows B2 and C of Table 1 of Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.
5.2.2. Emission Limits Applicable Over the ETC Test-cycle
5.2.2.1. Emission Limits for CO, NO and PM Mass
The CO, NO and PM mass emission limits over the ETC test-cycle applicable to Type 2B
dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel and diesel mode over the ETC test-cycle are defined
in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.
5.2.2.2. Emission Limits for Hydrocarbons
5.2.2.2.1. NG Dual-fuel Engines Operating in Dual-fuel Mode
The THC, NMHC and CH emission limits over the ETC test-cycle applicable to Type 2B
dual-fuel engines operating with Natural Gas in dual-fuel mode are calculated from the
NMHC and CH limits applicable to Diesel and gas engines over the ETC test-cycle and
defined in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation. The calculation
procedure is specified in Paragraph 5.2.3. of this Annex.
5.2.2.2.2. LP Dual-fuel G Engines Operating in Dual-fuel Mode
The THC emission limits over the ETC test-cycle applicable to Type 2B dual-fuel engines
operating with LPG in dual-fuel mode are the THC limits for Diesel engines as considered in
Paragraph 5.2.2.1. of this Regulation.
5.2.2.2.3. Dual-fuel Engines Operating in Diesel Mode
The NMHC emission limits over the ETC test-cycle applicable to Type 2B dual-fuel engines
operating in diesel mode are those defined in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1.
of this Regulation.

5.3. Emission Limits Applicable to Type 3B Dual-fuel Engines
5.3.1. Emission Limits Applicable to Type 3B Dual-fuel Engines Operating in Dual-fuel Mode
5.3.1.1. The emissions limits over the ESC test-cycle applicable to Type 3B dual-fuel engines
operating in dual-fuel mode are the exhaust emission limits applicable to diesel engines and
specified in Rows B2 and C of Table 1 of Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.
5.3.1.2. The CO, NO and PM mass emission limits over the ETC test-cycle applicable to Type 3B
dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode are the exhaust emission limits applicable to
diesel engines and specified in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1. of this
Regulation.
5.3.1.3. The THC emission limit over the ETC test-cycle applicable to Type 3B dual-fuel engines
operating in dual-fuel mode is calculated from the NMHC and CH limits applicable to diesel
and gas engines over the ETC test-cycle and defined in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of
Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.
The calculation procedure is the following:
(a) Calculate the average gas ratio GER over the ETC test cycle;
(b) Calculate a corresponding THC in g/kWh using the following formula:
THC = NMHC + (CH4 × GER ).
In this procedure,
(a) NMHC is the NMHC emission limit over the ETC test-cycle and made applicable to
NG engine in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1 of this Regulation;
(b) CH4 is the CH emission limit over the ETC test-cycle and applicable to NG engine
in Rows B2 and C of Table 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1 of this Regulation.
5.3.2. Emission Limits Applicable to Type 3B Dual-fuel Engines Operating in Diesel Mode
The emission limits applicable to Type 3B dual-fuel engines operating in diesel mode are
those defined for diesel engines in Rows B2 and C of Tables 1 and 2 of Paragraph 5.2.1. of
this Regulation.

6.3. Additional Demonstration Requirements in Case of a Type 2 Engine
The manufacturer shall present the Type Approval Authority with evidence showing that the
GER span of all members of the dual-fuel engine family remains within the percentage
specified in Paragraph 3.1.1. (for example results of previous tests).
6.4. Additional Demonstration Requirements in Case of a Universal Fuel Range Type
approval
On request of the manufacturer and with approval of the Type Approval Authority, a
maximum of two times the last 10min of the WHTC may be added to the adaptation run
between the demonstration tests.
6.5. Requirements for Demonstrating the Durability of a Dual-fuel Engine
Provisions of Annex 7 shall apply
7. OBD REQUIREMENTS
7.1. General OBD Requirements
All dual-fuel engines and vehicles, independent of whether the engine operates in dual-fuel
or in diesel mode, shall comply with the OBD Stage 2 requirements specified in Annex 9A to
this Regulation and applicable to diesel engines.
The exemptions to these rules, including the rules concerning the OBD deficiencies and the
monitoring exemptions set out in Paragraph 3.3.3. of Annex 9A to this Regulation shall
apply.
7.2. Additional General OBD Requirements in Case of Type B Dual-fuel Engines
In the case of Type 1B, Type 2B, and Type 3B dual-fuel engines, it is allowed to have
2 separate OBD systems on-board the vehicle, one operating in dual-fuel mode, the other
operating in diesel mode. It shall be possible to retrieve OBD information separately from
each of these systems according to the requirements of Annex 9A to this Regulation.
7.3. Additional OBD Requirements for Dual-fuel Mode
7.3.1. Monitoring Requirements Regarding the Dual-fuel Engine System
7.3.1.1. Monitoring Requirements Regarding the Gas Injection System
The gas injection system electronics, fuel quantity and timing actuator(s) shall be monitored
for circuit continuity (i.e. open circuit or short circuit) and total functional failure when the
engine operates in dual-fuel mode.

8.3. Dual-fuel Engines of Types 1B, 2B, and 3B
8.3.1. In the case of Type 1B, Type 2B, and Type 3B dual-fuel engines, the torque reduction
defined in Paragraph 5.5.5.3. shall calculated on the basis of the lowest of the maximum
torques obtained in diesel mode and in dual-fuel mode.
8.3.2. In the case of Type 1B, Type 2B, and Type 3B dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel
mode, if a torque reduction is required according to Paragraph 5.5. the system may either
(a)
(b)
Apply the torque reduction required in Paragraph 8.3.1.; or
Automatically switch to diesel mode or service mode and stay in that mode until the
issue causing inducement is fixed.
8.3.3. Switching to diesel mode or service mode and staying in that mode until the issue causing
inducement is fixed is mandatory in the case when, in dual-fuel mode, it is not possible to
reduce the torque to the level required in Paragraph 8.3.1.
9. CONFORMITY OF IN-SERVICE ENGINES OR VEHICLES/ENGINES
The conformity of in-service dual-fuel engines and vehicles shall be performed according to
the requirements specified in Annex 8, with the exceptions set out in Paragraphs 9.1. to 9.3.
9.1. The emission tests shall be performed in dual-fuel mode and, in case of Type 1B, 2B, and
3B also in diesel mode.
9.2. The emission limits considered when evaluating the conformity are those set out in
Paragraph 5 "("Performance requirements"") of this Annex.
9.3. Additional Requirements for Type 1B, Type 2B and Type 3B Dual-fuel Engines
9.3.1. The emission test in diesel mode shall be performed on the same engine immediately after,
or before, the emission test is performed in dual-fuel mode.
9.3.2. Paragraph 5.3. of Annex 8 shall not apply. The confirmatory test may instead be regarded
as non-satisfactory when, from tests of two or more engines representing the same engine
family, for any regulated pollutant component, the limit value as specified in this Annex is
exceeded significantly either in dual-fuel mode or in diesel mode.
10. ADDITIONAL TEST PROCEDURES
10.1. Additional Emission Test Procedure Requirements for Dual-fuel Engines
10.1.1. Dual-fuel engines shall comply with the requirements of Appendix 4 in addition to the
requirements of this Regulation (including Annex 4B) when performing an emission test.

ANNEX 11 – APPENDIX 1
TYPES OF DUAL-FUEL ENGINES AND VEHICLES –
ILLUSTRATION OF THE DEFINITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
GER Idle on diesel
Warm-up on
diesel
Operation on
diesel solely
Service-mode
Comments
Type 1A GER ≥90% NOT Allowed Allowed NOT Allowed Allowed
Type 1B GER ≥90%
Type 2A
Allowed only on
Diesel mode
Allowed only on
Diesel mode
Allowed only on
Diesel mode
NEITHER DEFINED NOR ALLOWED
Allowed
Type 2B 10% Allowed only on
Diesel mode
Allowed only on
Diesel mode
Allowed
GER ≥90%
allowed
Type 3A
NEITHER DEFINED NOR ALLOWED
Type 3B GER ≤10% Allowed
Allowed only on
Diesel mode
Allowed only on
Diesel mode
Allowed

A.2.1.3.
Illustration of the Counter Mechanism
Figures A2.1.1 to A2.1.3 give via three use-cases an illustration of the counter mechanism.
Figure A2.1.1
Illustration of the Gas Supply Counter Mechanism (Type 1A Dual-fuel Engine (HDDF)) – use-case 1
A malfunction of the gas supply is detected for the very first time.
The service mode is activated and the counter starts counting once the DTC gets the "confirmed and active" status (2nd detection).
The vehicle encounters a stand-still situation before reaching 30m operating time after the service mode is activated.
The service mode becomes active and the vehicle speed is limited to 20km/h (see Paragraph 4.2.2.1. of this Annex).
The counter freezes at its present value.

Figure A2.1.3
Illustration of the Gas Supply Counter Mechanism (Type 1A Dual-fuel Engine (HDDF)) – use-case 3
After 36 operating hours without detection of a malfunction of the gas supply, the counter is reset to zero (see Paragraph A.2.1.2.3.2.1.).
A malfunction of the gas supply is again detected while the gas supply malfunction counter is at zero (1st detection).
The service mode is activated and the counter starts counting once the DTC gets the ""confirmed and active"" status (2nd detection).
After 30min of operation without a standstill situation, the service mode becomes active and the vehicle speed is limited to 20km/h (see Paragraph 4.2.2.1. of this
Annex).
The counter freezes at a value of 30min operating time.

A.2.2.2.
Malfunctioning Gas Supply
Figure A2.3 gives via one typical use-case an illustration of the events occurring in the
case of a malfunction of the gas supply system. This illustration should be understood as
complementary to that given in Paragraph A.2.1 and dealing with the counter
mechanism.
Figure A2.3
Illustration of the Events Occurring in Case of a Malfunctioning
Gas Supply System of a Dual-fuel Engine/Vehicle (HDDF)
In that use case:
(a)
(b)
The failure of the gas supply system occurs for the very first time. The DTC gets
the potential status (1st detection);
The service mode is activated (in the case of a Type 1A dual-fuel engines with a
service mode as operability restriction) or the engine switches to diesel mode (in
the case of a Type B dual-fuel engine) as soon as the DTC gets the "confirmed
and active" status (2nd detection).
In the case of a Type 1A dual-fuel-engine, the service mode becomes active and the
vehicle speed is limited to 20km/h after the next time the vehicle is stationary1 or after
30min operating time without standstill (see Paragraph 4.2.2.1. of this Annex).
The vehicle operates again in dual-fuel mode as soon as the failure is repaired.

A.3.2.
Dual-fuel Warning System
In the case where a dual-fuel engine is type approved as a separate technical unit, the
ability of the engine system to command the activation of the dual-fuel warning system in
the case that the amount of gas in the tank is below the warning level, shall be
demonstrated at type approval.
In the case where a dual-fuel vehicle is type-approved in respect of its engine the activation
of the dual-fuel warning system in the case that the amount of gas in the tank is below the
warning level, shall be demonstrated at type approval. For that purpose, at the request of
the manufacturer and with the approval of the Type Approval Authority, the actual amount of
gas may be simulated.
Note: Demonstration requirements related to the dual-fuel warning system in the case of
the installation of a type-approved dual-fuel engine in a vehicle are specified in
Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex.
A.3.3.
A.3.3.1.
Unavailability of Gaseous Fuel when Operating in a Dual-fuel Mode
Operability Restriction
In the case where a Type 1A dual-fuel engine is type approved as a separate technical unit,
the ability of the engine system to command the activation of the operability restriction upon
detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank, of a malfunctioning gas supply system in dual-fuel
shall be demonstrated at type approval.
In the case where a Type 1A dual-fuel vehicle is type approved in respect of its engine, the
activation of the operability restriction upon detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank and, of
a malfunctioning gas supply system in dual-fuel mode shall be demonstrated at type
approval.
Note: Demonstration requirements related to the operability restriction in the case of the
installation of a type-approved Type 1A dual-fuel engine in a vehicle are specified in
Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex.
A.3.3.2.
Switch to Diesel Mode
In the case where a Type 1B, 2B, or 3B dual-fuel engine is type approved as a separate
technical unit, the ability of the engine system to switch to diesel mode upon detection of an
empty gaseous fuel tank and of a malfunctioning gas supply system in dual-fuel shall be
demonstrated at type approval.
In the case where a Type 1B, 2B, or 3B dual-fuel vehicle is type approved in respect of its
engine, the switch to diesel mode upon detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank and of a
malfunctioning gas supply system in dual-fuel mode shall be demonstrated at type approval.
A.3.3.3.
A.3.3.4.
The malfunctioning of the gas supply may be simulated at the request of the manufacturer
and with the approval of the Type Approval Authority.
It is sufficient to perform the demonstration in a typical use-case selected with the
agreement of the Type Approval Authority and to present that authority with evidence
showing that the operability restriction occurs in the other possible use-cases (for example,
through algorithms, simulations, result of in-house tests, etc.

A.4.4. Emission Calculation (Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.)
The emissions calculation on a molar basis, in accordance with Annex 7 of GTR No. 11
concerning the exhaust emission test protocol for Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM), is
not permitted.
A.4.4.1. Dry/wet Correction (Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 5.2. and Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.1.)
A.4.4.1.1. Raw Axhaust Gas (Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.1.1.)
Equations 15 and 17 in Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.1.1. shall be used to calculate the dry/wet
correction.
The fuel specific parameters shall be determined according to Paragraphs A.5.2. and A.5.3.
of Appendix 5.
A.4.4.1.2. Diluted Exhaust Gas (Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.1.2.)
Equations 19 and 20 in Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.1.2. shall be used to calculate the wet/dry
correction.
The molar hydrogen ratio α of the combination of the two fuels shall be used for the dry/wet
correction. This molar hydrogen ratio shall be calculated from the fuel consumption
measurement values of both fuels according to Paragraph A.5.4. of Appendix 5.
A.4.4.2. NO Correction for Humidity (Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.2.)
The NO humidity correction for compression ignition engines as specified in
Paragraph 8.2.1. of Annex 4B shall be used to determine the NO humidity correction for
dual-fuel engines.
Where:
15,698 × H
k = + 0,832 (A4.1)
1 000
H is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
A.4.4.3. Partial Flow Dilution (PFS) and Raw Gaseous Measurement (Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.4.)
A.4.4.3.1.
Determination of Exhaust Gas Mass Flow (Annex 4A, Appendix2, Paragraph 4.2. and
Annex 4B, Paragraph 8.4.1.)
The exhaust mass flow shall be determined according to the direct measurement method as
described in Paragraph 8.4.1.3. of Annex 4B.
Alternatively the airflow and air to fuel ratio measurement method according to
Paragraph 4.2.5. (Equations 30, 31 and 32 of Annex 4B) may be used only if α, γ, δ and ε
values are determined according to Paragraph A.5.2. and A.5.3. of Appendix 5. The use of a
zirconia-type sensor to determine the air fuel ratio is not allowed.

A.4.5. Equipment Specification and Verification (Annex 4B, Paragraph 9.)
A.4.5.1. Oxygen Interference Check Gases (Annex 4B, Paragraph 9.3.3.4.)
The oxygen concentrations required for dual-fuel engines are equal to those required for
compression ignition engines listed in Table 8 in Paragraph 9.3.3.4. of Annex 4B.
A.4.5.2. Oxygen Interference Check (Annex 4B, Paragraph 9.3.7.3.)
Instruments used to measure dual-fuel engines shall be checked using the same
procedures as those used to measure compression ignition engines. The 21% oxygen blend
shall be used under subparagraph (b) in Paragraph 9.3.7.3. of Annex 4B.
A.4.5.3. Water Quench Check (Annex 4A, Appendix 5, Paragraph 1.9.2.2. and Annex 4B,
Paragraph 9.3.9.2.2.)
The water quench check applies to wet NO concentration measurements only. For
dual-fuel engines fuelled with natural gas this check should be performed with an assumed
H/C ratio of 4 (Methane). In that case H = 2 × A. For dual-fuel engines fuelled with LPG
this check should be performed with an assumed H/C ratio of 2.525. In that case
H = 1.25 × A.

Table A6.2
Raw Exhaust Gas U Values and Component Densities for a
Mixture of 50% Gaseous Fuel and 50% Diesel Fuel (mass per cent)
Gas
NO
CO
HC
CO
O
CH
Gaseous fuel
ρ
ρ
[kg/m ]
2.053
1.250
1.9636
1.4277
0.716
u
CNG/LNG
1.2786
0.001606
0.000978 0.000528
0.001536 0.001117 0.000560
Propane
1.2869
0.001596
0.000972
0.000510 0.001527 0.001110 0.000556
Butane
1.2883
0.001594
0.000971
0.000503 0.001525 0.001109 0.000556
LPG
1.2881
0.001594
0.000971
0.000506 0.001525 0.001109 0.000556
A.5.2.3.
A.5.2.4.
For Type 3B dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode the molar component ratios and
the u values of diesel fuel shall be used.
For the calculation of the hydrocarbon emissions of all types of dual-fuel engines operating
in dual-fuel mode, the following shall apply:
(a) For the calculation of the THC emissions, the ugas value of the gaseous fuel shall be
used.
(b) For the calculation of the NMHC emissions, the u value on the basis of CH shall
be used.
(c) For the calculation of the CH emissions, the u value of CH shall be used.
A.5.3.
Operation in Diesel Mode
For Type 1B, 2B or 3B dual-fuel engines operating in diesel mode, the molar component
ratios and the u values of diesel fuel shall be used.

A.5.4.2.
Calculation of the molar ratios of H, C, S, N and O related to C for the fuel mixture
(according to ISO8178-1, Annex A-A.2.2.2).
α =
γ =
δ =
ε =
w
11 .9164 ×
w
(A6.6)
w
0 .37464 ×
w
(A6.7)
w
0 .85752 ×
w
(A6.8)
w
0 .75072 ×
w
(A6.9)
Where:
W hydrogen content of fuel, per cent mass
w carbon content of fuel, per cent mass
w sulphur content of fuel, per cent mass
w nitrogen content of fuel, per cent mass
w oxygen content of fuel, per cent mass
α
γ
δ
ε
molar hydrogen ratio (H/C)
molar sulphur ratio (S/C)
molar nitrogen ratio (N/C)
molar oxygen ratio (O/C)
referring to a fuel CH O N S
A.5.4.3. Calculation of the u values for a fuel mixture
The raw exhaust gas u values for a fuel mixture can be calculated with the exact
equations in Paragraph 8.4.2.4. of Annex 4B and the molar ratios calculated according to
this Paragraph.
For systems with constant mass flow, Equation 57 in Paragraph 8.5.2.3.1. of Annex 4B is
needed to calculate the diluted exhaust gas u values.
Emissions - Heavy Duty Vehicles.