Regulation No. 49-06

Name:Regulation No. 49-06
Description:Emissions - Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Measures to be Taken Against the Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants from Compression-ignition Engines and Positive-ignition Engines for Use in Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2013-03-04
Amendment Level:06 Series, Supplement 4
Number of Pages:525
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

engine, system, type, paragraph, annex, test, approval, manufacturer, flow, gas, exhaust, vehicle, obd, fuel, requirements, engines, mass, emissions, case, emission, number, appendix, regulation, information, control, mode, malfunction, family, sampling, cycle, authority, dual-fuel, monitoring, time, dilution, sample, concentration, data, measurement, maximum, operating, speed, performance, vehicles, reference, means, systems, temperature, counter, particulate

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.48/Rev.6/Amend.4
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
February 22, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 49-06
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE:
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN AGAINST THE EMISSION OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE
POLLUTANTS FROM COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND POSITIVE
IGNITION ENGINES FOR USE IN VEHICLES
Incorporating:
02 series of amendments Date of Entry into Force: 30.12.92
Corr. 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 11.09.92
Corr. 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 30.06.95
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.05.96
Corr. 1 to Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 23.06.97
Corr. 2 to Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 12.11.98
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.08.96
Corr. 1 to Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Dated: 12.11.98
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.12.01
04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.01.03
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.02.07
Supplement 2 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.06.07
05 series of amendments (including erratum)
Date of Entry into Force: 03.02.08
Supplement 1 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 17.03.10
Supplement 2 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 19.08.10
Corr. to Supplement 2 to the 05 series of amendments
Dated: 19.08.11
Supplement 3 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.12.10
Supplement 4 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 23.06.11
Supplement 5 to the 05 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Corr. 1 to Revision 5 of the Regulation
Dated: 14.03.12
06 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.01.13
Supplement 1 to the 06 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.07.13
Supplement 2 to the 06 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.06.14
Supplement 3 to the 06 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.01.16
Supplement 4 to the 06 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.02.17

REGULATION NO. 49-06
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE MEASURES TO BE TAKEN AGAINST THE
EMISSION OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS FROM COMPRESSION-IGNITION
ENGINES AND POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES FOR USE IN VEHICLES
CONTENTS
REGULATION
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for approval
4.
Approval
5.
Requirements and tests
6.
Installation on the vehicle
7.
Engine Family
8.
Conformity of production
9.
Conformity of in-service vehicles/engines
10.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
11.
Modification and extension of approval of the approved type
12.
Production definitely discontinued
13.
Transitional provisions
14.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests and of Type
Approval Authorities
Appendix 1 –
Appendix 2 –
Appendix 3 –
Appendix 4 −
Procedure for production conformity testing when standard deviation is
satisfactory
Procedure for production conformity testing when standard deviation is
unsatisfactory or unavailable
Procedure for production conformity testing at manufacturer's request
Summary of Approval Process for Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas, Engines
Fuelled with LPG and Dual-fuel Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas/Biomethane or
LPG
ANNEXES
Annex 1
Models of information document
Appendix to information document
Annex 2A Communication concerning the approval of an engine type or family as a separate technical
unit with regard to the emission of pollutants pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of
amendments
Addendum to type approval communication No … concerning the type approval of an
engine type or family as a separate technical unit with regard to exhaust emissions pursuant
to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments
Annex 2B Communication concerning the approval of a vehicle type with an approved engine with
regard to the emission of pollutants pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of
amendments

Annex 9B
Technical requirements for on-board diagnostic systems (OBD)
Appendix 1 – Approval of installation of OBD systems
Appendix 2 – Malfunctions – Illustration of the DTC status – Illustration of the MI and
counters activation schemes
Appendix 3 – Monitoring requirements
Appendix 4 – Technical compliance report
Appendix 5 – Freeze frame and data stream information
Appendix 6 – Reference standard documents
Appendix 7 – Performance monitoring
Appendix 8 – Demonstration requirements in case of performance monitoring of a
wall-flow diesel particulate filter
Annex 9C Technical requirements for assessing the in-use performance of on-board diagnostic
systems (OBD)
Appendix 1 – Groups of monitors
Annex 10
Requirements to limit Off-Cycle Emissions (OCE) and in-use emissions
Appendix 1 – PEMS demonstration test at type approval
Annex 11
Requirements to ensure the correct operation of NO control measures
Appendix 1 – Demonstration requirements
Appendix 2 – Description of the driver warning and inducement activation and
deactivation mechanisms
Appendix 3 – Low level inducement torque reduction scheme
Appendix 4 – Demonstration of correct installation on a vehicle in the case of engines
type-approved as a separate technical unit
Appendix 5 – Access to "NO control information"
Appendix 6 – Demonstration of the minimum acceptable reagent concentration CD
Annex 12
CO emissions and fuel consumption
Appendix 1 – Provisions on CO emissions and fuel consumption for extension of a type
approval for a vehicle type-approved under this Regulation with a reference
mass exceeding 2 380kg but not exceeding 2 610kg
Annex 13
Type approval of replacement pollution control devices as separate technical unit
Appendix 1 – Model information document
Appendix 2 – Communication concerning the approval of a replacement pollution control
device pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments
Appendix 3 – Arrangement of approval mark
Appendix 4 – Ageing procedure for evaluation of durability
Annex 14
Access to vehicle OBD information

REGULATION NO. 49-06
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE MEASURES TO BE TAKEN AGAINST THE
EMISSION OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS FROM COMPRESSION-IGNITION
ENGINES AND POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES FOR USE IN VEHICLES
1. SCOPE
1.1. This Regulation shall apply to motor vehicles of Categories M , M , N and N with a
reference mass exceeding 2 610kg and to all motor vehicles of Categories M and N .
At the request of the manufacturer, the type approval of a completed vehicle given under
this Regulation shall be extended to its incomplete vehicle with a reference mass below
2 610kg. Type approvals shall be extended if the manufacturer can demonstrate that all
bodywork combinations expected to be built onto the incomplete vehicle increase the
reference mass of the vehicle to above 2 610kg.
At the request of the manufacturer, the type approval of a vehicle granted under this
Regulation shall be extended to its variants and versions with a reference mass above
2 380kg provided that it also meets the requirements relating to the measurement of
greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption in accordance with Paragraph 4.2. of this
Regulation.
1.2. Equivalent Approvals
The following do not need to be approved according to this Regulation: engines mounted in
vehicles of up to 2 840kg reference mass to which an approval to Regulation No. 83 has
been granted as an extension.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation the following definitions shall apply:
2.1. "Ageing cycle" means the vehicle or engine operation (speed, load, power) to be executed
during the service accumulation period;
2.2. "Approval of an engine (engine family)" means the approval of an engine type (engine
family) with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants, smoke
and the on-board diagnostic (OBD) system;
2.3. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of vehicle type with regard to the level of the
emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants and smoke by its engine as well as the onboard
diagnostic (OBD) system and the engine installation on the vehicle;
2.4. "Auxiliary Emission Strategy" (AES) means an emission strategy that becomes active
and replaces or modifies a base emission strategy for a specific purpose and in response to
a specific set of ambient and/or operating conditions and only remains operational as long
as those conditions exist;
2.5. "Base Emission Strategy" (BES) means an emission strategy that is active throughout the
speed and load operating range of the engine unless an AES is activated;

2.19. "Emission control monitoring system" means the system that ensures correct operation
of the NO control measures implemented in the engine system according to the
requirements of Paragraph 5.5;
"Emission control system" means the elements of design and emission strategies
developed or calibrated for the purpose of controlling emissions;
2.20. "Emission related maintenance" means the maintenance which substantially affects
emissions or which is likely to affect emissions deterioration of the vehicle or the engine
during normal in-use operation;
2.21. "Emission strategy" means an element or set of elements of design that is incorporated
into the overall design of an engine system or vehicle and used in controlling emissions;
2.22. "Engine after-treatment system family" means a manufacturer’s grouping of engines that
comply with the definition of engine family, but which are further grouped into engines
utilising a similar exhaust after-treatment system;
2.23. "Engine family" means a manufacturer’s grouping of engines which through their design,
as defined in Paragraph 7. of this Regulation, have similar exhaust emission characteristics;
2.24. "Engine system" means the engine, the emission control system and the communication
interface (hardware and messages) between the engine system electronic control unit or
units (ECU) and any other powertrain or vehicle control unit;
2.25. "Engine start" consists of the ignition-On, cranking and start of combustion, and is
completed when the engine speed reaches 150 min below the normal, warmed-up idle
speed;
2.26. "Engine type" means a category of engines which do not differ in essential engine
characteristics as set out in Annex 1;
2.27. "Exhaust after-treatment system" means a catalyst (oxidation, 3-way or any other),
particulate filter, deNO system, combined deNO particulate filter, or any other emission
reducing device, that is installed downstream of the engine;
2.28. "Gaseous pollutants" means the exhaust gas emissions of carbon monoxide, NO ,
expressed in NO equivalent, hydrocarbons (i.e. total hydrocarbons, non-methane
hydrocarbons and methane);
2.29. "General Denominator" means a counter indicating the number of times a vehicle has
been operated, taking into account general conditions;
2.30. "Group of monitors" means, for the purpose of assessing the in-use performance of an
OBD engine family, a set of OBD monitors used for determining the correct operation of the
emission control system;
2.31. "Ignition cycle counter" means a counter indicating the number of engine starts a vehicle
has experienced;
2.32. "In-Use performance ratio" (IUPR) means the ratio of the number of times that the
conditions have existed under which a monitor, or group of monitors, should have detected
a malfunction relative to the number of driving cycles relevant for the operation of that
monitor or group of monitors;

2.45. "Particulate after-treatment device" means an exhaust after-treatment system designed
to reduce emissions of particulate pollutants (PT) through a mechanical, aerodynamic,
diffusional or inertial separation;
2.46. "Particulate matter (PM)" means any material collected on a specified filter medium after
diluting exhaust with a clean filtered diluent to a temperature between 315K (42°C)
and 325K (52°C); this is primarily carbon, condensed hydrocarbons, and sulphates with
associated water;
2.47. "Per cent load" means the fraction of the maximum available torque at an engine speed;
2.48. "Performance monitoring" means malfunction monitoring, that consists of functionality
checks and the monitoring of parameters that are not directly correlated to emission
thresholds, and that is done on components or systems to verify that they are operating
within the proper range;
2.49. "Periodic regeneration" means the regeneration process of an emission control device
that occurs periodically in less than 100h of normal engine operation;
2.50. "Portable emissions measurement system" (PEMS) means a portable emissions
measurement system meeting the requirements specified in Appendix 2 to Annex 8 of this
Regulation;
2.51. "Power take-off unit" means an engine driven output device for the purposes of powering
auxiliary, vehicle mounted, equipment;
2.52. "Qualified deteriorated component or system" (QDC) means a component or a system
that has been intentionally deteriorated such as by accelerated ageing or by having been
manipulated in a controlled manner and which has been accepted by the Type Approval
Authority according to the provisions set out in Annex 9B to this Regulation for use when
demonstrating the OBD performance of the engine system;
2.53. "Reagent" means any medium that is stored on-board the vehicle in a tank and provided to
the exhaust after-treatment system (if required) upon request of the emission control
system;
2.54. "Recalibration" means a fine tuning of a natural gas engine in order to provide the same
performance (power, fuel consumption) in a different range of natural gas;
2.55. "Reference mass" means the mass of the vehicle in running order less the uniform mass of
the driver of 75kg and increased by a uniform mass of 100kg;
2.56. "Replacement pollution control device" means a pollution control device or an assembly
of such devices intended to replace an original pollution control device and which can be
approved as a separate technical unit;
2.57. "Scan-tool" means external test equipment used for standardised off-board communication
with the OBD system in accordance with the requirements of this Regulation;
2.58. "Service accumulation schedule" means the ageing cycle and the service accumulation
period for determining the deterioration factors for the engine-after-treatment system family;

3.1.3. Together with the application, the manufacturer shall provide a documentation package that
fully explains any element of design which affects emissions, the emission control strategy
of the engine system, the means by which the engine system controls the output variables
which have a bearing upon emissions, whether that control is direct or indirect, and fully
explains the warning and inducement system required by Paragraphs 4. and 5. of Annex 11.
The documentation package shall consist of the following parts including the information set
out in Paragraph 5.1.4.:
(a)
(b)
A formal documentation package that shall be retained by the Type Approval
Authority. The formal documentation package may be made available to interested
parties upon request;
An extended documentation package that shall remain confidential. The extended
documentation package may be kept by the Type Approval Authority or be retained
by the manufacturer, at the discretion of the Type Approval Authority, but shall be
made available for inspection by the Type Approval Authority at the time of approval
or at any time during the validity of the approval. When the documentation package is
retained by the manufacturer, the Type Approval Authority shall take the necessary
measures to ensure that the documentation is not being altered after approval.
3.1.4. In addition to the information referred to in Paragraph 3.1.3., the manufacturer shall submit
the following information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
In the case of positive-ignition engines, a declaration by the manufacturer of the
minimum percentage of misfires out of a total number of firing events that either
would result in emissions exceeding the limits set out in Annex 9A if that percentage
of misfire had been present from the start of the emission test as set out in Annex 4 or
could lead to an exhaust catalyst, or catalysts, overheating prior to causing
irreversible damage;
A description of the provisions taken to prevent tampering with and modification of the
emission control computer(s), including the facility for updating using a
manufacturer-approved programme or calibration;
Documentation of the OBD system, in accordance with the requirements set out in
Paragraph 8. of Annex 9B;
OBD related information for the purpose of access to OBD, in accordance with the
requirements of Annex 14 of this Regulation;
(e) A Statement of off-cycle emission compliance, with the requirements of
Paragraph 5.1.3. and Paragraph 10. of Annex 10;
(f)
A Statement of OBD in-use performance compliance, with the requirements of
Appendix 2 to Annex 9A;
(g) The initial plan for in-service testing according to Paragraph 2.4. of Annex 8;
(h)
(i)
Where appropriate, copies of other type approvals with the relevant data to enable
extension of approvals and establishment of deterioration factors;
Where appropriate, the documentation packages required by this Regulation for the
correct installation of the engine type-approved as separate technical unit.

3.3. Application for Type Approval of a Vehicle with Regard to Emissions
3.3.1. The manufacturer or his authorized representative shall submit to the Type Approval
Authority an application for type approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions.
3.3.2. The application referred to in Paragraph 3.3.1. shall be drawn up in accordance with the
model of the information document set out in Annex 1. For that purpose Part 1 and Part 2 of
that Annex shall apply.
3.3.3. The manufacturer shall provide a documentation package that fully explains any element of
design which affects emissions, the emission control strategy of the engine system, the
means by which the engine system controls the output variables which have a bearing upon
emissions, whether that control is direct or indirect, and fully explains the warning and
inducement system required by Annex 11. This documentation package shall be provided in
accordance with Paragraph 3.1.3.
3.3.4. In addition to the information referred to in Paragraph 3.3.3., the manufacturer shall submit
the information required by Paragraph 3.1.4. (a) to (h) and Paragraph 3.2.4. (a) to (d).
3.3.5. The manufacturer shall submit to the technical service responsible for the type approval
tests an engine representative of the type to be approved.
3.3.6. Changes to the make of a system, component or separate technical unit that occur after a
type approval shall not automatically invalidate a type approval, unless its original
characteristics or technical parameters are changed in such a way that the functionality of
the engine or pollution control system is affected.
3.4. Application for Type Approval of a Type of Replacement Pollution Control Device as a
Separate Technical Unit
3.4.1. The manufacturer shall submit to the Type Approval Authority an application for type
approval of a type of replacement pollution control device as a separate technical unit.
3.4.2. The application shall be drawn up in accordance with the model of the information document
set out in Appendix 1 to Annex 13.
3.4.3. The manufacturer shall submit a Statement of compliance with the requirements on access
to OBD information.
3.4.4. The manufacturer shall submit to the technical service responsible for the type approval test
the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
An engine system or engine systems of a type approved in accordance with this
Regulation equipped with a new original equipment pollution control device;
One sample of the type of the replacement pollution control device;
An additional sample of the type of the replacement pollution control device, in the
case of a replacement pollution control device intended to be fitted to a vehicle
equipped with an OBD system.

4.5. In order to receive a type approval of an engine system or engine family as a separate
technical unit or a type approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions, the manufacturer
shall ensure compliance with the requirements on fuel range for a universal fuel approval or
in case of a positive ignition engine fuelled with natural gas and LPG a restricted fuel range
approval as specified in Paragraph 4.6.
4.5.1. Tables summarizing the requirements for approval of NG-Fuelled engines, LPG-Fuelled
engines and dual-fuelled engines are provided in Appendix 4.
4.6. Requirements on Universal Fuel Range Type Approval
A universal fuel range approval shall be granted subject to the requirements specified in
Paragraphs 4.6.1. to 4.6.6.1.
4.6.1. The parent engine shall meet the requirements of this Regulation on the appropriate
reference fuels specified in Annex 5. Specific requirements shall apply to engines fuelled
with natural gas/biomethane (including dual-fuel engines), as laid down in Paragraph 4.6.3.
4.6.2. If the manufacturer permits to operate the engine family to run on market fuels not covered
by the reference fuels included in Annex 5 or the relevant market fuel standards (for
example EN 228 CEN standards in the case of unleaded petrol and EN 590 CEN standard
in the case of diesel), such as running on B100, the manufacturer shall, in addition to the
requirements in Paragraph 4.6.1.:
(a)
(b)
Declare the fuels the engine family is capable to run on in Paragraph 3.2.2.2.1. of
Part 1 of Annex 1;
Demonstrate the capability of the parent engine to meet the requirements of this
Regulation on the fuels declared;
(c) Be liable to meet the requirements of in-service conformity specified in Paragraph 9.
on the fuels declared, including any blend between the declared fuels and the
relevant market fuels and standards.
4.6.3. In the case of natural gas/biomethane fuelled engines, including dual-fuel engines the
manufacturer shall demonstrate the parent engines capability to adapt to any natural
gas/biomethane composition that may occur across the market. This demonstration shall be
carried out according to this Paragraph and, in case of dual-fuel engines, also according to
the additional provisions regarding the fuel adaptation procedure set out in Paragraph 6.4.
of Annex 15 to this Regulation.
4.6.3.1. In the case of compressed natural gas/biomethane (CNG) there are generally two types of
fuel, high calorific fuel (H-gas) and low calorific fuel (L-gas), but with a significant spread
within both ranges; they differ significantly in their energy content expressed by the Wobbe
Index and in their λ-shift factor (Sλ). Natural gases with a λ-shift factor between 0.89 and
1.08 (0.89 ≤Sλ ≤1.08) are considered to belong to H-range, while natural gases with a λ-
shift factor between 1.08 and 1.19 (1.08 ≤Sλ ≤1.19) are considered to belong to L-range.
The composition of the reference fuels reflects the extreme variations of Sλ.
The parent engine shall meet the requirements of this Regulation on the reference fuels
G (Fuel 1) and G (Fuel 2), as specified in Annex 5, without any manual readjustment to
the engine fuelling system between the two tests (self-adaptation is required). One
adaptation run over one WHTC hot cycle without measurement is permitted after the
change of the fuel. After the adaptation run the engine shall be cooled down in accordance
with Paragraph 7.6.1. of Annex 4.

4.6.6. In the case of LPG the manufacturer shall demonstrate the parent engines capability to
adapt to any fuel composition that may occur across the market.
In the case of LPG there are variations in C3/C4 composition. These variations are reflected
in the reference fuels. The parent engine shall meet the emission requirements on the
reference Fuels A and B as specified in Annex 5 without any readjustment to the fuelling
between the two tests. One adaptation run over one WHTC hot cycle without measurement
is permitted after the change of the fuel. After the adaptation run the engine shall be cooled
down in accordance with Paragraph 7.6.1. of Annex 4.
4.6.6.1. The ratio of emission results "r" shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:
emission result on reference Fuel B
r =
emission result on reference Fuel A
4.7. Requirements on Restricted Fuel Range Type Approval in Case of Engines Fuelled
with Natural Gas/Biomethane or LPG, including Dual-fuel Engines.
Restricted fuel range type approval shall be granted subject to the requirements specified in
Paragraphs 4.7.1. to 4.7.2.3. below.
4.7.1. Exhaust emissions type approval of an engine running on CNG and laid out for operation on
either the range of H-gases or on the range of L-gases.
4.7.1.1. The parent engine shall be tested on the relevant reference fuel, as specified in Annex 5, for
the relevant range. The fuels are G (Fuel 1) and G (Fuel 3) for the H-range of gases and
G (Fuel 2) and G (Fuel 3) for the L-range of gases. The parent engine shall meet the
requirements of this Regulation without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two
tests. One adaptation run over one WHTC hot cycle without measurement is permitted after
the change of the fuel. After the adaptation run the engine shall be cooled down in
accordance with Paragraph 7.6.1. of Annex 4.
4.7.1.2. At the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel instead of G (Fuel
3) if the λ-shift factor (S ) lies between 0.89 (that is the lower range of G ) and 1.19 (that is
the upper range of G ), for example when Fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test
may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.
4.7.1.3. The ratio of emission results "r" shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:
r =
emission result on reference Fuel 2
emission result on reference Fuel 1
or,
r =
emission result on reference Fuel 2
emission result on reference Fuel 3
and,
emission result on reference Fuel 1
r =
emission result on reference Fuel 3

4.9. Exhaust Emissions Type Approval of a Member of a Family
4.9.1. With the exception of the case mentioned in Paragraph 4.8.2., the type approval of a parent
engine shall be extended to all family members, without further testing, for any fuel
composition within the range for which the parent engine has been approved (in the case of
engines described in Paragraph 4.7.2.) or the same range of fuels (in the case of engines
described in either Paragraph 4.6. or 4.7.) for which the parent engine has been
type-approved.
4.9.2. If the technical service determines that, with regard to the selected parent engine the
submitted application does not fully represent the engine family defined in Part 1 of Annex 1,
an alternative and if necessary an additional reference test engine may be selected by the
technical service and tested.
4.10. Requirements for Approval Regarding the On-Board Diagnostic Systems
4.10.1. Manufacturers shall ensure that all engine systems and vehicles are equipped with an OBD
system.
4.10.2. The OBD system shall be designed, constructed and installed on a vehicle in accordance
with Annex 9A, so as to enable it to identify, record, and communicate the types of
deterioration or malfunction specified in that Annex over the entire life of the vehicle.
4.10.3. The manufacturer shall ensure that the OBD system complies with the requirements set out
in Annex 9A, including the OBD in-use performance requirements, under all normal and
reasonably foreseeable driving conditions, including the conditions of normal use specified
in Annex 9B.
4.10.4. When tested with a qualified deteriorated component, the OBD system malfunction indicator
shall be activated in accordance with Annex 9B. The OBD system malfunction indicator may
also be activated at levels of emissions below the OBD thresholds limits specified in
Annex 9A.
4.10.5. The manufacturer shall ensure that the provisions for in-use performance of an OBD engine
family laid down in Annex 9A are followed.
4.10.6. The OBD in-use performance related data shall be stored and made available without any
encryption through the standard OBD communication protocol by the OBD system in
accordance with the provisions of Annex 9A.
4.10.7. If the manufacturer chooses, until the date specified in Paragraph 13.2.3. for new type
approvals, OBD systems may comply with alternative provisions as specified in Annex 9A
and referring to this Paragraph.
4.10.8. If the manufacturer chooses, until the date specified in Paragraph 13.2.3. for new type
approvals, he may use alternative provisions for the monitoring of the Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) as set out in Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of Annex 9A.

4.12.3. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place to every engine
conforming to an engine type-approved under this Regulation, or to every vehicle
conforming to a vehicle type-approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark
consisting of:
4.12.3.1. A circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval .
4.12.3.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.12.3.1.
4.12.3.3. The approval mark shall also contain a dash and an additional character after the approval
number, the purpose of which is to distinguish the stage for which the approval has been
granted according Paragraph 13.2. and communicated in Table 1 in Annex 3.
4.12.3.3.1. For diesel fuelled CI engines the approval mark shall contain the letter "D" after the national
symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish the type of engine for which the approval has
been granted.
4.12.3.3.2. For ethanol (ED95) fuelled CI engines the approval mark shall contain the letters "ED" after
the national symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish the type of engine for which the
approval has been granted.
4.12.3.3.3. For ethanol (E85) fuelled PI engines the approval mark shall contain "E85" after the national
symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish the type of engine for which the approval has
been granted.
4.12.3.3.4. For petrol fuelled PI engines the approval mark shall contain the letter "P" after the national
symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish the type of engine for which the approval has
been granted.
4.12.3.3.5. For LPG fuelled PI engines the approval mark shall contain the letter "Q" after the national
symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish the type of engine for which the approval has
been granted.

4.12.3.3.7. For dual-fuel engines the approval mark shall contain a series of digits after the national
symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish for which dual-fuel engine type and with which
range of gases the approval has been granted.
This series of digits will be constituted of two digits for the dual-fuel type followed by the
letter(s) specified in paragraphs 4.12.3.3.1. to 4.12.3.3.6. as appropriate.
The two digits identifying the dual-fuel engines types according to the definitions of Annex
15 are the following:
(a) 1A for dual-fuel engines of Type 1A;
(b) 1B for dual-fuel engines of Type 1B;
(c) 2A for dual-fuel engines of Type 2A;
(d) 2B for dual-fuel engines of Type 2B;
(e) 3B for dual-fuel engines of Type 3B.
4.12.3.4. In addition to the marking on the engine, the approval mark may also be retrievable via the
instrument cluster. It shall then be readily available for inspection and the access
instructions included in the user manual of the vehicle.
4.12.4. If the vehicle or engine conforms to an approved type under one or more other Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.12.3.1. does not need to be repeated. In
such a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the
Regulations under which approval has been granted under this Regulation shall be placed
in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.12.3.1.
4.12.5. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the data plate affixed by the manufacturer
to the approved type.
4.12.6. Annex 3 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
4.12.7. The engine approved as a technical unit shall bear, in addition to the approved mark:
4.12.7.1. The trademark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;
4.12.7.2. The manufacturer's commercial description.

5. REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
5.1. General
5.1.1. Manufacturers shall equip vehicles and engines so that the components likely to affect
emissions are designed, constructed and assembled so as to enable the vehicle or engine,
in normal use, to comply with this Regulation and its implementing measures.
5.1.2. The manufacturer shall take technical measures so as to ensure that the tailpipe emissions
are effectively limited, in accordance with this Regulation, throughout the normal life of the
vehicle and under normal conditions of use.
5.1.2.1. Those measures referred to in Paragraph 5.1.2. shall include ensuring that the security of
hoses, joints and connections, used within the emission control systems, are constructed so
as to conform to the original design intent.
5.1.2.2. The manufacturer shall ensure that the emissions test results comply with the applicable
limit value under the test conditions specified in this Regulation.
5.1.2.3. Any engine system and any element of design liable to affect the emission of gaseous and
particulate pollutants shall be designed, constructed, assembled and installed so as to
enable the engine, in normal use, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation. The
manufacturer shall also ensure compliance with off-cycle requirements set out in
Paragraph 5.1.3. and Annex 10.
5.1.2.4. The use of defeat strategies that reduce the effectiveness of emission control equipment
shall be prohibited.
5.1.2.5. In order to receive a type approval in the case of a petrol or E85 fuelled engine, the
manufacturer shall ensure that the specific requirements for inlets to fuel tanks for petrol and
E85 fuelled vehicles laid down in Paragraph 6.3. are fulfilled.
5.1.3. Requirements to Limit Off-Cycle Emissions
5.1.3.1. When meeting the requirements of Paragraph 5.1.2., the technical measures undertaken
shall take the following into account:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The general requirements, including the performance requirements and the
prohibition of defeat strategies, as specified in Annex 10;
The requirements to effectively limit the tailpipe emissions under the range of ambient
conditions under which the vehicle may be expected to operate, and under the range
of operating conditions that may be encountered;
The requirements with respect to off-cycle laboratory testing at type approval;
The requirements with respect to the PEMS demonstration test at type approval and
any additional requirements with respect to off-cycle in-use vehicle testing, as
provided for in this Regulation;
The requirement for the manufacturer to provide a statement of compliance with the
requirements limiting off-cycle emissions.

5.2. Specifications Concerning the Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants
5.2.1. In undertaking the tests set out in Annex 4 the gaseous and particulate matter emissions
shall not exceed the amounts shown in Table 1.
5.2.2. For positive ignition engines subject to the test set out in Annex 6, the maximum permissible
carbon monoxide content in the exhaust gases at normal engine idling speed shall be that
stated by the vehicle manufacturer. However, the maximum carbon monoxide content shall
not exceed 0.3% vol.
At high idle speed, the carbon monoxide content by volume of the exhaust gases shall not
exceed 0.2% vol., with the engine speed being at least 2,000min and Lambda being
1 ± 0.03 or in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.
5.2.3. In the case of a closed crankcase, manufacturers shall ensure that for the tests set out in
Paragraphs 6.10. and 6.11. of Annex 4, the engine’s ventilation system does not permit the
emission of any crankcase gases into the atmosphere. If the crankcase is of an open type,
the emissions shall be measured and added to the tailpipe emissions, following the
provisions set out in Paragraph 6.10. of Annex 4.
5.2.4. For the dilute testing of positive ignition engines by using an exhaust dilution system, it is
permitted to use analyser systems that meet the general requirements and calibration
procedures of Regulation No. 83. In this case, the provisions of paragraph 9. and
Appendix 2 to Annex 4 to this Regulation shall not apply.
However, the test procedures in Paragraph 7. of Annex 4 to this Regulation and the
emission calculations provided in Paragraph 8. of Annex 4 shall apply.
5.3. Emission Limits
Table 1 provides the emissions limits that apply to this Regulation.
Table 1
Emission Limits
.

6. INSTALLATION ON THE VEHICLE
6.1. The engine installation on the vehicle shall be performed in such a way as to ensure that the
type approval requirements are met. The following characteristics in respect to the type
approval of the engine shall be taken into consideration:
6.1.1. Intake depression shall not exceed that declared for the engine type approval in Part 1 of
Annex 1;
6.1.2. Exhaust back pressure shall not exceed that declared for the engine type approval in Part 1
of Annex 1;
6.1.3. Power absorbed by the auxiliaries needed for operating the engine shall not exceed that
declared for the engine type approval in Part 1 of Annex 1;
6.1.4. The characteristics of the exhaust after-treatment system shall be in accordance with those
declared for the engine type approval in Part 1 of Annex 1.
6.2. Installation of a Type-Approved Engine on a Vehicle
6.2.1. The installation of an engine type-approved as a separate technical unit on a vehicle shall,
in addition, comply with the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
As regard to the compliance of the OBD system, the installation shall, according to
Appendix 1 to Annex 9B to this Regulation, meet the manufacturer's installation
requirements as specified in Part 1 of Annex 1;
As regard to the compliance of the system ensuring the correct operation of NO
control measures, the installation shall, according to Appendix 4 of Annex 11 to this
Regulation, meet the manufacturer's installation requirements as specified in Part 1 of
Annex 1 to this Regulation.
The installation of a dual-fuel engine type-approved as a separate technical unit on a
vehicle shall, in addition, meet the specific installation requirements and the
manufacturer's installation requirements set out in Annex 15 to this Regulation.
6.3. Inlet to Fuel Tanks in the Case of a Petrol or E85 Fuelled Engine
6.3.1. The inlet orifice of the petrol or E85 tank shall be designed so it prevents the tank from
being filled from a fuel pump delivery nozzle that has an external diameter of 23.6mm or
greater.
6.3.2. Paragraph 6.3.1. shall not apply to a vehicle for which both of the following conditions are
satisfied:
(a)
(b)
The vehicle is designed and constructed so that no device designed to control the
emission of gaseous pollutants is adversely affected by leaded petrol;
The vehicle is conspicuously, legibly and indelibly marked with the symbol for
unleaded petrol specified in ISO 2575:2004 in a position immediately visible to a
person filling the fuel tank. Additional marking are permitted.

8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. Every engine or vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall
be so manufactured as to conform, with regard to the description as given in the approval
form and its Annexes, to the approved type. The conformity of production procedures shall
comply with those set out in Appendix 2 to the 1958 Agreement
(E/ECE/324//E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements set out in
Paragraphs 8.2. to 8.5.
8.1.1. Conformity of production shall be checked on the basis of the description in the type
approval certificates set out in Annexes 2A, 2B and 2C, as applicable.
8.1.2. Conformity of production shall be assessed in accordance with the specific conditions laid
down in this Paragraph and the relevant statistical methods laid down in Appendices 1, 2
and 3.
8.2. General Requirements
8.2.1. In applying Appendices 1, 2 or 3, the measured emission of the gaseous and particulate
pollutants from engines subject to checking for conformity of production shall be adjusted by
application of the appropriate deterioration factors (DF’s) for that engine as recorded in the
Addendum to the type approval certificate granted in accordance with this Regulation.
8.2.2. The provisions set out in Appendix 2 to the 1958 Agreement
(E/ECE/324//E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) shall be applicable where the approval authorities
are not satisfied with the auditing procedure of the manufacturer.
8.2.3. All engines subject to tests shall be randomly taken from the series production.
8.3. Emissions of Pollutants
8.3.1. If emissions of pollutants are to be measured and an engine type approval has had one or
more extensions, the tests shall be carried out on the engines described in the information
package relating to the relevant extension.
8.3.2. Conformity of the Engine Subjected to a Pollutant Test:
After submission of the engine to the authorities, the manufacturer may not carry out any
adjustment to the engines selected.
8.3.2.1. Three engines shall be taken from the series production of the engines under consideration.
Engines shall be subjected to testing on the WHTC and on the WHSC, if applicable, for the
checking of the production conformity. The limit values shall be those set out in
Paragraph 5.3.

Figure 1
Schematic of Production Conformity Testing
8.3.3.
8.3.3.1.
The Tests Shall be Carried Out onn Newly Manufactured Engines E
At the request of the
manufacturer, the tests may be carried out onn engines which have
been run-in, up to a maximum of 125h. In this case, the t running-ito make anyy adjustments to those
procedure shall be
conducted by the manufacturer who shall undertake not
engines.

8.3.3.5. Non-compliance of Gas and Dual-fuel Engines
In the case of dispute caused by the non-compliance of gas fuelled engines, including dualfuel
engines, when using a market fuel, the tests shall be performed with each reference
fuel on which the parent engine has been tested, and, at the request of the manufacturer,
with the possible additional third fuel, as referred to in Paragraphs 4.6.4.1. and 4.7.1.2., of
this Regulation, on which the parent engine may have been tested.
When applicable, the result shall be converted by a calculation, applying the relevant factors
"r", "r " or "r " as described in Paragraphs 4.6.5., 4.6.6.1. and 4.7.1.3. of this Regulation. If r,
r or r are less than 1, no correction shall take place.
The measured results, and, when applicable, the calculated results shall demonstrate that
the engine meets the limit values with all relevant fuels (for example fuels 1, 2 and, if
applicable, the third fuel in the case of natural gas engines, and fuels A and B in the case of
LPG engines).
8.3.3.6. Tests for conformity of production of a gas fuelled engine laid out for operation on one
specific fuel composition shall be performed on the fuel for which the engine has been
calibrated.
8.4. On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)
8.4.1. When the Type Approval Authority determines that the quality of production seems
unsatisfactory, it may request a verification of the conformity of production of the OBD
system. Such verification shall be carried out in accordance with the following:
An engine shall be randomly taken from series production and subjected to the tests
described in Annex 9B and in the case of dual-fuel engines to the additional tests required
by Paragraph 7. of Annex 15 to this Regulation. The tests may be carried out on an engine
that has been run-in up to a maximum of 125h.
8.4.2. The production is deemed to conform if this engine meets the requirements of the tests
described in Annex 9B to this Regulation and in the case of dual-fuel engines to the
additional tests required by Paragraph 7. of Annex 15 to this Regulation.
8.4.3. If the engine taken from the series production does not satisfy the requirements of
Paragraph 8.4.1. above, a further random sample of four engines shall be taken from the
series production and subjected to the tests described in Annex 9B and in the case of dualfuel
engines to the additional tests required by Paragraph 7. of Annex 15 to this Regulation.
The tests may be carried out on engines that have been run-in, up to a maximum of 125h.
8.4.4. The production is deemed to conform if at least three engines out of the further random
sample of four engines meet the requirements of the tests described in Annex 9B.

9. CONFORMITY OF IN-SERVICE VEHICLES/ENGINES
9.1. Introduction
This Paragraph sets out the in-service conformity requirements for vehicles type-approved
to this Regulation.
9.2. In-Service Conformity
9.2.1. Measures to ensure in-service conformity of vehicles or engine systems type-approved
under this Regulation shall be taken in accordance with Appendix 2 to the 1958 Agreement
(E/ECE/324//E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) and complying with the requirements of Annex 8 of
this Regulation in the case of vehicles or engine systems type-approved under this
Regulation.
9.2.2. The technical measures taken by the manufacturer shall be such as to ensure that the
tailpipe emissions are effectively limited, throughout the normal life of the vehicles under
normal conditions of use. The conformity with the provisions of this Regulation shall be
checked over the normal useful life of an engine system installed in a vehicle under normal
conditions of use as specified in Annex 8 of this Regulation.
9.2.3. The manufacturer shall report the results of the in-service testing to the Type Approval
Authority which granted the original type approval in accordance with the initial plan
submitted at type approval. Any deviation from the initial plan shall be justified to the
satisfaction of the Type Approval Authority.
9.2.4. If the Type Approval Authority which granted the original type approval is not satisfied with
the manufacturer’s reporting in accordance with Paragraph 10. of Annex 8, or has reported
evidence of unsatisfactory in-service conformity, the authority may order the manufacturer to
run a test for confirmatory purposes. The Type Approval Authority shall examine the
confirmatory test report supplied by the manufacturer.
9.2.5. Where the Type Approval Authority which granted the original type approval is not satisfied
with the results of in-service tests or confirmatory tests in accordance with the criteria set
out in Annex 8, or based on in-service testing conducted by a Contracting Party, it shall
require the manufacturer to submit a plan of remedial measures to remedy the
non-conformity in accordance with Paragraph 9.3. of this Regulation and Paragraph 9. of
Annex 8.
9.2.6. Any Contracting Party may conduct and report its own surveillance testing, based on the
in-service conformity testing procedure set out in Annex 8. Information on the procurement,
maintenance, and manufacturer’s participation in the activities shall be recorded. On request
by a Type Approval Authority, the Type Approval Authority that granted the original type
approval shall provide the necessary information about the type approval to enable testing
in accordance with the procedure set out in Annex 8.

9.3. Remedial Measures
9.3.1. On request of the Type Approval Authority and following in-service testing in accordance
with Paragraph 9.2., the manufacturer shall submit the plan of remedial measures to the
Type Approval Authority no later than 60 working days after receipt of the notification from
the Type Approval Authority. Where the manufacturer can demonstrate to the satisfaction of
the Type Approval Authority that further time is required to investigate the reason for the
non-compliance in order to submit a plan of remedial measures, an extension may be
granted.
9.3.2. The remedial measures shall apply to all engines in service belonging to the same engine
families or OBD engine families and be extended also to engine families or OBD engine
families which are likely to be affected with the same defects. The need to amend the type
approval documents shall be assessed by the manufacturer and the result reported to the
Type Approval Authority.
9.3.3. The Type Approval Authority shall consult the manufacturer in order to secure agreement on
a plan of remedial measures and on executing the plan. If the Type Approval Authority
which granted the original type approval establishes that no agreement can be reached, it
shall take the necessary measures, including, where necessary, the withdrawal of type
approval, to ensure that production vehicles, systems, components or separate technical
units, as the case may be, are brought into conformity with the approved type. The Type
Approval Authority shall advise the Type Approval Authorities of the other contracting
parties of the measures taken. If the type approval is withdrawn, the Type Approval
Authority shall inform the Approval Authorities of the other contracting parties within
20 working days of the withdrawal and of the reasons therefor.
9.3.4. The Type Approval Authority shall within 30 working days from the date on which it has
received the plan of remedial measures from the manufacturer, approve or reject the plan of
remedial measures. The Type Approval Authority shall within the same time also notify the
manufacturer and all Contracting Parties of its decision to approve or reject the plan of
remedial measures.
9.3.5. The manufacturer shall be responsible for the execution of the approved plan of remedial
measures.
9.3.6. The manufacturer shall keep a record of every engine system or vehicle recalled and
repaired or modified and of the workshop which performed the repair. The Type Approval
Authority shall have access to that record on request during the execution and for a period
of 5 years after the completion of the execution of the plan.
9.3.7. Any repair or modification referred to in Paragraph 9.3.6. shall be recorded in a certificate
supplied by the manufacturer to the owner of the engine or vehicle.

9.4.3.3. The conformity of the ECU torque signal to the requirements of Paragraphs 9.4.2.2. and
9.4.2.3. shall be demonstrated with the parent engine of an engine family when determining
the engine power according to Regulation No. 85 and when performing the WHSC test
according to Annex 4 Paragraph 7.7. and off-cycle laboratory testing at type approval
according to Paragraph 7. of Annex 10.
9.4.3.3.1 The conformity of the ECU torque signal to the requirements of Paragraphs 9.4.2.2. and
9.4.2.3. shall be demonstrated for each engine family member when determining the engine
power according to Regulation No. 85. For this purpose additional measurements shall be
performed at several part load and engine speed operating points (for example at the
modes of the WHSC and some additional random points).
9.4.3.4. In the case where the engine under test does not match the requirements set out in
Regulation No. 85 concerning auxiliaries, the measured torque shall be corrected in
accordance to the correction method for power as set out in Annex 4, Paragraph 6.3.5.
9.4.3.5. The conformity of the ECU torque signal is considered to be demonstrated if the torque
signal remains within the tolerances set out in Paragraph 9.4.2.5.
10. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
10.1. The approval granted in respect of an engine or vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. are not complied with, or
if the engine(s) or vehicle(s) taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in Paragraph 8.3.
10.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annexes 2A, 2B
or 2C to this Regulation.
11. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE APPROVED TYPE
11.1. Every modification of the approved type shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority
which approved the type. The Type Approval Authority may then either:
11.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the modified type still complies with the requirement; or
11.1.2. Require a further test report from the Technical Service conducting the tests.
11.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.12.2. to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement
applying this Regulation.
11.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number
for such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying
this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annexes 2A,
2B or 2C to this Regulation.

13.2.2. In the case of positive ignition engines and vehicles, Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation shall, from September 1, 2014, grant a type-approval to an engine system or
vehicle only if it complies with:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The requirements of Paragraph 4.1. of this Regulation;
The NO OTL monitoring requirements as set out in the row "phase in period" of
Table 2 of Annex 9A;
The CO OTL monitoring requirements as set out in the row "phase-in period" of
Table 2 of Annex 9A
The Reagent quality "phase-in" requirements as set out in Paragraphs 7.1.1.1. of
Annex 11.
13.2.2.1. In accordance with the requirements of Paragraph 6.4.4. of Annex 9A manufacturers are
exempted from providing a statement of OBD in-use Performance compliance.
13.2.3. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall, from December 31, 2015, grant a
type- approval to an engine system or vehicle only if it complies with:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The requirements of Paragraph 4.1. of this Regulation;
The PM Mass OTL monitoring requirements as set out in the row "general
requirements" of Table 1 of Annex 9A in the case of compression ignition and dualfuel
engines and vehicles;
The NO OTL monitoring requirements as set out in the row "general requirements" of
Table 2 of Annex 9A in the case of compression ignition and dual-fuel engines and
vehicles;
The NO and CO OTL monitoring requirements as set out in the row "general
requirements" of Table 2 of Annex 9A in the case of positive ignition engines and
vehicles;
The Reagent quality "general requirements" as set out in Paragraphs 7.1.1.1. of
Annex 11;
The requirements regarding the plan and implementation of the monitoring
techniques according to Paragraphs 2.3.1.2. and 2.3.1.2.1. of Annex 9A;
The requirements of Paragraph 6.4.1. of Annex 9A for providing a statement of OBD
in-use performance compliance.
13.3. Acceptance of Already Issued Type Approvals
13.3.1. As from December 31, 2013, Contracting Parties may refuse type approvals granted to this
Regulation which do not comply with the requirements mentioned in Paragraph 13.2.1.
above.
13.3.2. As from September 1, 2015, Contracting Parties may refuse type approvals of positive
ignition engines and vehicles granted to this Regulation, which do not comply with the
requirements mentioned in Paragraph 13.2.2. above.

APPENDIX 1
PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING
WHEN STANDARD DEVIATION IS SATISFACTORY
A.1.1.
A.1.2.
A.1.3.
This Appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify production conformity for the
emissions of pollutants when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is
satisfactory.
With a minimum sample size of three engines the sampling procedure is set so that the
probability of a lot passing a test with 40% of the engines defective is 0.95 (producer's risk
= 5%) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65% of the engines defective is 0.10
(consumer's risk = 10%).
The following procedure is used for each of the pollutants given in Paragraph 5.3. of this
Regulation (see Figure 1 in Paragraph 8.3. of this Regulation):
Let:
L = the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant;
x = the natural logarithm of the measurement (after having applied the relevant DF) for the
i-th engine of the sample;
s = an estimate of the production standard deviation (after taking the natural logarithm of the
measurements);
n = the current sample number.
A.1.4.
For each sample the sum of the standardized deviations to the limit is calculated using the
following formula:
1
s
∑ ( L − x )
A.1.5.
Then:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If the test statistic result is greater than the pass decision number for the sample size
given in Table 2, a pass decision is reached for the pollutant;
If the test statistic result is less than the fail decision number for the sample size given
in Table 2, a fail decision is reached for the pollutant;
Otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to Paragraph 8.3.2. and the
calculation procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.

APPENDIX 2
PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING WHEN
STANDARD DEVIATION IS UNSATISFACTORY OR UNAVAILABLE
A.2.1.
A.2.2.
A.2.3.
A.2.4.
This Appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify production conformity for the
emissions of pollutants when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is either
unsatisfactory or unavailable.
With a minimum sample size of three engines the sampling procedure is set so that the
probability of a lot passing a test with 40% of the engines defective is 0.95 (producer's risk
= 5%) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65% of the engines defective is 0.10
(consumer's risk = 10%).
The values of the pollutants given in Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation, after having applied
the relevant DF, are considered to be log normally distributed and should be transformed by
taking their natural logarithms. Let m and m denote the minimum and maximum sample
size respectively (m = 3 and m = 32) and let n denote the current sample number.
If the natural logarithms of the measured values (after having applied the relevant DF) in the
series are x , x , … x and L is the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant, then,
define:
d
= x
− L
d
1
= ∑ d
n
v
∑ ( d − )
= 1
n
d
A.2.5.
Table 3 shows values of the pass (A ) and fail (B ) decision numbers against current sample
number. The test statistic result is the ratio d
/ v
and shall be used to determine whether
the series has passed or failed as follows:
For m ≤n ≤m:
(a)
Pass the series if
d
/ v
≤ A
(b)
Fail the series if
d
/ v
≥ B
(c)
Take another measurement if A
< d
/ v
< B

Cumulative number of engines
tested (sample size)
Pass decision
number A
Fail decision
number B
21 −0.30072 0.32078
22 −0.27263 0.28343
23 −0.24410 0.24943
24 −0.21509 0.21831
25 −0.18557 0.18970
26 −0.15550 0.16328
27 −0.12483 0.13880
28 −0.09354 0.11603
29 −0.06159 0.09480
30 −0.02892 0.07493
31 −0.00449 0.05629
32 0.03876 0.03876

Table 4
Pass and Fail Decision Numbers of Appendix 3 Sampling Plan
Cumulative number of
engines tested (sample size)
Minimum Sample Size: 3
Pass decision
number
Fail decision
number
3 – 3
4 0 4
5 0 4
6 1 5
7 1 5
8 2 6
9 2 6
10 3 7
11 3 7
12 4 8
13 4 8
14 5 9
15 5 9
16 6 10
17 6 10
18 7 11
19 8 9

Approval of Natural Gas Fuelled Engines

Approval for Dual-fuel Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas/Biomethane or LPG
Dual-fuel
type
1A
1B
2A
2B
3B
Diesel
mode
Universal
(1 test)
Universal
(1 test)
Universal
(1 test)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Dual-fuel mode
CNG LNG LNG20 LPG
Universal
(2 tests)
Universal
(2 tests)
Universal
(2 tests)
Universal
(2 tests)
Universal
(2 tests)
Fuel specific
(1 test)
Fuel specific
(1 test)
Fuel specific
(1 test)
Fuel specific
(1 test)
Fuel specific
(1 test)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)
Universal or restricted
(2 tests)

Notes regarding filling in the tables
Letters A, B, C, D, E corresponding to engine family members shall be replaced by the actual engine
family members’ names.
In case when for a certain engine characteristic same value/description applies for all engine family
members the cells corresponding to A–E shall be merged.
In case the family consists of more than 5 members, new columns may be added.
In the case of application for type approval of an engine or engine family as a separate technical unit the
general part and Part 1 shall be filled in.
In the case of application for type approval of vehicle with an approved engine with regard to emissions
the general part and Part 2 shall be filled in.
In the case of application for type approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions the general part and
Parts 1 and 2 shall be filled in.

Part 1
Essential Characteristics of the (Parent) Engine and the Engine Types within an Engine Family
3.2. Internal combustion engine
3.2.1. Specific engine information
3.2.1.1. Working principle: positive ignition/compression ignition/due-fuel
Cycle four stroke/two stroke/rotary
3.2.1.1.1. Type of dual-fuel engine:
Type 1A/Type 1B/Type 2A/Type 2B/Type 3B ,
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E
3.2.1.1.2. Gas Energy Ratio over the hot part of the WHTC test-cycle: …………….%
3.2.1.2. Number and arrangement of cylinders
3.2.1.2.1. Bore mm
3.2.1.2.2. Stroke mm
3.2.1.2.3. Firing order
3.2.1.3. Engine capacit cm³
3.2.1.4. Volumetric compression ratio
3.2.1.5. Drawings of combustion chamber, piston crown and, in the case of positive ignition engines,
piston rings

3.2.4.
Fuel feed
3.2.4.2.
By fuel injection (only compression ignition or dual-fuel): Yes/No
3.2.4.2.1.
System description
3.2.4.2.2.
Working principle: direct injection/pre-chamber/swirl chamber
3.2.4.2.3.
Injection pump
3.2.4.2.3.1.
Make(s)
3.2.4.2.3.2.
Type(s)
3.2.4.2.3.3.
Maximum fuel delivery
…... mm /stroke or cycle at an engine speed of …… min or,
alternatively, a characteristic diagram
(When boost control is supplied, state the characteristic fuel delivery and boost pressure
versus engine speed)
3.2.4.2.3.4.
Static injection timing
3.2.4.2.3.5.
Injection advance curve
3.2.4.2.3.6.
Calibration procedure: test bench/engine
3.2.4.2.4.
Governor
3.2.4.2.4.1.
Type
3.2.4.2.4.2.
Cut-off point
3.2.4.2.4.2.1.
Speed at which cut-off starts under load (min )
3.2.4.2.4.2.2.
Maximum no-load speed (min )
3.2.4.2.4.2.3.
Idling speed (min )
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.4.2.9.3.
Description of the system (in the case of systems other than continuous injection give
equivalent details)
3.2.4.2.9.3.1.
Make and type of the control unit (ECU)
3.2.4.2.9.3.2.
Make and type of the fuel regulator
3.2.4.2.9.3.3.
Make and type of the air-flow sensor
3.2.4.2.9.3.4.
Make and type of fuel distributor
3.2.4.2.9.3.5.
Make and type of the throttle housing
3.2.4.2.9.3.6.
Make and type of water temperature sensor
3.2.4.2.9.3.7.
Make and type of air temperature sensor
3.2.4.2.9.3.8.
Make and type of air pressure sensor
3.2.4.2.9.3.9.
Software calibration number(s)
3.2.4.3.
By fuel injection (positive ignition only): Yes/No
3.2.4.3.1.
Working principle: intake manifold (single-/multi-point/direct injection
/other specify)
3.2.4.3.2.
Make(s)
3.2.4.3.3.
Type(s)
3.2.4.3.4.
System description (In the case of systems other than continuous injection give equivalent
details)
3.2.4.3.4.1.
Make and type of the control unit (ECU)
3.2.4.3.4.2.
Make and type of fuel regulator
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.4.4.
Feed pump
3.2.4.4.1.
Pressure
(kPa) or characteristic diagram
3.2.5.
Electrical system
3.2.5.1.
Rated voltage (V), positive/negative ground
3.2.5.2.
Generator
3.2.5.2.1.
Type
3.2.5.2.2.
Nominal output (VA)
3.2.6.
Ignition system (spark ignition engines only)
3.2.6.1.
Make(s)
3.2.6.2.
Type(s)
3.2.6.3.
Working principle
3.2.6.4.
Ignition advance curve or map
3.2.6.5.
Static ignition timing
(degrees before TDC)
3.2.6.6.
Spark plugs
3.2.6.6.1.
Make
3.2.6.6.2.
Type
3.2.6.6.3.
Gap setting (mm)
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.8.
Intake system
3.2.8.1.
Pressure charger: Yes/No
3.2.8.1.1.
Make(s)
3.2.8.1.2.
Type(s)
3.2.8.1.3.
Description of the system (e.g. maximum charge pressure …... kPa, wastegate, if applicable)
3.2.8.2.
Intercooler: Yes/No
3.2.8.2.1.
Type: air-air/air-water
3.2.8.3.
Intake depression at rated engine speed and at 100% load (compression ignition engines
only)
3.2.8.3.1.
Minimum allowable (kPa)
3.2.8.3.2.
Maximum allowable (kPa)
3.2.8.4.
Description and drawings of inlet pipes and their accessories (plenum chamber, heating
device, additional air intakes, etc.)
3.2.8.4.1.
Intake manifold description (include drawings and/or photos)
3.2.9.
Exhaust system
3.2.9.1.
Description and/or drawings of the exhaust manifold
3.2.9.2.
Description and/or drawing of the exhaust system
3.2.9.2.1.
Description and/or drawing of the elements of the exhaust system that are part of the engine
system
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.12.2.1.2.
Dimensions, shape and volume of the catalytic converter(s)
3.2.12.2.1.3.
Type of catalytic action
3.2.12.2.1.4.
Total charge of precious metals
3.2.12.2.1.5.
Relative concentration
3.2.12.2.1.6.
Substrate (structure and material)
3.2.12.2.1.7.
Cell density
3.2.12.2.1.8.
Type of casing for the catalytic converter(s)
3.2.12.2.1.9.
Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distance in the exhaust line)
3.2.12.2.1.10.
Heat shield: Yes/No
3.2.12.2.1.11.
Regeneration systems/method of exhaust after treatment systems, description
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E
3.2.12.2.1.11.5.
Normal operating temperature range (K)
3.2.12.2.1.11.6.
Consumable reagents: Yes/No
3.2.12.2.1.11.7.
Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action
3.2.12.2.1.11.8.
Normal operational temperature range of reagent K
3.2.12.2.1.11.9.
International standard
3.2.12.2.1.11.10
Frequency of reagent refill: continuous/maintenance

3.2.12.2.6.6.
Indentifying part number
3.2.12.2.6.7.
Normal operating temperature (K) and pressure (kPa) ranges
3.2.12.2.6.8.
In the case of periodic regeneration
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E
3.2.12.2.6.8.1.1. Number of WHTC test cycles without regeneration (n)
3.2.12.2.6.8.2.1.
Number of WHTC test cycles with regeneration (n )
3.2.12.2.6.9.
Other systems: Yes/No
3.2.12.2.6.9.1.
Description and operation
3.2.12.2.7.
On-board-diagnostic (OBD) system
3.2.12.2.7.0.1.
Number of OBD engine families within the engine family
3.2.12.2.7.0.2.
List of the OBD engine families (when applicable)
OBD engine family 1: ………….
OBD engine family 2: ………….
etc…
3.2.12.2.7.0.3.
Number of the OBD engine family the parent engine/the engine member belongs to
3.2.12.2.7.0.4.
Manufacturer references of the OBD-Documentation required by Paragraph 3.1.4. (c) and
Paragraph 3.3.4. of this Regulation and specified in Annex 9A of this Regulation for the
purpose of approving the OBD system
3.2.12.2.7.0.5.
When appropriate, manufacturer reference of the Documentation for installing in a vehicle an
OBD equipped engine system

3.2.12.2.7.6.5. OBD Communication protocol standard
3.2.12.2.7.7. Manufacturer reference of the OBD related information required by of Paragraphs 3.1.4. (d)
and 3.3.4. this Regulation for the purpose of complying with the provisions on access to
vehicle OBD, or
3.2.12.2.7.7.1. As an alternative to a manufacturer reference provided in Paragraph 3.2.12.2.7.7. reference
of the attachment to this Annex that contains the following table, once completed according to
the given example:
Component – Fault code – Monitoring strategy – Fault detection criteria – MI activation
criteria – Secondary parameters – Preconditioning – Demonstration test SCR Catalyst –
P20EE – NO sensor 1 and 2 signals – Difference between sensor 1 and sensor 2 signals –
2nd cycle – Engine speed, engine load, catalyst temperature, reagent activity, exhaust mass
flow – One OBD test cycle (WHTC, hot part) – OBD test cycle (WHTC, hot part)
3.2.12.2.8. Other system (description and operation)
3.2.12.2.8.1. Systems to ensure the correct operation of NO control measures
3.2.12.2.8.2. Driver inducement system
3.2.12.2.8.2.1. Engine with permanent deactivation of the driver inducement, for use by the rescue services
or in vehicles designed and constructed for use by the armed services, civil defence, fire
services and forces responsible for maintaining public order: Yes/No
3.2.12.2.8.2.2. Activation of the creep mode 'disable after restart'/'disable after fuelling'/'disable after
parking'
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.17. Specific information related to gas and dual fuel engines for heavy-duty vehicles (in the case
of systems laid out in a different manner, supply equivalent information) (if applicable)
3.2.17.1. Fuel: LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL
3.2.17.2. Pressure regulator(s) or vaporiser/pressure regulator(s)
3.2.17.2.1. Make(s)
3.2.17.2.2. Type(s)
3.2.17.2.3. Number of pressure reduction stages
3.2.17.2.4. Pressure in final stage minimum (kPa) – maximum. (kPa)
3.2.17.2.5. Number of main adjustment points
3.2.17.2.6. Number of idle adjustment points
3.2.17.2.7. Type approval number
3.2.17.3. Fuelling system: mixing unit/gas injection/liquid injection/direct injection
3.2.17.3.1. Mixture strength regulation
3.2.17.3.2. System description and/or diagram and drawings
3.2.17.3.3. Type approval number
3.2.17.4. Mixing unit
3.2.17.4.1. Number
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.17.5.5.
Injector(s)
3.2.17.5.5.1.
Make(s)
3.2.17.5.5.2.
Type(s)
3.2.17.5.5.3.
Type approval number
3.2.17.6.
Direct injection
3.2.17.6.1.
Injection pump/pressure regulator
3.2.17.6.1.1.
Make(s)
3.2.17.6.1.2.
Type(s)
3.2.17.6.1.3.
Injection timing
3.2.17.6.1.4.
Type approval number
3.2.17.6.2.
Injector(s)
3.2.17.6.2.1.
Make(s)
3.2.17.6.2.2.
Type(s)
3.2.17.6.2.3.
Opening pressure or characteristic diagram
3.2.17.6.2.4.
Type approval number
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.5.4.
CO emissions for heavy duty engines
3.5.4.1.
CO mass emissions WHSC test
: ............................................................................. (g/kWh)
3.5.4.2.
CO mass emissions WHSC test in diesel mode
: .................................................... (g/kWh)
3.5.4.3.
CO mass emissions WHSC test in dual-fuel mode
(if applicable): .......................... (g/kWh)
3.5.4.4.
CO mass emissions WHTC test
: ............................................................................. (g/kWh)
3.5.4.5.
CO mass emissions WHTC test in diesel mode(17): .................................................. (g/kWh)
3.5.4.6.
CO mass emissions WHTC test in dual-fuel mode
: ................................................. (g/kWh)
3.5.5.
Fuel consumption for heavy duty engines
3.5.5.1.
Fuel consumption WHSC test
: .................................................................................. (g/kWh)
3.5.5.2.
Fuel consumption WHSC test in diesel mode
: ......................................................... (g/kWh)
3.5.5.3.
Fuel consumption WHSC test in dual-fuel mode
: ..................................................... (g/kWh)
3.5.5.4.
Fuel consumption WHTC test
: ............................................................................... (g/kWh)
3.5.5.5.
Fuel consumption WHTC test in diesel mode
: ......................................................... (g/kWh)
3.5.5.6.
Fuel consumption WHTC test in dual-fuel mode
: ..................................................... (g/kWh)
3.6.
Temperatures permitted by the manufacturer
3.6.1.
Cooling system
3.6.1.1.
Liquid cooling Maximum temperature at outlet (K)
3.6.1.2.
Air cooling
3.6.1.2.1.
Reference point
3.6.1.2.2.
Maximum temperature at reference point (K)
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.8.4.
Oil cooler: Yes/No
3.8.4.1.
Drawing(s)
3.8.4.1.1.
Make(s)
3.8.4.1.2.
Type(s)
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

3.2.8. Intake system
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E
3.2.8.3.3. Actual Intake system depression at rated engine speed and at 100% load on the vehicle
(kPa)
3.2.8.4.2. Air filter, drawings
3.2.8.4.2.1. Make(s)
3.2.8.4.2.2. Type(s)
3.2.8.4.3. Intake silencer, drawings
3.2.8.4.3.1. Make(s)
3.2.8.4.3.2. Type(s)
3.2.9. Exhaust system
3.2.9.2. Description and/or drawing of the exhaust system
3.2.9.2.2. Description and/or drawing of the elements of the exhaust system that are not part of the
engine system
3.2.9.3.1. Actual exhaust back pressure at rated engine speed and at 100% load on the vehicle
(compression ignition engines only) (kPa)

3.2.12.2.7.8.3. Written description and/or drawing of the MI
3.2.12.2.7.8.4. Written description and/or drawing of the OBD off-board communication interface
3.2.12.2.7.8.5. OBD communication protocol standard:
3.2.12.2.8.1. Systems to ensure the correct operation of NO control measures
3.2.12.2.8.2. Driver inducement system
3.2.12.2.8.2.1. Engine with permanent deactivation of the driver inducement, for use by the rescue services
or in vehicles designed and constructed for use by the armed services, civil defence, fire
services and forces responsible for maintaining public order: Yes/No
3.2.12.2.8.2.2. Activation of the creep mode:
"disable after restart"/"disable after fuelling"/"disable after parking"
3.2.12.2.8.8. Components on-board the vehicle of the systems ensuring the correct operation of NO
control measures
3.2.12.2.8.8.1. List of components on-board the vehicle of the systems ensuring the correct operation of NO
control measures
3.2.12.2.8.8.2. When appropriate, manufacturer reference of the documentation package related to the
installation on the vehicle of the system ensuring the correct operation of NO control
measures of an approved engine
Parent engine
or engine type
Engine family members
A B C D E

APPENDIX TO INFORMATION DOCUMENT
INFORMATION ON TEST CONDITIONS
1.
SPARK PLUGS
1.1.
Make ..........................................................................................................................................
1.2.
Type ...........................................................................................................................................
1.3.
Spark-gap setting ......................................................................................................................
2.
IGNITION COIL
2.1.
Make ..........................................................................................................................................
2.2.
Type ...........................................................................................................................................
3.
LUBRICANT USED
3.1.
Make ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.
Type (state percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel mixed) .........................................
4.
ENGINE-DRIVEN EQUIPMENT
4.1.
The power absorbed by the auxiliaries/equipment needs only be determined,
(a)
(b)
If auxiliaries/equipment required are not fitted to the engine and/or
If auxiliaries/equipment not required are fitted to the engine.
Note: Requirements for engine-driven equipment differ between emissions test and power
test
4.2. Enumeration and identifying details ...........................................................................................
4.3. Power absorbed at engine speeds specific for emissions test ..................................................

5.2. Declared values for power test according to Regulation No. 85 or declared values for
power test in dual-fuel mode according to Regulation No. 85
5.2.1. Idle speed ………………………….. rpm
5.2.2. Speed at maximum power ………………………….. rpm
5.2.3. Maximum power ………………………….. kW
5.2.4. Speed at maximum torque ………………………….. rpm
5.2.5. Maximum torque ………………………….. Nm
6. DYNAMOMETER LOAD SETTING INFORMATION (IF APPLICABLE)
6.1. Reserved for Vehicle body work type (not applicable)
6.2. Reserved for gearbox type (not applicable)
6.3. Fixed load curve dynamometer setting information (if used)
6.3.1. Alternative dynamometer load setting method used (Yes/No )
6.3.2. Inertia mass (kg)
6.3.3. Effective power absorbed at 80km/h including running losses of the vehicle on the
dynamometer (kW)
6.3.4. Effective power absorbed at 50km/h including running losses of the vehicle on the
dynamometer (kW)
6.4. Adjustable load curve dynamometer setting information (if used)
6.4.1. Coast down information from the test track
6.4.2. Tyres make and type
6.4.3. Tyre dimensions (front/rear)

ANNEX 2A
COMMUNICATION CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF AN ENGINE TYPE OR FAMILY
AS A SEPARATE TECHNICAL UNIT WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF
POLLUTANTS PURSUANT TO REGULATION NO. 49, 06 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
................................................
................................................
................................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of an engine type or family as a separate technical unit with regard to the emission of pollutants pursuant
to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments
Approval No. . ................................................ Extension No. ................................
Reason for Extension ....................................................................................................................................
Section I
0.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer)
0.2. Type
0.2.1. Commercial name(s) (if available)
0.3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the separate technical unit
0.3.1. Location of that marking
0.4. Name and address of manufacturer
0.5. Location and method of affixing of the approval mark
0.6. Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s)
0.7. Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any)

ADDENDUM TO TYPE APPROVAL COMMUNICATION NO … CONCERNING
THE TYPE APPROVAL OF AN ENGINE TYPE OR FAMILY AS A SEPARATE
TECHNICAL UNIT WITH REGARD TO EXHAUST EMISSIONS
PURSUANT TO REGULATION NO. 49, 06 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
1. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
1.1. Particulars to be completed in relation to the type approval of a vehicle with an engine
installed
1.1.1. Make of engine (name of undertaking)
1.1.2. Type and commercial description (mention any variants)
1.1.3. Manufacturer's code as marked on the engine
1.1.4. Reserved.
1.1.5. Category of engine: Diesel/Petrol/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol (ED95)/Ethanol (E85)/LNG/
LNG
1.1.5.1. Type of dual-fuel engine: Type 1A/Type 1B/Type 2A/Type 2B/Type 3B,
1.1.6. Name and address of manufacturer
1.1.7. Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative (if any)
1.2. Engine referred to in 1.1. type-approved as a separate technical unit
1.2.1. Type approval number of the engine/engine family
1.2.2. Engine Control Unit (ECU) software calibration number
1.3. Particulars to be completed in relation to the type approval of an engine/engine family as
a separate technical unit (conditions to be respected in the installation of the engine on a
vehicle)
1.3.1. Maximum and/or minimum intake depression
1.3.2. Maximum allowable back pressure
1.3.3. Exhaust system volume
1.3.4. Restrictions of use (if any)

1.4.2. WHTC Test
Table 5
WHTC Test
WHTC test
DF CO THC NMHC CH NO PM Mass NH PM Number
Mult/add
Emissions
Cold start
Hot start w/o
regeneration
Hot start with
regeneration
K
(mult/add)
K (mult/add)
Weighted test
result
Final test result
with DF
CO
(mg/kWh)
THC
(mg/kWh)
NMHC
(mg/kWh)
CH
CO mass emission: ............................................ g/kWh
(mg/kWh)
NO
Fuel consumption: ................................................................. g/kWh
1.4.3. Idle Test
Table 6
Idle Test
(mg/kWh)
PM Mass
(mg/kWh)
NH
ppm
PM Number
(#/kWh)
Test
CO value
(%vol)
Lambda
Engine speed
(min )
Engine oil temperature (°C)
Low idle test
N/A
High idle test

1.5. Power measurement
1.5.1. Engine Power Measured on Test Bench
Measured engine speed (rpm)
Measured fuel flow (g/h)
Measured torque (Nm)
Measured power (kW)
Barometric pressure (kPa)
Water vapour pressure (kPa)
Intake air temperature (K)
Power correction factor
Corrected power (kW)
Auxiliary power (kW)
Net power (kW)
Net torque (Nm)
Corrected specific fuel
consumption (g/kWh)
1.5.2. Additional Data
1.6. Special Provisions
Table 7
Engine Power Measured on Test Bench
1.6.1. Granting approvals for vehicles for export (see Paragraph 13.4.1. of this Regulation)
1.6.1.1. Approvals granted for vehicles for export in line with Paragraph 1.6.1.: Yes/No
1.6.1.2. Provide a description of approvals granted in Paragraph 1.6.1.1., including the series of
amendments of this Regualtion and the level of emission requirements to which this
approval applies
1.6.2. Replacement engines for vehicles in use (see Paragraph 13.4.2. of this Regulation)
1.6.2.1. Approvals granted for replacement engines for vehicles in use in line with Paragraph 1.6.2.:
Yes/No
1.6.2.2. Provide a description of approvals for replacement engines for vehicles in use granted in
Paragraph 1.6.2.1. including the series of amendments of this Regualtion and the level of
emission requirements to which this approval applies.

ANNEX 2B
COMMUNICATION CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE TYPE WITH
AN APPROVED ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS
PURSUANT TO REGULATION NO. 49, 06 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
................................................
................................................
................................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with an approved engine with regard to the emission of pollutants pursuant to
Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments
Approval No. . ................................................ Extension No. ................................
Reason for Extension ....................................................................................................................................
Section I
0.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer)
0.2. Type
0.3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle
0.3.1. Location of that marking
0.4. Category of vehicle
0.5. Name and address of manufacturer
0.6. Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s)
0.7. Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any)

ANNEX 2C
COMMUNICATION CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE TYPE
WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS PURSUANT TO
REGULATION NO. 49, 06 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
................................................
................................................
................................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with regard to the emission of pollutants pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of
amendments
Approval No. . ................................................ Extension No. ................................
Reason for Extension ....................................................................................................................................
Section I
0.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer)
0.2. Type
0.2.1. Commercial name(s) (if available)
0.3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle
0.3.1. Location of that marking
0.4. Category of vehicle
0.5. Name and address of manufacturer
0.6. Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s)
0.7. Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any)


ADDENDUM TO TYPE APPROVAL COMMUNICATION NO … CONCERNING THE
TYPE APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE TYPE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION
OF POLLUTANTS PURSUANT TO REGULATION NO. 49, 06 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
1. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
1.1. Particulars to be completed in relation to the type approval of a vehicle with an engine
installed
1.1.1. Make of engine (name of undertaking)
1.1.2. Type and commercial description (mention any variants)
1.1.3. Manufacturer's code as marked on the engine
1.1.4. Category of vehicle
1.1.5. Category of engine: Diesel/Petrol/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol (ED95)/Ethanol (E85)/LNG/
LNG
1.1.5.1. Type of dual-fuel engine: Type 1A/Type 1B/Type 2A/Type 2B/Type 3B
1.1.6. Name and address of manufacturer
1.1.7. Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative (if any)
1.2. Vehicle
1.2.1. Type approval number of the engine/engine family
1.2.2. Engine Control Unit (ECU) software calibration number
1.3. Particulars to be completed in relation to the type approval of an engine/engine family
(conditions to be respected in the installation of the engine on a vehicle)
1.3.1. Maximum and/or minimum intake depression
1.3.2. Maximum allowable back pressure
1.3.3. Exhaust system volume
1.3.4. Restrictions of use (if any)

1.4.2. WHTC Test
Table 5
WHTC Test
WHTC test
DF CO THC NMHC CH NO PM Mass NH PM Number
Mult/add
Emissions
Cold start
Hot start w/o
regeneration
Hot start with
regeneration
K
mult/add)
K mult/add)
Weighted test
result
Final test result
with DF
CO
(mg/kWh)
THC
(mg/kWh)
NMHC
(mg/kWh)
CH
(mg/kWh)
CO mass emission: ............................................ g/kWh
NO
(mg/kWh)
Fuel consumption: ................................................................. g/kWh
1.4.3. Idle Test
Table 6
Idle Test
PM Mass
(mg/kWh)
NH
ppm
PM Number
(#/kWh)
Test
CO value
(% vol)
Lambda
Engine speed
(min )
Engine oil
temperature (°C)
Low idle test
N/A
High idle test

1.5 Power measurement
1.5.1. Engine Power Measured on Test Bench
Measured engine speed (rpm)
Measured fuel flow (g/h)
Measured torque (Nm)
Measured power (kW)
Barometric pressure (kPa)
Water vapour pressure (kPa)
Intake air temperature (K)
Power correction factor
Corrected power (kW)
Auxiliary power (kW)
Net power (kW)
Net torque (Nm)
Corrected specific fuel consumption
(g/kWh)
1.5.2. Additional Data
1.6. Special Provisions
Table 7
Engine Power Measured on Test Bench
1.6.1. Granting approvals for vehicles for export (see Paragraph 13.4.1. of this Regulation)
1.6.1.1. Approvals granted for vehicles for export in line with Paragraph 1.6.1.: Yes/No
1.6.1.2. Provide a description of approvals granted in Paragraph 1.6.1.1., including the series of
amendments of this Regualtion and the level of emission requirements to which this
approval applies
1.7. Alternative Approvals (see Annex 9A, Paragraph 2.4.)
1.7.1. Alternative approvals granted in line with Paragraph 1.7.: Yes/No
1.7.2. Provide a description of alternative approvals in line with Paragraph 1.7.1.

Example 1
Compressed-Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel (B7)
E5
D
49 R – 062439 - C
The preceding approval mark affixed to an engine or vehicle in conformity with Paragraph 4. of this
Regulation shows that the engine or vehicle type concerned has been approved in Sweden (E ),
pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments under approval number 2439. The letter after
the approval number denotes the stage of requirements detailed in Table 1 (in this case Stage A). In
addition, a separate suffix after the national symbol (and above the Regulation number) indicates the
engine type as assigned in Table 2 (in this case "D" for diesel).
Example 2
Compressed-Ignition Engine Fuelled with Ethanol (ED95)
E5
ED
49 R – 062439 - C
The preceding approval mark affixed to an engine or vehicle in conformity with Paragraph 4. of this
Regulation shows that the engine or vehicle type concerned has been approved in Sweden (E ),
pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments under approval number 2439. The letter after
the approval number denotes the stage of requirements detailed in Table 1 (in this case Stage B). In
addition, a separate suffix after the national symbol (and above the Regulation number) indicates the
engine type as assigned in Table 2 (in this case "ED" for ethanol (ED95)).
Example 3
Positive Ignition Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas
E5
HL t
49 R – 062439 - C
The preceding approval mark affixed to an engine or vehicle in conformity with Paragraph 4. of this
Regulation shows that the engine or vehicle type concerned has been approved in Sweden (E ),
pursuant to Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments under approval number 2439. The letter after
the approval number denotes the stage of requirements detailed in Table 1 (in this case Stage C). In
addition, a separate suffix after the national symbol (and above the Regulation number) indicates the fuel
range determined in Paragraph 4.12.3.3.6. of this Regulation (in this case HL ).

Table 1
Letters with Reference to Requirements of OBD and SCR Systems

ANNEX 4
TEST PROCEDURE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. Reserved
This Annex is based on the world-wide harmonized heavy duty certification (WHDC), global
technical regulation (GTR) No. 4.
3. Definitions, Symbols And Abbreviations
3.1. Definitions
For the purpose of this Regulation,
3.1.1. "Declared maximum power (P )" means the maximum power in ECE kW (net power) as
declared by the manufacturer in his application for approval.
3.1.2. "Delay time" means the difference in time between the change of the component to be
measured at the reference point and a system response of 10% of the final reading (t ) with
the sampling probe being defined as the reference point. For the gaseous components, this
is the transport time of the measured component from the sampling probe to the detector.
3.1.3. "Drift" means the difference between the zero or span responses of the measurement
instrument after and before an emissions test.
3.1.4. "Full flow dilution method" means the process of mixing the total exhaust flow with diluent
prior to separating a fraction of the diluted exhaust stream for analysis.
3.1.5. "High speed (n )" means the highest engine speed where 70% of the declared maximum
power occurs.
3.1.6. "Low speed (n )" means the lowest engine speed where 55% of the declared maximum
power occurs.
3.1.7.
"Maximum power (P
)" means the maximum power in kW as specified by the
manufacturer.
3.1.8. "Maximum torque speed" means the engine speed at which the maximum torque is
obtained from the engine, as specified by the manufacturer.
3.1.9. "Normalized torque" means engine torque in % normalized to the maximum available
torque at an engine speed.

Figure 1
Definitions of System Response
3.2. General Symbols
Symbol Unit Term
a - Slope of the regression
a - y intercept of the regression
A/F - Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio
c ppm/Vol % Concentration
c ppm/Vol % Concentration on dry basis
c ppm/Vol % Concentration on wet basis
c ppm/Vol % Background concentration
C - Discharge coefficient of SSV
c ppm/Vol % Concentration on the gaseous components
c
c
particles per cubic
centimetre
particles per cubic
centimetre
d m Diameter
d
d m Throat diameter of venturi
Average concentration of particles from the diluted
exhaust gas corrected to standard conditions (273.2K
and 101.33kPa) particles per cubic centimetre
A discrete measurement of particle concentration in the
diluted gas exhaust from the particle counter, corrected for
coincidence and to standard conditions (273.2K
and 101.33kPa)
Particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100Nm)

Symbol Unit Term
k The regeneration adjustment, according to
Paragraph 6.6.2., or in the case of engines without
periodically regenerating after-treatment k = 1
k - Downward regeneration adjustment factor
k - Upward regeneration adjustment factor
k - Dry to wet correction factor for the intake air
k - Dry to wet correction factor for the diluent
k - Dry to wet correction factor for the diluted exhaust gas
k - Dry to wet correction factor for the raw exhaust gas
K - CFV calibration function
λ - Excess air ratio
m mg Particulate sample mass of the diluent collected
m
kg
Mass of the diluent sample passed through the particulate
sampling filters
m kg Total diluted exhaust mass over the cycle
m kg Mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the test cycle
m kg Total exhaust mass over the cycle
m
kg
Total mass of diluted exhaust gas extracted from the
dilution tunnel for particle number sampling
m mg Particulate sampling filter mass
m g Mass of gaseous emissions over the test cycle
m mg Particulate sample mass collected
m g Mass of particulate emissions over the test cycle
m
g/test
Mass of particulates corrected for extraction of particle
number sample flow
m kg Exhaust sample mass over the test cycle
m kg Mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate
collection filters
m kg Mass of secondary diluent
M Nm Torque
M g/mol Molar mass of the intake air
M g/mol Molar mass of the diluent
M g/mol Molar mass of the exhaust
M Nm Torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted

Symbol Unit Term
q
kg/s
Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet
basis
q kg/s Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q kg/s Sample mass flow rate extracted from dilution tunnel
q kg/s Fuel mass flow rate
q kg/s Sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution
system
q
kg/s
Mass flow rate fed back into dilution tunnel to compensate
for particle number sample extraction
q m³/s CVS volume rate
q dm³/min System flow rate of exhaust analyzer system
q cm³/min Tracer gas flow rate
r - Coefficient of determination
r - Dilution ratio
r - Diameter ratio of SSV
r - Hydrocarbon response factor of the FID
r - Methanol response factor of the FID
r - Pressure ratio of SSV
r - Average sample ratio
s
ρ kg/m³ Density
Standard deviation
ρ kg/m³ Exhaust gas density
σ - Standard deviation
T K Absolute temperature
T K Absolute temperature of the intake air
t s Time
t s Time between step input and 10% of final reading
t s Time between step input and 50% of final reading
t s Time between step input and 90% of final reading
u
-
Ratio between the densities (or molar masses) of the gas
components and the exhaust gas divided by 1,000
V m /r PDP gas volume pumped per revolution
V dm³ System volume of exhaust analyzer bench
W kWh Actual cycle work of the test cycle

3.5. Abbreviations
CFV
CLD
CVS
deNO
EGR
ET
FID
FTIR
GC
HCLD
HFID
LDS
LPG
NDIR
NG
NMC
OT
PDP
Per cent FS
PCF
PFS
PNC
PND
PTS
PTT
SSV
VGT
VPR
WHSC
WHTC
Critical flow venturi
Chemiluminescent detector
Constant volume sampling
NO after-treatment system
Exhaust gas recirculation
Evaporation tube
Flame ionization detector
Fourier transform infrared analyser
Gas chromatograph
Heated chemiluminescent detector
Heated flame ionization detector
Laser diode spectrometer
Liquefied petroleum gas
Non-dispersive infrared (analyzer)
Natural gas
Non-methane cutter
Outlet tube
Positive displacement pump
Per cent of full scale
Particle pre-classifier
Partial flow system
Particle number counter
Particle number diluter
Particle transfer system
Particle transfer tube
Subsonic venturi
Variable geometry turbine
Volatile particle remover
World harmonised steady state cycle
World harmonised transient cycle

5.2.2. Special Cases
In some cases there may be interaction between parameters. This shall be taken into
consideration to ensure that only engines with similar exhaust emission characteristics are
included within the same engine family. These cases shall be identified by the manufacturer
and notified to the Type Approval Authority. It shall then be taken into account as a criterion
for creating a new engine family.
In case of devices or features, which are not listed in Paragraph 5.2.3. and which have a
strong influence on the level of emissions, this equipment shall be identified by the
manufacturer on the basis of good engineering practice, and shall be notified to the Type
Approval Authority. It shall then be taken into account as a criterion for creating a new
engine family.
In addition to the parameters listed in Paragraph 5.2.3., the manufacturer may introduce
additional criteria allowing the definition of families of more restricted size. These
parameters are not necessarily parameters that have an influence on the level of emissions.
5.2.3. Parameters Defining the Engine Family
5.2.3.1. Combustion cycle
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2-stroke cycle;
4-stroke cycle;
Rotary engine;
Others.
5.2.3.2. Configuration of the Cylinders
5.2.3.2.1. Position of the cylinders in the block
(a) V;
(b)
(c)
(d)
In line;
Radial;
Others (F, W, etc.).
5.2.3.2.2. Relative position of the cylinders
Engines with the same block may belong to the same family as long as their bore center-tocenter
dimensions are the same.
5.2.3.3. Main Cooling Medium
(a)
(b)
(c)
Air;
Water;
Oil.

5.2.3.9. Valves and Porting
(a)
(b)
Configuration;
Number of valves per cylinder.
5.2.3.10. Fuel Supply Type
(a)
Liquid fuel supply type:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
Pump and (high pressure) line and injector;
In-line or distributor pump;
Unit pump or unit injector;
Common rail;
Carburettor(s);
Others.
(b)
Gas fuel supply type;
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Gaseous;
Liquid;
Mixing units;
Others.
(c)
Other types.
5.2.3.11. Miscellaneous Devices
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR);
Water injection;
Air injection;
Others.

If it requires specific fuel characteristics (e.g. particulate traps requiring special additives in
the fuel to ensure the regeneration process), the decision to include it in the same family
shall be based on technical elements provided by the manufacturer. These elements shall
indicate that the expected emission level of the equipped engine complies with the same
limit value as the non-equipped engine.
When an engine has been certified with an after-treatment system, whether as parent
engine or as member of a family, whose parent engine is equipped with the same aftertreatment
system, then this engine, when equipped without after-treatment system, shall not
be added to the same engine family.
5.2.4. Choice of the Parent Engine
5.2.4.1. Compression Ignition Engines
Once the engine family has been agreed by the Type Approval Authority, the parent engine
of the family shall be selected using the primary criterion of the highest fuel delivery per
stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or more engines share
this primary criterion, the parent engine shall be selected using the secondary criterion of
highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed.
5.2.4.2. Positive Ignition Engines
Once the engine family has been agreed by the Type Approval Authority, the parent engine
of the family shall be selected using the primary criterion of the largest displacement. In the
event that two or more engines share this primary criterion, the parent engine shall be
selected using the secondary criterion in the following order of priority:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The highest fuel delivery per stroke at the speed of declared rated power;
The most advanced spark timing;
The lowest EGR rate.
5.2.4.3. Remarks on the Choice of the Parent Engine
The Type Approval Authority may conclude that the worst-case emission of the family can
best be characterized by testing additional engines. In this case, the engine manufacturer
shall submit the appropriate information to determine the engines within the family likely to
have the highest emissions level.
If engines within the family incorporate other features which may be considered to affect
exhaust emissions, these features shall also be identified and taken into account in the
selection of the parent engine.
If engines within the family meet the same emission values over different useful life periods,
this shall be taken into account in the selection of the parent engine.

6.3. Engine Power
The basis of specific emissions measurement is engine power and cycle work as
determined in accordance with Paragraphs 6.3.1. to 6.3.5.
6.3.1. General Engine Installation
The engine shall be tested with the auxiliaries/equipment listed in Appendix 6.
If auxiliaries/equipment are not installed as required, their power shall be taken into account
in accordance with Paragraphs 6.3.2. to 6.3.5.
6.3.2. Auxiliaries/Equipment to be Fitted for the Emissions Test
If it is inappropriate to install the auxiliaries/equipment required according to Appendix 6 to
this Annex on the test bench, the power absorbed by them shall be determined and
subtracted from the measured engine power (reference and actual) over the whole engine
speed range of the WHTC and over the test speeds of the WHSC.
6.3.3. Auxiliaries/Equipment to be Removed for the Test
Where the auxiliaries/equipment not required according to Appendix 6 to this Annex cannot
be removed, the power absorbed by them may be determined and added to the measured
engine power (reference and actual) over the whole engine speed range of the WHTC and
over the test speeds of the WHSC. If this value is greater than 3% of the maximum power at
the test speed it shall be demonstrated to the Type Approval Authority.
6.3.4. Determination of Auxiliary Power
The power absorbed by the auxiliaries/equipment needs only be determined, if:
(a)
Auxiliaries/equipment required according to Appendix 6 to this Annex, are not fitted to
the engine;
and/or
(b)
Auxiliaries/equipment not required according to Appendix 6 to this Annex, are fitted to
the engine.
The values of auxiliary power and the measurement/calculation method for determining
auxiliary power shall be submitted by the engine manufacturer for the whole operating area
of the test cycles, and approved by the Type Approval Authority.

The emissions measured on the test cycle shall be representative of the emissions in the
field. In the case of an engine equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system that requires
the consumption of a reagent, the reagent used for all tests shall be declared by the
manufacturer.
Engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems with continuous regeneration do not
require a special test procedure, but the regeneration process needs to be demonstrated
according to Paragraph 6.6.1.
For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on a
periodic basis, as described in Paragraph 6.6.2., emission results shall be adjusted to
account for regeneration events. In this case, the average emission depends on the
frequency of the regeneration event in terms of fraction of tests during which the
regeneration occurs.
6.6.1. Continuous Regeneration
The emissions shall be measured on an after-treatment system that has been stabilized so
as to result in repeatable emissions behaviour. The regeneration process shall occur at
least once during the WHTC hot start test and the manufacturer shall declare the normal
conditions under which regeneration occurs (soot load, temperature, exhaust
back-pressure, etc.).
In order to demonstrate that the regeneration process is continuous, at least three WHTC
hot start tests shall be conducted. For the purpose of this demonstration, the engine shall be
warmed up in accordance with Paragraph 7.4.1., the engine be soaked according to
Paragraph 7.6.3. and the first WHTC hot start test be run. The subsequent hot start tests
shall be started after soaking according to Paragraph 7.6.3. During the tests, exhaust
temperatures and pressures shall be recorded (temperature before and after the
after-treatment system, exhaust back pressure, etc.).
If the conditions declared by the manufacturer occur during the tests and the results of the
three (or more) WHTC hot start tests do not scatter by more than ±25% or 0.005 g/kWh,
whichever is greater, the after-treatment system is considered to be of the continuous
regeneration type, and the general test provisions of Paragraph 7.6. (WHTC) and
Paragraph 7.7. (WHSC) apply.
If the exhaust after-treatment system has a security mode that shifts to a periodic
regeneration mode, it shall be checked according to Paragraph 6.6.2. For that specific case,
the applicable emission limits may be exceeded and would not be weighted.

e = (n x e + n x e ) / (n + n )
Figure 2
Scheme of Periodic Regeneration
The WHTC hot start emissions shall be weighted as follows:
e
=
n x e + n
x e
(5)
n + n
where:
n
n
e
e
is the number of WHTC hot start tests without regeneration
is the number of WHTC hot start tests with regeneration (minimum one test)
is the average specific emission without regeneration, g/kWh
is the average specific emission with regeneration, g/kWh

6.7. Cooling System
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating
temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer shall be used.
6.8. Lubricating Oil
The lubricating oil shall be specified by the manufacturer and be representative of
lubricating oil available on the market; the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the
test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test.
6.9. Specification of the Reference Fuel
The reference fuels are specified in Annex 5.
The fuel temperature shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
6.10. Crankcase Emissions
No crankcase emissions shall be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere, with the
following exception: engines equipped with turbochargers, pumps, blowers, or
superchargers for air induction may discharge crankcase emissions to the ambient
atmosphere if the emissions are added to the exhaust emissions (either physically or
mathematically) during all emission testing. Manufacturers taking advantage of this
exception shall install the engines so that all crankcase emission can be routed into the
emissions sampling system.
For the purpose of this Paragraph, crankcase emissions that are routed into the exhaust
upstream of exhaust after-treatment during all operation are not considered to be
discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere.
Open crankcase emissions shall be routed into the exhaust system for emission
measurement, as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The tubing materials shall be smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive
with crankcase emissions. Tube lengths shall be minimized as far as possible;
The number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing shall be minimized, and the
radius of any unavoidable bend shall be maximized;
The laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing shall be heated, thin-walled or insulated and
shall meet the engine manufacturer's specifications for crankcase back pressure;
The crankcase exhaust tubing shall connect into the raw exhaust downstream of any
after-treatment system, downstream of any installed exhaust restriction, and
sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing with the
engine's exhaust before sampling. The crankcase exhaust tube shall extend into the
free stream of exhaust to avoid boundary-layer effects and to promote mixing. The
crankcase exhaust tube's outlet may orient in any direction relative to the raw exhaust
flow.

7.2. Test Cycles
7.2.1. Transient Test Cycle WHTC
The transient test cycle WHTC is listed in Appendix 1 as a second-by-second sequence of
normalized speed and torque values. In order to perform the test on an engine test cell, the
normalized values shall be converted to the actual values for the individual engine under
test based on the engine-mapping curve. The conversion is referred to as denormalization,
and the test cycle so developed as the reference cycle of the engine to be tested. With
those references speed and torque values, the cycle shall be run on the test cell, and the
actual speed, torque and power values shall be recorded. In order to validate the test run, a
regression analysis between reference and actual speed, torque and power values shall be
conducted upon completion of the test.
For calculation of the brake specific emissions, the actual cycle work shall be calculated by
integrating actual engine power over the cycle. For cycle validation, the actual cycle work
shall be within prescribed limits of the reference cycle work.
For the gaseous pollutants, continuous sampling (raw or dilute exhaust gas) or batch
sampling (dilute exhaust gas) may be used. The particulate sample shall be diluted with a
conditioned diluent (such as ambient air), and collected on a single suitable filter. The
WHTC is shown schematically in Figure 3.
Figure 3
WHTC Test Cycle

7.3. General Test Sequence
The following flow chart outlines the general guidance that should be followed during
testing. The details of each step are described in the relevant Paragraphs. Deviations from
the guidance are permitted where appropriate, but the specific requirements of the relevant
Paragraphs are mandatory.
For the WHTC, the test procedure consists of a cold start test following either natural or
forced cool-down of the engine, a hot soak period and a hot start test.
For the WHSC, the test procedure consists of a hot start test following engine
preconditioning at WHSC mode 9.

7.4. Engine Mapping and Reference Cycle
Pre-test engine measurements, pre-test engine performance checks and pre-test system
calibrations shall be made prior to the engine mapping procedure in line with the general
test sequence shown in Paragraph 7.3.
As basis for WHTC and WHSC reference cycle generation, the engine shall be mapped
under full load operation for determining the speed vs. maximum torque and speed vs.
maximum power curves. The mapping curve shall be used for denormalizing engine speed
(Paragraph 7.4.6.) and engine torque (Paragraph 7.4.7.).
7.4.1. Engine Warm-Up
The engine shall be warmed up between 75% and 100% of its maximum power or
according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering judgment.
Towards the end of the warm up it shall be operated in order to stabilize the engine coolant
and lube oil temperatures to within ±2% of its mean values for at least 2min or until the
engine thermostat controls engine temperature.
7.4.2. Determination of the Mapping Speed Range
The minimum and maximum mapping speeds are defined as follows:
Minimum mapping speed
Maximum mapping speed
= idle speed
= n x 1.02 or speed where full load torque drops off to zero,
whichever is smaller.
7.4.3. Engine Mapping Curve
When the engine is stabilized according to Paragraph 7.4.1., the engine mapping shall be
performed according to the following procedure.
(a)
(b)
(c)
The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed;
The engine shall be operated with maximum operator demand at minimum mapping
speed;
The engine speed shall be increased at an average rate of 8 ± 1 min /s from
minimum to maximum mapping speed, or at a constant rate such that it
takes 4 to 6min to sweep from minimum to maximum mapping speed. Engine speed
and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least one point per second.
When selecting option (b) in Paragraph 7.4.7. for determining negative reference torque, the
mapping curve may directly continue with minimum operator demand from maximum to
minimum mapping speed.

Figure 4
Definition of Test Speeds
Figure 5
Definition of n

7.5. Pre-Test Procedures
7.5.1. Installation of the Measurement Equipment
The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. The tailpipe shall be
connected to the full flow dilution system, if used.
7.5.2. Preparation of Measurement Equipment for Sampling
The following steps shall be taken before emission sampling begins:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Leak checks shall be performed within 8h prior to emission sampling according to
Paragraph 9.3.4.;
For batch sampling, clean storage media shall be connected, such as evacuated
bags;
All measurement instruments shall be started according to the instrument
manufacturer's instructions and good engineering judgment;
Dilution systems, sample pumps, cooling fans, and the data-collection system shall
be started;
The sample flow rates shall be adjusted to desired levels, using bypass flow, if
desired;
Heat exchangers in the sampling system shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled to within
their operating temperature ranges for a test;
Heated or cooled components such as sample lines, filters, coolers, and pumps shall
be allowed to stabilize at their operating temperatures;
Exhaust dilution system flow shall be switched on at least 10min before a test
sequence;
Any electronic integrating devices shall be zeroed or re-zeroed, before the start of any
test interval.
7.5.3. Checking the Gas Analyzers
Gas analyzer ranges shall be selected. Emission analyzers with automatic or manual range
switching are permitted. During the test cycle, the range of the emission analyzers shall not
be switched. At the same time the gains of an analyzer's analogue operational amplifier(s)
may not be switched during the test cycle.
Zero and span response shall be determined for all analyzers using internationally-traceable
gases that meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.3.3. FID analyzers shall be spanned on a
carbon number basis of one (C1).

7.6.3. Hot Soak Period
Immediately upon completion of the cold start test, the engine shall be conditioned for the
hot start test using a 10 ± 1min hot soak period.
7.6.4. Hot Start Test
The engine shall be started at the end of the hot soak period as defined in Paragraph 7.6.3.
using the starting methods given in Paragraph 7.6.2.
7.6.5. Test Sequence
The test sequence of both cold start and hot start test shall commence at the start of the
engine. After the engine is running, cycle control shall be initiated so that engine operation
matches the first set point of the cycle.
The WHTC shall be performed according to the reference cycle as set out in Paragraph 7.4.
Engine speed and torque command set points shall be issued at 5Hz (10Hz recommended)
or greater. The set points shall be calculated by linear interpolation between the 1Hz set
points of the reference cycle. Actual engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least
once every second during the test cycle (1Hz), and the signals may be electronically filtered.
7.6.6. Collection of Emission Relevant Data
At the start of the test sequence, the measuring equipment shall be started, simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Start collecting or analyzing diluent, if a full flow dilution system is used;
Start collecting or analyzing raw or diluted exhaust gas, depending on the method
used;
Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the required temperatures
and pressures;
Start recording the exhaust gas mass flow rate, if raw exhaust gas analysis is used;
Start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.
If raw exhaust measurement is used, the emission concentrations ((NM) HC, CO and NO )
and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be measured continuously and stored with at least
2Hz on a computer system. All other data may be recorded with a sample rate of at least
1Hz. For analogue analyzers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration data may
be applied online or offline during the data evaluation.

7.7. WHSC Cycle Run
7.7.1. Preconditioning the Dilution System and the Engine
The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up in accordance with
Paragraph 7.4.1. After warm-up, the engine and sampling system shall be preconditioned by
operating the engine at mode 9 (see Paragraph 7.2.2., Table 1) for a minimum of 10min
while simultaneously operating the dilution system. Dummy particulate emissions samples
may be collected. Those sample filters need not be stabilized or weighed, and may be
discarded. Flow rates shall be set at the approximate flow rates selected for testing. The
engine shall be shut off after preconditioning.
7.7.2. Engine Starting
5 ± 1min after completion of preconditioning at mode 9 as described in Paragraph 7.7.1., the
engine shall be started according to the manufacturer's recommended starting procedure in
the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the dynamometer in
accordance with Paragraph 7.6.2.
7.7.3. Test Sequence
The test sequence shall commence after the engine is running and within 1min after engine
operation is controlled to match the first mode of the cycle (idle).
The WHSC shall be performed according to the order of test modes listed in Table 1 of
Paragraph 7.2.2.
7.7.4. Collection of Emission Relevant Data
At the start of the test sequence, the measuring equipment shall be started, simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Start collecting or analyzing diluent, if a full flow dilution system is used;
Start collecting or analyzing raw or diluted exhaust gas, depending on the method
used;
Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the required temperatures
and pressures;
Start recording the exhaust gas mass flow rate, if raw exhaust gas analysis is used;
Start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.
If raw exhaust measurement is used, the emission concentrations ((NM) HC, CO and NO )
and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be measured continuously and stored with at
least 2Hz on a computer system. All other data may be recorded with a sample rate of at
least 1Hz. For analogue analyzers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration data
may be applied online or offline during the data evaluation.

7.8.2. Verification of Proportional Sampling
For any proportional batch sample, such as a bag sample or PM sample, it shall be verified
that proportional sampling was maintained according to Paragraphs 7.6.7. and 7.7.5. Any
sample that does not fulfil the requirements shall be voided.
7.8.3. PM Conditioning and Weighing
The particulate filter shall be placed into covered or sealed containers or the filter holders
shall be closed, in order to protect the sample filters against ambient contamination. Thus
protected, the filter shall be returned to the weighing chamber. The filter shall be conditioned
for at least 1h, and then weighed according to Paragraph 9.4.5. The gross weight of the filter
shall be recorded.
7.8.4. Drift Verification
As soon as practical but no later than 30min after the test cycle is complete or during the
soak period, the zero and span responses of the gaseous analyzer ranges used shall be
determined. For the purpose of this Paragraph, test cycle is defined as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
For the WHTC: the complete sequence cold – soak – hot;
For the WHTC hot start test (Paragraph 6.6.): the sequence soak – hot;
For the multiple regeneration WHTC hot start test (Paragraph 6.6.): the total number
of hot start tests;
For the WHSC: the test cycle.
The following provisions apply for analyzer drift:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The pre-test zero and span and post-test zero and span responses may be directly
inserted into Equation 66 of Paragraph 8.6.1. without determining the drift;
If the drift between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 1% of full scale, the
measured concentrations may be used uncorrected or may be corrected for drift
according to Paragraph 8.6.1.;
If the drift difference between the pre-test and post-test results is equal to or greater
than 1% of full scale, the test shall be voided or the measured concentrations shall be
corrected for drift according to Paragraph 8.6.1.
7.8.5. Analysis of Gaseous Bag Sampling
As soon as practical, the following shall be performed:
(a)
(b)
Gaseous bag samples shall be analyzed no later than 30min after the hot start test is
complete or during the soak period for the cold start test;
Background samples shall be analyzed no later than 60min after the hot start test is
complete.

Table 2
Regression Line Tolerances for the WHTC
Speed Torque Power
Standard error of
estimate (SEE) of y on x
Slope of the regression
line, a
Coefficient of
determination, r²
y intercept of the
regression line, a
maximum 5% of
maximum test speed
maximum 10% of
maximum engine torque
0.95 to 1.03 0.83 - 1.03 0.89 - 1.03
maximum 10% of
maximum engine power
minimum 0.970 minimum 0.850 minimum 0.910
maximum 10% of idle
speed
±20Nm or ±2% of
maximum torque
whichever is greater
±4kW or ±2% of
maximum power
whichever is greater
Table 3
Regression Line Tolerances for the WHSC
Speed Torque Power
Standard error of
estimate (SEE) of y on x
Slope of the regression
line, a
Coefficient of
determination, r²
y intercept of the
regression line, a
maximum 1% of
maximum test speed
maximum 2% of
maximum engine torque
0.99 to 1.01 0.98 - 1.02 0.98 - 1.02
maximum 2% of
maximum engine power
minimum 0.990 minimum 0.950 minimum 0.950
maximum 1% of
maximum test speed
±20Nm or ±2% of
maximum torque
whichever is greater
±4kW or ±2% of
maximum power
whichever is greater
For regression purposes only, point omissions are permitted where noted in Table 4 before
doing the regression calculation. However, those points shall not be omitted for the
calculation of cycle work and emissions. Point omission may be applied to the whole or to
any part of the cycle.

8. EMISSION CALCULATION
The final test result shall be rounded in one step to the number of places to the right of the
decimal point indicated by the applicable emission standard plus one additional significant
figure, in accordance with ASTM E 29-06B. No rounding of intermediate values leading to
the final break-specific emission result is permitted.
Calculation of hydrocarbons and/or non-methane hydrocarbons is based on the following
molar carbon/hydrogen/oxygen ratios (C/H/O) of the fuel:
CH O for diesel (B7),
CH O for ethanol for dedicated C.I. engines (ED95),
CH O for petrol (E10),
CH O for ethanol (E85),
CH
for LPG (liquefied petroleum gas),
CH for NG (natural gas) and biomethane.
Examples of the calculation procedures are given in Appendix 5 to this Annex.
Emissions calculation on a molar basis, in accordance with Annex 7 of GTR No. 11
concerning the exhaust emission test protocol for Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM), is
permitted with the prior agreement of the Type Approval Authority.
8.1. Dry/Wet Correction
If the emissions are measured on a dry basis, the measured concentration shall be
converted to a wet basis according to the following equation:
c = k x c (12)
where:
c
is the dry concentration inppm or % volume
k
is the dry/wet correction factor (k
, k
, or k
depending on respective equation
used)
8.1.1. Raw Exhaust Gas

q ⎞
⎜ 1.2442 × H + 111.19 × W × ⎟

q ⎟
k = ⎜1

× 1.008
q

⎜ 773.4 + 1.2442 × H + × k × 1,000 ⎟

q



(13)
or

8.1.2.
Diluted Exhaust Gas
k
⎡⎛ α × c ⎞ ⎤
= ⎢⎜1


− k ⎥ × 1.008
⎢⎣
⎝ 200 ⎠ ⎥⎦
(18)
or
k
⎡⎛
⎞⎤
⎢⎜
⎟⎥
⎢⎜
( 1−
k ) ⎟
= ⎥ x 1.008
⎢⎜
c ⎟
(19)
α × ⎥
⎢⎜
1

+

⎢⎣
⎝ 200 ⎠⎥⎦
with
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
⎥ ⎥ ⎤
1.608 × ⎢H
× ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
1 −
+ H ×
⎢⎣
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠⎦
k =
(20)
⎪⎧
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤⎪⎫
1,000 + ⎨1.608
× ⎢H
× ⎜ ⎟ + × ⎜ ⎟
1 −
H
⎥⎬
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠⎥⎦
⎪⎭
where:
α
is the molar hydrogen ratio of the fuel
c is the wet CO concentration, %
c is the dry CO concentration, %
H
H
is the diluent humidity, g water per kg dry air
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
D is the dilution factor (see Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.)
8.1.3. Diluent
k = (1 - k ) × 1.008 (21)
with
k
1.608 × H
=
1,000 + (1.608 × H
)
(22)
where:
H
is the diluent humidity, g water perkg dry air

The following equation shall be used:
⎛ ρ ⎞
⎜ 1 − ⎟
⎜ ρ ⎟
m = m x
⎜ ⎟
(25)
ρ
⎜ 1 −

⎝ ρ ⎠
with
p x 28.836
ρ = (26)
8.3144 x T
where:
m is the uncorrected particulate filter mass, mg
ρ
ρ
ρ
p
T
is the density of the air,kg/m
is the density of balance calibration weight,kg/m
is the density of the particulate sampling filter,kg/m
is the total atmospheric pressure, kPa
is the air temperature in the balance environment, K
28.836 is the molar mass of the air at reference humidity (282.5K), g/mol
8.3144 is the molar gas constant
The particulate sample mass m used in Paragraphs 8.4.3. and 8.5.3. shall be calculated as
follows:
m = m – m (27)
where:
m is the buoyancy corrected gross particulate filter mass, mg
m is the buoyancy corrected tare particulate filter mass, mg

8.4.1.2. Response Time
For the purpose of emissions calculation, the response time of any of the methods
described in Paragraphs 8.4.1.3. to 8.4.1.7. shall be equal to or less than the analyzer
response time of ≤10s, as required in Paragraph 9.3.5.
For the purpose of controlling of a partial flow dilution system, a faster response is required.
For partial flow dilution systems with online control, the response time shall be ≤0.3s. For
partial flow dilution systems with look ahead control based on a
pre-recorded test run, the response time of the exhaust flow measurement system shall
be ≤5s with a rise time of ≤1s. The system response time shall be specified by the
instrument manufacturer. The combined response time requirements for the exhaust gas
flow and partial flow dilution system are indicated in Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
8.4.1.3. Direct Measurement Method
Direct measurement of the instantaneous exhaust flow shall be done by systems, such as:
(a) Pressure differential devices, like flow nozzle, (details see ISO 5167);
(b)
(c)
Ultrasonic flowmeter;
Vortex flowmeter.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors which will impact emission value
errors. Such precautions include the careful installation of the device in the engine exhaust
system according to the instrument manufacturers' recommendations and to good
engineering practice. Especially, engine performance and emissions shall not be affected by
the installation of the device.
The flowmeters shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 9.2.
8.4.1.4. Air and Fuel Measurement Method
This involves measurement of the airflow and the fuel flow with suitable flowmeters.
The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas flow shall be as follows:
q = q + q (28)
where:
q is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate,kg/s
q is the instantaneous intake air mass flow rate,kg/s
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate,kg/s
The flowmeters shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 9.2., but shall be
accurate enough to also meet the linearity requirements for the exhaust gas flow.

8.4.1.6. Airflow and Air to Fuel Ratio Measurement Method
This involves exhaust mass calculation from the air flow and the air to fuel ratio.
The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass flow is as follows:


⎜ 1
q = q × 1+

(30)


⎝ A / F × λ ⎠
with
⎛ α ε ⎞
138.0 × ⎜1
+ − + γ ⎟
⎝ 4 2 ⎠
A / F =
(31)
12.011 + 1.00794 × α + 15.9994 × ε + 14.0067 × δ + 32.065 × γ
λi
=

⎜100-


c
COd

−4
2 × c
COd
× 10 ⎞

4
1−


× 10
⎞ ⎜
4 α 3,5×
c
CO2d ε δ ⎟

− c
HCw
× 10 ⎟ + ⎜ ×
− − ×
2
4
−4


c 10 2 2
⎠ ⎜
1
CO
×

⎜ +


3,5×
c
CO2d ⎠
⎛ α ε ⎞
4,764×
⎜1+
− + γ⎟
×
CO2d COd HCw
⎝ 4 2 ⎠
−4
−4
( c + c × 10 + c × 10 )
−4
( c + c × 10 )
CO2d
COd
(32)
where:
q is the instantaneous intake air mass flow rate,kg/s
A/F is the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio,kg/kg
λ
is the instantaneous excess air ratio
c is the dry CO concentration, %
c is the dry CO concentration,ppm
c is the wet HC concentration,ppm
Air flow meter and analyzers shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 9.2., and
the total system shall meet the linearity requirements for the exhaust gas flow of
Paragraph 9.2.
If an air to fuel ratio measurement equipment such as a zirconia type sensor is used for the
measurement of the excess air ratio, it shall meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.3.2.7.

8.4.2. Determination of the Gaseous Components
8.4.2.1. Introduction
The gaseous components in the raw exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for
testing shall be measured with the measurement and sampling systems described in
Paragraph 9.3. and Appendix 2 to this Annex. The data evaluation is described in
Paragraph 8.4.2.2.
Two calculation procedures are described in Paragraphs 8.4.2.3. and 8.4.2.4., which are
equivalent for the reference fuel of Annex 5. The procedure in Paragraph 8.4.2.3. is more
straightforward, since it uses tabulated u values for the ratio between component and
exhaust gas density. The procedure in Paragraph 8.4.2.4. is more accurate for fuel qualities
that deviate from the specifications in Annex 5, but requires elementary analysis of the fuel
composition.
8.4.2.2. Data Evaluation
The emission relevant data shall be recorded and stored in accordance with
Paragraph 7.6.6.
For calculation of the mass emission of the gaseous components, the traces of the recorded
concentrations and the trace of the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be time aligned by the
transformation time as defined in Paragraph 3.1. Therefore, the response time of the
exhaust gas mass flow system and each gaseous emissions analyzer shall be determined
according to Paragraphs 8.4.1.2. and 9.3.5., respectively, and recorded.
8.4.2.3. Calculation of Mass Emission Based on Tabulated Values
The mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous
mass emissions from the raw concentrations of the pollutants and the exhaust gas mass
flow, aligned for the transformation time as determined in accordance with
Paragraph 8.4.2.2., integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle, and multiplying the
integrated values with the u values from Table 5. If measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet
correction according to Paragraph 8.1. shall be applied to the instantaneous concentration
values before any further calculation is done.
For the calculation of NO , the mass emission shall be multiplied, where applicable, with the
humidity correction factor k , or k , as determined according to Paragraph 8.2.

8.4.2.4. Calculation of Mass Emission Based on Exact Equations
The mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous
mass emissions from the raw concentrations of the pollutants, the u values and the exhaust
gas mass flow, aligned for the transformation time as determined in accordance with
Paragraph 8.4.2.2. and integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle. If measured on
a dry basis, the dry/wet correction according to Paragraph 8.1. shall be applied to the
instantaneous concentration values before any further calculation is done.
For the calculation of NO , the mass emission shall be multiplied with the humidity
correction factor k , or k , as determined according to Paragraph 8.2.
The following equation shall be applied:
1
m = ∑ u × c × q × (in g/test) (37)
f
where:
u is calculated from Equation 38 or 39
c is the instantaneous concentration of the component in the exhaust gas,ppm
q is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow,kg/s
f
n
is the data sampling rate,Hz
is the number of measurements
The instantaneous u values shall be calculated as follows:
u
= M
/(M × 1,000)
(38)
or
u

/(ρ × 1,000)
(39)
with
ρ
= M
/22.414
(40)
where:
M
is the molar mass of the gas component, g/mol (see Appendix 5 to this Annex)
M
ρ
ρ
is the instantaneous molar mass of the exhaust gas, g/mol
is the density of the gas component,kg/m
is the instantaneous density of the exhaust gas,kg/m

8.4.3.2. Calculation of Mass Emission
Depending on system design, the mass of particulates (g/test) shall be calculated by either
of the methods in Paragraph 8.4.3.2.1. or 8.4.3.2.2. after buoyancy correction of the
particulate sample filter according to Paragraph 8.3.
8.4.3.2.1. Calculation Based on Sample Ratio
m = m /(r × 1,000) (43)
where:
m
r
is the particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg
is the average sample ratio over the test cycle
with
m m
r = ×
(44)
m m
where:
m
is the sample mass over the cycle,kg
m
is the total exhaust mass flow over the cycle,kg
m
is the mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters,kg
m
is the mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel,kg
In case of the total sampling type system, m
and m
are identical.
8.4.3.2.2.
Calculation Based on Dilution Ratio
(45)
where:
m
is the particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg
m is the mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters,kg
m is the mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle,kg

The complete test set up is schematically shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7
Scheme of Full Flow Measurement System
8.5.1. Determination of the Diluted Exhaust Gas Flow
8.5.1.1. Introduction
For calculation of the emissions in the diluted exhaust gas, it is necessary to know the
diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate. The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle
(kg/test) shall be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the
corresponding calibration data of the flow measurement device (V for PDP, K for CFV, C
for SSV) by one of the methods described in Paragraphs 8.5.1.2. to 8.5.1.4. If the total
sample flow of particulates (m ) exceeds 0.5% of the total CVS flow (m ), the CVS flow
shall be corrected for m or the particulate sample flow shall be returned to the CVS prior
to the flow measuring device.

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous
mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the
instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
m = 1.293 × Δt × K × p /T (52)
where:
Δt
is the time interval, s
8.5.1.4. SSV-CVS System
The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle shall be as follows, if the temperature of the
diluted exhaust is kept within ± 11K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:
m = 1.293 x Q (53)
with
( r − r )


⎞⎤
⎢ 1
⎜ 1
Q = A d C p × ×
×
⎟⎥



(54)

T


1 − r × r


where:
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
A is 0.006111 in SI units of ⎜ m ⎟⎜
K ⎟⎛
1
⎟ ⎞

⎜ ⎟⎜

⎝ min ⎠⎜
kPa ⎟⎝
mm ⎠
⎝ ⎠
d
C
p
T
r
r
is the diameter of the SSV throat, m
is the discharge coefficient of the SSV
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, K
is the ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute static pressure,
1 −
Δp −
p
is the ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d, to the inlet pipe inner diameter D

For the calculation of NO , the mass emission shall be multiplied, if applicable, with the
humidity correction factor k , or k , as determined according to Paragraph 8.2.
The u values are given in Table 6. For calculating the u values, the density of the diluted
exhaust gas has been assumed to be equal to air density. Therefore, the u values are
identical for single gas components, but different for HC.
Table 6
Diluted Exhaust Gas u Values and Component Densities
Gas
NO
CO
HC
CO
O
CH
Fuel
ρ
ρ
[kg/m ]
2.053
1.250
1.9636
1.4277
0.716
u
Diesel (B7)
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000483
0.001519
0.001104 0.000553
Ethanol (ED95)
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000770
0.001519
0.001104 0.000553
CNG
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000517
0.001519
0.001104 0.000553
Propane
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000507
0.001519
0.001104 0.000553
Butane
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000501
0.001519
0.001104 0.000553
LPG
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000505
0.001519
0.001104 0.000553
Petrol (E10)
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000499
0.001519
0.001104 0.000554
Ethanol (E85)
1.293
0.001588
0.000967
0.000722
0.001519
0.001104 0.000554
Alternatively, the u values may be calculated using the exact calculation method generally
described in Paragraph 8.4.2.4., as follows:
M
u =
(57)
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
M x ⎜1
− ⎟ + M x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠
where:
M is the molar mass of the gas component, g/mol (see Appendix 5 to this Annex)
M
M
is the molar mass of the exhaust gas, g/mol
is the molar mass of the diluent = 28.965g/mol
D is the dilution factor (see Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.)

The stoichiometric factor shall be calculated as follows:
1
F = 100 ×
(61)
α ⎛ α ⎞
1 + + 3.76 × ⎜1
+ ⎟
2 ⎝ 4 ⎠
where:
α
is the molar hydrogen ratio of the fuel (H/C)
Alternatively, if the fuel composition is not known, the following stoichiometric factors may
be used:
F (diesel) = 13.4
F (LPG) = 11.6
F (NG) = 9.5
F (E10) = 13.3
F (E85) = 11.5
8.5.2.3.3. Systems with Flow Compensation
For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be determined
by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the instantaneous values
over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied directly to the instantaneous
concentration value. The following equation shall be applied:
[( m × c × u )] − [( m × c × ( 1 − 1/ D)
)]
m = ∑ × u
(62)
where:
c is the concentration of the component measured in the diluted exhaust gas,ppm
c
is the concentration of the component measured in the diluent,ppm
m is the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas,kg
m
is the total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle,kg
u is the tabulated value from Table 6
D
is the dilution factor

8.6. General Calculations
8.6.1. Drift Correction
With respect to drift verification in Paragraph 7.8.4., the corrected concentration value shall
be calculated as follows:
2 x c − ( c − c )
( ) ( )⎟ ⎟ ⎞
c − c − c − c


c = c + ( c − c ) ⎜
(66)

where:
c is the reference concentration of the zero gas (usually zero),ppm
c is the reference concentration of the span gas,ppm
c is the pre-test analyzer concentration of the zero gas,ppm
c is the pre-test analyzer concentration of the span gas,ppm
c is the post-test analyzer concentration of the zero gas,ppm
c is the post-test analyzer concentration of the span gas,ppm
c is the sample gas concentration,ppm
Two sets of specific emission results shall be calculated for each component in accordance
with Paragraph 8.6.3., after any other corrections have been applied. One set shall be
calculated using uncorrected concentrations and another set shall be calculated using the
concentrations corrected for drift according to Equation 66.
Depending on the measurement system and calculation method used, the uncorrected
emissions results shall be calculated with Equations 36, 37, 56, 57 or 62, respectively. For
calculation of the corrected emissions, c in Equations 36, 37, 56, 57 or 62, respectively,
shall be replaced with c of Equation 66. If instantaneous concentration values c are
used in the respective equation, the corrected value shall also be applied as instantaneous
value c . In Equation 57, the correction shall be applied to both the measured and the
background concentration.
The comparison shall be made as a percentage of the uncorrected results. The difference
between the uncorrected and the corrected brake-specific emission values shall be within
±4% of the uncorrected brake-specific emission values or within ±4% of the respective limit
value, whichever is greater. If the drift is greater than 4%, the test shall be voided.
If drift correction is applied, only the drift-corrected emission results shall be used when
reporting emissions.

8.6.3. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The specific emissions e or e (g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual component
in the following ways depending on the type of test cycle.
For the WHSC, hot WHTC, or cold WHTC, the following equation shall be applied:
m
e = (69)
W
where:
m
is the mass emission of the component, g/test
W is the actual cycle work as determined according to Paragraph 7.8.6., kWh
For the WHTC, the final test result shall be a weighted average from cold start test and hot
start test according to the following equation:
( 0.1 4 × m ) + ( 0.86 × m )
( 0.14 × W ) + ( 0.86 × W )
e = (70)
where:
m is the mass emission of the component on the cold start test, g/test
m is the mass emission of the component on the hot start test, g/test
W
W
is the actual cycle work on the cold start test, kWh
is the actual cycle work on the hot start test, kWh
If periodic regeneration in accordance with Paragraph 6.6.2. applies, the regeneration
adjustment factors k or k shall be multiplied with or be added to, respectively, the specific
emissions result e as determined in Equations 69 and 70.
9. EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION AND VERIFICATION
This Annex does not contain details of flow, pressure, and temperature measuring
equipment or systems. Instead, only the linearity requirements of such equipment or
systems necessary for conducting an emissions test are given in Paragraph 9.2.
9.1. Dynamometer Specification
An engine dynamometer with adequate characteristics to perform the appropriate test cycle
described in Paragraphs 7.2.1. and 7.2.2. shall be used.
The instrumentation for torque and speed measurement shall allow the measurement
accuracy of the shaft power as needed to comply with the cycle validation criteria. Additional
calculations may be necessary. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be such
that the linearity requirements given in Paragraph 9.2., Table 7 are not exceeded.

9.2.1.2. General Requirements
9.2.1.3. Procedure
The measurement systems shall be warmed up according to the recommendations of the
instrument manufacturer. The measurement systems shall be operated at their specified
temperatures, pressures and flows.
The linearity verification shall be run for each normally used operating range with the
following steps:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
The instrument shall be set at zero by introducing a zero signal. For gas analyzers,
purified synthetic air (or nitrogen) shall be introduced directly to the analyzer port;
The instrument shall be spanned by introducing a span signal. For gas analyzers, an
appropriate span gas shall be introduced directly to the analyzer port;
The zero procedure of (a) shall be repeated;
The verification shall be established by introducing at least 10 reference values
(including zero) that are within the range from zero to the highest values expected
during emission testing. For gas analyzers, known gas concentrations in accordance
with Paragraph 9.3.3.2. shall be introduced directly to the analyzer port;
At a recording frequency of at least 1Hz, the reference values shall be measured and
the measured values recorded for 30s;
The arithmetic mean values over the 30s period shall be used to calculate the least
squares linear regression parameters according to Equation 11 in Paragraph 7.8.7;
(g) The linear regression parameters shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 9.2.,
Table 7;
(h)
The zero setting shall be rechecked and the verification procedure repeated, if
necessary.
9.3. Gaseous Emissions Measurement and Sampling System
9.3.1. Analyzer Specifications
9.3.1.1. General
The analyzers shall have a measuring range and response time appropriate for the
accuracy required to measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components under
transient and steady state conditions.
The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be on a level as to minimize
additional errors.

9.3.2.4. Hydrocarbon (HC) Analysis
The hydrocarbon analyzer shall be of the heated flame ionization detector (HFID) type with
detector, valves, pipework, etc. heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of 463K ± 10K
(190 ± 10°C). Optionally, for natural gas fuelled and PI engines, the hydrocarbon analyzer
may be of the non-heated flame ionization detector (FID) type depending upon the method
used (see Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraph A.2.1.3.).
9.3.2.5. Methane (CH ) and Non-Methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC) Analysis
The determination of the methane and non-methane hydrocarbon fraction shall be
performed with a heated non-methane cutter (NMC) and two FIDs as per Appendix 2 to this
Annex, Paragraph A.2.1.4. and Paragraph A.2.1.5. The concentration of the components
shall be determined as per Paragraph 8.6.2.
9.3.2.6. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO ) Analysis
Two measurement instruments are specified for NO measurement and either instrument
may be used provided it meets the criteria specified in Paragraphs 9.3.2.6.1. or 9.3.2.6.2.,
respectively. For the determination of system equivalency of an alternate measurement
procedure in accordance with Paragraph 5.1.1., only the CLD is permitted.
9.3.2.6.1. Chemiluminescent Detector (CLD)
If measured on a dry basis, the oxides of nitrogen analyzer shall be of the chemiluminescent
detector (CLD) or heated chemiluminescent detector (HCLD) type with a NO /NO converter.
If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 328K (55°C) shall be
used, provided the water quench check (see Paragraph 9.3.9.2.2.) is satisfied. For both
CLD and HCLD, the sampling path shall be maintained at a wall temperature of 328K to
473K (55°C to 200°C) up to the converter for dry measurement and up to the analyzer for
wet measurement.
9.3.2.6.2. Non-Dispersive Ultraviolet Detector (NDUV)
A non-dispersive ultraviolet (NDUV) analyzer shall be used to measure NO concentration. If
the NDUV analyzer measures only NO, a NO /NO converter shall be placed upstream of the
NDUV analyzer. The NDUV temperature shall be maintained to prevent aqueous
condensation, unless a sample dryer is installed upstream of the NO /NO converter, if used,
or upstream of the analyzer.

(b)
For dilute exhaust gas (optionally for raw exhaust gas)
Purified nitrogen
(Contamination ≤0.05ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤10ppm CO , ≤0.02ppm NO)
Purified oxygen
(Purity >99.5% vol O )
Hydrogen-helium mixture (FID burner fuel)
(40 ± 1% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤0.05ppm C1, ≤10ppm CO )
Purified synthetic air
(Contamination ≤0.05ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤10ppm CO , ≤0.02ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 20.5 - 21.5% vol.)
If gas bottles are not available, a gas purifier may be used, if contamination levels can be
demonstrated.
9.3.3.2. Calibration and Span Gases
Mixtures of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available, if
applicable. Other gas combinations are allowed provided the gases do not react with one
another. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be
recorded.
C H and purified synthetic air (see Paragraph 9.3.3.1.);
CO and purified nitrogen;
NO and purified nitrogen;
NO and purified synthetic air;
CO and purified nitrogen;
CH and purified synthetic air;
C H and purified synthetic air.
The true concentration of a calibration and span gas shall be within ±1% of the nominal
value, and shall be traceable to national or international standards. All concentrations of
calibration gas shall be given on a volume basis (volume % or volumeppm).

Alternatively, the system may be evacuated to a pressure of at least 20kPa vacuum (80kPa
absolute). After an initial stabilization period the pressure increase Δp (kPa/min) in the
system shall not exceed:
Δp = p/V × 0.005 × q (71)
where:
V
q
is the system volume, l
is the system flow rate, l/min
Another method is the introduction of a concentration step change at the beginning of the
sampling line by switching from zero to span gas. If for a correctly calibrated analyzer after
an adequate period of time the reading is ≤99% compared to the introduced concentration,
this points to a leakage problem that shall be corrected.
9.3.5. Response Time Check of the Analytical System
The system settings for the response time evaluation shall be exactly the same as during
measurement of the test run (i.e. pressure, flow rates, filter settings on the analyzers and all
other response time influences). The response time determination shall be done with gas
switching directly at the inlet of the sample probe. The gas switching shall be done in less
than 0.1s. The gases used for the test shall cause a concentration change of at least 60%
full scale (FS).
The concentration trace of each single gas component shall be recorded. The response
time is defined to be the difference in time between the gas switching and the appropriate
change of the recorded concentration. The system response time (t ) consists of the delay
time to the measuring detector and the rise time of the detector. The delay time is defined
as the time from the change (t ) until the response is 10% of the final reading (t ). The rise
time is defined as the time between 10% and 90% response of the final reading (t – t ).
For time alignment of the analyzer and exhaust flow signals, the transformation time is
defined as the time from the change (t ) until the response is 50% of the final reading (t ).
The system response time shall be ≤10 s with a rise time of ≤2.5s in accordance with
Paragraph 9.3.1.7. for all limited components (CO, NO , HC or NMHC) and all ranges used.
When using a NMC for the measurement of NMHC, the system response time may exceed
10s.

9.3.6.4. Adding of Oxygen
Via a T-fitting, oxygen or zero air shall be added continuously to the gas flow until the
concentration indicated is about 20% less than the indicated calibration concentration given
in Paragraph 9.3.6.2. (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
The indicated concentration (c) shall be recorded. The ozonator is kept deactivated
throughout the process.
9.3.6.5. Activation of the Ozonator
9.3.6.6. NO Mode
The ozonator shall be activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO concentration
down to about 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 9.3.6.2. The indicated concentration (d) shall be recorded (the analyzer is in the
NO mode).
The NO analyzer shall be switched to the NO mode so that the gas mixture (consisting of
NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. The indicated concentration (a)
shall be recorded (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
9.3.6.7. Deactivation of the Ozonator
9.3.6.8. NO Mode
The ozonator is now deactivated. The mixture of gases described in Paragraph 9.3.6.6.
passes through the converter into the detector. The indicated concentration (b) shall be
recorded (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
Switched to NO mode with the ozonator deactivated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air shall
be shut off. The NO reading of the analyzer shall not deviate by more than ± 5% from the
value measured according to Paragraph 9.3.6.2. (the analyzer is in the NO mode).
9.3.6.9. Test Interval
The efficiency of the converter shall be tested at least once per month.
9.3.6.10. Efficiency requirement
The efficiency of the converter E shall not be less than 95%.
If, with the analyzer in the most common range, the ozonator cannot give a reduction from
80% to 20% according to Paragraph 9.3.6.5., the highest range which will give the reduction
shall be used.

9.3.7.3. Oxygen Interference Check
For raw exhaust gas analyzers only, the oxygen interference check shall be performed
when introducing an analyzer into service and after major service intervals.
A measuring range shall be chosen where the oxygen interference check gases will fall in
the upper 50%. The test shall be conducted with the oven temperature set as required.
Oxygen interference check gas specifications are found in Paragraph 9.3.3.4.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The analyzer shall be set at zero;
The analyzer shall be spanned with the 0% oxygen blend for positive ignition engines.
Compression ignition engine instruments shall be spanned with the 21% oxygen
blend;
The zero response shall be rechecked. If it has changed by more than 0.5% of full
scale, steps (a) and (b) of this Paragraph shall be repeated;
The 5% and 10% oxygen interference check gases shall be introduced;
The zero response shall be rechecked. If it has changed by more than ±1% of full
scale, the test shall be repeated;
(f)
The oxygen interference E
shall be calculated for each mixture in step (d) as
follows:
E = (c - c) × 100/c (73)
with the analyzer response being
c × c c
c = ×
(74)
c c
where:
c is the reference HC concentration in step (b),ppm C
c is the reference HC concentration in step (d),ppm C
c is the full scale HC concentration in step (b),ppm C
c is the full scale HC concentration in step (d),ppm C
c
c
is the measured HC concentration in step (b),ppm C
is the measured HC concentration in step (d),ppm C
(g) The oxygen interference E shall be less than ±1.5% for all required oxygen
interference check gases prior to testing;
(h) If the oxygen interference E is greater than ±1.5%, corrective action may be taken
by incrementally adjusting the airflow above and below the manufacturer's
specifications, the fuel flow and the sample flow;
(i)
The oxygen interference shall be repeated for each new setting.

9.3.9.1. CO Analyzer Interference Check
Water and CO can interfere with the CO analyzer performance. Therefore, a CO span gas
having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the maximum operating range used
during testing shall be bubbled through water at room temperature and the analyzer
response recorded. The analyzer response shall not be more than 2% of the mean CO
concentration expected during testing.
Interference procedures for CO and H O may also be run separately. If the CO and H O
levels used are higher than the maximum levels expected during testing, each observed
interference value shall be scaled down by multiplying the observed interference by the ratio
of the maximum expected concentration value to the actual value used during this
procedure. Separate interference procedures concentrations of H O that are lower than the
maximum levels expected during testing may be run, but the observed H O interference
shall be scaled up by multiplying the observed interference by the ratio of the maximum
expected H O concentration value to the actual value used during this procedure. The sum
of the two scaled interference values shall meet the tolerance specified in this Paragraph.
9.3.9.2. NO Analyzer Quench Checks for CLD Analyzer
The two gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO and water vapour.
Quench responses to these gases are proportional to their concentrations, and therefore
require test techniques to determine the quench at the highest expected concentrations
experienced during testing. If the CLD analyzer uses quench compensation algorithms that
utilize H O and/or CO measurement instruments, quench shall be evaluated with these
instruments active and with the compensation algorithms applied.
9.3.9.2.1. CO Quench Check
A CO span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the maximum
operating range shall be passed through the NDIR analyzer and the CO value recorded
as A. It shall then be diluted approximately 50% with NO span gas and passed through the
NDIR and CLD, with the CO and NO values recorded as B and C, respectively. The CO
shall then be shut off and only the NO span gas be passed through the (H)CLD and the NO
value recorded as D.
The % quench shall be calculated as follows:
( C × A)
( D × A) − ( D × B)
⎡ ⎛
⎞⎤
E = ⎢1
− ⎜
⎟⎥
× 100
(77)
⎣ ⎝
⎠⎦
where:
A is the undiluted CO concentration measured with NDIR, %
B is the diluted CO concentration measured with NDIR, %
C
D
is the diluted NO concentration measured with (H)CLD,ppm
is the undiluted NO concentration measured with (H)CLD,ppm
Alternative methods of diluting and quantifying of CO and NO span gas values such as
dynamic mixing/blending are permitted with the approval of the Type Approval Authority.

9.3.9.3. NO Analyzer Quench Check for NDUV Analyzer
9.3.9.3.1. Procedure
Hydrocarbons and H O can positively interfere with a NDUV analyzer by causing a
response similar to NO . If the NDUV analyzer uses compensation algorithms that utilize
measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously such
measurements shall be conducted to test the algorithms during the analyzer interference
verification.
The NDUV analyzer shall be started, operated, zeroed, and spanned according to the
instrument manufacturer's instructions. It is recommended to extract engine exhaust to
perform this verification. A CLD shall be used to quantify NO in the exhaust. The CLD
response shall be used as the reference value. Also HC shall be measured in the exhaust
with a FID analyzer. The FID response shall be used as the reference hydrocarbon value.
Upstream of any sample dryer, if used during testing, the engine exhaust shall be
introduced into the NDUV analyzer. Time shall be allowed for the analyzer response to
stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the transfer line and to account for
analyzer response. While all analyzers measure the sample's concentration, 30s of sampled
data shall be recorded, and the arithmetic means for the three analyzers calculated.
The CLD mean value shall be subtracted from the NDUV mean value. This difference shall
be multiplied by the ratio of the expected mean HC concentration to the HC concentration
measured during the verification, as follows:
( )
⎟ ⎞
⎜ ⎛ c
E = c − c ×
(82)
⎝ c ⎠
where:
c is the measured NO concentration with CLD,ppm
c is the measured NO concentration with NDUV,ppm
c
c
is the expected max. HC concentration,ppm
is the measured HC concentration,ppm
9.3.9.3.2. Maximum Allowable Quench
The combined HC and water quench shall not exceed 2% of the NO concentration
expected during testing.

9.3.11. Sampling for Dilute Gaseous Emissions, if Applicable
The exhaust pipe between the engine and the full flow dilution system shall conform to the
requirements laid down in Appendix 2 to this Annex. The gaseous emissions sample
probe(s) shall be installed in the dilution tunnel at a point where the diluent and exhaust gas
are well mixed, and in close proximity to the particulates sampling probe.
Sampling can generally be done in two ways:
(a)
(b)
The emissions are sampled into a sampling bag over the cycle and measured after
completion of the test; for HC, the sample bag shall be heated to 464 ±11K
(191 ±11°C), for NO , the sample bag temperature shall be above the dew point
temperature;
The emissions are sampled continuously and integrated over the cycle.
The background concentration shall be determined upstream of the dilution tunnel according
to (a) or (b), and shall be subtracted from the emissions concentration according to
Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.
9.4. Particulate Measurement and Sampling System
9.4.1. General Specifications
To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate dilution and sampling system, a
particulate sampling filter, a microgram balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled
weighing chamber, are required. The particulate sampling system shall be designed to
ensure a representative sample of the particulates proportional to the exhaust flow.
9.4.2. General Requirements of the Dilution System
The determination of the particulates requires dilution of the sample with filtered ambient air,
synthetic air or nitrogen (the diluent). The dilution system shall be set as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems;
Maintain the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas between 315K (42°C) and 325K
(52°C) within 20cm upstream or downstream of the filter holder(s);
The diluent temperature shall be between 293K and 325K (20°C to 42°C) in close
proximity to the entrance into the dilution tunnel;
The minimum dilution ratio shall be within the range of 5:1 to 7:1 and at least 2:1 for
the primary dilution stage based on the maximum engine exhaust flow rate;

9.4.4.2. Filter Size
The filter shall be circular with a nominal diameter of 47mm (tolerance of 46.50 ±0.6mm)
and an exposed diameter (filter stain diameter) of at least 38mm.
9.4.4.3. Filter Face Velocity
The face velocity through the filter shall be between 0.90 and 1.00 m/s with less than 5% of
the recorded flow values exceeding this range. If the total PM mass on the filter exceeds
400µg, the filter face velocity may be reduced to 0.50 m/s. The face velocity shall be
calculated as the volumetric flow rate of the sample at the pressure upstream of the filter
and temperature of the filter face, divided by the filter's exposed area.
9.4.5. Weighing Chamber and Analytical Balance Specifications
The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as
dust, aerosol, or semi-volatile material) that could contaminate the particulate filters. The
weighing room shall meet the required specifications for at least 60 min before weighing
filters.
9.4.5.1. Weighing Chamber Conditions
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned
and weighed shall be maintained to within 295K ± 1K (22°C ± 1°C) during all filter
conditioning and weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dew point of 282.5K ± 1K
(9.5°C ± 1°C).
If the stabilization and weighing environments are separate, the temperature of the
stabilization environment shall be maintained at a tolerance of 295K ± 3K (22°C ± 3°C), but
the dew point requirement remains at 282.5K ± 1K (9.5°C ± 1°C).
Humidity and ambient temperature shall be recorded.
9.4.5.2. Reference Filter Weighing
At least two unused reference filters shall be weighed within 12h of, but preferably at the
same time as the sample filter weighing. They shall be the same material as the sample
filters. Buoyancy correction shall be applied to the weighings.
If the weight of any of the reference filters changes between sample filter weighings by more
than 10µg, all sample filters shall be discarded and the emissions test repeated.
The reference filters shall be periodically replaced based on good engineering judgement,
but at least once per year.

9.4.6. Special Requirements for the Partial Flow Dilution System
The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to extract a proportional raw exhaust
sample from the engine exhaust stream, thus responding to excursions in the exhaust
stream flow rate. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio or the sampling ratio r or r be
determined such that the accuracy requirements of Paragraph 9.4.6.2. are fulfilled.
9.4.6.1. System Response Time
For the control of a partial flow dilution system, a fast system response is required. The
transformation time for the system shall be determined by the procedure in
Paragraph 9.4.6.6. If the combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement
(see Paragraph 8.4.1.2.) and the partial flow system is ≤0.3s, online control shall be used. If
the transformation time exceeds 0.3s, look ahead control based on a
pre-recorded test run shall be used. In this case, the combined rise time shall be ≤1s and
the combined delay time ≤10s.
The total system response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the
particulates, q , proportional to the exhaust mass flow. To determine the proportionality, a
regression analysis of q versus q shall be conducted on a minimum 5Hz data
acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:
(a)
The coefficient of determination r of the linear regression between q
and q
shall not be less than 0.95;
(b) The standard error of estimate of q on q shall not exceed 5% of q maximum;
(c) q intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ±2% of q maximum.
Look-ahead control is required if the combined transformation times of the particulate
system, t and of the exhaust mass flow signal, t are >0.3s. In this case, a
pre-test shall be run, and the exhaust mass flow signal of the pre-test be used for controlling
the sample flow into the particulate system. A correct control of the partial dilution system is
obtained, if the time trace of q of the pre-test, which controls q , is shifted by a
"look-ahead" time of t + t .
For establishing the correlation between q and q the data taken during the actual test
shall be used, with q time aligned by t relative to q (no contribution from t to the
time alignment). That is, the time shift between q and q is the difference in their
transformation times that were determined in Paragraph 9.4.6.6.

(d)
A tracer gas shall be fed into the exhaust transfer tube TT. This tracer gas may be a
component of the exhaust gas, like CO or NO . After dilution in the tunnel the tracer
gas component shall be measured. This shall be carried out for five dilution ratios
between 3 and 50. The accuracy of the sample flow shall be determined from the
dilution ratio r :
9.4.6.4. Carbon Flow Check
q = q /r (84)
The accuracies of the gas analyzers shall be taken into account to guarantee the
accuracy of q .
A carbon flow check using actual exhaust is strongly recommended for detecting
measurement and control problems and verifying the proper operation of the partial flow
system. The carbon flow check should be run at least each time a new engine is installed, or
something significant is changed in the test cell configuration.
The engine shall be operated at peak torque load and speed or any other steady state mode
that produces 5% or more of CO . The partial flow sampling system shall be operated with a
dilution factor of about 15 to 1.
If a carbon flow check is conducted, the procedure given in Appendix 4 shall be applied. The
carbon flow rates shall be calculated according to Equations 112 to 114 in Appendix 4 to
this Annex. All carbon flow rates should agree to within 3%.
9.4.6.5. Pre-Test Check
A pre-test check shall be performed within 2h before the test run in the following way.
The accuracy of the flowmeters shall be checked by the same method as used for
calibration (see Paragraph 9.4.6.2.) for at least two points, including flow values of q that
correspond to dilution ratios between 5 and 15 for the q value used during the test.
If it can be demonstrated by records of the calibration procedure under Paragraph 9.4.6.2.
that the flowmeter calibration is stable over a longer period of time, the pre-test check may
be omitted.
9.4.6.6. Determination of the Transformation Time
The system settings for the transformation time evaluation shall be exactly the same as
during measurement of the test run. The transformation time shall be determined by the
following method.
An independent reference flowmeter with a measurement range appropriate for the probe
flow shall be put in series with and closely coupled to the probe. This flowmeter shall have a
transformation time of less than 100ms for the flow step size used in the response time
measurement, with flow restriction sufficiently low as to not affect the dynamic performance
of the partial flow dilution system, and consistent with good engineering practice.

9.5.2.1. Data Analysis
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum six settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
airflow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
q T 101.3
V = × ×
(85)
n 273 p
where:
q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273 K), m /s
T
p
n
is the temperature at pump inlet, K
is the absolute pressure at pump inlet, kPa
is the pump speed, rev/s
To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the
correlation function (X ) between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet to pump
outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:
X
1 Δp
= ×
(86)
n p
where:
Δp
p
is the pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, kPa
is the absolute outlet pressure at pump outlet, kPa
A linear least-square fit shall be performed to generate the calibration equation as follows:
V = D − m × X
(87)
D and m
are the intercept and slope, respectively, describing the regression lines.
For a CVS system with multiple speeds, the calibration curves generated for the different
pump flow ranges shall be approximately parallel, and the intercept values (D ) shall
increase as the pump flow range decreases.
The calculated values from the equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured value of V .
Values of m will vary from one pump to another. Particulate influx over time will cause the
pump slip to decrease, as reflected by lower values for m. Therefore, calibration shall be
performed at pump start-up, after major maintenance, and if the total system verification
indicates a change of the slip rate.

9.5.4.1. Data analysis
The airflow rate (Q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 16 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
discharge coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as follows:
Q
C =
(89)

1

⎞⎤
⎢ ( ) ⎜ 1
d × p × × r − r ×
⎟⎥
⎢T

⎟⎥

⎝ 1 − r × r ⎠⎦
where:
Q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, K
d
is the diameter of the SSV throat, m
r is the ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute static pressure =
r
is the ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d , to the inlet pipe inner diameter D
To determine the range of subsonic flow, C shall be plotted as a function of Reynolds
number Re, at the SSV throat. The Re at the SSV throat shall be calculated with the
following equation:
Q
Re = A ×
(90)
d × μ
with
b × T
μ =
(91)
S + T
where:
⎛ 1 ⎞⎛
min ⎞⎛
mm ⎞
A is 25.55152 in SI units of ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜

⎝ m ⎠⎝
s ⎠⎝
m ⎠
Q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
1 −
Δp
p
d
μ
b
S
is the diameter of the SSV throat, m
is the absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas,kg/ms
is 1.458 x 10 (empirical constant),kg/ms K
is 110.4 (empirical constant), K

10. PARTICLE NUMBER MEASUREMENT TEST PROCEDURE
10.1. Sampling
Particle number emissions shall be measured by continuous sampling from either a partial
flow dilution system, as described in Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraph A.2.2.1. and
A.2.2.2. or a full flow dilution system as described in Appendix 2 to this Annex,
Paragraph A.2.2.3. and A.2.2.4.
10.1.1. Diluent Filtration
Diluent used for both the primary and, where applicable, secondary dilution of the exhaust in
the dilution system shall be passed through filters meeting the High-Efficiency Particulate Air
(HEPA) filter requirements defined in Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraphs A.2.2.2. or
A.2.2.4. The diluent may optionally be charcoal scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA
filter to reduce and stabilize the hydrocarbon concentrations in the diluent. It is
recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA filter and
after the charcoal scrubber, if used.
10.2. Compensating for Particle Number Sample Flow – Full Flow Dilution Systems
To compensate for the mass flow extracted from the dilution system for particle number
sampling the extracted mass flow (filtered) shall be returned to the dilution system.
Alternatively, the total mass flow in the dilution system may be mathematically corrected for
the particle number sample flow extracted. Where the total mass flow extracted from the
dilution system for the sum of particle number sampling and particulate mass sampling is
less than 0.5% of the total dilute exhaust gas flow in the dilution tunnel (m ) this correction,
or flow return, may be neglected.
10.3. Compensating for Particle Number Sample Flow – Partial Flow Dilution Systems
10.3.1. For partial flow dilution systems the mass flow extracted from the dilution system for particle
number sampling shall be accounted for in controlling the proportionality of sampling. This
shall be achieved either by feeding the particle number sample flow back into the dilution
system upstream of the flow measuring device or by mathematical correction as outlined in
Paragraph 10.3.2. In the case of total sampling type partial flow dilution systems, the mass
flow extracted for particle number sampling shall also be corrected for in the particulate
mass calculation as outlined in Paragraph 10.3.3.

10.3.3. Correction of PM Measurement
When a particle number sample flow is extracted from a total sampling partial flow dilution
system, the mass of particulates (m ) calculated in Paragraph 8.4.3.2.1. or 8.4.3.2.2. shall
be corrected as follows to account for the flow extracted. This correction is required even
where filtered extracted flow is fed back into the partial flow dilution systems.
m
m
= m ×
(94)
(m − m )
where:
m = mass of particulates corrected for extraction of particle number sample flow,
g/test,
m = mass of particulates determined according to Paragraph 8.4.3.2.1. or 8.4.3.2.2.,
g/test,
m = total mass of diluted exhaust gas passing through the dilution tunnel,kg,
m
= total mass of diluted exhaust gas extracted from the dilution tunnel for particle
number sampling,kg.
10.3.4. Proportionality of Partial Flow Dilution Sampling
For particle number measurement, exhaust mass flow rate, determined according to any of
the methods described in Paragraphs 8.4.1.3. to 8.4.1.7., is used for controlling the partial
flow dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The quality
of proportionality shall be checked by applying a regression analysis between sample and
exhaust flow in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
10.4. Determination of Particle Numbers
10.4.1. Time Alignment
For partial flow dilution systems residence time in the particle number sampling and
measurement system shall be accounted for by time aligning the particle number signal with
the test cycle and the exhaust gas mass flow rate according to the procedure in
Paragraph 8.4.2.2. The transformation time of the particle number sampling and
measurement system shall be determined according to Paragraph A.8.1.3.7. of Appendix 8
to this Annex.

10.4.3. Determination of Particle Numbers with a Full Flow Dilution System
Where particle numbers are sampled using a full flow dilution system according to the
procedures set out in Paragraph 8.5., the number of particles emitted over the test cycle
shall be calculated by means of the following equation:
m
N = .k.c .f .10
(97)
1.293
where:
N
m
k
= number of particles emitted over the test cycle,
= total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle calculated according to any one of the
methods described in Paragraphs 8.5.1.2. to 8.5.1.4.,kg/test,
= calibration factor to correct the particle number counter measurements to the level
of the reference instrument where this is not applied internally within the particle
number counter. Where the calibration factor is applied internally within the
particle number counter, a value of 1 shall be used for k in the above equation,
c = average corrected concentration of particles from the diluted exhaust gas
corrected to standard conditions (273.2K and 101.33kPa), particles per cubic
centimetre,
f
c
= mean particle concentration reduction factor of the volatile particle remover
specific to the dilution settings used for the test.
shall be calculated from the following equation:

c
c = (98)
n
where:
c
n
= a discrete measurement of particle concentration in the diluted gas exhaust from
the particle counter, corrected for coincidence and to standard conditions (273.2K
and 101.33kPa), particles per cubic centimetre,
= number of particle concentration measurements taken over the duration of the
test.

10.4.4.3. Weighted Average WHTC Test Result
For the WHTC, the final test result shall be a weighted average from cold start and hot start
(including periodic regeneration where relevant) tests calculated using one of the following
equations:
(a)
In the case of multiplicative regeneration adjustment, or engines without periodically
regenerating after-treatment



(0.14 × N ) + (0.86 × N )
e = k

(100)
⎝ (0.14 × W ) + (0.86 × W ) ⎠
(b)
In the case of additive regeneration adjustment



(0.14 × N ) + (0.86 × N )
e = k +

(101)
⎝ (0.14 × W ) + (0.86 × W ) ⎠
where:
N = is the total number of particles emitted over the WHTC cold test cycle,
N = is the total number of particles emitted over the WHTC hot test cycle,
W = is the actual cycle work over the WHTC cold test cycle according to
Paragraph 7.8.6., in kWh,
W = is the actual cycle work over the WHTC hot test cycle according to
Paragraph 7.8.6., in kWh,
k
= is the regeneration adjustment, according to Paragraph 6.6.2., or in the
case of engines without periodically regenerating after-treatment k = 1
10.4.4.4. Rounding of Final Results
The final WHSC and weighted average WHTC test results shall be rounded in one step to
three significant figures in accordance with ASTM E 29–06B. No rounding of intermediate
values leading to the final brake specific emission result is permissible.
10.5. Determination of Particle Number Background
10.5.1. At the engine manufacturer’s request, dilution tunnel background particle number
concentrations may be sampled, prior to or after the test, from a point downstream of the
particle and hydrocarbon filters into the particle number measurement system, to determine
the tunnel background particle concentrations.
10.5.2. Subtraction of particle number tunnel background concentrations shall not be allowed for
type approval, but may be used at the manufacturer’s request, with the prior approval of the
Type Approval Authority , for conformity of production testing, if it can be demonstrated that
tunnel background contribution is significant, which can then be subtracted from the values
measured in the diluted exhaust.







ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 2
MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
A.2.1.
A.2.1.1.
A.2.1.2.
This Appendix contains the basic requirements and the general descriptions of the sampling
and analyzing systems for gaseous and particulate emissions measurement. Since various
configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with the figures of this
Appendix is not required. Components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, flow
devices and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the
functions of the component systems. Other components which are not needed to maintain
the accuracy on some systems may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good
engineering judgement.
Analytical System
Description of the Analytical System
Analytical system for the determination of the gaseous emissions in the raw exhaust gas
(Figure 9) or in the diluted exhaust gas (Figure 10) are described based on the use of:
(a)
(b)
(c)
HFID or FID analyzer for the measurement of hydrocarbons;
NDIR analyzers for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide;
HCLD or CLD analyzer for the measurement of the oxides of nitrogen.
The sample for all components should be taken with one sampling probe and internally split
to the different analyzers. Optionally, two sampling probes located in close proximity may be
used. Care shall be taken that no unintended condensation of exhaust components
(including water and sulphuric acid) occurs at any point of the analytical system.
Figure 9
Schematic Flow Diagram of Raw Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, CO , NO , HC

SP2 Dilute Exhaust Gas HC Sampling Probe (Figure 10 Only)
The probe shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Be defined as the first 254mm to 762mm of the heated sampling line HSL1;
Have a 5mm minimum inside diameter;
Be installed in the dilution tunnel DT (Figure 15) at a point where the diluent and
exhaust gas are well mixed (i.e. approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of
the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel);
Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free
from the influence of any wakes or eddies;
(e) Be heated so as to increase the gas stream temperature to 463K ±10K
(190°C ± 10°C) at the exit of the probe, or to 385K ±10K (112°C ± 10°C) for positive
ignition engines;
(f)
SP3
Non-heated in case of FID measurement (cold).
Dilute Exhaust Gas CO, CO , NO Sampling Probe (Figure 10 Only)
The probe shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Be in the same plane as SP2;
Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free
from the influence of any wakes or eddies;
Be heated and insulated over its entire length to a minimum temperature of 328K
(55°C) to prevent water condensation.
HF1 Heated Pre-Filter (Optional)
The temperature shall be the same as HSL1.
HF2 Heated Filter
The filter shall extract any solid particles from the gas sample prior to the analyzer. The
temperature shall be the same as HSL1. The filter shall be changed as needed.

B Sample dryer (optional for NO measurement)
To cool and condense water from the exhaust sample. It is optional if the analyzer is free
from water vapour interference as determined in Paragraph 9.3.9.2.2. of this Annex. If water
is removed by condensation, the sample gas temperature or dew point shall be monitored
either within the water trap or downstream. The sample gas temperature or dew point shall
not exceed 280K (7°C). Chemical dryers are not allowed for removing water from the
sample.
BK Background Bag (Optional; Figure 10 Only)
For the measurement of the background concentrations.
BG Sample Bag (Optional; Figure 10 Only)
For the measurement of the sample concentrations.
A.2.1.4.
Non-Methane Cutter Method (NMC)
The cutter oxidizes all hydrocarbons except CH to CO and H O, so that by passing the
sample through the NMC only CH is detected by the HFID. In addition to the usual HC
sampling train (see Figures 9 and 10), a second HC sampling train shall be installed
equipped with a cutter as laid out in Figure 11. This allows simultaneous measurement of
total HC, CH and NMHC.
The cutter shall be characterized at or above 600K (327°C) prior to test work with respect to
its catalytic effect on CH and C H at H O values representative of exhaust stream
conditions. The dew point and O level of the sampled exhaust stream shall be known. The
relative response of the FID to CH and C H shall be determined in accordance with
Paragraph 9.3.8. of this Annex.
Figure 11
Schematic Flow Diagram of Methane Analysis with the NMC

Figure 12
Scheme of Partial Flow Dilution System (Total Sampling S Type)
With the fractional sampling system as shown in Figure 13, raw exhaust gas is transferred t
from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through the sampling probe SP and the
transfer tube TT. The
total flow through the tunnel is adjusted with the flow controller FC1
connected either to the diluent flow or to the suction blower for the total tunnel flow. The flow
controllerr FC1 may use q or q and q as command signals for the desired exhaust
split. The
sample flow
into DT iss the difference of the total flow andd the diluentt flow. The
diluent flow rate is measured withh the flow measurement device d FM1, the total flow
rate with
the flow measurement device FM2. The dilution ratio is calculated fromm these two flow rates.
From DT, a particulate samplee is taken with the particulate p sampling system (see
Figure 16).

The minimum inside diameter of f the probe tip shall be 4mm. 4 The minimum diameter ratio
between exhaust pipe
and probe shall be four.
When using probe type (a), an inertial pre-classifier (cyclone or impactor) with at 50% cut
point between 2.5 and 10 µm shall be installed immediately upstream of the filter holder.
Figure 14
Scheme of Hatted
Probe
TT Exhaust Transfer Tube
The transfer tube shall be as short as possible, but:
(a) Not more than 0.26 m in length, if insulated for 80% % of the total length, as measured
between the end of the probe andd the dilution stage;
or
(b)
Not more than
1 m in length, if heated
above 150°C for 90%
measured between the endd of the probe and the dilution stage.
of the total length, as
It shall be
equal to orr greater thann the probe diameter, but not more than 25mm in
diameter,
and exiting on the centreline of the dilution tunnel and pointing downstream.
With respect to point (a) above, insulation shall be done with material with a maximum
thermal conductivity of 0.05 W/mK with a radial insulation thicknesss corresponding to the
diameter of the probe.
FC1 Flow
Controllerr
A flow controller shall be used too control the
diluent floww through the pressure blower PB
and/or the suction blower SB. It may be connected to the exhaust flow sensor signals
specified in Paragraph 8.4.1. of this Annex. The flow controller may bee installed upstream or
downstream of the respective r blower. When
using a pressurized air supply, FC1 directly
controls the airflow.

PSP Particulate Sampling Probe (Fractional Sampling Type, Figure 13 Only)
The particulate sampling probe is the leading section of the particulate transfer tube PTT
(see Paragraph A.2.2.6.) and:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the diluent and exhaust gas are
well mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centreline approximately 10 tunnel diameters
downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel;
Shall be 8mm minimum inside diameter;
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct heating or
by diluent pre-heating, provided the diluent temperature does not exceed 325K (52°C)
prior to the introduction of the exhaust into the dilution tunnel;
May be insulated.
A.2.2.3.
Description of Full Flow Dilution System
A dilution system is described based upon the dilution of the total amount of raw exhaust
gas in the dilution tunnel DT using the CVS (constant volume sampling) concept, and is
shown in Figure 15.
The diluted exhaust gas flow rate shall be measured either with a positive displacement
pump (PDP), with a critical flow venturi (CFV) or with a subsonic venturi (SSV). A heat
exchanger (HE) or electronic flow compensation (EFC) may be used for proportional
particulate sampling and for flow determination. Since particulate mass determination is
based on the total diluted exhaust gas flow, it is not necessary to calculate the dilution ratio.
For subsequent collection of the particulates, a sample of the dilute exhaust gas shall be
passed to the double dilution particulate sampling system (see Figure 17). Although partly a
dilution system, the double dilution system is described as a modification of a particulate
sampling system, since it shares most of the parts with a typical particulate sampling
system.

PDP Positive Displacement Pump
The PDP meters total diluted exhaust flow from the number of the pump revolutions and the
pump displacement. The exhaust system backpressure shall not be artificially lowered by
the PDP or diluent inlet system. Static exhaust backpressure measured with the PDP
system operating shall remain within ±1.5kPa of the static pressure measured without
connection to the PDP at identical engine speed and load. The gas mixture temperature
immediately ahead of the PDP shall be within ±6K of the average operating temperature
observed during the test, when no flow compensation (EFC) is used. Flow compensation is
only permitted, if the temperature at the inlet to the PDP does not exceed 323K (50°C).
CFV Critical Flow Venturi
CFV measures total diluted exhaust flow by maintaining the flow at chocked conditions
(critical flow). Static exhaust backpressure measured with the CFV system operating shall
remain within ±1.5kPa of the static pressure measured without connection to the CFV at
identical engine speed and load. The gas mixture temperature immediately ahead of the
CFV shall be within ±11K of the average operating temperature observed during the test,
when no flow compensation (EFC) is used.
SSV Subsonic Venturi
SSV measures total diluted exhaust flow by using the gas flow function of a subsonic venturi
in dependence of inlet pressure and temperature and pressure drop between venturi inlet
and throat. Static exhaust backpressure measured with the SSV system operating shall
remain within ±1.5kPa of the static pressure measured without connection to the SSV at
identical engine speed and load. The gas mixture temperature immediately ahead of the
SSV shall be within ±11K of the average operating temperature observed during the test,
when no flow compensation (EFC) is used.
HE Heat Exchanger (Optional)
The heat exchanger shall be of sufficient capacity to maintain the temperature within the
limits required above. If EFC is used, the heat exchanger is not required.
EFC Electronic Flow Compensation (Optional)
If the temperature at the inlet to the PDP, CFV or SSV is not kept within the limits stated
above, a flow compensation system is required for continuous measurement of the flow rate
and control of the proportional sampling into the double dilution system. For that purpose,
the continuously measured flow rate signals are used to maintain the proportionality of the
sample flow rate through the particulate filters of the double dilution system (see Figure 17)
within ±2.5%.

A.2.2.5.
Description of Particulate Sampling System
The particulate sampling system is required for collecting the particulates on the particulate
filter and is shown in Figures 16 and 17. In the case of total sampling partial flow dilution,
which consists of passing the entire diluted exhaust sample through the filters, the dilution
and sampling systems usually form an integral unit (see Figure 12). In the case of fractional
sampling partial flow dilution or full flow dilution, which consists of passing through the filters
only a portion of the diluted exhaust, the dilution and sampling systems usually form
different units.
For a partial flow dilution system, a sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the
dilution tunnel DT through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer
tube PTT by means of the sampling pump P, as shown in Figure 16. The sample is passed
through the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The sample flow
rate is controlled by the flow controller FC3.
For of full flow dilution system, a double dilution particulate sampling system shall be used,
as shown in Figure 17. A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is transferred from the dilution
tunnel DT through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer tube PTT
to the secondary dilution tunnel SDT, where it is diluted once more. The sample is then
passed through the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The
diluent flow rate is usually constant whereas the sample flow rate is controlled by the flow
controller FC3. If electronic flow compensation EFC (see Figure 15) is used, the total diluted
exhaust gas flow is used as command signal for FC3.
Figure 16
Scheme of Particulate Sampling System

PTFE Membrane Filters shall be Installed in a Specific Cassette within the Filter
Holder.
An inertial pre-classifier with a 50% cut point between 2.5 µm and 10 µm shall be installed
immediately upstream of the filter holder, if an open tube sampling probe facing upstream is
used.
P Sampling Pump
FC2 Flow Controller
A flow controller shall be used for controlling the particulate sample flow rate.
FM3 Flow Measurement Device
Gas meter or flow instrumentation to determine the particulate sample flow through the
particulate filter. It may be installed upstream or downstream of the sampling pump P.
FM4 Flow Measurement Device
Gas meter or flow instrumentation to determine the secondary diluent flow through the
particulate filter.
BV Ball Valve (Optional)
The ball valve shall have an inside diameter not less than the inside diameter of the
particulate transfer tube PTT, and a switching time of less than 0.5s.

A.3.3.
Determination of System Equivalency
The determination of system equivalency according to Paragraph 5.1.1. of this Annex shall
be based on a seven sample pair (or larger) correlation study between the candidate system
and one of the accepted reference systems of this Annex using the appropriate test cycle(s).
The equivalency criteria to be applied shall be the F-test and the two-sided Student t-test.
This statistical method examines the hypothesis that the sample standard deviation and
sample mean value for an emission measured with the candidate system do not differ from
the sample standard deviation and sample mean value for that emission measured with the
reference system. The hypothesis shall be tested on the basis of a 10% significance level of
the F and t values. The critical F and t values for seven to ten sample pairs are given in
Table 9. If the F and t values calculated according to the equation below are greater than
the critical F and t values, the candidate system is not equivalent.
The following procedure shall be followed. The subscripts R and C refer to the reference
and candidate system, respectively:
(a)
Conduct at least seven tests with the candidate and reference systems operated in
parallel. The number of tests is referred to as n and n ;
(b) Calculate the mean values x and x and the standard deviations s and s ;
(c)
Calculate the F value, as follows:
S
F = (108)
S
(the greater of the two standard deviations s or s shall be in the numerator);
(d)
Calculate the t value, as follows:
x − x
t = (109)
s n + s n
(e)
(f)
Compare the calculated F and t values with the critical F and t values corresponding
to the respective number of tests indicated in Table 9. If larger sample sizes are
selected, consult statistical tables for 10% significance (90% confidence) level;
Determine the degrees of freedom (df), as follows:
For the F-test: df1 = n –1, df2 n –1 (110)
For the t-test: df = (n + n –2)/2 (111)

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 4
CARBON FLOW CHECK
A.4.1.
Introduction
All but a tiny part of the carbon in the exhaust comes from the fuel, and all but a minimal
part of this is manifest in the exhaust gas as CO . This is the basis for a system verification
check based on CO measurements.
The flow of carbon into the exhaust measurement systems is determined from the fuel flow
rate. The flow of carbon at various sampling points in the emissions and particulate
sampling systems is determined from the CO concentrations and gas flow rates at those
points.
In this sense, the engine provides a known source of carbon flow, and observing the same
carbon flow in the exhaust pipe and at the outlet of the partial flow PM sampling system
verifies leak integrity and flow measurement accuracy. This check has the advantage that
the components are operating under actual engine test conditions of temperature and flow.
Figure 18 shows the sampling points at which the carbon flows shall be checked. The
specific equations for the carbon flows at each of the sample points are given below.
Figure 18
Measuring Points for Carbon Flow Check

A.4.4. Carbon Flow Rate in the Dilution System (Location 3)
For the partial flow dilution system, the splitting ratio also needs to be taken into account.
The carbon flow rate shall be determined from the dilute CO concentration, the exhaust gas
mass flow rate and the sample flow rate:
⎛ c − c ⎞
12.011 q
q = ⎜

× q × ×
(114)
⎝ 100 ⎠
M q
where:
c is the wet CO concentration in the dilute exhaust gas at the outlet of the dilution
tunnel, %
c is the wet CO concentration in the ambient air, %
q is the exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis,kg/s
q is the sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system,kg/s
M
is the molar mass of exhaust gas, g/mol
If CO is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to wet basis according to
Paragraph 8.1. of this Annex.
A.4.5.
Calculation of the Molar Mass of the Exhaust Gas
The molar mass of the exhaust gas shall be calculated according to Equation 41 (see
Paragraph 8.4.2.4. of this Annex).
Alternatively, the following exhaust gas molar masses may be used:
M (diesel) = 28.9g/mol
M (LPG)
M (NG)
= 28.6g/mol
= 28.3g/mol

Molar mass of oxygen
Molar mass of nitrogen
Molar mass of nitric oxide
Molar mass of nitrogen dioxide
Molar mass of sulphur dioxide
Molar mass of dry air
31.9988g/mol
28.011g/mol
30.008g/mol
46.01g/mol
64.066g/mol
28.965g/mol
Assuming no compressibility effects, all gases involved in the engine
intake/combustion/exhaust process can be considered to be ideal and any volumetric
calculations shall therefore be based on a molar volume of 22.414l/mol according to
Avogadro's hypothesis.
A.5.3.
Gaseous Emissions (Diesel Fuel)
The measurement data of an individual point of the test cycle (data sampling rate of 1Hz) for
the calculation of the instantaneous mass emission are shown below. In this example, CO
and NO are measured on a dry basis, HC on a wet basis. The HC concentration is given in
propane equivalent (C3) and has to be multiplied by 3 to result in the C1 equivalent. The
calculation procedure is identical for the other points of the cycle.
The calculation example shows the rounded intermediate results of the different steps for
better illustration. It should be noted that for actual calculation, rounding of intermediate
results is not permitted (see Paragraph 8. of this Annex).
T
(K)
H
(g/kg)
W
(kWh)
q
(kg/s)
q
(kg/s)
q
(kg/s)
c
(ppm)
c
(ppm)
c
(ppm)
295 8.0 40 0.155 0.150 0.005 10 40 500
The following fuel composition is considered:
Component Molar ratio % mass
H α = 1.8529 w = 13.45
C β = 1.0000 w = 86.50
S γ = 0.0002 w = 0.050
N δ = 0.0000 w = 0.000
O ε = 0.0000 w = 0.000

A.5.4.
Particulate Emission (Diesel Fuel)
p
(kPa)
p
(kPa)
W
(kWh)
q
(kg/s)
q
(kg/s)
q
(kg/s)
q
(kg/s)
m
(mg)
m
(mg)
m
(kg)
99 100 40 0.155 0.005 0.0015 0.0020 90.0000 91.7000 1.515
Step 1: Calculation of m (Paragraph 8.4.3.2.2. of this Annex):
0. 002

A.5.5.2. Examples for the Calculation of the λ-Shift Factor S :
Example 1: G25: CH = 86%, N = 14% (by volume)
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤

⎢ 2
..
100
⎥ + × ⎢
100
⎥ +
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 1×
0.86 0.86
n =
= = = 1
1 − diluent %
14 0.86
1 −
100
100
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
H % ⎤
4 × ⎢ 4
..
100
⎥ + × ⎢
100
⎥ +
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 4 × 0.86
m =
= = 4
1 − diluent %
0.86
100
2
2
S =
=
= 1.16
⎛ inert% ⎞⎛
m ⎞ O ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞
⎜1
− ⎟⎜n
+ ⎟ − ⎜1
− ⎟ × ⎜1
+ ⎟
⎝ 100 ⎠⎝
4 ⎠ 100 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠
Example 2: G : CH = 87%, C H = 13% (by vol)
⎡CH
% ⎤ ⎡C
% ⎤

⎢ 2
..
100
⎥ + × ⎢
100
⎥ +
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 1×
0.87 + 2 × 0.13 1.13
n =
=
= = 1.13
1 − diluent %

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 6
INSTALLATION OF AUXILIARIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR EMISSIONS TEST
Number Auxiliaries Fitted for emission test
1 Inlet system
Inlet manifold
Crankcase emission control system
Control devices for dual induction inlet manifold system
Air flow meter
Air inlet duct work
Air filter
Inlet silencer
Speed-limiting device
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, or test cell equipment
Yes, or test cell equipment
Yes, or test cell equipment
2
Induction-heating device of inlet manifold
Yes, if possible to be set in the
most favourable condition
3 Exhaust system
Exhaust manifold
Connecting pipes
Silencer
Tail pipe
Exhaust brake
Pressure charging device
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No, or fully open
Yes
4 Fuel supply pump Yes
5 Equipment for gas engines
Electronic control system, air flow meter, etc.
Pressure reducer
Evaporator
Mixer
6 Fuel injection equipment
Prefilter
Filter
Pump
High-pressure pipe
Injector
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 7
PROCEDURE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA
A.7.1.
A.7.2.
A.7.2.1.
A.7.2.1.1.
This Appendix describes the procedure for measurement of ammonia (NH ). For non-linear
analysers, the use of linearising circuits shall be permitted.
Two measurement principles are specified for NH measurement and either principle may
be used provided it meets the criteria specified in Paragraph A.7.2.1. or A.7.2.2.,
respectively. Gas dryers shall not be permitted for NH measurement.
Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS)
Measurement Principle
The LDS employs the single line spectroscopy principle. The NH absorption line is chosen
in the near infrared spectral range and scanned by a single-mode diode laser.
A.7.2.1.2.
Installation
The analyser shall be installed either directly in the exhaust pipe (in-situ) or within an
analyser cabinet using extractive sampling in accordance with the instrument manufacturers
instructions. If installed in an analyser cabinet, the sample path (sampling line, pre-filter(s)
and valves) shall be made of stainless steel or PTFE and shall be heated to 463 ± 10K
(190 ± 10°C) in order to minimize NH losses and sampling artefacts. In addition, the
sampling line shall be as short as practically possible.
Influence from exhaust temperature and pressure, installation environment and vibrations
on the measurement shall be minimized, or compensation techniques be used.
If applicable, sheath air used in conjunction with in-situ measurement for protection of the
instrument, shall not affect the concentration of any exhaust component measured
downstream of the device, or sampling of other exhaust components shall be made
upstream of the device.
A.7.2.1.3.
Cross Interference
The spectral resolution of the laser shall be within 0.5cm in order to minimize cross
interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.
A.7.2.2.
A.7.2.2.1.
Fourier Transform Infrared (Hereinafter FTIR) Analyser
Measurement Principle
The FTIR employs the broad waveband infrared spectroscopy principle. It allows
simultaneous measurement of exhaust components whose standardized spectra are
available in the instrument. The absorption spectrum (intensity/wavelength) is calculated
from the measured interferogram (intensity/time) by means of the Fourier transform method.

A.7.3.5.
Data Evaluation
The average NH concentration (ppm/test) shall be determined by integrating the
instantaneous values over the cycle. The following equation shall be applied:

1
C = c inppm/test) (115)
n
where:
c
n
is the instantaneous NH concentration in the exhaust gas,ppm
is the number of measurements
For the WHTC, the final test result shall be determined with the following equation:
( 0.14 × c ) + ( 0.86 c )
c = ×
(116)
where:
c is the average NH concentration of the cold start test,ppm
c
is the average NH concentration of the hot start test,ppm
A.7.4.
A.7.4.1.
Analyser Specification and Verification
Linearity Requirements
The analyser shall comply with the linearity requirements specified in Table 7 of this Annex.
The linearity verification in accordance with Paragraph 9.2.1. of this Annex, shall be performed
at least every 12 months or whenever a system repair or change is made that could influence
calibration. With the prior approval of the Type Approval Authority, less than 10 reference
points are permitted, if an equivalent accuracy can be demonstrated.
For the linearity verification, a NH gas that meets the specifications of Paragraph A.7.4.2.7.
shall be used. The use of reference cells that contain NH span gas shall be permitted.
Instruments, whose signals are used for compensation algorithms, shall meet the linearity
requirements specified in Table 7 of this Annex. Linearity verification shall be done as
required by internal audit procedures, by the instrument manufacturer or in accordance with
ISO 9000 requirements.
A.7.4.2.
Analyser Specifications
The analyser shall have a measuring range and response time appropriate for the accuracy
required to measure the concentration of NH under transient and steady state conditions.
A.7.4.2.1.
Minimum Detection Limit
The analyser shall have a minimum detection limit of <2ppm under all conditions of testing.

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 8
PARTICLE NUMBER EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
A.8.1.
A.8.1.1.
A.8.1.1.1.
A.8.1.1.2.
A.8.1.2.
A.8.1.2.1.
Specification
System Overview
The particle sampling system shall consist of a probe or sampling point extracting a sample
from a homogenously mixed flow in a dilution system as described in Appendix 2 to this
Annex, Paragraph A.2.2.1. and A.2.2.2. or A.2.2.3. and A.2.2.4., a volatile particle remover
(VPR) upstream of a particle number counter (PNC) and suitable transfer tubing.
It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) be located
prior to the inlet of the VPR. However, a sample probe acting as an appropriate
size-classification device, such as that shown in Appendix 2 to this Annex, Figure 14, is an
acceptable alternative to the use of a particle size pre-classifier. In the case of partial flow
dilution systems it is acceptable to use the same pre-classifier for particulate mass and
particle number sampling, extracting the particle number sample from the dilution system
downstream of the pre-classifier. Alternatively separate pre-classifiers may be used,
extracting the particle number sample from the dilution system upstream of the particulate
mass pre-classifier.
General Requirements
The particle sampling point shall be located within a dilution system.
The sampling probe tip or particle sampling point and particle transfer tube (PTT) together
comprise the particle transfer system (PTS). The PTS conducts the sample from the dilution
tunnel to the entrance of the VPR. The PTS shall meet the following conditions:
In the case of full flow dilution systems and partial flow dilution systems of the fractional
sampling type (as described in Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraph A.2.2.1.) the sampling
probe shall be installed near the tunnel centre line, 10 to 20 tunnel diameters downstream of
the gas inlet, facing upstream into the tunnel gas flow with its axis at the tip parallel to that of
the dilution tunnel. The sampling probe shall be positioned within the dilution tract so that
the sample is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture.
In the case of partial flow dilution systems of the total sampling type (as described in
Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraph A.2.2.1.) the particle sampling point or sampling probe
shall be located in the particulate transfer tube, upstream of the particulate filter holder, flow
measurement device and any sample/bypass bifurcation point. The sampling point or
sampling probe shall be positioned so that the sample is taken from a homogeneous
diluent/exhaust mixture. The dimensions of the particle sampling probe should be sized not
to interfere with the operation of the partial flow dilution system.
Sample gas drawn through the PTS shall meet the following conditions:
In the case of full flow dilution systems, it shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of
<1,700;
In the case of partial flow dilution systems, it shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of
<1,700 in the PTT i.e. downstream of the sampling probe or point;

A.8.1.3.3.5. Also achieve >99.0% vaporisation of 30Nm tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH ) particles, with an
inlet concentration of ≥10,000cm , by means of heating and reduction of partial pressures of
the tetracontane.
A.8.1.3.4.
The PNC shall:
A.8.1.3.4.1. Operate Under Full Flow Operating Conditions;
A.8.1.3.4.2. Have a counting accuracy of ±10% across the range 1cm to the upper threshold of the
single particle count mode of the PNC against a traceable standard. At concentrations
below 100cm measurements averaged over extended sampling periods may be required
to demonstrate the accuracy of the PNC with a high degree of statistical confidence;
A.8.1.3.4.3. Have a readability of at least 0.1 particlecm at concentrations below 100cm ;
A.8.1.3.4.4. Have a linear response to particle concentrations over the full measurement range in single
particle count mode;
A.8.1.3.4.5. Have a data reporting frequency equal to or greater than 0.5Hz;
A.8.1.3.4.6. Have a t response time over the measured concentration range of less than 5s;
A.8.1.3.4.7. Incorporate a coincidence correction function up to a maximum 10% correction, and may
make use of an internal calibration factor as determined in Paragraph A.8.2.1.3., but shall
not make use of any other algorithm to correct for or define the counting efficiency;
A.8.1.3.4.8. Have counting efficiencies at particle sizes of 23Nm (±1Nm) and 41Nm (±1Nm) electrical
mobility diameter of 50% (±12%) and >90% respectively. These counting efficiencies may
be achieved by internal (for example; control of instrument design) or external (for example;
size pre-classification) means;
A.8.1.3.4.9. If the PNC makes use of a working liquid, it shall be replaced at the frequency specified by
the instrument manufacturer.
A.8.1.3.5.
A.8.1.3.6.
A.8.1.3.7.
Where they are not held at a known constant level at the point at which PNC flow rate is
controlled, the pressure and/or temperature at inlet to the PNC shall be measured and
reported for the purposes of correcting particle concentration measurements to standard
conditions.
The sum of the residence time of the PTS, VPR and OT plus the t response time of the
PNC shall be no greater than 20s.
The transformation time of the entire particle number sampling system (PTS, VPR, OT and
PNC) shall be determined by aerosol switching directly at the inlet of the PTS. The aerosol
switching shall be done in less than 0.1s. The aerosol used for the test shall cause a
concentration change of at least 60% full scale (FS).
The concentration trace shall be recorded. For time alignment of the particle number
concentration and exhaust flow signals, the transformation time is defined as the time from
the change (t ) until the response is 50% of the final reading (t ).

A.8.1.4.1.
Sampling System Description
The particle sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe tip or particle sampling point
in the dilution system, a particle transfer tube (PTT), a particle pre-classifier (PCF) and a
volatile particle remover (VPR) upstream of the particle number concentration measurement
(PNC) unit. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution (particle number diluters:
PND and PND ) and particle evaporation (Evaporation tube, ET). The sampling probe or
sampling point for the test gas flow shall be so arranged within the dilution tract that a
representative sample gas flow is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture. The
sum of the residence time of the system plus the t response time of the PNC shall be no
greater than 20s.
A.8.1.4.2.
Particle Transfer System
The sampling probe tip or particle sampling point and Particle Transfer Tube (PTT) together
comprise the Particle Transfer System (PTS). The PTS conducts the sample from the
dilution tunnel to the entrance to the first particle number diluter. The PTS shall meet the
following conditions:
In the case of full flow dilution systems and partial flow dilution systems of the fractional
sampling type (as described in Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraph A.2.2.1.) the sampling
probe shall be installed near the tunnel centre line, 10 to 20 tunnel diameters downstream of
the gas inlet, facing upstream into the tunnel gas flow with its axis at the tip parallel to that of
the dilution tunnel. The sampling probe shall be positioned within the dilution tract so that
the sample is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture.
In the case of partial flow dilution systems of the total sampling type (as described in
Appendix 2 to this Annex, Paragraph A.2.2.1.) the particle sampling point shall be located in
the particulate transfer tube, upstream of the particulate filter holder, flow measurement
device and any sample/bypass bifurcation point. The sampling point or sampling probe shall
be positioned so that the sample is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture.
Sample gas drawn through the PTS shall meet the following conditions:
It shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of <1,700;
It shall have a residence time in the PTS of ≤3s.
Any other sampling configuration for the PTS for which equivalent particle penetration for
particles of 30Nm electrical mobility diameter can be demonstrated will be considered
acceptable.
The outlet tube (OT) conducting the diluted sample from the VPR to the inlet of the PNC
shall have the following properties:
It shall have an internal diameter of ≥4mm;
Sample gas flow through the POT shall have a residence time of ≤0.8s.
Any other sampling configuration for the OT for which equivalent particle penetration for
particles of 30Nm electrical mobility diameter can be demonstrated will be considered
acceptable.

A.8.1.4.4.3. Second Particle Number Dilution Device (PND )
PND shall be specifically designed to dilute particle number concentration. The diluter shall
be supplied with HEPA filtered dilution air and be capable of maintaining a single dilution
factor within a range of 10 to 30 times. The dilution factor of PND shall be selected in the
range between 10 and 15 such that particle number concentration downstream of the
second diluter is less than the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC
and the gas temperature prior to entry to the PNC is <35°C.
A.8.1.4.5.
Particle Number Counter (PNC)
The PNC shall meet the requirements of Paragraph A.8.1.3.4.
A.8.2. Calibration/Validation of the Particle Sampling System
A.8.2.1.
A.8.2.1.1.
A.8.2.1.2.
A.8.2.1.3.
Calibration of the particle number counter
The Technical Service shall ensure the existence of a calibration certificate for the PNC
demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a 12-month period prior to the
emissions test.
The PNC shall also be recalibrated and a new calibration certificate issued following any
major maintenance.
Calibration shall be traceable to a standard calibration method:
(a)
(b)
By comparison of the response of the PNC under calibration with that of a calibrated
aerosol electrometer when simultaneously sampling electrostatically classified
calibration particles; or
By comparison of the response of the PNC under calibration with that of a second
PNC which has been directly calibrated by the above method.
In the electrometer case, calibration shall be undertaken using at least six standard
concentrations spaced as uniformly as possible across the PNC’s measurement range.
These points will include a nominal zero concentration point produced by attaching HEPA
filters of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2008, or equivalent performance, to the inlet of each
instrument. With no calibration factor applied to the PNC under calibration, measured
concentrations shall be within ± 10% of the standard concentration for each concentration
used, with the exception of the zero point, otherwise the PNC under calibration shall be
rejected. The gradient from a linear regression of the two data sets shall be calculated and
recorded. A calibration factor equal to the reciprocal of the gradient shall be applied to the
PNC under calibration. Linearity of response is calculated as the square of the Pearson
product moment correlation coefficient (R ) of the two data sets and shall be equal to or
greater than 0.97. In calculating both the gradient and R the linear regression shall be
forced through the origin (zero concentration on both instruments).

A.8.2.2.2.
The test aerosol for these measurements shall be solid particles of 30, 50 and 100Nm
electrical mobility diameter and a minimum concentration of 5,000 particles cm at the VPR
inlet. Particle concentrations shall be measured upstream and downstream of the
components.
The particle concentration reduction factor at each particle size (f (d ) ) shall be calculated as
follows:
( d )
( d )
N
f ( d ) = (117)
N
where:
N (d ) = upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d
N
d
(d ) = downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d and
= particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100Nm)
N (d ) and N
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The mean particle concentration reduction ( f ) at a given dilution setting shall be calculated
as follows:
f
( 30nm) + f ( 50nm) + f ( 100nm)
f
= (118)
3
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit.
A.8.2.2.3.
A.8.2.3.
A.8.2.3.1.
A.8.2.3.2.
The Technical Service shall ensure the existence of a validation certificate for the VPR
demonstrating effective volatile particle removal efficiency within a 6 month period prior to
the emissions test. If the volatile particle remover incorporates temperature monitoring
alarms a 12 month validation interval shall be permissible. The VPR shall demonstrate
greater than 99.0% removal of tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH ) particles of at least 30Nm
electrical mobility diameter with an inlet concentration of ≥10,000cm when operated at its
minimum dilution setting and manufacturers recommended operating temperature.
Particle Number System Check Procedures
Prior to each test, the particle counter shall report a measured concentration of less than
0.5 particles cm when a HEPA filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2008, or equivalent
performance, is attached to the inlet of the entire particle sampling system (VPR and PNC).
On a monthly basis, the flow into the particle counter shall report a measured value within
5% of the particle counter nominal flow rate when checked with a calibrated flow meter.
A.8.2.3.3. Each day, following the application of a HEPA filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2008,
or equivalent performance, to the inlet of the particle counter, the particle counter shall
report a concentration of ≤0.2cm . Upon removal of this filter, the particle counter shall
show an increase in measured concentration to at least 100 particles cm when challenged
with ambient air and a return to ≤0.2cm on replacement of the HEPA filter.

ANNEX 5
SPECIFICATIONS OF REFERENCE FUELS
Technical Data on Fuels for Testing Compression-Ignition and Dual-fuel Engines
Type: Diesel (B7)
Parameter
Unit
Limit
Minimum Maximum
Test method
Cetane index
46.0
EN ISO 4264
Cetane number
52.0
56.0
EN-ISO 5165
Density at 15°C
kg/m
833
837
EN-ISO 3675
EN ISO 12185
Distillation:
– 50% point
– 95% point
– final boiling point
°C
°C
°C
245
345 350
360
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
Flash point
°C
55
EN 22719
CFPP
°C
5
EN 116
Viscosity at 40°C
mm /s
2.3
3.3
EN-ISO 3104
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
% m/m
2.0
4.0
EN 12916
Sulphur content
mg/kg
10
EN ISO 20846/
EN ISO 20884
Copper corrosion (3h at 50°C)
Rating
Class 1
EN-ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue (10% DR)
% m/m
0.2
EN-ISO 10370
Ash content
% m/m
0.01
EN-ISO 6245
Total contamination
mg/kg
24
EN 12662
Water content
% m/m
0.02
EN-ISO 12937
Neutralisation (strong acid) number
mg KOH/g
0.10
ASTM D 974
Oxidation stability
mg/ml
0.025
EN-ISO 12205
Lubricity (HFRR wear scan diameter at 60°C)
µm
400
EN ISO 12156
Oxidation stability at 110°C
H
20.0
EN 15751
FAME % v/v 6.0 7.0 EN 14078

Technical data on fuels for testing positive ignition and duel-fuel engines
Parameter
Unit
Type: Petrol (E10)
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test method
Research octane number, RON 95.0 97.0 EN ISO 5164:2005
Motor octane number, MON
84.0
86.0
EN ISO 5163:2005
Density at 15°C
kg/m
743
756
EN ISO 3675
EN ISO 12185
Vapour pressure
kPa
56.0
60.0
EN ISO 13016-1 (DVPE)
Water content
% v/v
0.015
ASTM E 1064
Distillation:
– evaporated at 70°C
– evaporated at 100°C
– evaporated at 150°C
– final boiling point
% v/v
% v/v
% v/v
°C
24.0
56.0
88.0
190
44.0
60.0
90.0
210
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
Residue % v/v – 2.0 EN-ISO 3405
Hydrocarbon analysis:
– olefins
– aromatics
– benzene
% v/v
% v/v
% v/v
3.0
25.0
0.4
18.0
35.0
1.0
EN 14517, EN 15553
EN 14517, EN 15553
EN 12177, EN 238, EN 14517
– saturates
% v/v
Report
EN 14517, EN 15553
Carbon/hydrogen ratio
Report
Carbon/oxygen ratio
Report
Induction period
minutes
480
EN-ISO 7536
Oxygen content
% m/m
3.7
EN 1601, EN 13132, EN 14517
Existent gum
mg/ml

0.04
EN-ISO 6246
Sulphur content
mg/kg

10
EN ISO 20846, EN ISO 20884
Copper corrosion (3h at 50°C)
rating

Class 1
EN-ISO 2160
Lead content
mg/l

5
EN 237
Phosphorus content
mg/l

1.3
ASTM D 3231
Ethanol
% v/v
9.5
10.0
EN 1601, EN 13132, EN 14517

Type: LPG
Parameter
Unit
Fuel A
Fuel B
Test method
Composition:
EN 27941
C -content
% v/v
30 ± 2
85 ± 2
C -content
% v/v
Balance
Balance
C
% v/v
Maximum 2
Maximum 2
Olefins
% v/v
Maximum 12
Maximum 15
Evaporation residue
mg/kg
Maximum 50
Maximum 50
EN 15470
Water at 0°C
Free
Free
EN 15469
Total sulphur content including odorant
mg/kg
Maximum 10
Maximum 10
EN 24260, ASTM D 3246,
ASTM 6667
Hydrogen sulphide
None
None
EN ISO 8819
Copper strip corrosion (1h at 40°C)
Rating
Class 1
Class 1
ISO 6251
Odour Characteristic Characteristic
Motor octane number Minimum 89.0 Minimum 89.0 EN 589 Annex B

ANNEX 6
EMISSIONS DATA REQUIRED AT TYPE APPROVAL FOR ROADWORTHINESS PURPOSES
MEASURING CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSIONS AT IDLING SPEEDS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex sets out the procedure for measuring carbon monoxide emissions at idling
speeds (normal and high) for positive ignition engines installed in vehicles of Category M
with a technically permissible maximum laden mass not exceeding 7.5t, as well as in
vehicles of Categories M and N .
1.2. This Annex does not apply to dual-fuel engines and vehicles.
2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2.1. The general requirements shall be those set out in Paragraph 5.3.7. of Regulation No. 83,
with the exceptions set out in Paragraphs 2.2., 2.3. and 2.4.
2.2. The atomic ratios set out in Paragraph 5.3.7.3. of Regulation No. 83 shall be understood as
follows:
Hcv = Atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon – for petrol (E10) 1.93
– for LPG 2.525
– for NG/biomethane 4.0
– for ethanol (E85) 2.74
Ocv = Atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon – for petrol (E10) 0.032
– for LPG 0.0
– for NG/biomethane 0.0
– for ethanol (E85) 0.385
2.3. The table in Paragraph 1.4.3. of Annex 2A (Table 6) shall be completed on the basis of the
requirements set out in Paragraphs 2.2. and 2.4. of this Annex.
2.4. The manufacturer shall confirm the accuracy of the Lambda value recorded at the time of
type approval in Paragraph 2.1. of this Annex as being representative of typical production
vehicles within 24 months of the date of the granting of type approval. An assessment shall
be made on the basis of surveys and studies of production vehicles.
3. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1. The technical requirements shall be those set out in Annex 5 to Regulation No. 83, with the
exception set out in Paragraph 3.2.
3.2. The reference fuels specified in Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 5 to Regulation No. 83 shall be
understood as referring to the appropriate reference fuel specifications set out in Annex 5 to
this Regulation.

3.2.1. In-Service and Dynamometer Service Accumulation
3.2.1.1. The manufacturer shall determine the form and extent of the distance, the service
accumulation and the ageing cycle for engines, consistent with good engineering practice.
3.2.1.2. The manufacturer shall determine the test points where gaseous and particulate emissions will
be measured over the hot WHTC and WHSC tests. The minimum number of test points shall
be three, one at the beginning, one approximately in the middle and one at the end of the
service accumulation schedule.
3.2.1.3. The emission values at the start point and at the useful life end point calculated in
accordance with Paragraph 3.5.2. shall meet the limit values specified in Paragraph 5.3. of
this Regulation but individual emission results from the test points may exceed those limit
values.
3.2.1.4. At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority,
only one test cycle (either the hot WHTC or WHSC test) needs to be run at each test point,
with the other test cycle run only at the beginning and at the end of the service accumulation
schedule.
3.2.1.5. Service accumulation schedules may be different for different engine-after-treatment system
families.
3.2.1.6. Service accumulation schedules may be shorter than the useful life period, but shall not be
shorter than shown in Table 1 in Paragraph 3.2.1.8.
3.2.1.7. For engine dynamometer service accumulation, the manufacturer shall provide the applicable
correlation between the service accumulation period (driving distance) and engine
dynamometer hours, for example, fuel consumption correlation, vehicle speed versus engine
revolutions correlation etc.

3.3. Engine Testing
3.3.1. Engine System Stabilisation
3.3.1.1. For each engine-after-treatment system family, the manufacturer shall determine the number of
hours of vehicle or engine running after which the operation of the engine-after-treatment system
has stabilised. If requested by the Type Approval Authority the manufacturer shall make
available the data and analysis used to make this determination. As an alternative, the
manufacturer may elect to run the engine between 60 and 125h or the equivalent mileage on the
ageing cycle to stabilise the engine-after-treatment system.
3.3.1.2. The end of the stabilisation period determined in Paragraph 3.3.1.1. will be deemed to be
the start of the service accumulation schedule.
3.3.2. Service Accumulation Testing
3.3.2.1. After stabilisation, the engine shall be run over the service accumulation schedule selected by
the manufacturer, as described in Paragraph 3.2. At the periodic intervals in the service
accumulation schedule determined by the manufacturer, and, where appropriate, also stipulated
by the Type Approval Authority according to Paragraph 3.2.2. the engine shall be tested for
gaseous and particulate emissions over the hot WHTC and WHSC tests. In accordance with
Paragraph 3.2.1.4., if it has been agreed that only one test cycle (hot WHTC or WHSC) be run at
each test point, the other test cycle (hot WHTC or WHSC) shall be run at the beginning and end
of the service accumulation schedule.
3.3.2.2. During the service accumulation schedule, maintenance shall be carried out on the engine
according to the requirements of Paragraph 4.
3.3.2.3. During the service accumulation schedule, unscheduled maintenance on the engine or
vehicle may be performed, for example if the OBD system has specifically detected a
problem that has resulted in the malfunction indicator (hereinafter MI) being activated.
3.3.2.4. The use of market fuels is allowed for conducting the service accumulation schedule. A
reference fuel shall be used to carry out the emission test.
3.4. Reporting
3.4.1. The results of all emission tests (hot WHTC and WHSC) conducted during the service
accumulation schedule shall be made available to the Type Approval Authority. If any
emission test is declared to be void, the manufacturer shall provide an explanation of why the
test has been declared void. In such a case, another series of emission tests over the hot
WHTC and WHSC tests shall be carried out within the following 100h of service accumulation.
3.4.2. The manufacturer shall retain records of all information concerning all the emission tests
and maintenance carried out on the engine during the service accumulation schedule. This
information shall be submitted to the Type Approval Authority along with the results of the
emission tests conducted over the service accumulation schedule.

Figure 1
Example of Deterioration Factor Determination
3.6.
3.6.1.
Assigned Deterioration Factorss
As an alternative to
using a service accumulation schedule to determine deterioration
factors, engine manufacturers may choose to use thee following assigned multiplicative
deterioration factors:
Table 2
Deterioration Factors
Test cycle
CO
THC
NMHC
CH
NO
NH
PM masss
PM number
WHTC 1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.15 1.0
1.05
1.0
WHSC 1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.15 1.0
1.05
1.0
Notes:
Applies in case of a compression ignitionn engine.
Applies in case of a positive ignition engine.
Assigned
additive deterioration factors are not given. It shall s not be permitted to transform
the assigned multiplicative deterioration factors into additive deterioration factors.

4.1.2. The engine manufacturer shall specify for the service accumulation schedule the
adjustment, cleaning and maintenance (where necessary) and scheduled exchange of the
following items:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Filters and coolers in the exhaust gas re-circulation system;
Positive crankcase ventilation valve, if applicable;
Fuel injector tips (cleaning only);
Fuel injectors;
Turbocharger;
Electronic engine control unit and its associated sensors and actuators;
Particulate after-treatment system (including related components);
deNO system;
Exhaust gas re-circulation system, including all related control valves and tubing;
Any other exhaust after-treatment system.
4.1.3. Critical emission-related scheduled maintenance shall only be performed if being performed
in-use and being communicated to the owner of the vehicle.
4.2. Changes to Scheduled Maintenance
4.2.1. The manufacturer shall submit a request to the Type Approval Authority for approval of any
new scheduled maintenance that it wishes to perform during the service accumulation
schedule and subsequently recommend to owners of engines.or vehicles. The request shall
be accompanied by data supporting the need for the new scheduled maintenance and the
maintenance interval.
4.3. Non-Emission-Related Scheduled Maintenance
4.3.1. Non-emission-related scheduled maintenance which is reasonable and technically
necessary such as oil change, oil filter change, fuel filter change, air filter change, cooling
system maintenance, idle speed adjustment, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash,
injector lash, timing, adjustment of the tension of any drive-belt, etc may be performed on
engines or vehicles selected for the service accumulation schedule at the least frequent
intervals recommended by the manufacturer to the owner.
4.4. Repair
4.4.1. Repairs to the components of an engine selected for testing over a service accumulation
schedule other than the engine emission control system or fuel system shall be performed
only as a result of component failure or engine system malfunction.
4.4.2. If the engine itself, the emission control system or the fuel system fail during the service
accumulation schedule, the service accumulation shall be considered void, and a new
service accumulation shall be started with a new engine system.

3.1.1. With a minimum sample size of three engines the sampling procedure shall be set so that
the probability of a lot passing a test with 20% of the vehicles or engines defective is
0.90 (producer's risk = 10%) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 60% of the
vehicles or engines defective is 0.10 (consumer's risk = 10%).
3.1.2. The test statistic quantifying the cumulative number of nonconforming tests at the n-th test
shall be determined for the sample.
3.1.3. The pass or fail decision of the lot shall be made according to the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If the test statistic is less than or equal to the pass decision number for the sample
size given in Table 1, a pass decision is reached for the lot;
If the test statistic is greater than or equal to the fail decision number for the sample
size given in Table 1, a fail decision is reached for the lot;
Otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to this Annex and the calculation
procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.
In Table 1 the pass and fail decision numbers are calculated by means of the International
Standard ISO 8422/1991.
Table 1
Pass and Fail Decision Numbers of the Sampling Plan
Cumulative number of engines
tested (sample size)
Minimum Sample Size: 3
Pass decision
number
Fail decision
number
3 - 3
4 0 4
5 0 4
6 1 4
7 1 4
8 2 4
9 2 4
10 3 4
The Type Approval Authority shall approve the selected engines and vehicle configurations
before the launch of the testing procedures. The selection shall be performed by presenting
to the Type Approval Authority the criteria used for the selection of the particular vehicles.
3.2. The engines and vehicles selected shall be used and registered in the region
(e.g. European Union). The vehicle shall have been in service for at least 25,000km.

4.2. Ambient Conditions
The test shall be conducted under ambient conditions meeting the following conditions:
Atmospheric pressure greater than or equal to 82.5kPa,
Temperature greater than or equal to 266K (-7°C) and less than or equal to the temperature
determined by the following equation at the specified atmospheric pressure:
T = -0.4514 * (101.3 – pb) + 311
where:
T is the ambient air temperature,K
pb is the atmospheric pressure, kPa
4.3. Engine Coolant Temperature
The engine coolant temperature shall be in accordance with Paragraph A.1.2.6.1. of
Appendix 1 to this Annex.
4.4. The lubricating oil, fuel and reagent shall be within the specifications issued by the
manufacturer.
4.4.1. Lubricating Oil
4.4.2. Fuel
Oil samples shall be taken.
The test fuel shall be market fuel covered by the relevant standards or reference fuel as
specified in Annex 5 to this Regulation. Fuel samples shall be taken.
4.4.2.1. If the manufacturer in accordance with Paragraph 4. to this Regulation has declared the
capability to meet the requirements of this Regulation on market fuels declared in
Paragraph 3.2.2.2.1. of Part 1 of Annex 1 to this Regulation, tests shall be conducted on at
least one of the declared market fuels or blend between the declared market fuels and the
market fuels covered by the relevant standards.
4.4.3. Reagent
For exhaust after-treatment systems that use a reagent to reduce emissions, a sample of
the reagent shall be taken. The reagent shall not be frozen.

4.6.5. The minimum test duration shall be long enough to complete five times the work performed
during the WHTC or produce five times the CO reference mass inkg/cycle from the WHTC
as applicable.
4.6.6. The electrical power to the PEMS system shall be supplied by an external power supply
unit, and not from a source that draws its energy either directly or indirectly from the engine
under test.
4.6.6.1. As an alternative the electrical power to the PEMS system may be supplied by the internal
electrical system of the vehicle as long as the power demand for the test equipment does
not increase the output from the engine by more than 1% of its maximum power and
measures are taken to prevent excessive discharge of the battery when the engine is not
running or idling.
4.6.6.2. In case of a dispute the results of measurements performed with a PEMS system powered
by an external power supply shall prevail over the results acquired according to the
alternative method under 4.6.6.1.
4.6.7. The installation of the PEMS equipment shall not influence the vehicle emissions and/or
performance.
4.6.8. It is recommended to operate the vehicles under normal daytime traffic conditions.
4.6.9. If the Type Approval Authority is not satisfied with the data consistency check results
according to Paragraph A.1.3.2. of Appendix 1 to this Annex, the Type Approval Authority
may consider the test to be void.
4.6.10. The same route shall be used for the tests of vehicles within the sample described in
Paragraphs 3.1.1. to 3.1.3.
5. ECU DATA STREAM
5.1. Verification of the availability and conformity of the ECU data-stream information required
for in-service testing.
5.1.1. The availability of the data stream information according to the requirements of
Paragraph 9.4.2. of this Regulation shall be demonstrated prior to the in-service test.
5.1.1.1. If that information cannot be retrieved by the PEMS system in a proper manner, the
availability of the information shall be demonstrated by using an external OBD scan-tool as
described in Annex 9B.
5.1.1.1.1. In the case where this information can be retrieved by the scan-tool in a proper manner, the
PEMS system is considered as failing and the test is void.
5.1.1.1.2. In the case where that information cannot be retrieved in a proper manner from two vehicles
with engines from the same engine family, while the scan-tool is working properly, the
engine is considered as non compliant.

7. EVALUATION OF IN-SERVICE CONFORMITY RESULTS
7.1. On the basis of the in-service conformity report referred to in Paragraph 10., the Type
Approval Authority shall either:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Decide that the in-service conformity testing of an engine system family is satisfactory
and not take any further action;
Decide that the data provided is insufficient to reach a decision and request additional
information and test data from the manufacturer;
Decide that the in-service conformity of an engine system family is unsatisfactory and
proceed to the measures referred to in Paragraph 9.3. of this Regulation and in
Paragraph 9. of this Annex.
8. CONFIRMATORY VEHICLE TESTING
8.1. Confirmatory testing is done for the purpose of confirmation of the in-service emission
functionality of an engine family.
8.2. Approval Authorities may Conduct Confirmatory Testing.
8.3. The confirmatory test shall be performed as vehicle testing as specified in Paragraphs 2.1.
and 2.2. Representative vehicles shall be selected and used under normal conditions and
be tested according to the procedures defined in this Annex.
8.4. A test result may be regarded as non-satisfactory when, from tests of two or more vehicles
representing the same engine family, for any regulated pollutant component, the limit value
as determined according to Paragraph 6. is exceeded significantly.
9. PLAN OF REMEDIAL MEASURES
9.1. The manufacturer shall submit a report to the Type Approval Authority where the engines or
vehicles subject to remedial action are registered or used when planning to conduct
remedial action, and shall submit this report when deciding to take action. The report shall
specify the details of the remedial action and describe the engine families to be included in
the action. The manufacturer shall report regularly to the Type Approval Authority after the
start of the remedial action.
9.2. The manufacturer shall provide a copy of all communications related to the plan of remedial
measures, and shall maintain a record of the recall campaign, and supply regular status
reports to the Type Approval Authority.
9.3. The manufacturer shall assign a unique identifying name or number to the plan of remedial
measures.

10. REPORTING PROCEDURES
10.1. A technical report shall be submitted to the Type Approval Authority for each engine family
tested. The report shall show the activities and results of the in-service conformity testing.
The report shall include at least the following:
10.1.1. General
10.1.1.1. Name and address of the manufacturer
10.1.1.2. Address(es) of assembly plant(s)
10.1.1.3. The name, address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address of the manufacturer’s
representative
10.1.1.4. Type and commercial description (mention any variants)
10.1.1.5. Engine family
10.1.1.6. Parent engine
10.1.1.7. Engine family members
10.1.1.8. The vehicle identification number (VIN) codes applicable to the vehicles equipped with an
engine that is part of the in-service conformity check.
10.1.1.9. Means and location of identification of type, if marked on the vehicle
10.1.1.10. Category of vehicle
10.1.1.11. Type of engine: petrol, ethanol (E85), diesel/NG /LPG /ethanol (ED95) (Delete as
appropriate)
10.1.1.12. The numbers of the type approvals applicable to the engine types within the in-service
family, including, where applicable, the numbers of all extensions and field fixes/recalls
(re-works)
10.1.1.13. Details of extensions, field fixes/recalls to those type approvals for the engines covered
within the manufacturer’s information.
10.1.1.14. The engine build period covered within the manufacturer’s information (e.g. "vehicles or
engines manufactured during the 2014 calendar year").
10.1.2. Engine/Vehicle Selection
10.1.2.1. Vehicle or engine location method
10.1.2.2. Selection criteria for vehicles, engines, in-service families
10.1.2.3. Geographical areas within which the manufacturer has collected vehicles

10.1.5.13.
Idle speed [rpm]
10.1.5.14.
Manufacturer supplied full-load torque curve available (yes/no)
10.1.5.15.
Manufacturer supplied full-load torque curve reference number
10.1.5.16.
DeNO system (e.g. EGR, SCR)
10.1.5.17.
Type of catalytic converter
10.1.5.18.
Type of Particulate trap
10.1.5.19.
After-treatment modified with respect to type approval? (yes/no)
10.1.5.20.
Engine ECU information (Software calibration number)
10.1.6.
Vehicle Information
10.1.6.1.
Vehicle owner
10.1.6.2.
Vehicle type (e.g. M , N ) and application (e.g. rigid or articulated truck, city bus)
10.1.6.3.
Vehicle manufacturer
10.1.6.4.
Vehicle Identification Number
10.1.6.5.
Vehicle registration number and country of registration
10.1.6.6.
Vehicle model
10.1.6.7.
Vehicle production year and month
10.1.6.8.
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic or other)
10.1.6.9.
Number of forward gears
10.1.6.10.
Odometer reading at test start [km]
10.1.6.11.
Gross vehicle combination weight rating (GVW) [kg]
10.1.6.12.
Tire size [Not mandatory]
10.1.6.13.
Tail pipe diameter [mm] [Not mandatory]
10.1.6.14.
Number of axles
10.1.6.15.
Fuel tank(s) capacity [litres] [Not mandatory]
10.1.6.16.
Number of fuel tanks [Not mandatory]
10.1.6.17.
Reagent tank(s) capacity [litres] [Not mandatory]
10.1.6.18.
Number of reagent tanks [Not mandatory]

10.1.9.
Instantaneous Calculated Data
10.1.9.1.
THC mass [g/s]
10.1.9.2.
CO mass [g/s]
10.1.9.3.
NO mass [g/s]
10.1.9.4.
CO mass [g/s]
10.1.9.5.
CH mass [g/s] for P.I. engines only
10.1.9.6.
THC cumulated mass [g]
10.1.9.7.
CO cumulated mass [g]
10.1.9.8.
NO cumulated mass [g]
10.1.9.9.
CO cumulated mass [g]
10.1.9.10.
CH cumulated mass [g] for natural gas fuelled engines only
10.1.9.11.
Calculated fuel rate[g/s]
10.1.9.12.
Engine power [kW]
10.1.9.13.
Engine work [kWh]
10.1.9.14.
Work window duration [s]
10.1.9.15.
Work window average engine power [%]
10.1.9.16.
Work window THC conformity factor [-]
10.1.9.17.
Work window CO conformity factor [-]
10.1.9.18.
Work window NO conformity factor [-]
10.1.9.19.
Work window CH conformity factor [-] for natural gas fuelled engines only
10.1.9.20.
CO mass window duration [s]
10.1.9.21.
CO mass window THC conformity factor [-]
10.1.9.22.
CO mass window CO conformity factor [-]
10.1.9.23.
CO mass window NO conformity factor [-]
10.1.9.24.
CO mass window CH conformity factor [-] for natural gas fuelled engines only

10.1.12. Test Verifications
10.1.12.1. THC analyser zero, span and audit results, pre and post test
10.1.12.2. CO analyser zero, span and audit results, pre and post test
10.1.12.3. NO analyser zero-span and audit results, pre and post test
10.1.12.4. CO analyser zero, span and audit results, pre and post test
10.1.12.5. CH analyser zero, span and audit results, pre and post test for natural gas fuelled engines
only
10.1.12.6. Data consistency check results, according to Paragraph A.1.3.2. of Appendix 1 to this
Annex.
10.1.12.6.1. Results of the linear regression described in Paragraph A.1.3.2.1. of Appendix 1 to this
Annex including the slope of the regression line, m, coefficient of determination, r2 and the
intercept, b, of the y-axis of the regression line.
10.1.12.6.2. Result of the consistency check of the ECU data in accordance with Paragraph A.1.3.2.2. of
Appendix 1 to this Annex.
10.1.12.6.3. Result of the consistency check of the Brake-specific fuel consumption in accordance with
Paragraph A.1.3.2.3. of Appendix 1 to this Annex, including the calculated Brake-specific
fuel consumption and the ratio of the calculated Brake-specific fuel consumption from the
PEMS measurement and the declared Brake-specific fuel consumption for the WHTC test.
10.1.12.6.4. Result of the consistency check of the Odometer in accordance with Paragraph A.1.3.2.4. of
Appendix 1 to this Annex.
10.1.12.6.5. Result of the consistency check of the ambient pressure in accordance with
Paragraph A.1.3.2.5. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
10.1.13. List of Further Attachments where these Exist.

A.1.2.2.
Test Parameters
The parameters summarized in Table 1 shall be measured and recorded:
Table 1
Test Parameters
Parameter
Unit
Source
THC concentration
ppm
Analyzer
CO concentration
ppm
Analyzer
NO concentration
ppm
Analyzer
CO concentration
ppm
Analyzer
CH concentration
ppm
Analyzer
Exhaust gas flow
kg/h
Exhaust Flow Meter (hereinafter EFM)
Exhaust temperature
°K
EFM
Ambient temperature
°K
Sensor
Ambient pressure
kPa
Sensor
Engine torque
Nm
ECU or Sensor
Engine speed
rpm
ECU or Sensor
Engine fuel flow
g/s
ECU or Sensor
Engine coolant temperature
°K
ECU or Sensor
Engine intake air temperature
°K
Sensor
Vehicle ground speed
km/h
ECU and GPS
Vehicle latitude
degree
GPS
Vehicle longitude
degree
GPS

A.1.2.4.5.
Sampling of Gaseous Emissions
The sample line shall be heated according to the specifications of Paragraph A.2.2.3. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex and properly insulated at the connection points (sample probe and
back of the main unit), to avoid the presence of cold spots that could lead to a contamination
of the sampling system by condensed hydrocarbons.
The sample probe shall be installed in the exhaust pipe in accordance with the requirements
of Paragraph 9.3.10. of Annex 4.
If the length of the sample line is changed, the system transport times shall be verified and if
necessary corrected.
A.1.2.5.
A.1.2.5.1.
Pre-Test Procedures
Starting and Stabilizing the PEMS Instruments
The main units shall be warmed up and stabilized, according to the instrument manufacturer
specifications, until pressures, temperatures and flows have reached their operating set
points.
A.1.2.5.2.
Cleaning the Sampling System
To prevent system contamination, the sampling lines of the PEMS instruments shall be
purged until sampling begins, according to the instrument manufacturer specifications.
A.1.2.5.3.
Checking and calibrating the analysers
The zero and span calibration and the linearity checks of the analysers shall be performed
using calibration gases meeting the requirements of Paragraph 9.3.3. of Annex 4 to this
Regulation. A linearity check shall have been performed within three months before the
actual test.
A.1.2.5.4.
Cleaning the EFM
The EFM shall be purged at the pressure transducer connections in accordance with the
instrument manufacturer specifications. This procedure shall remove condensation and
diesel particulate matter from the pressure lines and the associated flow tube pressure
measurement ports.
A.1.2.6.
A.1.2.6.1.
Emissions Test Run
Test Start
Emissions sampling, measurement of the exhaust parameters and recording of the engine
and ambient data shall start prior to starting the engine. The data evaluation shall start after
the coolant temperature has reached 343K (70°C) for the first time or after the coolant
temperature is stabilized within +/-2K over a period of 5min whichever comes first but no
later than 20min after engine start.

A.1.2.7.4.
Drift Verification
This shall apply only if, during the test, no zero drift correction was made.
As soon as practical but no later than 30min after the test is complete the gaseous analyser
ranges used shall be zeroed and spanned to check their drift compared to the pre-test
results.
The following provisions shall apply for analyser drift:
(a)
(b)
If the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2% as
specified in Paragraphs A.1.2.7.2. and A.1.2.7.3., the measured concentrations may
be used uncorrected or may be corrected for drift according to Paragraph A.1.2.7.5.;
If the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is equal to or greater than
2% as specified in Paragraphs A.1.2.7.2. and A.1.2.7.3., the test shall be voided or
the measured concentrations shall be corrected for drift according to
Paragraph A.1.2.7.5.
A.1.2.7.5.
Drift Correction
If drift correction is applied in accordance with Paragraph A.1.2.7.4., the corrected
concentration value shall be calculated according to Paragraph 8.6.1. of Annex 4.
The difference between the uncorrected and the corrected brake-specific emission values
shall be within ±6% of the uncorrected brake-specific emission values. If the drift is greater
than 6%, the test shall be voided. If drift correction is applied, only the drift-corrected
emission results shall be used when reporting emissions.
A.1.3.
CALCULATION OF THE EMISSIONS
The final test result shall be rounded in one step to the number of places to the right of the
decimal point indicated by the applicable emission standard plus one additional significant
figure, in accordance with ASTM E 29-06b. No rounding of intermediate values leading to
the final brake-specific emission result shall be allowed.
A.1.3.1.
Time Alignment of Data
To minimize the biasing effect of the time lag between the different signals on the
calculation of mass emissions, the data relevant for emissions calculation shall be time
aligned, as described in Paragraphs A.1.3.1.1. to A.1.3.1.4.
A.1.3.1.1.
Gas Analysers Data
The data from the gas analysers shall be properly aligned using the procedure in
Paragraph 9.3.5. of Annex 4.
A.1.3.1.2.
Gas Analysers and EFM Data
The data from the gas analysers shall be properly aligned with the data of the EFM using
the procedure in Paragraph A.1.3.1.4.

The slope (m) and the coefficient of determination (r²) shall be calculated for each
regression line. It is recommended to perform this analysis in the range from 15% of the
maximum value to the maximum value and at a frequency greater or equal to 1Hz. For a
test to be considered valid, the following two criteria shall be evaluated:
Table 2
Tolerances
Slope of the regression line, m
Coefficient of determination r
0.9 to 1.1 - Recommended
min. 0.90 - Mandatory
A.1.3.2.2.
ECU Torque Data
The consistency of the ECU torque data shall be verified by comparing the maximum ECU
torque values at different engine speeds with the corresponding values on the official engine
full load torque curve according to Paragraph 5. of this Annex.
A.1.3.2.3.
Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption
The Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) shall be checked using:
(a)
(b)
The fuel consumption calculated from the emissions data (gas analyser
concentrations and exhaust mass flow data), according to the formulae in
Paragraph 8.4.1.6. of Annex 4;
The work calculated using the data from the ECU (Engine torque and engine speed).
A.1.3.2.4.
Odometer
The distance indicated by the vehicle odometer shall be checked against the GPS data and
verified.
A.1.3.2.5.
Ambient Pressure
The ambient pressure value shall be checked against the altitude indicated by the GPS
data.
A.1.3.3.
Dry-Wet Correction
If the concentration is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to a wet basis
according to the formula in Paragraph 8.1. of Annex 4.
A.1.3.4.
NO Correction for Humidity and Temperature
The NO concentrations measured by the PEMS shall not be corrected for ambient air
temperature and humidity.
A.1.3.5.
Calculation of the Instantaneous Gaseous Emissions
The mass emissions shall be determined as described in Paragraph 8.4.2.3. of Annex 4.

A.1.4.2.
Work Based Method
The duration
W
( t ) − W ( t ) ≥ W
where:
Figure 2
Work Based Method
t − t of the i averaging window is determined by:
W ( t ) is the engine work measured between the start and time t , kWh;
W is the engine work for the WHTC, kWh.
t shall be selected such that:
W
( t − Δt
) − W ( t ) < W ≤ W ( t ) − W ( t )
Where ∆t is the data sampling period, equal to 1s or less.

A.1.4.3.
CO Mass Based Method
Figure 3
CO Mass Based Method
The duration ( t
− t
) of the i averaging window is determined by:
m
( t ) − m ( t ) ≥ m
where:
m ( t ) is the CO mass measured between the test start and time t ,kg;
m is the CO mass determined for the WHTC,kg;
t shall be selected such as:
m
( t − Δt) − m ( t ) < m ≤ m ( t ) − m ( t )
Where ∆t is the data sampling period, equal to 1s or less.
The CO masses are calculated in the windows by integrating the instantaneous emissions
calculated according to the requirements introduced in Paragraph A.1.3.5.

ANNEX 8 - APPENDIX 2
PORTABLE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
A.2.1.
GENERAL
The gaseous emissions shall be measured according to the procedure set out in Appendix 1
to this Annex. The present Appendix describes the characteristics of the portable
measurement equipment that shall be used to perform such tests.
A.2.2.
A.2.2.1.
Measuring Equipment
Gas Analysers General Specifications
The PEMS gas analysers specifications shall meet the requirements set out in
Paragraph 9.3.1. of Annex 4.
A.2.2.2.
Gas Analysers Technology
The gases shall be analysed using the technologies specified in Paragraph 9.3.2.of
Annex 4.
The oxides of nitrogen analyser may also be of the Non-Dispersive Ultra Violet (NDUV)
type.
A.2.2.3.
Sampling of Gaseous Emissions
The sampling probes shall meet the requirements defined in Paragraph A.2.1.2. and
A.2.1.3. of Appendix 2 to Annex 4 to this Regulation. The sampling line shall be heated to
190°C (+/-10°C).
A.2.2.4.
Other Instruments
The measuring instruments shall satisfy the requirements given in Table 7 in Annex 4 and
Paragraph 9.3.1. to Annex 4.
A.2.3.
A.2.3.1.
AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
Exhaust Gas Flow Meter (EFM) Tailpipe Connection
The installation of the EFM shall not increase the backpressure by more than the value
recommended by the engine manufacturer, nor increase the length of the tailpipe by more
than 1.2m. As for the all the components of the PEMS equipment, the installation of the
EFM shall comply with the locally applicable road safety regulations and insurance
requirements.
A.2.3.2.
PEMS Location and Mounting Hardware
The PEMS equipment shall be installed as specified in Paragraph A.1.2.4. of Appendix 1 to
this Annex.
A.2.3.3.
Electrical Power
The PEMS equipment shall be powered using the method described in Paragraph 4.6.6. of
this Annex.

ANNEX 8 - APPENDIX 4
METHOD TO CHECK THE CONFORMITY OF THE ECU TORQUE-SIGNAL
A.4.1.
INTRODUCTION
This Appendix describes in a non-detailed manner the method used to check the conformity
of the ECU torque-signal during ISC-PEMS testing.
The detailed applicable procedure is left to the engine manufacturer, subject to approval of
the Type Approval Authority.
A.4.2.
A.4.2.1.
A.4.2.2.
THE "MAXIMUM TORQUE" METHOD
The "Maximum torque" method consists of demonstrating that a point on the reference
maximum torque curve as a function of the engine speed has been reached during vehicle
testing.
If a point on the reference maximum torque curve as a function of the engine speed has not
been reached during the ISC PEMS emissions testing, the manufacturer is entitled to modify
the load of the vehicle and/or the testing route as necessary in order to perform that
demonstration after the ISC PEMS emissions test has been completed.

2.3. Additional Provisions Concerning Monitoring Requirements
2.3.1. Malfunctioning Injectors
As an alternative to the monitor specified in Line (d) of the table in Item 7 of Appendix 3 to
Annex 9B to this Regulation, the manufacturer may opt for compliance with the provisions
specified in Paragraphs 2.3.1.1. to 2.3.1.2.1. of this Annex
2.3.1.1. The manufacturer shall submit to the Type Approval Authority an analysis of the long-term
effects on the emission control system of malfunctioning fuel injectors (for example clogged
or soiled injectors) even if the OBD Threshold Limits (OTLs) are not exceeded as a
consequence of these malfunctions.
2.3.1.2. After the period set out in Paragraph 4.10.7. of this Regulation the manufacturer shall
submit to the Type Approval Authority a plan of the monitoring techniques he intends to use
in addition to those required by Appendix 3 to Annex 9B in order to diagnose the effects
considered in Paragraph 2.3.1.1.
2.3.1.2.1. After approval of this plan by the authority, the manufacturer shall implement those
techniques in the OBD system in order to get a type approval.
2.3.2. Monitoring Requirements Concerning Particulate after Treatment Devices
2.3.2.1. The performance of the particulate after treatment device including the filtration and
continuous regeneration processes shall be monitored against the OBD threshold limit
specified in Table 1.
2.3.2.2. In the case of a wall flow diesel particulate filter (DPF), until the date specified in Paragraph
13.2.3. of this Regulation for new type approvals and Paragraph 13.3.3. for new
registrations, the manufacturer may choose to apply the performance monitoring
requirements set out in Appendix 8 to Annex 9B instead of the requirements of
Paragraph 2.3.2.1., if he can demonstrate with technical documentation that in case of
deterioration there is a positive correlation between the loss of filtration efficiency and the
loss of pressure drop ("delta pressure") across the DPF under the operating conditions of
the engine specified in the test described in Appendix 8 to Annex 9B.

2.5. Conformity of Production
The OBD system is subject to the requirements for conformity of production specified in
Paragraph 8.4. of this Regulation.
If the Type Approval Authority decides that verification of the conformity of production of the
OBD system is required, the verification shall be conducted in accordance with the
requirements specified in Paragraph 8.4. of this Regulation.
3. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
3.1. The performance requirements shall be those set out in Paragraph 5. of Annex 9B.
3.2. OBD Threshold Limits
3.2.1. The OBD threshold limits (hereinafter OTLs) applicable to the OBD system are those
specified in the rows "general requirements" of Table 1 for compression ignition engines and
of Table 2 for gas-fuelled engines and positive ignition engines fitted to vehicles belonging
to Category M , to N vehicles having a maximum permissible mass exceeding 7.5t, and to
N vehicles.
3.2.2. Until the end of the phase-in period set out in Paragraph 4.10.7. of this Regulation, the OBD
threshold limits specified in rows "phase-in period" of Table 1 for compression ignition
engines and of Table 2 for gas fuelled engines and positive ignition engines fitted to vehicles
belonging to Category M , to N vehicles having a maximum permissible mass exceeding
7.5t and, to N vehicles shall apply.
Table 1
OTLs (Compression Ignition Engines)
Limit in mg/kWh
NO
PM Mass
Phase-in period 1,500 25
General requirements 1,200 25
Table 2
OTLs (Positive Ignition Engines)
Limit in mg/kWh
NO CO
Phase-in period 1,500 7,500
General requirements 1,200 7,500

6.1.3. The in-use performance ratio (IUPR ) of a group g of monitors on board a vehicle is
calculated by the following formula:
IUPR = Numerator /Denominator
Where:
"Numerator " means the numerator of a group g of monitors and is the actual value
(Numerator ) of the specific monitor m that has the lowest in-use performance ratio as
defined in Paragraph 6.1.2. of all monitors within that group g of monitors on board a
particular vehicle;
and
"Denominator " means the denominator of a group g of monitors and is the actual value
(Denominator ) of the specific monitor m that has the lowest in-use performance ratio as
defined in Paragraph 6.1.2. of all monitors within that group g of monitors on board a
particular vehicle.
6.2. Minimum In-Use Performance Ratio
6.2.1. The in-use performance ratio IUPR of a monitor m of the OBD system as defined in
Paragraph 5. of Annex 9C, shall be greater than or equal to the minimum
in-use-performance ratio IUPR (min) applicable to the monitor m throughout the useful life
of the engine as specified in Paragraph 5.4. of this Regulation.
6.2.2. The value of minimum in-use-performance ratio IUPR(min) is 0.1 for all monitors.
6.2.3. The requirement of Paragraph 6.2.1. is deemed to be fulfilled if for all groups of monitors g
the following conditions are met:
6.2.3.1. The average value IUPR of the values IUPR of all vehicles equipped with engines
belonging to the OBD engine family under consideration is equal to or above IUPR(min),
and
6.2.3.2. More than 50% of all engines considered in Paragraph 6.2.3.1. have an IUPRg equal to or
above IUPR(min).
6.3. Documentation Requirements
6.3.1. The documentation associated with each monitored component or system and required by
Paragraph 8. of Annex 9B shall include the following information concerning in-use
performance data:
(a)
(b)
The criteria used for incrementing the numerator and the denominator;
Any criterion for disabling incrementation of the numerator or of the denominator.
6.3.1.1. Any criterion for disabling incrementation of the general denominator shall be added to the
documentation referred to in Paragraph 6.3.1.

ANNEX 9A - APPENDIX 1
ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-USE PERFORMANCE OF THE ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM
A.1.1.
A.1.1.1.
A.1.2.
A.1.2.1.
GENERAL
This Appendix sets out the procedure to be followed when demonstrating the OBD in-use
performance with regard to the provisions set out in Paragraph 6. of this Annex.
PROCEDURE FOR DEMONSTRATING OBD IN-USE PERFORMANCE
The OBD in-use performance of an engine family shall be demonstrated by the
manufacturer to the Type Approval Authority that granted the type approval for the vehicles
or engines concerned. The demonstration shall require consideration of the OBD in-use
performance of all OBD engine families within the engine family under consideration
(Figure 1).
Figure 1
Two OBD Engine Families within One Engine Family
A.1.2.1.1.
A.1.2.1.2.
The demonstration of OBD in-use performance shall be organised and conducted by the
manufacturer, in close cooperation with the Type Approval Authority.
The manufacturer may use in the demonstration of conformity relevant elements that were
used to demonstrate the conformity of an OBD engine family within another engine family
provided that this earlier demonstration took place no more than two years before the
current demonstration (Figure 2).

A.1.3.
A.1.3.1.
A.1.4.
A.1.4.1.
OBD IN-USE PERFORMANCE DATA
The OBD in-use performance data to be considered for assessing the conformity of an OBD
engine family shall be those recorded by the OBD system according to Paragraph 6. of
Annex 9C, and made available according to Paragraph 7. of that Annex.
ENGINE OR VEHICLE SELECTION
Engine Selection
A.1.4.1.1. In the case where an OBD engine family is used in several engine families (Figure 2),
engines from each of these engine families shall be selected by the manufacturer for
demonstrating the in-use performance of that OBD engine family.
A.1.4.1.2.
A.1.4.2.
A.1.4.2.1.
Any engine of a particular OBD-engine family may be included in the same demonstration
even if the monitoring systems with which they are equipped are of different generations or
at different modification states.
Vehicle Selection
Vehicle Segments
A.1.4.2.1.1. For the purpose of classifying the vehicles subject to demonstration, 6 vehicle segments
shall be considered:
(a)
(b)
For vehicles of Class N: long-haul vehicles, distribution vehicles, and others, such as
construction vehicles.
For vehicles of Class M: coaches and inter-city buses, city buses, and others, such as
M vehicles.
A.1.4.2.1.2. Where possible, vehicles shall be selected from each segment in a survey.
A.1.4.2.1.3. There shall be a minimum of 15 vehicles per segment.
A.1.4.2.1.4. In the case where an OBD engine-family is used in several engine families (Figure 2), the
number of engines from each of these engine families within a vehicle segment shall be as
representative as possible of their volume share, in terms of vehicles sold and in use, for
that vehicle segment.
A.1.4.2.2.
Vehicle Qualification
A.1.4.2.2.1. The engines selected shall be fitted to vehicles registered and used in a country of the
Contracting Parties.
A.1.4.2.2.2. Each vehicle selected shall have a maintenance record to show that the vehicle has been
properly maintained and serviced in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
A.1.4.2.2.3. The OBD system shall be checked for proper functioning. Any malfunction indications
relevant to the OBD system itself that are stored in the OBD memory shall be recorded and
the required repairs shall be carried out.

A.1.6.
REPORT TO THE TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITY
The manufacturer shall provide the Type Approval Authority with a report on the in-use
performance of the OBD engine family that contains the following information:
A.1.6.1. The list of the engine families within the considered OBD engine family (Figure 1)
A.1.6.2.
The following information concerning the vehicles considered in the demonstration:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The total number of vehicles considered in the demonstration;
The number and the type of vehicle segments;
The VIN, and a short description (type-variant-version) of each vehicle.
A.1.6.3.
In-use performance information for each vehicle:
(a)
(b)
The numerator , denominator , and in-use performance ratio (IUPR ) for each group
of monitors;
The general denominator, the value of the ignition cycle counter, the total engine
running hours.
A.1.6.4.
The results of the in-use performance statistics for each group of monitors:
(a) The average value IUPR of the IUPR values of the sample;
(b)
The number and the percentage of engines in the sample that have an IUPR equal
to or above IUPR (min).

ANNEX 9B
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS (OBD)
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex sets out the technical requirements of on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems for
the control of emissions from engine systems which are covered by this Regulation.
This Annex is based on the world-wide harmonized OBD global technical regulation (GTR)
No. 5.
2. RESERVED
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1. "Alert system" means a system on-board the vehicle which informs the driver of the
vehicle or any other interested party that the OBD system has detected a malfunction.
3.2. "Calibration verification number" means the number that is calculated and reported by
the engine system to validate the calibration/software integrity.
3.3. "Component monitoring" means the monitoring of input components for electrical circuit
failures and rationality failures and monitoring of output components for electrical circuit
failures and functionality failures. It refers to components that are electrically connected to
the controller(s) of the engine system.
3.4. "Confirmed and active DTC" means a DTC that is stored during the time the OBD system
concludes that a malfunction exists.
3.5. "Continuous-MI" means the malfunction indicator showing a steady indication from the
time the key is moved to on (run) position and the engine is started (ignition on - engine on)
or the vehicle starts moving, whichever occurs first, and extinguishing when the key is
moved to off.
3.6. "Deficiency" means an OBD monitoring strategy or other OBD feature that does not meet
all the detailed requirements of this Annex.
3.7. "Electrical circuit failure" means a malfunction (e.g. open circuit or short circuit) that leads
to the measured signal (i.e. voltages, currents, frequencies, etc.) being outside the range
where the transfer functions of the sensor is designed to operate.
3.8. "Emission OBD family" means a manufacturer's grouping of engine systems having
common methods of monitoring/diagnosing emission-related malfunctions.

3.21. "Readiness" means a status indicating whether a monitor or a group of monitors have run
since the last erasing by an external request or command (for example through an OBD
scan-tool).
3.22. "Short-MI" means the malfunction indicator showing a 15s steady indication from the time
the key is moved to on (run) position and the engine is started (ignition on - engine on) or
the vehicle starts moving, and extinguishing after these 15s or when the key is moved to off,
whichever occurs first.
3.23. "Software calibration identification" means a series of alphanumeric characters that
identifies the emission-related calibration/software version(s) installed in the engine system.
3.24. "Total functional failure monitoring" means monitoring a malfunction which is leading to
a complete loss of the desired function of a system.
3.25. "Warm-up cycle" means sufficient engine operation such that the coolant temperature has
risen by at least 22K (22°C/40°F) from engine starting and reaches a minimum temperature
of 333K (60°/140° F) .
3.26. Abbreviations
AES
CV
DOC
DPF
DTC
EGR
HC
LNT
LPG
MECS
NG
NO
OTL
PM
SCR
Auxiliary Emission Strategy
Crankcase Ventilation
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
Diesel Particulate Filter or Particulate Trap including catalyzed DPFs and
Continuously Regenerating Traps (CRT)
Diagnostic trouble code
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Hydrocarbon
Lean NO Trap (or NO absorber)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Malfunction Emission Control Strategy
Natural Gas
Oxides of Nitrogen
OBD Threshold Limit
Particulate Matter
Selective Catalytic Reduction

4.1.2. Extension/Modification of an Existing Certificate
4.1.2.1. Extension to Include a New Engine System into an Emission-OBD Family
At the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Type Approval Authority, a new
engine system may be included as a member of a certified emission-OBD family if all the
engine systems within the so-extended emission-OBD family still have common methods of
monitoring/diagnosing emission-related malfunctions.
If all OBD elements of design of the OBD-parent engine system are representative of those
of the new engine system, then the OBD-parent engine system shall remain unchanged and
the manufacturer shall modify the documentation package according to Paragraph 8. of this
Annex.
If the new engine system contains elements of design that are not represented by the
OBD-parent engine system but itself would represent the whole family, then the new engine
system shall become the new OBD-parent engine system. In this case the new OBD
elements of design shall be demonstrated to comply with the provisions of this Annex, and
the documentation package shall be modified according to Paragraph 8. of this Annex.
4.1.2.2. Extension to Address a Design Change that Affects the OBD System
At the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Type Approval Authority, an
extension of an existing certificate may be granted in the case of a design change of the
OBD system if the manufacturer demonstrates that the design changes comply with the
provisions of this Annex.
The documentation package shall be modified according to Paragraph 8. of this Annex.
If the existing certificate applies to an emission-OBD family, the manufacturer shall justify to
the Type Approval Authority that the methods of monitoring/diagnosing emission-related
malfunctions are still common within the family and that the OBD-parent engine system
remains representative of the family.
4.1.2.3. Certificate Modification to Address a Malfunction Reclassification
This Paragraph applies when, following a request by the authority that granted the approval,
or at its own initiative, the manufacturer applies for a modification of an existing certificate in
order to reclassify one or several malfunctions.
The compliance of the new classification shall then be demonstrated according to the
provisions of this Annex and the documentation package shall be modified according to
Paragraph 8. of this Annex.

When a tailpipe emission sensor is used for monitoring the emissions of a specific pollutant
all other monitors may be exempted from further correlation to the actual emissions of that
pollutant. Nevertheless, such exemption shall not preclude the need to include these
monitors, using other monitoring techniques, as part of the OBD system as the monitors are
still needed for the purpose of malfunction isolation.
A malfunction shall always be classified according to Paragraph 4.5. based on its impact on
emissions, regardless of the type of monitoring used to detect the malfunction.
4.2.2. Component Monitoring (Input/Output Components/Systems)
In the case of input components that belong to the engine system, the OBD system shall at
a minimum detect electrical circuit failures and, where feasible, rationality failures.
The rationality failure diagnostics shall then verify that a sensor output is neither
inappropriately high nor inappropriately low (i.e. there shall be "two-sided" diagnostics).
To the extent feasible, and with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority, the OBD
system shall detect separately, rationality failures (e.g. inappropriately high and
inappropriately low), and electrical circuit failures (e.g. out-of-range high and out-of-range
low). Additionally, unique DTCs for each distinct malfunction (e.g. out-of-range low,
out-of-range high and rationality failure) shall be stored.
In the case of output components that belong to the engine system, the OBD system shall at
a minimum detect electrical circuit failures, and, where feasible, if the proper functional
response to computer commands does not occur.
To the extent feasible, and with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority, the OBD
system shall detect separately functionality failures, electrical circuit failures
(e.g. out-of-range high and out-of-range low) and store unique DTCs for each distinct
malfunction (e.g. out-of-range low, out-of-range high, functionality failure).
The OBD system shall also perform rationality monitoring on the information coming from or
provided to components that do not belong to the engine system when this information
compromises the emission control system and/or the engine system for proper
performance.

4.3. Requirements for Recording OBD Information
When a malfunction has been detected but is not yet confirmed, the possible malfunction
shall be considered as a "Potential DTC" and accordingly a "Pending DTC" status shall be
recorded. A "Potential DTC" shall not lead to an activation of the alert system according to
Paragraph 4.6.
Within the first operating sequence, a malfunction may be directly considered "confirmed
and active" without having been considered a "potential DTC". It shall be given the "Pending
DTC" and a "confirmed and active DTC" status.
In case a malfunction with the previously active status occurs again, that malfunction may at
the choice of manufacturer be directly given the "Pending DTC" and "confirmed and active
DTC" status without having been given the "potential DTC" status. If that malfunction is
given the potential status, it shall also keep the previously active status during the time it is
not yet confirmed and active.
The monitoring system shall conclude whether a malfunction is present before the end of
the next operating sequence following its first detection. At this time, a "confirmed and
active" DTC shall be stored and the alert system be activated according to Paragraph 4.6.
In case of a recoverable MECS (i.e. the operation automatically returns to normal and the
MECS is de-activated at the next engine ON), a "confirmed and active" DTC need not be
stored unless the MECS is again activated before the end of the next operating sequence.
In case of a non-recoverable MECS, a "confirmed and active" DTC shall be stored as soon
as the MECS is activated.
In some specific cases where monitors need more than two operating sequences to
accurately detect and confirm a malfunction (e.g. monitors using statistical models or with
respect to fluid consumption on the vehicle), the Type Approval Authority may permit the
use of more than two operating sequences for monitoring provided the manufacturer
justifies the need for the longer period (e.g. by technical rationale, experimental results, in
house experience, etc.).
When a confirmed and active malfunction is no longer detected by the system during a
complete operating sequence, it shall be given the previously active status by the start of
the next operating sequence and keep that status until the OBD information associated with
this malfunction is erased by a scan tool or erased from the computer memory according to
Paragraph 4.4.
Note: The requirements prescribed in this Paragraph are illustrated in Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
4.4. Requirements for Erasing OBD Information
DTC and the applicable information (inclusive the associated freeze frame) shall not be
erased by the OBD system itself from the computer memory until that DTC has been in the
previously active status for at least 40 warm-up cycles or 200 engine operating hours,
whichever occurs first. The OBD system shall erase all the DTCs and the applicable
information (inclusive the associated freeze frame) upon request of a scan tool or a
maintenance tool.

4.5.4. Class C Malfunction
A malfunction shall be identified as Class C when circumstances exist that, if monitored, are
assumed to influence emissions but to a level that would not exceed the regulated emission
limits.
Malfunctions that restrict the ability of the OBD system to carry out monitoring of Class C
malfunctions shall be classified into Class B1 or B2.
4.6. Alert System
The failure of a component of the alert system shall not cause the OBD system to stop
functioning.
4.6.1. MI Specification
The malfunction indicator shall be a visual signal that is perceptible under all lighting
conditions. The malfunction indicator shall comprise a yellow or amber (as defined in
UN/ECE Regulation No. 37) warning signal identified by the 0640 symbol in accordance
with ISO Standard 7000:2004.
4.6.2. MI Illumination Schemes
Depending on the malfunction(s) detected by the OBD system, the MI shall be illuminated
according to one of the activation modes described in the following table:
Activation mode 1 Activation mode 2 Activation mode 3 Activation mode 4
Conditions of
activation
No malfunction
Class C malfunction
Class B malfunction and
B1 counters <200 h
Class A malfunction or
B1 counter >200 h
Key on engine
on
No display
Discriminatory
display strategy
Discriminatory display
strategy
Discriminatory display
strategy
Key on engine
off
Harmonized
display strategy
Harmonized display
strategy
Harmonized display
strategy
Harmonized display
strategy
The display strategy requires the MI to be activated according to the class in which a
malfunction has been classified. This strategy shall be locked by software coding that shall
not be routinely available via the scan tool.
The MI activation strategy at key on, engine off is described in Paragraph 4.6.4.
Figures B1 and B2 illustrate the prescribed activation strategies at key on, engine on or off.

ENGINE ON
d) Activation mode 4
WWH Harmonized
Non-Discriminatory System
Discriminatory System
ENGINE OFF
e) activation mode 3
f) Activation mode 2
g) Activation mode 4 with "not ready" status.
h) Activation mode 3 with "not ready" status.
Figure B.2
Malfunction Display Strategy: Only the Discriminatory Strategy is Applicable

4.6.4. MI Activation at Key-On/Engine-Off
The MI activation at key-on/engine-off shall consist of two sequences separated by a 5s MI
off:
(a)
(b)
The first sequence is designed to provide an indication of the MI functionality and the
readiness of the monitored components;
The second sequence is designed to provide an indication of the presence of a
malfunction.
The first sequence starts from the first time the system is at key-on position and stops either
at its normal completion or when the key is set to the key-off position, whichever occurs first.
The second sequence is repeated until either the engine is started
moving, or the key is set to the key-off position, whichever occurs first.
, the vehicle starts
4.6.4.1. MI functionality/readiness
The MI shall show a steady indication for 5s to indicate that the MI is functional.
The MI shall remain at the off position for 10s.
The MI shall then remain at the on position for 5s to indicate that the readiness for all
monitored components is complete.
The MI shall blink once per second for 5s to indicate that the readiness for one or more of
the monitored components is not complete.
The MI shall then remain off for 5s.
4.6.4.2. Presence/absence of a malfunction
Following the sequence described in Paragraph 4.6.4.1, the MI shall indicate the presence
of a malfunction by a series of flashes or a continuous illumination, depending on the
applicable activation mode, as described in the following Paragraphs; or the absence of a
malfunction by a series of single flashes. When applicable, each flash consists of a 1s MI-on
followed by a one second MI-off, and the series of flashes will be followed by a period of
four seconds with the MI off.
Four activation modes are considered, where activation mode 4 shall take precedence over
activation modes 1, 2 and 3, activation mode 3 shall take precedence over activation modes
1 and 2, and activation mode 2 shall take precedence over activation mode 1.
4.6.4.2.1. Activation mode 1 - absence of malfunction
The MI shall blink for one flash.
4.6.4.2.2. Activation mode 2 - "On-demand-MI"
The MI shall show blink for two flashes if the OBD system would command an
on-demand-MI according to the discriminatory display strategy described in
Paragraph 4.6.3.1.

Figure C1
Illustration of the MI Counters Activation Principles

The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall operate as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall begin counting when the continuous-MI is
activated;
The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall halt and hold its present value when the
continuous-MI is no longer activated;
The cumulative continuous-MI counter shall continue counting from the point it had
been held when a continuous-MI is activated.
Figure C1 illustrates the principle of the cumulative continuous-MI counter and Appendix 2
to this Annex contains examples that illustrate the logic.
4.6.5.2. Counters Associated with Class B1 Malfunctions
4.6.5.2.1. Single B1-Counter
The OBD system shall contain a B1 counter to record the number of hours during which the
internal combustion engine has operated while a Class B1 malfunction is present.
The B1 counter shall operate as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The B1 counter shall begin counting as soon as a Class B1 malfunction is detected
and a confirmed and active DTC has been stored;
The B1 counter shall halt and hold its present value if no Class B1 malfunction is
confirmed and active, or when all Class B1 malfunction have been erased by a scan
tool;
The B1 counter shall continue counting from the point it had been held if a
subsequent Class B1 malfunction is detected within 3 operating sequences.
In the case where the B1 counter has exceeded 200 engine running hours, the OBD system
shall set the counter to 190 engine running hours when the OBD system has determined
that a Class B1 malfunction is no longer confirmed and active, or when all Class B1
malfunctions have been erased by a scan tool. The B1 counter shall begin counting from
190 engine running hours if a subsequent Class B1 malfunction is present within 3 operating
sequences.
The B1 counter shall be reset to zero when three consecutive operating sequences have
occurred during which no Class B1 malfunctions have been detected.
Note:
The B1 counter does not indicate the number of engine running hours with a
single Class B1 malfunction present.
The B1 counter may accumulate the number of hours of 2 or more different Class B1
malfunctions, none of them having reached the time the counter indicates.
The B1 counter is only intended to determine when the continuous-MI shall be activated.
Figure C2 illustrates the principle of the B1 counter and Appendix 2 to this Annex contains
examples that illustrate the logic.

4.7.1.2. Information about Active Emission-Related Malfunctions
This information will provide any inspection station with a subset of engine related OBD
data including the malfunction indicator status and associated data (MI counters), a list of
active/confirmed malfunctions of Classes A and B and associated data (e.g. B1-counter).
The OBD system shall provide all information (according to the applicable standard set in
Appendix 6 to this Annex) for the external inspection test equipment to assimilate the data
and provide an inspector with the following information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
The GTR (and revision) number, to be integrated into Regulation No. 49 type
approval marking;
Discriminatory/ non-discriminatory display strategy;
The VIN (vehicle identification number);
The Malfunction Indicator status;
The Readiness of the OBD system;
Number of warm-up cycles and number of engine operating hours since recorded
OBD information was last cleared;
The number of engine operating hours during which a continuous-MI was last
activated (continuous-MI counter);
The cumulated operating hours with a continuous-MI (cumulative continuous-MI
counter);
The value of the B1 counter with the highest number of engine operating hours;
The confirmed and active DTCs for Class A malfunctions;
The confirmed and active DTCs for Classes B (B1 and B2) malfunctions;
The confirmed and active DTCs for Class B1 malfunctions;
The software calibration identification(s);
The calibration verification number(s).
This information shall be read only access (i.e. no clearing).

(q)
(r)
(s)
Freeze frame data required by this Annex (see Paragraph 4.7.1.4. and Appendix 5 to
this Annex);
Software calibration identification(s);
Calibration verification number(s).
The OBD system shall clear all the recorded malfunctions of the engine system and related
data (operating time information, freeze frame, etc.) in accordance with the provisions of this
Annex, when this request is provided via the external repair test equipment according to the
applicable standard set in Appendix 6 to this Annex.
4.7.1.4. Freeze Frame Information
4.7.1.5. Readiness
At least one "freeze frame" of information shall be stored at the time that either a potential
DTC or a confirmed and active DTC is stored at the decision of the manufacturer. The
manufacturer is allowed to update the freeze frame information whenever the pending DTC
is detected again.
The freeze frame shall provide the operating conditions of the vehicle at the time of
malfunction detection and the DTC associated with the stored data. The freeze frame shall
include the information as shown in Table 1 in Appendix 5 to this Annex. The freeze frame
shall also include all of the information in Tables 2 and 3 of Appendix 5 to this Annex that are
used for monitoring or control purposes in the specific control unit that stored the DTC.
Storage of freeze frame information associated with a Class A malfunction shall take
precedence over information associated with a Class B1 malfunction which shall take
precedence over information associated with a Class B2 malfunction and likewise for
information associated with a Class C malfunction. The first malfunction detected shall take
precedence over the most recent malfunction unless the most recent malfunction is of a higher
class.
In case a device is monitored by the OBD system and is not be covered by Appendix 5 to
this Annex the freeze frame information shall include elements of information for the sensors
and actuators of this device in a way similar to those described in Appendix 5 to this Annex.
This shall be submitted for approval by the Type Approval Authority at the time of approval.
With the exceptions specified in Paragraphs 4.7.1.5.1., 4.7.1.5.2. and 4.7.1.5.3., a readiness
shall only be set to "complete" when a monitor or a group of monitors addressed by this
status have run and concluded the presence (that means stored a confirmed and active
DTC) or the absence of the failure relevant to that monitor since the last erasing by an
external request or command (for example through an OBD scan-tool). Readiness shall be
set to "not complete" by erasing the fault code memory (see Paragraph 4.7.4.) by an
external request or command (for example through an OBD scan-tool).
Normal engine shutdown shall not cause the readiness to change.

4.7.2. Data Stream Information
The OBD system shall make available to a scan tool in real time the information shown in
Tables 1 to 4 in Appendix 5 to this Annex, upon request (actual signal values should be
used in favour of surrogate values).
For the purpose of the calculated load and torque parameters, the OBD system shall report
the most accurate values that are calculated within the applicable electronic control unit
(e.g. the engine control computer).
Table 1 in Appendix 5 to this Annex gives the list of mandatory OBD information relating to
the engine load and speed.
Table 3 in Appendix 5 to this Annex shows the other OBD information which must be
included if used by the emission or OBD system to enable or disable any OBD monitors.
Table 4 in Appendix 5 to this Annex shows the information which is required to be included if
the engine is so equipped, senses or calculates the information . At the decision of the
manufacturer, other freeze frame or data stream information may be included.
In case a device is monitored by the OBD system and is not covered by Appendix 5 to this
Annex (e.g. SCR), the data-stream information shall include elements of information for the
sensors and actuators of this device in a way similar to those described in Appendix 5 to this
Annex. This shall be submitted for approval by the Type Approval Authority at the time of
approval.

4.7.3.1. CAN Based Wired Communication
The communication speed on the wired data link of the OBD system shall be either
250 kbps or 500 kbps.
It is the manufacturer's responsibility to select the baud-rate and to design the OBD system
according to the requirements specified in the standards mentioned in Appendix 6 to this
Annex, and referred to in this Annex. The OBD system shall be tolerant against the
automatic detection between these two baud-rates exercised by the external test
equipment.
The connection interface between the vehicle and the external diagnostic test equipment
(e.g. scan-tool) shall be standardised and shall meet all of the requirements of ISO 15031-3
Type A (12Vdc power supply), Type B (24Vdc power supply) or SAE J1939-13 (12 or 24Vdc
power supply).
4.7.3.2. Reserved for TCP/IP (Ethernet) Based Wired Communication.
4.7.3.3. Connector Location
The connector shall be located in the driver's side foot-well region of the vehicle interior in
the area bound by the driver's side of the vehicle and the driver's side edge of the centre
console (or the vehicle centreline if the vehicle does not have a centre console) and at a
location no higher than the bottom of the steering wheel when in the lowest adjustable
position. The connector may not be located on or in the centre console (i.e. neither on the
horizontal faces near the floor-mounted gear selector, parking brake lever, or cup holders
nor on the vertical faces near the stereo/radio, climate system, or navigation system
controls). The location of the connector shall be capable of being easily identified and
accessed (e.g. to connect an off-board tool). For vehicles equipped with a driver's side door,
the connector shall be capable of being easily identified and accessed by someone standing
(or "crouched") outside the driver's side of the vehicle with the driver's side door open.
The Type Approval Authority may approve upon request of the manufacturer an alternative
location provided the installation position shall be easily accessible and protected from
accidental damage during normal conditions of use, e.g. the location as described in
ISO 15031 series of standards.
If the connector is covered or located in a specific equipment box, the cover or the
compartment door must be removable by hand without the use of any tools and be clearly
labelled "OBD" to identify the location of the connector.
The manufacturer may equip vehicles with additional diagnostic connectors and data-links
for manufacturer-specific purposes other than the required OBD functions. If the additional
connector conforms to one of the standard diagnostic connectors allowed in Appendix 6 to
this Annex, only the connector required by this Annex shall be clearly labelled "OBD" to
distinguish it from other similar connectors.

Manufacturers using programmable computer code systems (e.g. electrical erasable
programmable read-only memory, EEPROM) shall deter unauthorized reprogramming.
Manufacturers shall include enhanced tamper-protection strategies and write protect
features requiring electronic access to an off-site computer maintained by the manufacturer.
Alternative methods giving an equivalent level of tamper protection may be approved by the
Type Approval Authority
4.9. Durability of the OBD System
The OBD system shall be designed and constructed so as to enable it to identify types of
malfunctions over the complete life of the vehicle or engine system.
Any additional provisions addressing the durability of OBD systems are contained in this
Annex.
An OBD system shall not be programmed or otherwise designed to partially or totally
deactivate based on age and/or mileage of the vehicle during the actual life of the vehicle,
nor shall the system contain any algorithm or strategy designed to reduce the effectiveness
of the OBD system over time.
5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1. Thresholds
The OTLs for the applicable monitoring criteria defined in Appendix 3 to this Annex are
defined in the main part of this Regulation
5.2. Temporary Disablement of the OBD System
Approval authorities may approve that an OBD system be temporarily disabled under the
conditions specified in the following sub-paragraphs.
At the time of type approval, the manufacturer shall provide the Type Approval Authority
with the detailed description of each of the OBD system's temporary disablement strategies
and the data and/or engineering evaluation demonstrating that monitoring during the
applicable conditions would be unreliable or impractical.
In all cases, monitoring shall resume once the conditions justifying temporary disablement
are no longer present.
5.2.1. Engine/Vehicle Operational Safety
Manufacturers may request approval to disable the affected OBD monitoring systems when
operational safety strategies are activated.
The OBD monitoring system is not required to evaluate components during malfunction if
such evaluation would result in a risk to the safe use of the vehicle.

5.2.4. Vehicle Battery or System Voltage Levels
Manufacturers may request approval to disable monitoring systems that can be affected by
vehicle battery or system voltage levels.
5.2.4.1. Low Voltage
For monitoring systems affected by low vehicle battery or system voltages, manufacturers
may request approval to disable monitoring systems when the battery or system voltage is
below 90% of the nominal voltage (or 11.0 volts for a 12 volt battery, 22.0 volts for a 24 volt
battery). Manufacturers may request approval to utilize a voltage threshold higher than this
value to disable system monitoring.
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that monitoring at the voltages would be unreliable and
that either operation of a vehicle below the disablement criteria for extended periods of time
is unlikely or the OBD system monitors the battery or system voltage and will detect a
malfunction at the voltage used to disable other monitors.
5.2.4.2. High Voltage
For emission related monitoring systems affected by high vehicle battery or system
voltages, manufacturers may request approval to disable monitoring systems when the
battery or system voltage exceeds a manufacturer-defined voltage.
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that monitoring above the manufacturer-defined
voltage would be unreliable and that either the electrical charging system/alternator warning
light is illuminated (or voltage gauge is in the "red zone") or the OBD system monitors the
battery or system voltage and will detect a malfunction at the voltage used to disable other
monitors.
5.2.5. Active PTO (Power Take-Off Units)
The manufacturer may request approval to temporarily disable affected monitoring systems
in vehicles equipped with a PTO unit, under the condition where that PTO unit is temporarily
active.
5.2.6. Forced Regeneration
The manufacturer may request approval to disable the affected OBD monitoring systems
during the forced regeneration of an emission control system downstream of the engine
(e.g. a particulate filter).
5.2.7. Auxillary Emissions Strategy (AES)
The manufacturer may request approval to disable OBD system monitors during the
operation of an AES, including MECS, under conditions not already covered in
Paragraph 5.2. if the monitoring capability of a monitor is affected by the operation of an
AES.

These similarities shall be demonstrated by the manufacturer by means of relevant
engineering demonstration or other appropriate procedures and subject to the approval of
the Type Approval Authority.
The manufacturer may request approval by the Type Approval Authority of minor differences
in the methods of monitoring/diagnosing the engine emission control system due to engine
system configuration variation, when these methods are considered similar by the
manufacturer and:
(a)
(b)
They differ only to match specificities of the considered components (e.g. size,
exhaust flow, etc.); or
Their similarities are based on good engineering judgement.
6.1.2. OBD-Parent Engine System
Compliance of an emission-OBD family with the requirements of this Annex is achieved by
demonstrating the compliance of the OBD-parent engine system of this family.
The selection of the OBD-parent engine system is made by the manufacturer and subject to
the approval of the Type Approval Authority.
Prior to testing the Type Approval Authority may decide to request the manufacturer to
select an additional engine for demonstration.
The manufacturer may also propose to the Type Approval Authority to test additional
engines to cover the complete emission-OBD family.
6.2. Procedures for Demonstrating the Malfunction Classification
The manufacturer shall provide the documentation justifying the proper classification of each
malfunction to the Type Approval Authority. This documentation shall include a failure
analysis (for example elements of a "failure mode and effect analysis") and may also
include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Simulation results;
Test results;
Reference to previously approved classification.
In the following Paragraphs the requirements for demonstrating the correct classification are
listed, including requirements for testing. The minimum number of tests is four and the
maximum number of tests is four times the number of engine families considered within the
emission OBD family. The Type Approval Authority may decide to curtail the test at any time
before this maximum number of failure tests has been reached.
In specific cases where the classification testing is not possible (for example, if an MECS is
activated and the engine cannot run the applicable test, etc.), the malfunction may be
classified based on technical justification. This exception shall be documented by the
manufacturer and is subject to the agreement of the Type Approval Authority.

6.2.5. Demonstration of Classification into Class B2 (Distinguishing Between B2 and C)
If the Type Approval Authority disagrees with a manufacturer's classification of a
malfunction as Class B2 because it considers the regulated emission limits are not
exceeded, the Type Approval Authority requires the reclassification of that malfunction into
Class C. In that case the approval documents shall record that the malfunction classification
has been assigned according to the request of the Type Approval Authority.
6.2.6. Demonstration of Classification into Class C
In order to justify the classification of a malfunction into Class C the manufacturer shall
demonstrate that emissions are lower than the regulated emission limits.
In case the Type Approval Authority disagrees with the classification of a malfunction as
Class C the manufacturer may be required to demonstrate by testing that the emissions due
to the malfunction are below the regulated emission limits.
If the test fails, then the Type Approval Authority shall request the reclassification of that
malfunction and the manufacturer shall subsequently demonstrate the appropriate
reclassification and the documentation shall be updated.
6.3. Procedures for Demonstrating the OBD Performance
The manufacturer shall submit to the Type Approval Authority a complete documentation
package justifying the compliance of the OBD system as regards its monitoring capability,
which may include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Algorithms and decision charts;
Tests and/or simulation results;
Reference to Previously Approved Monitoring Systems, etc.
In the following Paragraphs the requirements for demonstrating the OBD performance are
listed, including requirements for testing. The number of tests shall be four times the number
of engine families considered within the emission OBD family, but shall not be less than
eight.
The monitors selected shall reflect the different types of monitors mentioned in
Paragraph 4.2. (i.e. emission threshold monitoring, performance monitoring, total functional
failure monitoring, or component monitoring) in a well balanced manner. The monitors
selected shall also reflect the different items listed in Appendix 3 to this Annex in a well
balanced manner.

6.3.2.2. Qualification of Deteriorated Components Used to Demonstrate the Detection of Class B2
Malfunctions
In the case of Class B2 malfunctions, and upon request of the Type Approval Authority, the
manufacturer shall demonstrate by an emission test according to Paragraph 7. that the
deteriorated component or device does not lead the relevant emission to exceed its
applicable OTL.
6.3.2.3. Qualification of Deteriorated Components Used to Demonstrate the Detection of Class C
Malfunctions
6.3.3. Test Report
In the case of Class C malfunctions, and upon request of the Type Approval Authority, the
manufacturer shall demonstrate by an emission test according to Paragraph 7. that the
deteriorated component or device does not lead the relevant emission to exceed its
applicable regulated emission limit.
The test report shall contain, at a minimum, the information set out in Appendix 4 to this
Annex.
6.4. Approval of an OBD System Containing Deficiencies
6.4.1. Approval authorities may approve upon request of a manufacturer an OBD system even
though the system contains one or more deficiencies.
In considering the request, the Type Approval Authority shall determine whether compliance
with the requirements of this Annex is feasible or unreasonable.
The Type Approval Authority shall take into consideration data from the manufacturer that
details such factors as, but not limited to, technical feasibility, lead time and production
cycles including phase-in or phase-out of engines designs and programmed upgrades of
computers, the extent to which the resultant OBD system will be effective in complying with
the requirements of this Annex and that the manufacturer has demonstrated an acceptable
level of effort toward meeting the requirements of the Annex.
The Type Approval Authority will not accept any deficiency request that includes the
complete lack of a required diagnostic monitor (i.e. a complete lack of the monitors required
in Appendix 3 to this Annex).
6.4.2. Deficiency Period
A deficiency is granted for a period of one year after the date of approval of the engine
system.
If the manufacturer can adequately demonstrate to the Type Approval Authority that
substantial engine modifications and additional lead time would be necessary to correct the
deficiency, then this deficiency can be granted again for an additional one year, provided
that the total deficiency period does not exceed three years (i.e. three times one year
deficiency allowance is permitted).
The manufacturer cannot apply for a renewal of the deficiency period.

7.1.2. Testing process for Demonstrating the OBD Performance
When the Type Approval Authority requests to test the OBD system performance according
to Paragraph 6.3., the compliance demonstration shall consist of the following phases:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A malfunction is selected by the Type Approval Authority and a corresponding
deteriorated component or system shall be made available by the manufacturer;
When appropriate and if requested, the manufacturer shall demonstrate by an
emission test that the deteriorated component is qualified for a monitoring
demonstration;
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that the OBD system responds in a manner that
complies with the provisions of this Annex (i.e. MI indication, DTC storage, etc.). At
the latest by the end of a series of OBD test-cycles.
7.1.2.1. Qualification of the Deteriorated Component
When the Type Approval Authority requests the manufacturer to qualify a deteriorated
component by testing according to Paragraph 6.3.2., this demonstration shall be made by
performing an emissions test.
If it is determined that the installation of a deteriorated component or device on an engine
system means that a comparison with the OBD threshold limits is not possible (e.g. because
the statistical conditions for validating the applicable emission test cycle are not met), the
malfunction of that component or device may be considered as qualified upon the
agreement of the Type Approval Authority based on technical rationale provided by the
manufacturer.
In the case that the installation of a deteriorated component or device on an engine means
that the full load curve (as determined with a correctly operating engine) cannot be attained
during the test, the deteriorated component or device may be considered as qualified upon
the agreement of the Type Approval Authority based on technical rationale provided by the
manufacturer.
7.1.2.2. Malfunction Detection
Each monitor selected by the Type Approval Authority to be tested on an engine test-bed,
shall respond to the introduction of a qualified deteriorated component in a manner that
meets the requirements of this Annex within two consecutive OBD test-cycles according to
Paragraph 7.2.2. of this Annex.
When it has been specified in the monitoring description and agreed by the Type Approval
Authority that a specific monitor needs more than two operating sequences to complete its
monitoring, the number of OBD test-cycles may be increased according to the
manufacturer's request.
Each individual OBD test-cycle in the demonstration test shall be separated by an engine
shut-off. The time until the next start-up shall take into consideration any monitoring that
may occur after engine shut-off and any necessary condition that must exist for monitoring
to occur at the next start up.
The test is considered complete as soon as the OBD system has responded in a manner
that meets the requirements of this Annex.

7.4. Test reports
The test report shall contain, at a minimum, the information set out in Appendix 4.
8. DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
8.1. Documentation for Purpose of Approval
The manufacturer shall provide a documentation package that includes a full description of
the OBD system. The documentation package shall be made available in two parts:
(a)
(b)
A first part, which may be brief, provided that it exhibits evidence concerning the
relationships between monitors, sensors/actuators, and operating conditions
(i.e. describes all enable conditions for monitors to run and disable conditions that
cause monitors not to run). The documentation shall describe the functional operation
of the OBD, including the malfunction ranking within the hierarchical classification.
This material shall be retained by the Type Approval Authority. This information may
be made available to interested parties upon request;
A second part containing any data, including details of qualified deteriorated
components or systems and associated test results, which are used as evidence to
support the decision process referred to above, and a listing of all input and output
signals that are available to the engine system and monitored by the OBD system.
This second part shall also outline each monitoring strategy and the decision process.
This second part shall remain strictly confidential. It may be kept by the Type Approval
Authority or, at the discretion of the Type Approval Authority, may be retained by the
manufacturer but shall be made open for inspection by the Type Approval Authority at the
time of approval or at any time during the validity of the approval.
8.1.1. Documentation Associated with each Monitored Component or System
The documentation package included in the second part shall contain but shall not be
limited to the following information for each monitored component or system:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The malfunctions and associated DTC(s);
The monitoring method used for malfunction detection;
The parameters used and the conditions necessary for malfunction detection and
when applicable the fault criteria limits (performance and component monitoring);
The criteria for storing a DTC;
The monitoring "time length" (i.e. the operation time/procedure necessary to complete
the monitoring) and the monitoring "frequency" (e.g. continuous, once per trip, etc.).

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 1
APPROVAL OF INSTALLATION OF OBD SYSTEMS
This Appendix considers the case where the vehicle manufacturer requests approval of the installation
on a vehicle of (an) OBD system(s) within an emission OBD family that is (are) certified to the
requirements of this Annex
In this case, and in addition to the general requirements of this Annex, a demonstration of the correct
installation is required. This demonstration shall be done on the basis of the appropriate element of
design, results of verification tests, etc. and address the conformity of the following elements to the
requirements of this Annex:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The installation on-board the vehicle as regards its compatibility with the OBD system of the
engine-system;
The MI (pictogram, activation schemes, etc.);
The wired communication interface.
Correct MI illumination, information storage and on-board off-board OBD communication will be checked.
But any check shall not force dismounting the engine system (e.g. an electric disconnection may be
selected).

Notes:

Means the point a monitoring of the concerned malfunction occurs
N, M,
N', M'
The Annex requires the identification of "key" operating sequences during which some events
occurs, and the counting of the subsequent operating sequences. For the purpose of illustrating
this requirement, the "key" operating sequences have been given the values N and M for the
first malfunction, respectively N' and M' for the second one.
e.g. M means the first operating sequence following the detection of a potential malfunction,
and N means the operating sequence during which the MI is switched OFF.
N + 40
the fortieth operating sequence after the first extinction of the MI or 200 engine operating hours,
whichever the earliest.
Figure 2
DTC Status in Case of 2 Consecutive Different Class B1 Malfunctions

Note: Details related to the deactivation of the continuous MI are illustrated in Figure 4B below in the
specific case where a potential state is present.
Figure 4A
Class A Malfunction – Activation of the MI and MI Counters

Note: In this example, it is assumed that there is a single B1 counter.
Figure 5
Class B1 Malfunction – Activation of the B1 Counter in 5 Use Cases

(c2) DPF performance: filtering and regeneration processes (e.g. particulate accumulation during the
filtering process and particulate removal during a forced regeneration process) – performance
monitoring according to Appendix 8 to this Annex.
Note: The periodic regeneration shall be monitored against the ability of the device to perform as
designed (for example to perform regeneration within a manufacturer-specified time interval, to
perform regeneration upon demand, etc). This will constitute one element of the component
monitoring associated with the device.
APPENDIX 3 – Item 3
SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) MONITORING
For the purpose of this item, SCR means selective catalytic reduction or other lean NO catalyst device.
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the SCR system on engines so-equipped for
proper operation:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Active/intrusive reagent injection system: the system's ability to regulate reagent delivery properly,
whether delivered via an in-exhaust injection or an in-cylinder injection – performance monitoring;
Active/intrusive reagent: the proper consumption of the reagent if a reagent other than fuel is used
(e.g. urea) – performance monitoring;
Active/intrusive reagent: to the extent feasible the quality of the reagent if a reagent other than fuel
is used (e.g. urea) - performance monitoring;
SCR catalyst conversion efficiency: the catalyst's SCR ability to convert NO emission threshold
monitoring.
APPENDIX 3 – Item 4
LEAN-NOX TRAP /LNT, OR NOX ADSORBER);
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the LNT system on engines so-equipped for
proper operation:
(a)
(b)
LNT capability: the LNT system's ability to adsorb/store and convert NO – performance
monitoring;
LNT active/intrusive reagent injection system: the system's ability to regulate reagent delivery
properly, whether delivered via an in-exhaust injection or an in-cylinder injection – performance
monitoring.

(a3)
EGR Low Flow (Total Functional Failure or Performance Monitoring)
In the case where the emissions would not exceed the OBD threshold limits even upon total failure
of the EGR system's ability to maintain the commanded EGR flow rate (for example, because of
the correct functioning of an SCR system downstream of the engine), then:
1. Where the control of the EGR flow rate is performed by means of a closed-loop system, the
OBD system shall detect a malfunction when the EGR system cannot increase the EGR
flow to achieve the demanded flow rate.
Such a malfunction shall not be classified as a Class C failure.
2. Where the control of the EGR flow rate is performed by means of an open-loop system, the
OBD system shall detect a malfunction when the system has no detectable amount of EGR
flow when EGR flow is expected.
Such a malfunction shall not be classified as a Class C failure.
(c2)
EGR cooler under cooling performance (total functional failure monitoring)
In the case where total failure of the EGR cooler system's ability to achieve the manufacturer's
specified cooling performance would not result in the monitoring system detecting a failure
(because the resulting increase in emissions would not reach the OBD threshold limit for any
pollutant), the OBD system shall detect a malfunction when the system has no detectable amount
of EGR cooling.
Such a malfunction shall not be classified as a Class C failure.
APPENDIX 3 – Item 7
FUEL SYSTEM MONITORING
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the fuel system on engines so-equipped for
proper operation:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Fuel system pressure control: fuel system ability to achieve the commanded
fuel pressure in closed loop control – performance monitoring.
Fuel system pressure control: fuel system ability to achieve the commanded
fuel pressure in closed loop control in the case where the system is so
constructed that the pressure can be controlled independently of other
parameters – performance monitoring.
Fuel injection timing: fuel system ability to achieve the commanded fuel timing
for at least one of the injection events when the engine is equipped with the
appropriate sensors – performance monitoring.
Fuel injection quantity: fuel system ability to achieve the commanded fuel
quantity by detecting errors from desired fuel quantity in at least one of the
injection events when the engine is equipped with the appropriate sensors
(e.g. in pre- main- or post-injection) – emission threshold monitoring.
Fuel injection system: ability to maintain the desired air-fuel ratio (incl. but not
limited to self adaptation features) – performance monitoring.
Diesel
X
X
X
X
Gas
X

APPENDIX 3 – Item 9
VARIABLE VALVE TIMING (VVT) SYSTEM
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) System on
engines so-equipped for proper operation:
(a) VVT target error: VVT system’s ability to achieve the commanded valve timing -
performance monitoring;
(b)
VVT slow response: VVT system’s ability to achieve the commanded valve timing within a
manufacturer specified time interval following the command-performance monitoring.
APPENDIX 3 – Item 10
MISFIRE MONITORING
(a) No prescriptions. X
(b)
Misfire that may cause catalyst damage (e.g. by monitoring a certain
percentage of misfiring in a certain period of time) – performance monitoring.
Diesel
Gas
X
APPENDIX 3 – Item 11
CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM MONITORING
No prescriptions.
APPENDIX 3 – Item 12
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM MONITORING
The OBD system shall monitor the following elements of the engine cooling system for proper operation:
(a)
Engine coolant temperature (thermostat): Stuck open thermostat. Manufacturers need not
monitor the thermostat if its failure will not disable any other OBD monitors – total functional
failure.
Manufacturers need not monitor the engine coolant temperature or the engine coolant temperature
sensor if the engine coolant temperature or the engine coolant temperature sensor is not used to enable
closed-loop/feedback control of any emissions control systems and/or will not disable any other monitor.
Manufacturers may suspend or delay the monitor for the time to reach close loop to enable temperature
if the engine is subjected to conditions that could lead to false diagnosis (e.g. vehicle operation at idle for
more than 50 to 75% of the warm-up time).

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 4
TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE REPORT
This report is issued by the Type Approval Authority, according to Paragraphs 6.3.3. and 7.3. of this
Annex, after examination of an OBD system or an emission OBD family when that system or family
complies with the requirements of this Appendix.
The exact reference (including its version number) of this Appendix shall be included in this report.
The exact reference (including its version number) to this Regulation shall be included.
This report contains a cover page indicating the final compliance of the OBD system or emission OBD
family and the following 5 items:
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Item 5
Information Concerning the OBD System
Information Concerning the Conformity of the OBD System
Information Concerning Deficiencies
Information Concerning Demonstration Tests of the OBD System
Test Protocol
The content of the technical report, including its Items, shall, at a minimum, include the elements given in
the following examples.
This report shall state that reproduction or publication in extracts of this report is not permitted without the
written consent of the undersigned Type Approval Authority.
FINAL COMPLIANCE REPORT
The documentation package and the herewith described OBD system/emission OBD family comply with
the requirements of the following regulation:
Regulation …/version …/ enforcement date …/type of fuel …
This Regulation transposes the following GTR:
GTR …/ A + B/version …/ date ….
The technical compliance report encompasses … pages.
Place, date: . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Author (name and signature)
Type Approval Authority (name, stamp)

Extension to address a design change that affects the OBD system

List of the engine families (when applicable) concerned by the design change

List of the engine types
concerned by the design change

Actualised (when applicable, new or unchanged) type
of the parent engine system
within the emission OBD family

Modified OBD description (issued by the manufacturer): reference and date
Extension to address a malfunction reclassification
– List of the engine families (when applicable) concerned by the reclassification
– List of the engine types concerned by the reclassification
– Modified OBD description (issued by the manufacturer): reference and date
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
ITEM 2 TO THE TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE REPORT (EXAMPLE)
1. Documentation Package
Information Concerning the Conformity of the OBD System
The elements provided by the manufacturer in the documentation package of the emission
OBD family, are complete and comply with the requirements of Paragraph 8. of this
Annex, on the following issues:
– Documentation associated with each monitored component or system
– Documentation associated with each DTC
– Documentation associated with the malfunction classification
– Documentation associated with the emission OBD family
The documentation required in Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex for installing an OBD system
in a vehicle has been provided by the manufacturer in the documentation package, is
complete, and complies with the requirements of this Annex:
The installation of the engine system equipped with the OBD system complies with
Appendix 1 of this Annex.
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO
YES/NO

ITEM 4 TO THE TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE REPORT (EXAMPLE)
1. Test Result of the OBD System
Demonstration Tests of the OBD System
Results of the tests
The OBD system described in the above complying documentation package has
been tested with success according to Paragraph 6. of this Annex for demonstrating
the compliance of monitors and of malfunction classifications as listed in item 5:
YES/NO
Details to the conducted demonstration tests are given in item 5.
1.1. OBD System Tested on the Engine Test–Bed
Engine
– Engine name (manufacturer and commercial names):
– Engine type (as reported in the approval document):
– Engine number (serial number):
Control units concerned by this Annex (incl. engine ECUs)
– Main functionality:
– Identification number (software and calibration):
Diagnostic tool (scan tool used during testing)
– Manufacturer:
– Type:
– Software/version
Test information
– Ambient testing conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure):
– Place of test (incl. altitude):
– Reference fuel:
– Engine lubricating oil:
– Date of test:
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
2. Demonstration Tests of the Installation of the OBD System
In addition to the demonstration of the OBD system/emission OBD family, the
installation of the OBD system/of the OBD systems within the emission OBD family
has been tested on a vehicle, according to the provisions of Appendix 1 to Annex 9B
YES/NO
2.1. Test Result of the Installation of the OBD System
Results of the test
If the installation of the OBD system has been tested on a vehicle, the installation of
the OBD system has been tested with success according to Appendix 1 to Annex 9B
YES/NO

ITEM 5 TO THE TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE REPORT (EXAMPLE)
Test Protocol

Table 3
Optional information, if Used by the Emission or the OBD
System to Enable or Disable Any OBWHSCD Information
Fuel level (e.g. percentage of the nominal capacity of the fuel tank) or
tank fuel pressure (e.g. percentage of the usable range of fuel tank
pressure), as appropriate
Freeze frame
x
Data stream
x
Engine oil temperature x x
Vehicle speed x x
Status of the fuel quality adaptation (active/not active) in case of gas
engines
x
Engine control computer system voltage (for the main control chip) x x
Table 4
Optional Information, if the Engine is so Equipped,
Senses or Calculates the Information
Absolute throttle position/intake air throttle position (position of valve
used to regulate intake air)
Diesel fuel control system status in case of a close loop system (e.g. in
case of a fuel pressure close loop system)
Freeze frame
x
x
Data stream
x
x
Fuel rail pressure x x
Injection control pressure (i.e. pressure of the fluid controlling fuel
injection)
x
x
Representative fuel injection timing (beginning of first main injection) x x
Commanded fuel rail pressure x x
Commanded injection control pressure (i.e. pressure of the fluid
controlling fuel injection)
x
x
Intake air temperature
x
x
Ambient air temperature
x
x
Turbocharger inlet/outlet air temperature (compressor and turbine)
x
x
Turbocharger inlet/outlet pressure (compressor and turbine)
x
x
Charge air temperature (post intercooler if fitted)
x
x
Actual boost pressure
x
x

ANNEX 9B - APPENDIX 6
REFERENCE STANDARD DOCUMENTS
This Appendix contains the references to the industry standards that are to be used in accordance to the
provisions in this Annex to provide the serial communications interface to the vehicle/engine. There are
two allowed solutions identified:
(a)
(b)
ISO 27145 with either ISO 15765-4 (CAN based) or with ISO 13400 (TCP/IP based);
SAE J1939-73.
In addition there are other ISO or SAE standards that are applicable in accordance with the provisions of
this Annex.
Reference by this Annex to ISO 27145 means reference to:
(a) ISO 27145-1 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements –
Part 1 – General Information and use case definitions;
(b) ISO 27145-2 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements –
Part 2 – Common emissions-related data dictionary;
(c) ISO 27145-3 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements –
Part 3 – Common message dictionary;
(d) ISO 27145-4 Road vehicles – Implementation of WWH-OBD communication requirements –
Part 4 – Connection between vehicle and test equipment.
Reference by this Annex to J1939-73 means reference to:
J1939-73 "APPLICATION LAYER - DIAGNOSTICS", dated on year 2011.
Reference by this Annex to ISO 13400 means reference to:
(a) FDIS 13400-1: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) –
Part 1: General information and use case definition;
(b) FDIS 13400-3: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) –
Part 2: Network and transport layer requirements and services;
(c) FDIS 13400-3: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) –
Part 3: IEEE 802.3 based wired vehicle interface;
(d)
[not yet finalized] 13400-4: 2011 Road vehicles – Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol
(DoIP) – Part 4: Ethernet-based high-speed data link connector.

A.7.2.3.
A.7.2.3.1.
Qualification of a Deteriorated Component
For the purpose of demonstrating the OBD performance of the selected monitor of an OBD
engine family, a deteriorated component shall be qualified on the parent engine of the OBD
engine family in accordance with Paragraph 6.3.2. of this Annex.
A.7.2.3.2. In case of a second engine tested in accordance with Paragraph A.7.2.2.4.1., the
deteriorated component shall be qualified on that second engine in accordance with
Paragraph 6.3.2. of this Annex.
A.7.2.4.
A.7.2.4.1.
Demonstration of the OBD Performance
The demonstration of the OBD performance shall be conducted according to the
requirements of Paragraph 7.1.2. of this Annex using the qualified deteriorated component
that is qualified for use with the parent engine.

ANNEX 9C
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSING THE IN-USE
PERFORMANCE OF ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS (OBD)
1. APPLICABILITY
2. Reserved
In its current version, this Annex is only applicable to road-vehicles equipped with a
compression-ignition engine.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1. "In-Use Performance Ratio"
The in-use performance ratio (IUPR) of a specific monitor m of the OBD system is:
IUPR = Numerator /Denominator
3.2. "Numerator"
The numerator of a specific monitor m (Numerator ) is a counter indicating the number of
times a vehicle has been operated such that all monitoring conditions necessary for that
specific monitor to detect a malfunction have been encountered.
3.3. "Denominator"
The denominator of a specific monitor m (Denominator ) is a counter indicating the number
of vehicle driving events, taking into account conditions specific to that specific monitor.
3.4. "General Denominator"
The general denominator is a counter indicating the number of times a vehicle has been
operated, taking into account general conditions.
3.5. Abbreviations
IUPR
In-Use Performance Ratio
IUPR In-Use Performance Ratio of a specific monitor m

5. REQUIREMENTS FOR CALCULATING IN-USE PERFORMANCE RATIOS
5.1. Calculation of the In-Use Performance Ratio
For each monitor m considered in the present Annex, the in-use performance ratio is
calculated with the following formula:
IUPR = Numerator /Denominator
Where the Numerator and Denominator are incremented according to the specifications
of this Paragraph.
5.1.1. Requirements for the Ratio when Calculated and Stored by System
Each IUPR ratio shall have a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 7.99527 with
a resolution of 0.000122 .
A ratio for a specific component shall be considered to be zero whenever the corresponding
numerator is equal to zero and the corresponding denominator is not zero.
A ratio for a specific component shall be considered to be the maximum value of 7.99527 if
the corresponding denominator is zero or if the actual value of the numerator divided by the
denominator exceeds the maximum value of 7.99527.
5.2. Requirements for Incrementing the Numerator
The numerator shall not be incremented more than once per driving cycle.
The numerator for a specific monitor shall be incremented within 10s if and only if the
following criteria are satisfied on a single driving cycle:
(a)
Every monitoring condition necessary for the monitor of the specific component to
detect a malfunction and store a potential DTC has been satisfied, including enable
criteria, presence or absence of related DTCs, sufficient length of monitoring time,
and diagnostic executive priority assignments (e.g., diagnostic "A" shall execute prior
to diagnostic "B").
Note: For the purpose of incrementing the numerator of a specific monitor, it may not be
sufficient to satisfy all the monitoring conditions necessary for that monitor to
determine the absence of a malfunction.
(b)
(c)
For monitors that require multiple stages or events in a single driving cycle to detect a
malfunction, every monitoring condition necessary for all events to have been
completed shall be satisfied.
For monitors which are used for failure identification and that run only after a potential
DTC has been stored, the numerator and denominator may be the same as those of
the monitor detecting the original malfunction.

5.3.2.5. Specific Denominator for DPF
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 5.3.1. (a) and (b), in at least one driving cycle
the denominator(s) for DPF shall be incremented if at least 800 cumulative kilometres of
vehicle operation or alternatively at least 750min of engine run time have been experienced
since the last time the denominator was incremented.
5.3.2.6. Specific Denominator for Oxidation Catalysts
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 5.3.1. (a) and (b), in at least one driving cycle
the denominator(s) for monitors of oxidation catalyst used for the purpose of DPF active
regeneration shall be incremented if a regeneration event is commanded for a time greater
than or equal to 10s.
5.3.2.7. Specific Denominator for Hybrids (Reserved)
5.4. Requirements for Incrementing the General Denominator
The general denominator shall be incremented within 10s, if and only if, all the following
criteria are satisfied on a single driving cycle:
(a)
Cumulative time since start of driving cycle is greater than or equal to 600s while
remaining:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
At an elevation of less than 2,500m above sea level; and
At an ambient temperature of greater than or equal to 266K (-7°C); and
At an ambient temperature of lower than or equal to 308K (35°C).
(b)
(c)
Cumulative engine operation at or above 1,150 min for greater than or equal to 300s
while under the conditions specified in the above Sub-paragraph (a); as alternatives left
to the manufacturer an engine operation at or above 15% calculated load or a vehicle
operation at or above 40km/h may be used in lieu of the 1,150 min criterion.
Continuous vehicle operation at idle (e.g., accelerator pedal released by driver and
either vehicle speed less than or equal to 1.6km/h or engine speed less than or equal
to 200 min above normal warmed-up idle) for greater than or equal to 30s while
under the conditions specified in the above Sub-paragraph (a).
5.5. Requirements for Incrementing the Ignition Cycle Counter
The ignition cycle counter shall be incremented once and only once per driving cycle.

In order to determine without bias the lowest ratio of a group, only the monitors specifically
mentioned in that group shall be taken into consideration (e.g. a NO sensor when used to
perform one of the monitors listed in Annex 9B, Appendix 3, item 3 "SCR" will be taken into
consideration into the "exhaust gas sensor" group of monitors and not in the "SCR" group of
monitors)
The OBD system shall also track and report the general denominator and the ignition cycle
counter.
Note: According to Paragraph 4.1.1., manufacturers are not required to implement
software algorithms in the OBD system to individually track and report numerators
and denominators of monitors running continuously.
7. REQUIREMENTS FOR STORING AND COMMUNICATING IN-USE PERFORMANCE
DATA
Communication of the in-use performance data is a new use-case and is not included in the
three existing use-cases which are dedicated to the presence of possible malfunctions
7.1. Information about In-Use Performance Data
The information about in-use performance data recorded by the OBD system shall be
available upon off-board request according to Paragraph 7.2.
This information will provide type approval authorities with in-use performance data.
The OBD system shall provide all information (according to the applicable standard set in
Appendix 6 to Annex 9B) for the external IUPR test equipment to assimilate the data and
provide an inspector with the following information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The VIN (vehicle identification number);
The numerator and denominator for each group of monitors recorded by the system
according to Paragraph 6.;
The general denominator;
The value of the ignition cycle counter;
The total engine running hours;
Confirmed and active DTCs for Class A malfunctions;
Confirmed and active DTCs for Class B (B1 and B2) malfunctions.
This information shall be available through "read-only" access (i.e. no clearing).

ANNEX 9C - APPENDIX 1
GROUPS OF MONITORS
The groups of monitors considered in this Annex are the following:
A. OXIDATION CATALYSTS
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 5 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
B. SELECTIVE CATALYTICAL REDUCTION SYSTEMS (SCR)
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 3 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
C. EXHAUST GAS AND OXYGEN SENSORS
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 13 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
D. EGR SYSTEMS AND VVT
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in items 6 and 9 and of Appendix 3 to
Annex 9B.
E. DPF SYSTEMS
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 2 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
F. BOOST PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 8 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
G. NO ADSORBER
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 4 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
H. THREE-WAY CATALYST
The monitors specific to that group are those listed in item 15 of Appendix 3 to Annex 9B.
I. EVAPORATIVE SYSTEMS
(Reserved)
J. SECONDARY AIR SYSTEM
(Reserved)
A specific monitor shall belong only to one of these groups.

5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1. Emission strategies
Emission strategies shall be designed so as to enable the engine system, in normal use, to
comply with the provisions of this Annex. Normal use is not restricted to the conditions of
use as specified in Paragraph 6.
5.1.1. Requirements for Base Emission Strategies (BES)
A BES shall not discriminate between operation on an applicable type approval or
certification test and other operation and provide a lesser level of emission control under
conditions not substantially included in the applicable type approval or certification tests.
5.1.2. Requirements for Auxiliary Emission Strategies (AES)
An AES shall not reduce the effectiveness of the emission control relative to a BES under
conditions that may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal vehicle operation
and use, unless the AES satisfies one the following specific exceptions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Its operation is substantially included in the applicable type approval tests, including
the off-cycle test procedures under Paragraph 7. of this Annex and the in-service
provisions set out in Paragraph 9. of this Regulation;
It is activated for the purposes of protecting the engine and/or vehicle from damage or
accident;
It is only activated during engine starting or warm up as defined in this Annex;
Its operation is used to trade-off the control of one type of regulated emissions in
order to maintain control of another type of regulated emissions under specific
ambient or operating conditions not substantially included in the type approval or
certification tests. The overall effect of such an AES shall be to compensate for the
effects of extreme ambient conditions in a manner that provides acceptable control of
all regulated emissions.
5.2. World-Harmonized Not-To-Exceed (WNTE) Limits for Gaseous and Particulate
Exhaust Emissions
5.2.1. Exhaust emissions shall not exceed the applicable emission limits specified in
Paragraph 5.2.2.
5.2.2. The applicable emission limits shall be the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
For CO: 2,000mg/kWh;
For THC: 220mg/kWh;
For NO : 600mg/kWh;
For PM: 16mg/kWh.

Figure 1
Illustration of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature Conditions
7. OFF-CYCLE LABORATORY TESTING AND VEHICLE TESTING OF ENGINES AT TYPE
APPROVAL
The off-cycle laboratory test requirements shall not apply for the type approval of positive
ignition engine under this Regulation.
7.1. World-Harmonized Not-To-Exceed Control Area
The WNTE control area consists of the engine speed and load points defined in
Paragraphs 7.1.1. through 7.1.6. Figure 2 is an example illustration of the WNTE control
area.
7.1.1. Engine Speed Range
The WNTE control area shall include all operating speeds between the 30 percentile
cumulative speed distribution over the WHTC test cycle, including idle, (n ) and the highest
speed where 70% of the maximum power occurs (n ). Figure 3 is an example of the WNTE
cumulative speed frequency distribution for a specific engine.
7.1.2. Engine Torque Range
The WNTE control area shall include all engine load points with a torque value greater than
or equal to 30% of the maximum torque value produced by the engine.

Figure 3
Example of WNTE Cumulative Speed Frequency Distribution
7.1.5. Compliance Exclusion from Certain WNTE Operating Points
The manufacturer may request that the Type Approval Authority excludes operating points
from the WNTE control area defined in Paragraphs 7.1.1. through 7.1.4. during the
certification/type approval. The Type Approval Authority may grant this exclusion if the
manufacturer can demonstrate that the engine is never capable of operating at such points
when used in any vehicle combination.
7.2. Minimum World-harmonized Not-To-Exceed Event Duration and Data Sampling
Frequency
7.2.1. To determine compliance with the WNTE emissions limits specified in Paragraph 5.2., the
engine shall be operated within the WNTE control area defined in Paragraph 7.1. and its
emissions shall be measured and integrated over a minimum period of 30s. A WNTE event
is defined as a single set of integrated emissions over the period of time. For example, if the
engine operates for 65 consecutive seconds within the WNTE control area and ambient
conditions this would constitute a single WNTE event and the emissions would be averaged
over the full 65s period. In the case of laboratory testing, the integrating period defined in
Paragraph 7.5. shall apply.
7.2.2. For engines equipped with emission controls that include periodic regeneration events, if a
regeneration event occurs during the WNTE test, then the averaging period shall be at least
as long as the time between the events multiplied by the number of full regeneration events
within the sampling period. This requirement only applies for engines that send an electronic
signal indicating the start of the regeneration event.

7.4.4. The average specific mass emissions of regulated gaseous pollutants shall not exceed the
WNTE limit values specified in Paragraph 5.2. when measured over any of the cycles in a
grid cell with 5 test points.
7.4.5. The average specific mass emissions of regulated particulate pollutants shall not exceed the
WNTE limit values specified in Paragraph 5.2. when measured over the whole 15 test point
cycle.
7.5. Laboratory test procedure
7.5.1. After completion of the WHSC cycle, the engine shall be preconditioned at mode 9 of the
WHSC for a period of 3min. The test sequence shall start immediately after completion of
the preconditioning phase.
7.5.2. The engine shall be operated for 2min at each random test point. This time includes the
preceding ramp from the previous steady state point. The transitions between the test points
shall be linear for engine speed and load and shall last 20 ± 1s.
7.5.3. The total test time from start until finish shall be 30min. The test of each set of 5 selected
random points in a grid cell shall be 10min, measured from the start of the entry ramp to the
1st point until the end of the steady state measurement at the 5th point. Figure 5 illustrates
the sequence of the test procedure.
7.5.4. The WNTE laboratory test shall meet the validation statistics of Paragraph 7.8.7. of
Annex 4.
7.5.5. The measurement of the emissions shall be carried out in accordance with Paragraphs 7.5.,
7.7. and 7.8. of Annex 4.
7.5.6. The calculation of the test results shall be carried out in accordance with Paragraph 8. of
Annex 4.
Figure 4
Schematic Example of the Start of the WNTE Test Cycle

7.6. Rounding
8. Reserved
9. Reserved
Each final test result shall be rounded in one step to the number of places to the right of the
decimal point indicated by the applicable WHDC emission standard plus one additional
significant figure, in accordance with ASTM E 29-06. No rounding of intermediate values
leading to the final brake specific emission result is permitted.
10. STATEMENT OF OFF-CYCLE EMISSION COMPLIANCE
In the application for type approval, the manufacturer shall provide a statement that the
engine family or vehicle complies with the requirements of this Regulation limiting off-cycle
emissions. In addition to this statement, compliance with the applicable emission limits and
in-use requirements shall be verified through additional tests.
10.1. Example Statement of Off-Cycle Emission Compliance
The following is an example compliance statement:
"(Name of manufacturer) attests that the engines within this engine family comply with all
requirements of this Annex. (Name of manufacturer) makes this statement in good faith,
after having performed an appropriate engineering evaluation of the emissions performance
of the engines within the engine family over the applicable range of operating and ambient
conditions."
10.2. Basis for Off-Cycle Emission Compliance Statement
The manufacturer shall maintain records at the manufacturer's facility which contain all test
data, engineering analyses, and other information which provides the basis for the OCE
compliance statement. The manufacturer shall provide such information to the Certification
or Type Approval Authority upon request.
11. DOCUMENTATION
The Type Approval Authority shall require that the manufacturer provides a documentation
package. This should describe any element of design and emission control strategy of the
engine system and the means by which it controls its output variables, whether that control
is direct or indirect.
The information shall include a full description of the emission control strategy. In addition,
this shall include information on the operation of all AES and BES, including a description of
the parameters that are modified by any AES and the boundary conditions under which the
AES operate, and indication of which AES and BES are likely to be active under the
conditions of the test procedures in this Annex.
This information shall be made available in the "extended documentation package"
according to the documentation requirements specified in Paragraph 5.1.4.

A.1.5.
A.1.5.1.
REPORT
A technical report describing the PEMS demonstration test shall show the activities and
results and give at least the following information:
(a) General information as described in Paragraph 10.1.1. of Annex 8;
(b)
Explanation as to why the vehicle(s) used for the test can be considered to be
representative for the category of vehicles intended for the engine system;
(c) Information about test equipment and test data as described in Paragraphs 10.1.3.
and 10.1.4. of Annex 8;
(d) Information about the tested engine as described in Paragraph 10.1.5. of Annex 8;
(e)
(f)
(g)
Information about the vehicle used for the test as described in Paragraph 10.1.6. of
Annex 8;
Information about the route characteristics as described in Paragraph 10.1.7. of
Annex 8;
Information about instantaneous measured and calculated data as described in
Paragraphs 10.1.8. and 10.1.9. of Annex 8;
(h) Information about averaged and integrated data as described in Paragraph 10.1.10.
of Annex 8;
(i) Pass-fail results as described in Paragraph 10.1.11. of Annex 8;
(j) Information about test verifications as described in Paragraph 10.1.12. of Annex 8.

2.1.2.2.4. Paragraph 6 of Appendix 6 to the 07 series of amendments to Regulation No. 83 shall not
apply.
2.1.2.2.5. The provisions set out in paragraph 5.2. of this annex shall apply in the case of vehicles for
use by the rescue services or to vehicles designed and constructed for use by the armed
services, civil defence, fire services and forces responsible for maintaining public order.
2.2. Required Information
2.2.1. Information that fully describes the functional operational characteristics of an engine
system covered by this Annex shall be provided by the manufacturer in the form set out in
Annex 1.
2.2.2. In its application for type approval, the manufacturer shall specify the characteristics of all
reagents consumed by any emission control system. This specification shall include types
and concentrations, operational temperature conditions, and references to international
standards.
2.2.3. Detailed written information fully describing the functional operation characteristics of the
driver warning system as provided in accordance with Paragraph 4. and of the driver
inducement system as provided in accordance with Paragraph 5. shall be submitted to the
Type Approval Authority at the time of application for the type approval.
2.2.4. When a manufacturer applies for an approval of an engine or engine family as a separate
technical unit, it shall include in the documentation package referred to in Paragraphs 3.1.3.,
3.2.3. or 3.3.3. of this Regulation the appropriate requirements that will ensure that the
vehicle, when used on the road or elsewhere as appropriate, will comply with the
requirements of this Annex. This documentation shall include the following:
(a)
(b)
The detailed technical requirements including the provisions ensuring the
compatibility with the monitoring, warning, and inducement systems present in the
engine system for the purpose of complying with the requirements of this Annex;
The verification procedure to be complied with for installation of the engine in the
vehicle.
The existence and the adequacy of such installation requirements may be checked during
the approval process of the engine system.
The documentation referred to in points (a) and (b) above shall not be required if the
manufacturer applies for a type approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions.
2.3. Operating Conditions
2.3.1. Any engine system falling within the scope of this Annex shall retain its emission control
function during all conditions regularly pertaining within the territory of the relevant region
(e.g. European Union), especially at low ambient temperatures, in line with Annex 10.

2.5. Each separate reagent tank installed on a vehicle shall include a means for taking a sample
of any fluid inside the tank and for doing so without the need for information not stored onboard
the vehicle. The sampling point shall be easily accessible without the use of any
specialised tool or device. Keys or systems which are normally carried on the vehicle for
locking access to the tank shall not be considered to be specialised tools or devices for the
purpose of this Paragraph.
3. MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
3.1. The manufacturer shall furnish or cause to be furnished to all owners of new vehicles or new
engines type-approved in accordance with this Regulation written instructions about the
emission control system and its correct operation.
Those instructions shall state that if the vehicle emission control system is not functioning
correctly the driver will be informed of a problem by the driver warning system, and that
operation of the driver inducement system as a consequence of ignoring this warning will
result in the vehicle being unable to efficiently conduct its mission.
3.2. The instructions shall indicate requirements for the proper use and maintenance of vehicles
in order to maintain their emissions performance, including, where relevant, the proper use
of consumable reagents.
3.3. The instructions shall be written in clear and non-technical language and in the official
language or languages of the Member State in which a new vehicle or engine is sold or
registered.
3.4. The instructions shall specify if consumable reagents have to be refilled by the vehicle
operator between normal maintenance intervals. The instructions shall also specify the
required reagent quality. They shall indicate how the operator should refill the reagent tank.
The information shall also indicate a likely rate of reagent consumption for the type of
vehicle and how often it is likely to need to be replenished.
3.5. The instructions shall specify that use of, and refilling with, a required reagent of the correct
specifications is essential in order for the vehicle to comply with the requirements for the
issuing of the certificate of conformity for that vehicle type.
3.6. The instructions shall state that it may be a criminal offence to use a vehicle that does not
consume any reagent if the reagent is required for the reduction of emissions.
3.7. The instructions shall explain how the warning system and driver inducement systems work.
In addition, the consequences, in terms of vehicle performance and fault logging, of ignoring
the warning system and not replenishing the reagent or rectifying a problem shall be
explained.
4. DRIVER WARNING SYSTEM
4.1. The vehicle shall include a driver warning system using visual alarms that informs the driver
when a low reagent level, incorrect reagent quality, too low a rate of reagent consumption,
or a malfunction, has been detected that may be due to tampering and that will lead to
operation of the driver inducement system if not rectified in a timely manner. The warning
system shall also be active when the driver inducement system described in Paragraph 5.
has been activated.

5. DRIVER INDUCEMENT SYSTEM
5.1. The vehicle shall incorporate a two-stage driver inducement system starting with a low-level
inducement (a performance restriction) followed by a severe inducement (effective
disablement of vehicle operation).
5.2. The requirement for a driver inducement system shall not apply to engines or vehicles for
use by the rescue services or to engines or on vehicles designed and constructed for use by
the armed services, civil defence, fire services and forces responsible for maintaining public
order. Permanent deactivation of the driver inducement system shall only be done by the
engine or vehicle manufacturer.
5.3. Low-Level Inducement System
The low-level inducement system shall reduce the maximum available engine torque across
the engine speed range by 25% between the peak torque speed and the governor
breakpoint as described in Appendix 3 to this Annex. The maximum available reduced
engine torque below the peak torque speed of the engine before imposition of the torque
reduction shall not exceed the reduced torque at that speed.
The low-level inducement system shall be activated when the vehicle becomes stationary
for the first time after the conditions specified in Paragraphs 6.3., 7.3., 8.5. and 9.4. below,
have occurred.
5.4. Severe Inducement System
The vehicle or engine manufacturer shall incorporate at least one of the severe inducement
systems described in Paragraphs 5.4.1. to 5.4.3. and the "disable on time limit" system
described in Paragraph 5.4.4.
5.4.1. A "disable after restart" system shall limit the vehicle speed to 20km/h ("creep mode") after
the engine has been shut down at the request of the driver ("key-off").
5.4.2. A "disable after fuelling" system shall limit the vehicle speed to 20km/h ("creep mode") after
the fuel tank level has risen a measurable amount, which shall not be more than 10% of the
fuel tank capacity and shall be approved by the Type Approval Authority based on the
technical capabilities of the fuel level meter and a declaration by the manufacturer.
5.4.3. A "disable after parking" system shall limit the vehicle speed to 20km/h ("creep mode") after
the vehicle has been stationary for more than 1h.
5.4.4. A "disable on time limit" system shall limit the vehicle speed to 20km/h ("creep mode") on
the first occasion when the vehicle becomes stationary after 8h of engine operation if none
of the systems described in Paragraphs 5.4.1. to 5.4.3. above has been previously been
activated.

6.2.4. The continuous warning shall not be easily disabled or ignored. When the warning system
includes a message display system, an explicit message shall be displayed (for example.
"fill up urea", "fill up AdBlue", or "fill up reagent"). The continuous warning may be
temporarily interrupted by other warning signals providing important safety related
messages.
6.2.5. It shall not be possible to turn off the driver warning system until the reagent has been
replenished to a level not requiring its activation.
6.3. Activation of the Driver Inducement System
6.3.1. The low-level inducement system described in Paragraph 5.3. shall be enabled, and
subsequently activated according to the requirements of that section, if the reagent tank
level goes below 2.5% of its nominally full capacity or a higher percentage at the choice of
the manufacturer.
6.3.2. The severe inducement system described in Paragraph 5.4. shall be enabled, and
subsequently activated according to the requirements of that section, if the reagent tank is
empty (that is, the dosing system is unable to draw further reagent from the tank) or at any
level below 2.5% of its nominally full capacity at the discretion of the manufacturer.
6.3.3. It shall not be possible to turn off the low-level or severe driver inducement system until the
reagent has been replenished to a level not requiring their respective activation.
7. REAGENT QUALITY MONITORING
7.1. The vehicle shall include a means of determining the presence of an incorrect reagent on
board a vehicle.
7.1.1. The manufacturer shall specify a value CD which is greater than the highest reagent
concentration that results in tailpipe emissions exceeding the limit values specified in
Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation.
7.1.1.1. During the phase-in period specified in Paragraph 4.10.7. of this Regulation and upon
request of the manufacturer for the purpose of Paragraph 7.1.1. the reference to the NO
emission limit specified in Paragraph 5.3. to this Regulation shall be replaced by the value of
900mg/kWh.
7.1.1.2. The value of CD shall be demonstrated during type approval by the procedure defined in
Appendix 6 to this Annex and recorded in the extended documentation package as specified
in Paragraph 5.1.4. to this Regulation.
7.1.2. Any reagent concentration lower than CD shall be detected and be regarded, for the
purpose of Paragraph 7.1., as being incorrect reagent.
7.1.3. A specific counter ("the reagent quality counter") shall be attributed to the reagent quality.
The reagent quality counter shall count the number of engine operating hours with an
incorrect reagent.
7.1.4. Details of the reagent quality counter activation and deactivation criteria and mechanisms
are described in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
7.1.5. The reagent quality counter information shall be made available in a standardised manner in
accordance with the provisions of Appendix 5 to this Annex.

8.3.1.1. When the reagent consumption is monitored by using at least one of the following
parameters:
(a)
(b)
The level of reagent in the on-vehicle storage tank, or
The flow of reagent or quantity of reagent injected at a position as close as technically
possible to the point of injection into an exhaust aftertreatment system,
The maximum detection period for insufficient reagent consumption is extended to 48h or to
the period equivalent to a demanded reagent consumption of at least 15l, whichever is
longer.
8.4. Activation of the Driver Warning System
8.4.1. The driver warning system described in Paragraph 4. shall be activated if a deviation of
more than 50% between the average reagent consumption and the average demanded
reagent consumption by the engine system over a period to be defined by the manufacturer,
which shall not be longer than the maximum period defined in Paragraph 8.3.1., or, when
applicable, Paragraph 8.3.1.1., is detected. When the warning system includes a message
display system, it shall display a message indicating the reason for the warning (for
example: "urea dosing malfunction", "AdBlue dosing malfunction", or "reagent dosing
malfunction").
8.4.2. The driver warning system described in Paragraph 4. shall be activated in the case of
interruption in reagent dosing. When the warning system includes a message display
system, it shall display a message indicating an appropriate warning. This activation shall
not be required where the interruption is demanded by the engine ECU because the vehicle
operating conditions are such that the vehicle’s emission performance does not require
reagent dosing.
8.5. Activation of the Driver Inducement System
8.5.1. The low-level inducement system described in Paragraph 5.3. shall be enabled, and
subsequently activated according to the requirements of that section, if an error in the
reagent consumption or an interruption in reagent dosing is not rectified within 10 engine
operating hours after the activation of the driver warning system specified in
Paragraphs 8.4.1. and 8.4.2.
8.5.2. The severe inducement system described in Paragraph 5.4. shall be enabled, and
subsequently activated according to the requirements of that section, if an error in the
reagent consumption or an interruption in reagent dosing is not rectified within 20 engine
operating hours after the activation of the driver warning system in Paragraphs 8.4.1. and
8.4.2.
8.5.3. The number of hours prior to activation of the inducement systems shall be reduced in case
of a repetitive occurrence of the malfunction in accordance with the mechanism described in
Appendix 2 to this Annex.

9.4. Activation of the Driver Inducement System
9.4.1. The low-level inducement system described in Paragraph 5.3. shall be enabled, and
subsequently activated according to the requirements of that section, if a failure specified in
Paragraph 9.1. is not rectified within 36 engine operating hours after the activation of the
driver warning system in Paragraph 9.3.
9.4.2. The severe inducement system described in Paragraph 5.4. shall be enabled, and
subsequently activated according to the requirements of that section, if a failure specified in
Paragraph 9.1. is not rectified within 100 engine operating hours after the activation of the
driver warning system in Paragraph 9.3.
9.4.3. The number of hours prior to activation of the inducement systems shall be reduced in case
of a repetitive occurrence of the malfunction in accordance with the mechanism described in
Appendix 2 to this Annex.

A.1.2.
ENGINE FAMILIES OR OBD ENGINE FAMILIES
The compliance of an engine family or an OBD engine family with the requirements of this
Annex may be demonstrated by testing one of the members of the family under consideration,
provided that the manufacturer demonstrates to the Type Approval Authority that the
monitoring systems necessary for complying with the requirements of this Annex are similar
within the family.
A.1.2.1.
A.1.2.2.
A.1.2.3.
This demonstration may be performed by presenting to the approval authorities such
elements as algorithms, functional analyses, etc.
The test engine is selected by the manufacturer in agreement with the Type Approval
Authority. It may or may not be the parent engine of the considered family.
In the case where engines of an engine family belong to an OBD engine family that has
already been type-approved, the compliance of that engine family is deemed to be
demonstrated without further testing (Figure 1), provided the manufacturer demonstrates to
the authority that the monitoring systems necessary for complying with the requirements of
this Annex are similar within the engine and OBD engine families under consideration.
Figure 1
Previously Demonstrated Conformity of an OBD Engine Family

A.1.3.3.6.
For the purpose of demonstrating the activation of the warning system in case of lack of
reagent availability, the engine system shall be operated over one or more operating
sequences at the discretion of the manufacturer.
A.1.3.3.6.1. The demonstration shall start with a level of reagent in the tank to be agreed between the
manufacturer and the Type Approval Authority but representing not less than 10% of the
nominal capacity of the tank.
A.1.3.3.6.2. The warning system is deemed to have performed in the correct manner if the following
conditions are met simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
The warning system has been activated with a reagent availability greater or equal to
10% of the capacity of the reagent tank;
The "continuous" warning system has been activated with a reagent availability
greater or equal to the value declared by the manufacturer according to the provisions
of Paragraph 6. of this Annex.
A.1.3.4.
A.1.3.5.
A.1.4.
A.1.4.1.
A.1.4.1.1.
A.1.4.1.2.
A.1.4.2.
The demonstration of the warning system activation is deemed to be accomplished for
reagent level events if, at the end of each demonstration test performed according to
Paragraph A.1.3.2.1., the warning system has been properly activated.
The demonstration of the warning system activation is deemed to be accomplished for DTC
triggered events if, at the end of each demonstration test performed according to
Paragraph A.1.3.2.1., the warning system has been properly activated and the DTC for the
selected failure has got the status shown in Table 1 in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
DEMONSTRATION OF THE INDUCEMENT SYSTEM
The demonstration of the inducement system shall be done by tests performed on an
engine test bench.
Any additional vehicle components or sub-systems, such as ambient temperature sensors,
level sensors, and driver warning and information systems, that are required in order to
perform the demonstrations shall be connected to the engine system for that purpose, or
shall be simulated, to the satisfaction of the Type Approval Authority.
If the manufacturer chooses, and subject to the agreement of the Type Approval Authority,
the demonstration tests may be performed on a complete vehicle either by mounting the
vehicle on a suitable test bed or by running it on a test track under controlled conditions.
The test sequence shall demonstrate the activation of the inducement system in case of
lack of reagent and in case of one of the failures defined in Paragraphs 7., 8., or 9. of this
Annex.

A.1.4.6.
A.1.4.6.1.
A.1.4.6.2.
Demonstration test of the Severe Inducement System
This demonstration shall start from a condition where the low-level inducement system has
been previously activated, and may be performed as a continuation of the tests undertaken
to demonstrate the low-level inducement system.
When the system is checked for its reaction in the case of lack of reagent in the tank, the
engine system shall be run until the reagent tank is empty (that is, until the dosing system
cannot draw further reagent from the tank), or has reached the level below 2.5% of nominal
full capacity of the tank at which the manufacturer has declared that the severe inducement
system will be activated.
A.1.4.6.2.1. The manufacturer may, with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority, simulate
continuous running by extracting reagent from the tank, either whilst the engine is running or
whilst it is stopped.
A.1.4.6.3.
A.1.4.6.4.
A.1.5.
A.1.5.1.
A.1.5.1.1.
A.1.5.2.
A.1.5.3.
When the system is checked for its reaction in the case of a failure that is not a lack of
reagent in the tank, the engine system shall then be run for the relevant number of operating
hours indicated in Table 2 of Appendix 2 or, at the choice of the manufacturer, until the
relevant counter has reached the value at which the severe inducement system is activated.
The demonstration of the severe inducement system shall be deemed to be accomplished
if, at the end of each demonstration test performed in accordance with
Paragraphs A.1.4.6.2. and A.1.4.6.3. the manufacturer has demonstrated to the Type
Approval Authority that the required vehicle speed limitation mechanism has been
activated.
DEMONSTRATION OF THE VEHICLE SPEED LIMITATION FOLLOWING ACTIVATION
OF THE SEVERE INDUCEMENT SYSTEM
The demonstration of the vehicle speed limitation following activation of the severe
inducement system shall be performed by the presentation to the Type Approval Authority of
a technical case using evidence such as algorithms, functional analyses, and the result of
previous tests.
Alternatively, if the manufacturer chooses, and subject to the agreement of the Type
Approval Authority, the demonstration of vehicle speed limitation may be performed on a
complete vehicle in accordance with the requirements of Paragraph A.1.5.4., either by
mounting the vehicle on a suitable test bed or by running it on a test track under controlled
conditions.
When the manufacturer applies for an approval of an engine or engine family as a separate
technical unit, the manufacturer shall provide the Type Approval Authority with evidence that
the installation documentation package complies with the provisions of Paragraph 2.2.4. of
this Annex concerning the measures to ensure that the vehicle, when used on the road or
elsewhere as appropriate, will comply with the requirements of this Annex regarding severe
inducement.
If the Type Approval Authority is not satisfied with the evidence of proper operation of the
severe inducement system that is provided by the manufacturer, the Type Approval
Authority may request a demonstration on a single representative vehicle in order to confirm
proper operation of the system. The vehicle demonstration shall be performed in
accordance with the requirements of Paragraph A.1.5.4.

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 2
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRIVER WARNING AND INDUCEMENT
ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION MECHANISMS
A.2.1.
To complement the requirements specified in this Annex concerning the driver warning and
inducement activation and deactivation mechanisms, this Appendix specifies the technical
requirements for an implementation of those activation and deactivation mechanisms
consistent with the OBD provisions of Annex 9B.
All definitions used in Annex 9B are applicable to this Appendix.
A.2.2.
A.2.2.1.
ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF THE DRIVER WARNING
SYSTEM
The driver warning system shall be activated when the diagnostic trouble code (DTC)
associated with a malfunction justifying its activation has the status defined in Table 1.
Table 1
Activation of the Driver Warning System
Failure type
Poor reagent quality
Low reagent consumption
Absence of dosing
Impeded EGR valve
Malfunction of the monitoring system
DTC status for activation of the
warning system
Confirmed and active
Potential (if detected after 10h), potential or
confirmed and active otherwise
Confirmed and active
Confirmed and active
Confirmed and active
A.2.2.1.1.
A.2.2.2.
A.2.2.2.1.
If the counter associated with the relevant failure is not at zero, and is consequently
indicating that the monitor has detected a situation where the malfunction may have
occurred for a second or subsequent time, the driver warning system shall be activated
when the DTC has the status "potential".
The driver warning system shall be deactivated when the diagnostic system concludes that
the malfunction relevant to that warning is no longer present or when the information,
including DTCs relative to the failures, justifying its activation is erased by a scan tool.
Erasing of Failure Information by Means of a Scan Tool
A.2.2.2.1.1. Erasing of information, including DTCs relative to failures justifying the activation of a driver
warning signal and of their associated data, by means of a scan tool shall be performed in
accordance with Annex 9B.
A.2.2.2.1.2. The erasing of failure information shall only be possible under "engine-off" conditions.

A.2.4.2.
A.2.4.2.1.
A.2.4.2.1.1.
A.2.4.2.1.2.
A.2.4.2.1.2.1.
A.2.4.2.1.2.2.
Principle of Counter Mechanisms
Each of the counters shall operate as follows:
If starting from zero, the counter shall begin counting as soon as a malfunction relevant
to that counter is detected and the corresponding diagnostic trouble code (DTC) has the
status described in Table 1.
The counter shall halt and hold its current value if a single monitoring event occurs and
the malfunction that originally activated the counter is no longer detected or if the failure
has been erased by a scan tool or a maintenance tool.
If the counter stops counting when the severe inducement system is active, the counter
shall be kept frozen at the value defined in Table 2.
In the case of a single monitoring system counter, that counter shall continue counting if
a malfunction relevant to that counter has been detected and its corresponding
Diagnostic trouble code (DTC) has the status "confirmed and active". It shall halt and
hold the value specified in Paragraph A.2.4.2.1.2., or A.2.4.2.1.2.1. as appropriate, if no
malfunction that would justify the counter activation is detected or if all the failures
relevant to that counter have been erased by a scan tool or a maintenance tool.
DTC status for first
activation of the counter
Table 2
Counters and Inducement
Counter value
for low-level
inducement
Counter value
for severe
inducement
Frozen value held by the
counter during the period
just after severe
inducement
Reagent quality counter Confirmed and active 10h 20h 18h
Reagent consumption
counter
Potential or confirmed and
active (see Table 1)
10h 20h 18h
Dosing counter Confirmed and active 10h 20h 18h
EGR valve counter Confirmed and active 36h 100h 95h
Monitoring system
counter
Confirmed and active 36h 100h 95h
A.2.4.2.1.3.
A.2.4.2.1.4.
Once frozen, the counter shall be reset to zero when the monitors relevant to that
counter have run at least once to completion of their monitoring cycle without having
detected a malfunction and no malfunction relevant to that counter has been detected
during 36 engine operating hours since the counter was last held (see Figure 1).
The counter shall continue counting from the point at which it had been held if a
malfunction relevant to that counter is detected during a period when the counter is
frozen (see Figure 1).

Figure 2
Reagent Availability
A.2.5.3. Figure 3 illustrates three cases off wrong urea quality:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Use case 1: the driver continues operating the vehicle in spite of the warning until
vehicle operation is disabled;
Repair case 1 ("bad" or "dishonest" repair): after disablement off the vehicle, the driver
changes the quality of the reagent, but, soon after, changes it again for a poor quality
one. The inducement system is immediately reactivated andd vehicle operation is
disabled after 2 engine operating hours;
Repair case 2 ("good" repair): after disablement of the vehicle, the driver rectifies the
quality of the reagent. r However, some
time afterwards, he refills again with a poor
quality reagent. The warning, inducement, and counting processes restart from zero.
Figure 3
Filling withh Poor Reagent Quality

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 3
LOW LEVEL INDUCEMENT TORQUE REDUCTION SCHEME
This diagram illustrates the provisions of Paragraph 5.3. of this Annex on torque reduction.

ANNEX 11 - APPENDIX 5
ACCESS TO "NO CONTROL INFORMATION"
A.5.1.
A.5.2.
A.5.2.1.
A.5.2.2.
A.5.2.3.
A.5.2.4.
A.5.2.5.
A.5.3.
A.5.3.1.
This Appendix describes the specifications permitting access to information required in
order to check the status of the vehicle with regard to the correct operation of the NO
control system ("NO control information").
ACCESS METHODS
The "NO control information" shall be provided only in accordance with the standard or
standards used in association with the retrieval of engine system information from the OBD
system.
Access to the "NO control information" shall not be dependent on any access code or other
device or method obtainable only from the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s suppliers.
Interpretation of that information shall not require any specialised or unique decoding
information, unless that information is publicly available.
It shall be possible to retrieve all "NO control information" from the system using the access
method that is used to retrieve OBD information in accordance with Annex 9A.
It shall be possible to retrieve all "NO control information" from the system using the test
equipment that is used to retrieve OBD information in accordance with Annex 9A.
The "NO control information" shall be available through "read-only" access (that is, it shall
not be possible to clear, reset, erase, or modify any of the data).
INFORMATION CONTENT
The "NO control information" shall contain at least the following information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The VIN (vehicle identification number);
The status of the warning system (active; non-active);
The status of the low-level inducement system (active; enabled; non-active);
The status of the severe inducement system (active; enabled; non-active);
Number of warm-up cycles and number of engine operating hours since recorded
"NOx control information" was cleared due to service or repair;
The types of the counters relevant to this Annex (reagent quality, reagent
consumption, dosing system, EGR valve, monitoring system) and the number of
engine operating hours indicated by each of the these counters; in the case of
multiple counters being used, the value to be considered for the purposes of the
"NO control information" is the value of each of the counters relative to the failure
under consideration having the highest value;
The DTCs associated with the malfunctions relevant to this Annex and when their
status is "potential" or "confirmed and active".

ANNEX 12
CO EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex sets out the provisions and test procedures for reporting CO emissions and fuel
consumption.
2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2.1. CO emissions and fuel consumption shall be determined over the WHTC and WHSC test
cycles in accordance with Paragraphs 7.2. to 7.8. of Annex 4.
2.2. The test results shall be reported as cycle averaged brake specific values and expressed in
the unit of g/kWh.
3. DETERMINATION OF CO EMISSIONS
3.1. Raw Measurement
This Paragraph shall apply, if CO is measured in the raw exhaust gas.
3.1.1. Measurement
CO in the raw exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured
with a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyser in accordance with Paragraph 9.3.2.3. and
Appendix 2 to Annex 4.
The measurement system shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 9.2. and
Table 7 of Annex 4.
The measurement system shall meet the requirements of Paragraphs 9.3.1., 9.3.4. and
9.3.5. of Annex 4.
3.1.2. Data Evaluation
The relevant data shall be recorded and stored in accordance with Paragraph 7.6.6. of
Annex 4. The traces of the recorded concentrations and the trace of the exhaust gas mass
flow rate shall be time aligned with the transformation time as defined in Paragraph 3.1. of
Annex 4.
3.1.3. Calculation of Cycle Averaged Emission
If measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet correction according to Paragraph 8.1. of Annex 4
shall be applied to the instantaneous concentration values before any further calculation is
done.
The mass of CO (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous mass
emissions from the raw CO concentration and the exhaust gas mass flow, aligned with
respect to their transformation times as determined in accordance with Paragraph 8.4.2.2. of
Annex 4, integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle, and multiplying the integrated
value with the u values of CO from Table 5 of Annex 4.

3.2.3. Calculation of Cycle Averaged Emission
If measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet correction according to Paragraph 8.1. of Annex 4
shall be applied.
For systems with constant mass flow (with heat exchanger), the mass of CO (g/test) shall
be determined with the following equation:
m = 0.001519 x c x m (in g/test)
where:
c is the average background corrected CO concentration,ppm
0.001519 is the ratio between CO density and density of air (u factor)
m
is the total diluted exhaust mass over the cycle,kg
For systems with flow compensation (without heat exchanger), the mass of CO (g/test)
shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the
instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied
directly to the instantaneous concentration values. The following equation shall be applied:
[( m × c × 0.001519)
] − [( m × c × ( 1−
1/ D)
0.001519)
]
m = ∑
×
where:
c is the CO concentration measured in the diluted exhaust gas,ppm
c is the CO concentration measured in the dilution air,ppm
0.001519 is the ratio between CO density and density of air (u factor)
m is the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas,kg
m
D
is the total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle,kg
is the dilution factor
Optionally, the u factor may be calculated with Equation 57 in Paragraph 8.5.2.3.1. of
Annex 4 by using a CO molar mass (M ) of 44.01g/mol.
CO background correction shall be applied in accordance with Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2. of
Annex 4.

4. DETERMINATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION
4.1. Measurement
Measurement of the instantaneous fuel flow shall be done by systems that preferably
measure mass directly such as the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Mass flow sensor;
Fuel weighing;
Coriolis meter.
The fuel flow measurement system shall have the following:
(a)
(b)
An accuracy of ± 2% of the reading or ± 0.3% of full scale whichever is better;
A precision of ±1% of full scale or better;
(c) A rise time that does not exceed 5 s.
The fuel flow measurement system shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 9.2.
and Table 7 of Annex 4.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors. Such precautions shall at least
include the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The careful installation of the device according to the instrument manufacturers"
recommendations and to good engineering practice;
Flow conditioning as needed to prevent wakes, eddies, circulating flows, or flow
pulsations that affect accuracy or precision of the fuel flow system;
Account for any fuel that bypasses the engine or returns from the engine to the fuel
storage tank.
4.2. Data Evaluation
The relevant data shall be recorded and stored in accordance with Paragraph 7.6.6. of
Annex 4.

ANNEX 12 - APPENDIX 1
PROVISIONS ON CO EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION FOR EXTENSION OF
A TYPE APPROVAL FOR A VEHICLE TYPE-APPROVED UNDER THIS REGULATION
WITH A REFERENCE MASS EXCEEDING 2,380kg BUT NOT EXCEEDING 2,610kg
A.1.1.
A.1.1.1.
A.1.2.
A.1.2.1.
A.1.2.1.2.
INTRODUCTION
This Appendix sets out the provisions and test procedures for reporting CO emissions and
fuel consumption for extension of type approval for a vehicle type-approved under this
Regulation to a vehicle with a reference mass exceeding 2,380kg but not exceeding
2,610kg.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
In order to receive an extension of a type approval for a vehicle in respect of its engine
type-approved under this Regulation to a vehicle with a reference mass exceeding 2,380kg
but not exceeding 2,610kg the manufacturer shall meet the requirements of
Regulation No.101 with the exceptions specified below.
Paragraph 5.2.4. of Regulation No.101 shall be understood as follows:
(1) Density: measured on the test fuel according to ISO 3675 or an equivalent method.
For petrol, diesel, ethanol (E85) and ethanol for dedicated C.I. engines (ED95) the
density measured at 288K (15°C) will be used; for LPG and natural gas/biomethane a
reference density shall be used, as follows:
0.538kg/L for LPG;
0.654kg/m for NG.
(2) Hydrogen-carbon-oxygen ratio: fixed values shall be used which are:
C1H1.93O0.032 for petrol (E10);
C1H1.86O0.006 for diesel (B7);
C1H2.525 for LPG (liquefied petroleum gas);
CH for NG (natural gas) and biomethane;
C H O for ethanol (E85);
C H O for ethanol for dedicated C.I. engines (ED95).

(f)
For vehicles with a dedicated compression ignition engine fuelled with ethanol (ED95)
FC = (0.186/D) · [(0.538 · HC) + (0.429 · CO) + (0.273 · CO )]
In these formulae:
FC
HC
CO
is the fuel consumption in litre per 100km (in the case of petrol, ethanol, LPG,
diesel or biodiesel) or in m per 100km (in the case of natural gas)
is the measured emission of hydrocarbons in g/km
is the measured emission of carbon monoxide in g/km
CO is the measured emission of carbon dioxide in g/km
D
is the density of the test fuel.
In the case of gaseous fuels this is the density at 288K (15°C).

2.2. Documentation
2.2.1. Each replacement pollution control device shall be accompanied by the following
information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The manufacturer’s name or trade mark;
The make and identifying part number of the replacement pollution control device as
recorded in the information document issued in accordance with the model set out in
Appendix 1 to this Annex;
The vehicles or engines including year of manufacture for which the replacement
pollution control device is approved, including, where applicable, a marking to identify
if the replacement pollution control device is suitable for fitting to a vehicle that is
equipped with an on-board diagnostic (OBD) system;
Installation instructions.
The information referred to in this point shall be available in the product catalogue
distributed to points of sale by the manufacturer of replacement pollution control devices.
2.2.2. Each original replacement pollution control device shall be accompanied by the following
information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The vehicle or engine manufacturer’s name or trade mark;
The make and identifying part number of the original replacement pollution control
device as recorded in the information mentioned in Paragraph 2.3.;
The vehicles or engines for which the original replacement pollution control device is
of a type covered by Paragraph 3.2.12.2.1. of Part 1 of Annex 1, including, where
applicable, a marking to identify if the original replacement pollution control device is
suitable for fitting to a vehicle that is equipped with an on-board diagnostic (OBD)
system;
Installation instructions.
This information referred to in this point shall be available in the product catalogue
distributed to points of sale by the vehicle or engine manufacturer.
2.3. For an original replacement pollution control device, the vehicle or engine manufacturer
shall provide to the Type Approval Authority the necessary information in electronic format
which makes the link between the relevant part numbers and the type approval
documentation.
This information shall contain the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Make(s) and type(s) of vehicle or engine;
Make(s) and type(s) of original replacement pollution control device;
Part number(s) of original replacement pollution control device;
Type approval number of the relevant engine or vehicle type(s).

4.2. General Durability Requirements
The replacement pollution control device shall be durable, that is designed, constructed and
capable of being mounted so that reasonable resistance to the corrosion and oxidation
phenomena to which it is exposed is obtained, having regard to the conditions of use of the
vehicle.
The design of the replacement pollution control device shall be such that the elements
active in controlling emissions are adequately protected from mechanical shock so as to
ensure that pollutant emissions are effectively limited throughout the normal life of the
vehicle under normal conditions of use.
The applicant for type approval shall provide to the Type Approval Authority details of the
test used to establish robustness to mechanical shock and the results of that test.
4.3. Requirements Regarding Emissions
4.3.1. Outline of Procedure for Evaluation of Emissions
The engines indicated in Paragraph 3.4.4. (a) of this Regulation equipped with a complete
emissions control system including the replacement pollution control device of the type for
which approval is requested, shall be subjected to tests appropriate for the intended
application as described in Annex 4, in order to compare its performance with the original
emissions control system according to the procedure described below.
4.3.1.1. Where the replacement pollution control device does not comprise the complete emissions
control system, only new original equipment or new original replacement pollution control
components shall be used to provide a complete system.
4.3.1.2. The emissions control system shall be aged according to the procedure described in
Paragraph 4.3.2.4. and retested to establish the durability of its emissions performance.
The durability of a replacement pollution control device is determined from a comparison of
the 2 successive sets of exhaust gas emissions tests.
(a)
(b)
The first set is that made with the replacement pollution control device which has
been run in with 12 WHSC cycles;
The second set is that made with the replacement pollution control device which has
been aged by the procedures detailed below.
Where approval is applied for different types of engines from the same engine
manufacturer, and provided that these different types of engines are fitted with an identical
original equipment pollution control system, the testing may be limited to at least two
engines selected after agreement with the Type Approval Authority.

4.3.2.4. Durability of Emissions Performance
The exhaust after-treatment system tested in Paragraph 4.3.2.2. and incorporating the
replacement pollution control device shall be subjected to the durability procedures
described in Appendix 4 to this Annex.
4.3.2.5. Exhaust Gas Test with Aged Replacement Pollution Control Device
The aged exhaust after-treatment system incorporating the aged replacement control device
shall then be fitted to the test engine used in Paragraphs 4.3.2.1. and 4.3.2.2.
The aged exhaust after-treatment systems shall be preconditioned with 12 WHSC cycles
and subsequently tested using the WHDC procedures described in Annex 4. Three exhaust
gas tests of each appropriate type shall be performed.
4.3.2.6. Determination of Ageing Factor for the Replacement Pollution Control Device
The ageing factor for each pollutant shall be the ratio of the applied emission values at the
useful life end point and at the start of the service accumulation. (e.g. if the emissions of
pollutant A at the useful life end point are 1.50 g/kWh and those at the start of the service
accumulation are 1.82 g/kWh, the ageing factor is 1.82/1.50 = 1.21).
4.3.2.7. Evaluation of the Emission of Pollutants of Engines Equipped with Replacement Pollution
Control Devices
The requirements regarding emissions of the engines equipped with the aged replacement
pollution control device (as described in Paragraph 4.3.2.5.) shall be deemed to be fulfilled if
the results for each regulated pollutant (CO, HC, NMHC, methane, NO , NH , particulate
mass and particle number as appropriate for the type approval of the engine) meet the
following condition:
M*AF ≤G
Where:
M: mean value of the emissions of one pollutant obtained from the three tests with the
preconditioned replacement pollution control device before ageing (i.e. results from
Paragraph 4.3.2.);
AF:
the ageing factor for one pollutant;
G: limit value of the emissions of one pollutant according to the type approval of the
vehicle(s).

and
both engines use the same method for regeneration of any emissions control devices
incorporated in the original exhaust after-treatment system. This requirement shall apply
only where devices requiring regeneration are incorporated in the original exhaust
after-treatment system.
If these conditions are fulfilled, the emissions durability performance of other members of
the family may be determined from the emissions results (S) of that family member
determined according to the requirements set out in Paragraphs 4.3.2.1., 4.3.2.2. and
4.3.2.3. and using the ageing factors determined for the parent of that family.
4.4. Requirements Regarding Exhaust Back-Pressure
The back pressure shall not cause the complete exhaust system to exceed the value
specified according to Paragraph 6.1.2. of this Regulation.
4.5. Requirements Regarding OBD Compatibility (Applicable Only to Replacement
Pollution Control Devices Intended to be Fitted to Vehicles Equipped with an OBD
System)
4.5.1. OBD compatibility demonstration is required only when the original pollution control device
was monitored in the original configuration.
4.5.2. The compatibility of the replacement pollution control device with the OBD system shall be
demonstrated by using the procedures described in Annex 9B for replacement pollution
control devices intended to be fitted to engines or vehicles type-approved in accordance
with this Regulation.
4.5.3. The provisions in this Regulation applicable to components other than pollution control
devices shall not apply.
4.5.4. The replacement pollution control device manufacturer may use the same preconditioning
and test procedure as used during the original type approval. In this case, the Type
Approval Authority which granted original type approval of an engine of a vehicle shall
provide, on request and on a non-discriminatory basis, Appendix on test conditions to
Annex 1 which contains the number and type of preconditioning cycles and the type of test
cycle used by the original equipment manufacturer for OBD testing of the pollution control
device.
4.5.5. In order to verify the correct installation and functioning of all other components monitored
by the OBD system, the OBD system shall indicate no malfunction and have no stored fault
codes prior to the installation of any of the replacement pollution control device. An
evaluation of the status of the OBD system at the end of the tests described in Paragraphs
4.3.2. to 4.3.2.7. may be used for this purpose.
4.5.6. The malfunction indicator shall not activate during vehicle operation required by
Paragraphs 4.3.2. to 4.3.2.7.

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 1
MODEL INFORMATION DOCUMENT
Information document No ………….…
relating to the type approval of replacement pollution control devices
The following information shall be supplied in triplicate and include a list of contents. Any drawings shall
be supplied in appropriate scale and sufficient detail on size A4 or on a folder of A4 format. Photographs,
if any, shall show sufficient detail.
If the systems, components or separate technical units have electronic controls, information concerning
their performance shall be supplied.
0. General
0.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): ........................................................................................
0.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
0.2.1. Commercial name(s) (if available): ...........................................................................................
0.3. Means of identification of type: .................................................................................................
0.5. Name and address of manufacturer: ........................................................................................
0.7. In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of
the approval mark: ....................................................................................................................
0.8. Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s): .......................................................................
0.9 Name and address of the manufacturer’s authorised representative (if any): ..........................
...................................................................................................................................................
1. Description of the device
1.1. Type of the replacement pollution control device: (oxidation catalyst, three-way catalyst,
SCR catalyst, particulate filter etc.): ...........................................................................................
1.2. Drawings of the replacement pollution control device, identifying in particular all the
characteristics referred to under "type of pollution control device" in Paragraph 1.2.1. of this
Annex: .......................................................................................................................................

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 2
COMMUNICATION CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF A REPLACEMENT POLLUTION
CONTROL DEVICE PURSUANT TO REGULATION NO. 49, 06 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration:
................................................
................................................
................................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a replacement pollution control device as a type of component/separate technical unit pursuant to
Regulation No. 49, 06 series of amendments
Approval No. ...................................................... Extension No. ........................................... Reason for
Extension ……………………

3.
Date of test report: .....................................................................................................................
4.
Number of test report: ................................................................................................................
5.
Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
6.
Place: .........................................................................................................................................
7.
Date: ...........................................................................................................................................
8.
Signature: ...................................................................................................................................
Attachments:
Information package.
Test report.

ANNEX 13 - APPENDIX 4
AGEING PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATION OF DURABILITY
1. This Appendix set out the procedures for ageing a replacement pollution control device for
the purpose of evaluating the durability.
2. For demonstrating the durability the replacement pollution control device shall be subject to
the requirements set out in Paragraphs 1. to 3.4.2. of Annex 7.
2.1. For the purpose of demonstrating durability of the replacement pollution control device the
minimum service accumulation periods as set out in Table 1 may be used.
Table 1
Minimum Service Accumulation Period
Category of vehicle in which engine will be installed
Category N vehicles
Category N vehicles
Category N vehicles with a maximum technically permissible
mass not exceeding 16t
Category N vehicles with a maximum technically permissible
mass exceeding 16t
Category M vehicles
Category M vehicles
Category M vehicles of Classes I, II, A and B, with a maximum
technically permissible mass not exceeding 7.5t
Category M vehicles of Classes III and B with a maximum
technically permissible mass exceeding 7.5t
Minimum service
accumulation period

2. OBD DATA
2.1. The following additional information shall be provided by the engine or vehicle manufacturer
for the purposes of enabling the manufacture of OBD-compatible replacement or service
parts and diagnostic tools and test equipment, unless such information is covered by
intellectual property rights or constitutes specific know-how of the manufacturer or the OEM
supplier(s).
2.1.1. A description of the type and number of the pre-conditioning cycles used for the original type
approval of the engine or vehicle.
2.1.2. A description of the type of the OBD demonstration cycle used for the original type approval
of the engine or vehicle for the component monitored by the OBD system.
2.1.3. A comprehensive document describing all sensed components with the strategy for fault
detection and MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical method), including a
list of relevant secondary sensed parameters for each component monitored by the OBD
system and a list of all OBD output codes and format used (with an explanation of each
code and format) associated with individual emission-related power-train components and
individual non-emission related components, where monitoring of the component is used to
determine MI activation. In particular, in the case of vehicle types that use a communication
link in accordance with ISO 15765-4 "Road vehicles – Diagnostics on Controller Area
Network (CAN) – Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems", a comprehensive
explanation for the data given in service $ 05 Test ID $ 21 to FF and the data given in
service $ 06, and a comprehensive explanation for the data given in service $06 Test ID $
00 to FF, for each OBD monitor ID supported, shall be provided.
In case other communication protocols standards are used, equivalent comprehensive
explanation shall be provided.
2.1.4. The information required by this Paragraph may, for example, be defined by completing a
table as follows:

3. DUAL-FUEL SPECIFIC ADDITIONAL APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1. Dual-fuel-engine Family
3.1.1. Criteria for Belonging to a Dual-Fuel Engine Family
All engines within a dual-fuel engine family shall belong to the same type of dual-fuel
engines defined in Section 2 , and operate with the same types of fuel or when appropriate
with fuels declared according to this Regulation as being of the same range(s).
All engines within a dual-fuel engine family shall meet the criteria defined by this Regulation
for belonging to a compression ignition engine family.
The difference between the highest and the lowest GER (i.e. the highest GER
minus the lowest GER ) within a dual-fuel engine family shall not exceed 30%.
3.1.2. Selection of the Parent Engine
The parent engine of a dual-fuel engine family shall be selected according to the criteria
defined by this Regulation for selecting the parent engine of a compression ignition engine
family.
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1. Operating Modes of Dual-fuel Engines and Vehicles
4.1.1. Conditions for a Dual-fuel Engine to Operate in Diesel Mode
A dual-fuel engine may only operate in diesel mode if, when operating in diesel mode, it has
been certified according to all the requirements of this Regulation concerning diesel
engines.
When a dual-fuel engine is developed from an already certified diesel engine, then
re-certification is required in the diesel mode.
4.1.2. Conditions for a HDDF Engine to Idle Using Diesel Fuel Exclusively
4.1.2.1. HDDF Type 1A engines shall not idle using diesel fuel exclusively except under the
conditions defined in Section 4.1.3. for warm-up and start.
4.1.2.2. HDDF Type 1B engines shall not idle using diesel fuel exclusively in dual-fuel mode.
4.1.2.3. HDDF Types 2A, 2B and 3B engines may idle using diesel fuel exclusively.
4.1.3. Conditions for a HDDF Engine to Warm-up or Start Using Diesel Fuel Solely
4.1.3.1. A Type 1B, Type 2B, or Type 3B dual-fuel engine may warm-up or start using diesel fuel
solely. However, in that case, it shall operate in diesel mode.

4.2.2.3. Repair and maintenance of LNG Type A Dual-fuel Engines and Vehicles.
In the case of LNG Type A dual-fuel engines and vehicles, the manufacturer may, instead of
limiting the vehicle speed at 20 km/h, opt for limiting the power of the engine to 20% of the
declared maximum power in dualfuel mode, and this at any engine speed, when the service
mode is activated during a repair or maintenance operation.
4.2.2.3.1. The power limitation option may only be activated if the system concludes that the gas tank
is empty not later than 5min after engine cranking, the engine being at idle.
4.2.2.3.2. The power limitation option shall not be activated when the system concludes that the gas
tank is empty from a previous driving cycle and the gas tank has not been refilled.
4.2.2.3.3. The manufacturer shall demonstrate at type-approval that the power limitation option can
only be activated during a repair or maintenance operation.
4.2.3. Unavailability of Gaseous Fuel When Operating in a Dual-fuel Mode
In order to permit the vehicle to keep moving and eventually to move out of the main-stream
traffic, upon detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank, or of a malfunctioning gas supply
system according to Paragraph 7.2., or of an abnormality of gas consumption in dual-fuel
mode according to Paragraph 7.3.:
(a)
(b)
Dual-fuel engines of Types 1A and 2A shall activate the service mode;
Dual-fuel engines of Types 1B, 2B and 3B shall operate in diesel mode.
4.2.3.1. Unavailability of Gaseous Fuel – Empty Gaseous Fuel Tank
In the case of an empty gaseous fuel tank, the service mode or, as appropriate according to
Paragraph 4.2.3., the diesel mode shall be activated as soon as the engine system has
detected that the tank is empty.
When the gas availability in the tank again reaches the level that justified the activation of
the empty tank warning system specified in Paragraph 4.3.2., the service mode may be
deactivated, or, when appropriate, the dual-fuel mode may be reactivated.
4.2.3.2. Unavailability of Gaseous Fuel – Malfunctioning Gas Supply
In the case of a malfunctioning gas supply system according to Paragraph 7.2., the service
mode or, as appropriate according to Paragraph 4.2.3., the diesel mode shall be activated
when the DTC relevant to that malfunction has the confirmed and active status.
As soon as the diagnostic system concludes that the malfunction is no longer present or
when the information, including DTCs relative to the failures, justifying its activation is
erased by a scan tool, the service mode may be deactivated, or, when appropriate, the dualfuel
mode may be reactivated.
4.2.3.2.1. If the counter specified in Paragraph 4.4. and associated with a malfunctioning gas supply
system is not at zero, and is consequently indicating that the monitor has detected a
situation when the malfunction may have occurred for a second or subsequent time, the
service mode or, as appropriate, the diesel mode shall be activated when the DTC has the
status "potential".

4.3.2. Empty Gaseous Fuel Tank Warning System (Dual-fuel Warning System)
A dual-fuel vehicle shall be equipped with a dual-fuel warning system that alerts the driver
that the gaseous fuel tank will soon become empty.
The dual-fuel warning system shall remain active until the tank is refuelled to a level above
which the warning system is activated.
The dual-fuel warning system may be temporarily interrupted by other warning signals
providing important safety-related messages.
It shall not be possible to turn off the dual-fuel warning system by means of a scan-tool as
long as the cause of the warning activation has not been rectified.
4.3.2.1. Characteristics of the Dual-fuel Warning System
The dual-fuel warning system shall consist of a visual alert system (icon, pictogram, etc.) left
to the choice of the manufacturer.
It may include, at the choice of the manufacturer, an audible component. In that case, the
cancelling of that component by the driver is permitted.
The visual element of the dual-fuel warning system shall not be the same as the one used
for the OBD system (that is, the MI – malfunction indicator), for the purpose of ensuring the
correct operation of NO control measures, or for other engine maintenance purposes.
In addition the dual-fuel warning system may display short messages, including messages
indicating clearly the remaining distance or time before the activation of the operability
restriction.
The system used for displaying the messages referred to in this Paragraph may be the
same as the one used for displaying additional OBD messages, messages related to
correct operation of NO control measures, or messages for other maintenance purposes.
A facility to permit the driver to dim the visual alarms provided by the warning system may
be provided on vehicles for use by the rescue services or on vehicles designed and
constructed for use by the armed services, civil defense, fire services and forces
responsible for maintaining public order.
4.4. Malfunctioning Gas Supply Counter
The system shall contain a counting system to record the number of hours during which the
engine has been operated while the system has detected a malfunctioning gas supply
system according to Paragraph 7.2.
4.4.1. The activation and deactivation criteria and mechanisms of the counter shall comply with the
specifications of Appendix 2.
4.4.2. It is not required to have a counter as specified in Paragraph 4.4., when the manufacturer
can demonstrate to the Type Approval Authority (e.g. by means of a strategy description,
experimental elements, etc…) that the dual-fuel engine automatically switches to diesel
mode in case malfunction is detected.

4.7.2. Additional Requirements
4.7.2.1. Adaptive strategies of a dual-fuel engine are allowed, provided that:
(a)
(b)
The engine always remains in the HDDF type (that is Type 1A, Type 2B, etc.) that
has been declared for type-approval; and
In case of a Type 2 engine, the resulting difference between the highest and the
lowest GER within the family shall never exceed the percentage specified in
Paragraph 3.1.1.; and
(c) These strategies are declared and satisfy the requirements of Annex 10.
5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1. Emission Limits Applicable to HDDF Type 1A and Type 1B Engines
5.1.1. The emission limits applicable to HDDF Type 1A engines and HDDF Type 1B engines
operating in dual-fuel mode are those defined for PI engines in Paragraph 5.3. of this
Regulation.
5.1.2. The emission limits applicable to HDDF Type 1B engines operating in diesel mode are
those defined for CI engines in Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation.
5.2. Emission Limits Applicable to HDDF Type 2A and Type 2B Engines
5.2.1. Emission Limits Applicable over the WHSC Test-cycle
5.2.1.1. For HDDF Type 2A and Type 2B engines, the exhaust emission limits (incl. the PM number
limit) over the WHSC test-cycle applicable to HDDF Type 2A engines and HDDF Type 2B
engines operating in dual-fuel mode are those applicable to CI engines over the WHSC
test-cycle and defined in the table of Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation.
5.2.1.2. The emission limits (including the PM number limit) over the WHSC test-cycle applicable to
HDDF Type 2B engines operating in diesel mode are those defined for CI engines in
Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation.
5.2.2. Emission Limits Applicable over the WHTC Test-cycle
5.2.2.1. Emission Limits for CO, NO , NH and PM Mass
The CO, NO , NH and PM mass emission limits over the WHTC test-cycle applicable to
HDDF Type 2A engines and HDDF Type 2B engines operating in dual-fuel mode are those
applicable to both CI and PI engines over the WHTC test-cycle and defined in Paragraph
5.3. of this Regulation.

(a)
No
applicable THC limit value; and
(b)
Both the NMHC
and CH4
limit values are applicable.
In this procedure:
NMHC is the NMHC
emission limit over the
WHTC test-cycle and
engine by
Paragraph 5.3. of this Regulation;
made applicable to PI
CH4 is the CH emission limit over the WHTC test-cycle and applicable to PI engine by
Paragraph 5.3. of this
Regulation.
Figure 1
Illustration of the HC
Limits in the Case of a HDDF Type 2 Engine Operating
in Dual-fuel Mode During the WHTC Cycle (Natural Gas Dual-fuel Engines)
5.2.4.
PM Number Limit (in #/kWh) Applicable to HDDF Type 2A 2 Engines and to HDDF
Type 2B
Engines Operating in Dual-fuel Mode During the WHTC Test T Cycle.
In the case a PM number limit applicable to PI engines over the WHTC test-cyclee would be
defined in
Paragraph
5.3. of this Regulation, the followingg calculationn procedure shall apply
to HDDF Type 1A engines, to HDDF Type 1B
engines, to HDDF Typee 2A engines, to HDDF
Type 2A
and to HDDF Type 2BB engines tested in thee WHTC cycle while operating in
dual-fuel mode:
Calculate
the averagee gas ratio GER over the hot part of the WHTC test cycle, then

5.4. Conformity Factors
In principal, the emission limit applicable for applying the conformity factor used when
performing a PEMS test, whether a PEMS test at certification or a PEMS test when
checking and demonstrating the conformity of in-service engines and vehicles, should be
determined on the basis of the actual GER calculated from the fuel consumption measured
over the on-road test.
However, in absence of a robust way to measure the gas or the diesel fuel consumption, the
manufacturer is allowed to use the GER determined on the hot part of the WHTC and
calculated according to this Annex.
6. DEMONSTRATION REQUIREMENTS
6.1. Dual-fuel Engines Shall be Subject to the Laboratory Tests Specified in Table 1.
Table 1
Laboratory Tests to be Performed by a Dual-fuel Engine
Type 1A Type 1B Type 2A Type 2B Type 3B
WHTC
NMHC;
CH ;
CO;
NO ;
PM; PN;
NH
Dual-fuel mode:
NMHC; CH ; CO; NO ;
PM; PN; NH
Diesel mode:
THC; CO; NO ; PM; PN;
NH
THC;
NMHC;
CH ; CO;
NO ; PM;
PN; NH
Dual-fuel mode:
THC; NMHC; CH ; CO; NO ;
PM; PN; NH
Diesel mode:
THC; CO; NO ; PM; PN; NH
THC;
CO;
NO ;
PM; PN;
NH
Dual-fuel mode:
Dual-fuel mode:
WHSC
no test
no test
Diesel mode:
THC; CO; NO ; PM; PN;
NH
NMHC;
CO; NO ;
PM; PN;
NH
NMHC; CO; NO ; PM; PN;
NH
Diesel mode:
THC; CO; NO ; PM; PN; NH
THC;
CO;
NO ;
PM; PN;
NH
WNTE
laboratory
test
no test
Dual-fuel mode:
no test
Diesel mode:
THC; CO; NO ; PM
[HC]; CO;
NO ; PM
Dual-fuel mode:
[HC]; CO; NO ; PM
Diesel mode:
THC; CO; NO ; PM
THC;
CO;
NO ;
PM

7. OBD REQUIREMENTS
7.1. General OBD Requirements
All dual-fuel engines and vehicles shall comply with the requirements specified in Annex 9A
and applicable to diesel engines, independent whether operating in dual-fuel or diesel
mode.
In case a dual-fuel engine system is equipped with oxygen sensor(s), the requirements
applicable to gas engines in Item 13. in Appendix 3 of Annex 9B shall apply.
In case a dual-fuel engine system is equipped with a 3-way catalyst, the requirements
applicable to gas engines in Items 7., 10., and 15. in Appendix 3 of Annex 9B shall apply.
7.1.1. Additional General OBD Requirements in Case of Type 1B, Type 2B and Type 3B Dual-fuel
Engines and Vehicles.
7.1.1.1. In the case of malfunctions the detection of which does not depend on the operation mode
of the engine, the mechanisms specified in Annex 9B that are associated with the DTC
status shall not depend on the operation mode of the engine (for example, if a DTC reached
the potential status in dual-fuel mode, it will get the confirmed and active status the next
time the failure is detected, even in diesel mode).
7.1.1.2. In the case of malfunctions where the detection depends on the operation mode of the
engine, DTCs shall not get a previously active status in a different mode than the mode in
which they reached the confirmed and active status.
7.1.1.3. A change of the mode of operation (dual-fuel to diesel or vice-versa) shall not stop nor reset
the OBD mechanisms (counters, etc.). However, in the case of failures the detection of
which depends on the actual operation mode, the counters associated with these
malfunctions may, at the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Type
Approval Authority:
(a)
(b)
Halt and, when applicable, hold their present value when the operation mode
changes;
Restart and, when applicable, continue counting from the point at which they have
been held when the operation mode changes back to the other operation mode.
7.1.1.4. A possible influence of the mode of operation on the malfunction detection shall not be used
to extend the time until an operability restriction becomes active.

8. REQUIREMENTS TO ENSURE THE CORRECT OPERATION OF NO CONTROL
MEASURES
8.1. Annex 11 (on correct operation of NO control measures) shall apply to HDDF engines and
vehicles, whether operating in dual-fuel or diesel mode.
8.2. Additional general OBD requirements in case of Type 1B, Type 2B and Type 3B dual-fuel
engines and vehicles
8.2.1. In case of HDDF Type 1B, Type 2B and Type 3B, the torque considered to apply low level
inducement defined in Annex 11 shall be the lowest of the torques obtained in diesel mode
and in dual-fuel mode.
8.2.2. The requirements of Section 7.1.1. concerning additional general OBD requirements in case
of Type 1B, Type 2B and Type 3B dual-fuel engines and vehicles shall also apply to the
diagnostic system related to the correct operation of NO control systems.
In particular:
8.2.2.1. A possible influence of the mode of operation on the malfunction detection shall not be used
to extend the time until an operability restriction becomes active.
8.2.2.2. A change of the mode of operation (dual-fuel to diesel or vice-versa) shall not stop nor reset
the mechanisms implemented to comply with the specification of Annex 11 (counters, etc.).
However, in the case where one of these mechanisms (for example a diagnostic system)
depends on the actual operation mode the counter associated with that mechanism may, at
the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the Type Approval Authority:
(a)
(b)
Halt and, when applicable, hold their present value when the operation mode
changes;
Restart and, when applicable, continue counting from the point at which they have
been held when the operation mode changes backs to the other operation mode.

10.2.2.2. Torque Value to Consider in a PEMS Test
For PEMS test (work based window) the corrected torque value shall result from that
interpolation
10.2.2.3. Conformity of the ECU Torque-signal
The "Maximum torque" method specified in Appendix 4 to Annex 8 shall be understood as
demonstrating that a point between the reference maximum torque curves obtained at a
certain engine speed when testing with the 2 applicable reference fuels has been reached
during vehicle testing.
The value of that point shall be estimated with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority
on the basis of the actual fuel composition sampled as close as possible to the engine and
the power curves obtained with each of the reference fuels during the emission certification
test.
10.3. Additional Dual-fuel Specific CO Determination Provisions
Section 3.1. of Annex 12 regarding the determination of CO emissions in case of raw
measurement is not applicable to dual-fuel engines. Instead the following provisions shall
apply:
The measured test-averaged fuel consumption according to Section 4.3. of Annex 12 shall
be used as the base for calculating the test averaged CO emissions.
The mass of each fuel consumed shall be used to determine, according to Section A.6.4. of
this Annex, the molar hydrogen ratio and the mass fractions of the fuel mix in the test.
The total fuel mass shall be determined according to Equations 23 and 24.
⎛ A + α × A
w + w + w

m = m − ⎜

m +
× m +
× m
(23)

M
100

M
m = × m
A + α × A
(24)
where:
m is the corrected fuel mass of both fuels, g/test
m total fuel mass of both fuels, g/test
m mass of total hydrocarbon emissions in the exhaust gas, g/test
m mass of carbon monoxide emissions in the exhaust gas, g/test
m CO mass emission coming from the fuel, g/test
w sulphur content of the fuels, per cent mass

11. DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
11.1. Documentation for Installing in a Vehicle a Type Approved HDDF Engine
The manufacturer of a dual-fuel engine type-approved as separate technical unit shall
include in the installation documents of its engine system the appropriate requirements that
will ensure that the vehicle, when used on the road or elsewhere as appropriate, will comply
with the requirements of this Annex. This documentation shall include but is not limited to:
(a)
(b)
The detailed technical requirements, including the provisions ensuring the
compatibility with the OBD system of the engine system;
The verification procedure to be completed.
The existence and the adequacy of such installation requirements may be checked during
the approval process of the engine system.
11.1.1. In the case when the vehicle manufacturer who applies for approval of the installation of the
engine system on the vehicle is the same manufacturer who received the type-approval of
the dual-fuel engine as a separate technical unit, the documentation specified in Paragraph
11.2. is not required.
12. APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Types of HDDF engines and vehicles – illustration of the definitions and
requirements
Appendix 2 Activation and deactivation mechanisms of the counter(s), warning system,
operability restriction, service mode in case of dual fuel engines and
vehicles – description and illustrations
Appendix 3 HDDF dual-fuel indicator, warning system, operability restriction –
demonstration requirements
Appendix 4 Additional emission test procedure requirements for dual-fuel engines
Appendix 5 Additional PEMS emission test procedure requirements for dual-fuel engines
Appendix 6 Determination of molar component ratios and u values for dual-fuel engines

ANNEX 15 - APPENDIX 2
ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF THE COUNTER(S), WARNING
SYSTEM, OPERABILITY RESTRICTION, SERVICE MODE IN CASE OF DUAL-FUEL
ENGINES AND VEHICLES – DESCRIPTION AND ILLUSTRATIONS
A.2.1.
A.2.1.1.
A.2.1.1.1.
A.2.1.1.2.
A.2.1.2.
A.2.1.2.1.
A.2.1.2.1.1.
A.2.1.2.1.2.
A.2.1.2.1.2.1.
A.2.1.2.1.3.
A.2.1.2.1.3.1.
A.2.1.3.
DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTER MECHANISM
General
To comply with the requirements of this Annex, the system shall contain a counter to
record the number of hours during which the engine has been operated while the system
has detected a malfunctioning gas supply.
This counter shall be capable of counting up to 30min operating time. The counter
intervals shall be no longer than 3min. When reaching its maximum value permitted by
the system, it shall hold that value unless the conditions allowing the counter to be reset
to zero are met.
Principle of the Counter Mechanism
The counters shall operate as follows:
If starting from zero, the counter shall begin counting as soon as a malfunctioning gas
supply is detected according to Paragraph 7.2 of this Annex and the corresponding
diagnostic trouble code (DTC) has the status confirmed and active.
The counter shall halt and hold its current value if a single monitoring event occurs and
the malfunction that originally activated the counter is no longer detected or if the failure
has been erased by a scan tool or a maintenance tool.
The counter shall also halt and hold its current value when the service mode becomes
active.
Once frozen, the counter shall be reset to zero and restart counting if a malfunction
relevant to that counter is detected and the service mode activated.
Once frozen, the counter shall also be reset to zero when the monitors relevant to that
counter have run at least once to completion of their monitoring cycle without having
detected a malfunction and no malfunction relevant to that counter has been detected
during 36 engine operating hours since the counter was last held.
Illustration of the Counter Mechanism
Figures A2.1.1 to A2.1.3 give via three use-cases an illustration of the counter
mechanism

Figure A2.1.2
Illustration of the Gas Supply Counter Mechanism (Type A HDDF) – Use-case 2
A malfunction of the gas supply is detected while the gas supply malfunction counter is not at zero (in this use-case it indicates the value it
reached in use-case 1 when the vehicle became standstill).
The service mode is activated and the counter restarts counting from zero as soon as the DTC gets the "potential" status (1st detection:
see Paragraph 4.2.3.2.1. of this Annex).
After 30min of operation without a standstill situation, the service mode becomes active and the vehicle speed is limited to 20km/h (see
Paragraph 4.2.2.1 of this Annex).
The counter freezes at a value of 30min operating time.

A.2.2.
A.2.2.1.
ILLUSTRATION OF THE OTHER ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION MECHANISMS
Empty Gas Tank
Figure A2.2 gives an illustration of the events occurring in the case of a HDDF vehicle
when a gas tank becomes empty through one typical use-case.
Figure A2.2
Illustration of the Events Occurring in Case of an Empty Gas Tank (Types A and B HDDF)
In that use case:
(a)
(b)
The warning system specified in Paragraph 4.3.2. of becomes active when the
level of gas reaches the critical level defined by the manufacturer;
The service mode is activated (in the case of a Type A HDDF) or the engine
switches to Diesel mode (in the case of a Type B HDDF).
In the case of a Type A HDDF, the service mode becomes active and the vehicle speed
is limited to 20km/h after the next time the vehicle is stationary or after 30min operating
time without standstill (see Paragraph 4.2.2.1. of this Annex).
The gas tank is refilled.
The vehicle operates again in dual-fuel mode as soon as the tank is refilled above the
critical level.

A.2.2.3.
Abnormality of the Gas Consumption
Figure A2.4 gives via one typical use-case an illustration of the events occurring in the
case of an abnormality of the gas consumption.
Figure A2.4
Illustration of the Events Occurring in Case of Abnormality of
Gas Consumption (Types A and B HDDF)
In that use case the service mode is activated (in the case of a Type A HDDF) or the
engine switches to Diesel mode (in the case of a Type B HDDF) as soon as the DTC
gets the "potential" status (1st detection).
In the case of a Type A HDDF, the service mode becomes active and the vehicle speed
is limited to 20km/h after the next time the vehicle is stationary or after 30min operating
time without standstill (see Paragraph 4.2.2.1. of this Annex).
The vehicle operates again in dual-fuel mode as soon as the abnormality is rectified.

A.3.2.
WARNING SYSTEM
In the case where a dual-fuel engine is type approved as a separate technical unit, the
ability of the engine system to command the activation of the warning system in the case
that the amount of gas in the tank is below the warning level, shall be demonstrated at
type-approval.
In the case where a dual-fuel vehicle is type-approved as regards to its emissions the
activation of the warning system in the case that the amount of gas in the tank is below
the warning level, shall be demonstrated at type-approval. For that purpose, at the
request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the Type Approval Authority, the
actual amount of gas may be simulated.
Note: Installation requirements related to the warning system of an approved dual-fuel
engine are specified in Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex.
A.3.3.
OPERABILITY RESTRICTION
In the case where a Type 1A or Type 2A dual-fuel engine is type approved as a separate
technical unit, the ability of the engine system to command the activation of the
operability restriction upon detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank, of a malfunctioning
gas supply system, and of an abnormality of gas consumption in dual-fuel mode shall be
demonstrated at type-approval.
In the case where a Type 1A or Type 2A dual-fuel vehicle is type approved as regards to
its emissions, the activation of the operability restriction upon detection of an empty
gaseous fuel tank, of a malfunctioning gas supply system, and of an abnormality of gas
consumption in dual-fuel mode shall be demonstrated at type-approval.
Note: Installation requirements related to the operability restriction of an approved
dual-fuel engine are specified in Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex.
A.3.3.1.
The malfunctioning of the gas supply and the abnormality of gas consumption may be
simulated at the request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the Type Approval
Authority.
In the case where a Type 1A or Type 2A dual-fuel engine is type approved as a separate
technical unit, the ability of the engine system to command the activation of the
operability restriction upon detection of an empty gaseous fuel tank, of a malfunctioning
gas supply system, and of an abnormality of gas consumption in dual-fuel shall be
demonstrated at type-approval.
In the case where a Type 1A or Type 2A dual-fuel vehicle is type approved as regards to
its emissions, the activation of the operability restriction upon detection of an empty
gaseous fuel tank, of a malfunctioning gas supply system, and of an abnormality of gas
consumption in dual-fuel mode shall be demonstrated at type-approval.
Note: Installation requirements related to the operability restriction of an approved
dual-fuel engine are specified in Paragraph 6.2. of this Annex.

ANNEX 15 – APPENDIX 4
ADDITIONAL EMISSION TEST PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS FOR DUAL-FUEL ENGINES
A.4.1.
GENERAL
This Appendix defines the additional requirements and exceptions to Annex 4 of this
regulation to enable emission testing of dual-fuel engines independent whether these
emissions are solely exhaust emissions or also crankcase emissions added to the
exhaust emissions according to Paragraph 6.10. of Annex 4.
Emission testing of a dual-fuel engine is complicated by the fact that the fuel used by the
engine can vary between pure diesel fuel and a combination of mainly gaseous fuel with
only a small amount of diesel fuel as an ignition source. The ratio between the fuels used
by a dual-fuel engine can also change dynamically depending of the operating condition
of the engine. As a result special precautions and restrictions are necessary to enable
emission testing of these engines.
A.4.2. TEST CONDITIONS (ANNEX 4, SECTION 6.)
A.4.2.1. Laboratory Test Conditions (Annex 4, Paragraph 6.1.)
The parameter f for dual-fuel engines shall be determined with formula (a)(2) in
Paragraph 6.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
A.4.3. TEST PROCEDURES (ANNEX 4, SECTION 7.)
A.4.3.1. Measurement Procedures (Annex 4, Paragraph 7.1.3.)
The recommended measurement procedure for dual-fuel engines is procedure (b) listed
in Paragraph 7.1.3. of Annex 4 (CVS system).
This measurement procedure ensures that the variation of the fuel composition during
the test will only influence the hydrocarbon measurement results. This shall be
compensated via one of the methods described in Section 4.4.
Other measurement methods such as method (a) listed in Paragraph 7.1.3. of Annex 4
(raw gaseous/partial flow measurement) can be used with some precautions regarding
exhaust mass flow determination and calculation methods. Fixed values for fuel
parameters and ugas-values shall be applied as described in Appendix 6.

A.4.4.3.2. Determination of the Gaseous Components (Annex 4, Section 8.4.2.)
The calculations shall be performed according to Annex 4, Section 8. but the u -values
and molar ratios as described in Section A.6.2. and A.6.3. of Appendix 6 shall be used.
A.4.4.3.3. Particulate Determination (Annex 4, Section 8.4.3.)
For the determination of particulate emissions with the partial dilution measurement
method the calculation shall be performed according to Annex 4, Paragraph 8.4.3.2.
For controlling the dilution ratio one of the following two methods may be used:
– The direct mass flow measurement as described in Paragraph 8.4.1.3.
– The airflow and air to fuel ratio measurement method according to
Paragraph 8.4.1.6. (Equations 30, 31 and 32) may only be used when this is
combined with the look ahead method described in Paragraph 8.4.1.2. and if α, γ,
δ and ε values are determined according to Sections A.6.2. and A.6.3. of
Appendix 6.
The quality check according to Paragraph 9.4.6.1. shall be performed for each
measurement.
A.4.4.3.4.
Additional Requirements Regarding the Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Meter
The flow meter referred to in Sections A.4.4.3.1. and A.4.4.3.3. shall not be sensitive to
the changes in exhaust gas composition and density. The small errors of e.g. pitot tube
or orifice-type of measurement (equivalent with the square root of the exhaust density)
may be neglected.
A.4.4.4. Full Flow Dilution Measurement (CVS) (Annex 4, Section 8.5.)
The possible variation of the fuel composition will only influence the hydrocarbons
measurement results calculation. For all other components the appropriate equations
from Section 8.5.2. of Annex 4 shall be used.
The exact equations shall be applied for the calculation of the hydrocarbon emissions
using the molar component ratios determined from the fuel consumption measurements
of both fuels according to Section A.6.4. of Appendix 6.
A.4.4.4.1. Determination of the Background Corrected Concentrations (Annex 4,
Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.)
To determine the stoïchiometric factor, the molar hydrogen ratio α of the fuel shall be
calculated as the average molar hydrogen ratio of the fuel mix during the test according
to Section A.6.4. of Appendix 6.
Alternatively the F value of the gaseous fuel may be used in Equation 59 or 60 of
Annex 4.

ANNEX 15 - APPENDIX 5
ADDITIONAL PEMS EMISSION TEST PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS FOR DUAL-FUEL ENGINES
A.5.1.
GENERAL
This Appendix defines the additional requirements and exceptions to Annex 8 of this
regulation to enable PEMS emission testing of dual-fuel engines.
Emission testing of a dual-fuel engine is complicated by the fact that the fuel used by the
engine can vary between pure diesel fuel and a combination of mainly gaseous fuel with
only a small amount of diesel fuel as an ignition source. The ratio between the fuels used
by a dual-fuel engine can also change dynamically depending of the operating condition
of the engine. As a result special precautions and restrictions are necessary to enable
emission testing of these engines.
A.5.2.
A.5.2.1.
The following amendments to Appendix 1 of Annex 8 shall apply:
Note (2) of Table 1 in Paragraph A.1.2.2. shall read:
A.5.2.2.
Paragraph A.1.3.3. "Dry-Wet correction" shall read:
If the concentration is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to a wet basis
according to Paragraph 8.1. of Annex 4 and Paragraph 4.1.1. of Appendix 4 to this
Annex.
A.5.2.3.
Paragraph A.1.3.5. "Calculation of the instantaneous gaseous emissions" shall read:
The mass emissions shall be determined as described in Paragraph 8.4.2.3. of Annex 4.
The u values shall be determined according to Sections A.6.2. and A.6.3. of
Appendix 6 of Annex 15.

Gaseous Fuel
Table A6.2
Raw Exhaust Gas u Values and Component Densities
for a Mixture of 50% Gaseous Fuel and 50% Diesel Fuel (Mass %)
ρ
Gas
NO CO HC CO O CH
ρ [kg/m ]
2.053 1.250 1.9636 1.4277 0.716
CNG/LNG 1.2786 0.001606 0.000978 0.000528 0.001536 0.001117 0.000560
Propane 1.2869 0.001596 0.000972 0.000510 0.001527 0.001110 0.000556
Butane 1.2883 0.001594 0.000971 0.000503 0.001525 0.001109 0.000556
LPG 1.2881 0.001594 0.000971 0.000506 0.001525 0.001109 0.000556
u
A.6.2.3.
A.6.2.4.
For Type 3B dual-fuel engines operating in dual-fuel mode the molar component ratios
and the u values of diesel fuel shall be used.
For the calculation of the hydrocarbon emissions of all types of dual-fuel engines
operating in dual-fuel mode, the following shall apply:

For the calculation of the THC emissions, the u
value of the gaseous fuel shall
be used.

For the calculation of the NMHC emissions, the u
value on the basis of CH
shall be used.
– For the calculation of the CH emissions, the u value of CH shall be used.
A.6.3.
OPERATION IN DIESEL MODE
For Type 1B, 2B or 3B dual-fuel engines operating in diesel mode, the molar component
ratios and the u values of diesel fuel shall be used.

A.6.4.2.
Calculation of the Molar Ratios of H, C, S, N and O related to C for the Fuel Mixture
(According to ISO8178-1, Annex A-A.2.2.2).
w
α = 11 .9164 ×
(A6.6)
w
w
γ = 0 .37464 ×
(A6.7)
w
w
δ = 0 .85752 ×
(A6.8)
w
w
ε = 0 .75072 ×
(A6.9)
w
where:
w hydrogen content of fuel, per cent mass
w carbon content of fuel, per cent mass
w sulphur content of fuel, per cent mass
w nitrogen content of fuel, per cent mass
w oxygen content of fuel, per cent mass
α
γ
δ
ε
molar hydrogen ratio (H/C)
molar sulphur ratio (S/C)
molar nitrogen ratio (N/C)
molar oxygen ratio (O/C)
referring to a fuel CH O N S
A.6.4.3. Calculation of the u Values for a Fuel Mixture
The raw exhaust gas u values for a fuel mixture can be calculated with the exact
equations in Paragraph 8.4.2.4. of Annex 4 and the molar ratios calculated according to
Paragraph A.6.4.2.
For systems with constant mass flow, Equation 57 in Paragraph 8.5.2.3.1. of Annex 4 is
needed to calculate the diluted exhaust gas u values.
Emissions - Heavy Duty Vehicles.