Regulation No. 66-01

Name:Regulation No. 66-01
Description:Strength of Superstructure - Large Passenger Vehicles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Large Passenger Vehicles with Regard to the Strength of their Superstructure.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2005-11-09
Amendment Level:01 Series, Supplement 1
Number of Pages:60
Vehicle Types:Bus
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

vehicle, test, approval, centre, mass, body, superstructure, gravity, regulation, annex, section, type, roll-over, position, load, figure, space, plane, paragraph, residual, energy, means, bays, manufacturer, sections, elements, wheel, total, structural, bay, method, technical, vertical, axle, requirements, deformation, calculation, height, determined, approved, longitudinal, structure, occupant, unladen, defined, tested, tilting, service, amendments, data

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.65/Rev.1/Amend.1
November 4, 2008
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 66-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
LARGE PASSENGER VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO
THE STRENGTH OF THEIR SUPERSTRUCTURE
Incorporating:
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.09.97
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.11.05
Corr. 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 13.12.06
Corr. 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 10.05.07
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08

REGULATION NO. 66-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF LARGE PASSENGER VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE STRENGTH OF THEIR SUPERSTRUCTURE
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Application for Approval
4. Approval
CONTENTS
5. General Specifications and Requirements
6. Modification and Extension of Approval of a Vehicle Type
7. Conformity of Production
8. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
9. Production Definitely Discontinued
10. Transitional Provisions
11. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests,
and of Administrative Departments

REGULATION NO. 66-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF LARGE PASSENGER VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE STRENGTH OF THEIR SUPERSTRUCTURE
1. SCOPE
1.1. This Regulation applies to single-deck rigid or articulated vehicles belonging to Classes II
or III .
1.2. At the request of the manufacturer, this Regulation may also apply to single-deck rigid or
articulated vehicles belonging to Classes other than II or III.
2. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation, the following terms and definitions are used:
2.1. Units of Measurement
The units of measurement shall be:
Dimensions and linear distances
metres (m) or millimetres (mm)
Mass or load
kilograms (kg)
Force (and weight)
Newtons (N)
Moment
Newton-metres (Nm)
Energy
Joules (J)
Gravitational constant
9.81 ( m/s )
2.2. "Vehicle" means a bus or coach designed and equipped for transportation of passengers.
The vehicle is an individual representative of a vehicle type.
2.3. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles produced with the same design technical
specification, main dimensions and constructional arrangement. The vehicle type shall be
defined by the vehicle manufacturer.
2.4. "Family of vehicle types" means those vehicle types, proposed in future as well as
existing now, which are covered by the approval of the worst case, in respect of this
Regulation.
2.5. "Worst case" means the vehicle type, among a group of vehicle types, least likely to
withstand the requirements of this Regulation in respect of the strength of superstructure.
The three parameters which define the worst case are: structural strength, reference energy
and the residual space.
2.6. "Approval of a vehicle type" means the whole official process in which the vehicle type is
checked and tested to prove that it meets all the requirements specified in this Regulation.
2.7. "Extension of approval" means the official process in which a modified vehicle type is
approved on the basis of an earlier approved vehicle type, by comparison of structure,
potential energy and residual space criteria.

2.22. "Body work" means the complete structure of the vehicle in running order, including all the
structural elements which form the passenger compartment, driver's compartment, baggage
compartment and spaces for the mechanical units and components.
2.23. "Superstructure" means the load-bearing components of the bodywork as defined by the
manufacturer, containing those coherent parts and elements which contribute to the
strength and energy absorbing capability of the bodywork, and preserve the residual space
in the roll-over test.
2.24. "Bay" means a structural section of the superstructure forming a closed loop between two
planes which are perpendicular to the vertical longitudinal central plane of the vehicle. A
bay contains one window (or door) pillar on each side of the vehicle as well as side wall
elements, a section of the roof structure and a section of the floor and underfloor structure.
2.25. "Body section" means a structural unit, which represents one part of the superstructure for
the purposes of an approval test. A body section contains at least two bays connected by
representative connecting elements (side, roof, and underfloor, structures).
2.26. "Original body section" means a body section composed of two or more bays of exactly
the same form and relative position, as they appear in the actual vehicle. All connecting
elements between the bays are also arranged exactly as they appear in the actual vehicle.
2.27. "Artificial body section" means a body section built up from two or more bays but not in
the same position, nor at the same distance from each other as in the actual vehicle. The
connecting elements between these bays need not be identical with the real body work
structure but shall be structurally equivalent.
2.28. "Rigid part" means a structural part or element which does not have significant deformation
and energy absorption during the roll-over test.
2.29. "Plastic zone" (PZ) means a special geometrically limited part of the superstructure in
which, as the result of dynamic, impact forces:




large scale plastic deformations are concentrated
essential distortion of the original shape (cross section, length, or other geometry)
occurs
loss of stability occurs, as a result of local buckling,
kinetic energy is absorbed due to deformation.
2.30. "Plastic hinge" (PH) means a simple plastic zone formed on a rod-like element (single
tube, window column, etc).
2.31. "Cantrail" means the longitudinal structural part of the bodywork above the side windows
including the curved transition to the roof structures. In the roll-over test the cantrail hits the
ground first.
2.32. "Waistrail" means the longitudinal structural part of the bodywork below the side windows.
In the roll-over test the waistrail may be the second area to contact the ground after initial
deformation of the vehicle cross-section.

B
g
h
= perpendicular distance (in metres) of the vehicle's longitudinal vertical central plane
to the axis of rotation in the roll-over test
= gravitational constant
= the height (in metres) of the vehicle centre of gravity in its starting, unstable position
related to the horizontal lower plane of the ditch
3.2.2.2. Drawings and detailed description of the superstructure of the vehicle type or group of
vehicle types according to Annex 4.
3.2.2.3. Detailed drawings of the residual space according to Paragraph 5.2. for every vehicle type
to be approved.
3.2.3. Further detailed documentation, parameters, data depending on the approval test method
chosen by the manufacturer, as detailed in Annex 5, Annex 6, Annex 7, Annex 8 and
Annex 9.
3.2.4. In case of an articulated vehicle, all of this information shall be given separately for each
section of the vehicle type, except for Paragraph 3.2.1.1. which is related to the complete
vehicle.
3.3. On request of the technical service a complete vehicle (or one vehicle from each vehicle
type, if approval is requested for a group of vehicle types) shall be presented to check its
unladen kerb mass, axle loads, position of the centre of gravity and all other data and
information which are relevant to the strength of superstructure.
3.4. According to the approval test method chosen by the manufacturer, appropriate test pieces
shall be submitted to the technical service upon its request. The arrangement and number
of these test pieces shall be agreed with the technical service. In case of test pieces which
have been tested earlier, the test reports shall be submitted.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type or group of vehicle types submitted for approval to this Regulation meets
the requirements of Paragraph 5. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each vehicle type approved. Its first two digits (at
present 01 corresponding to the 01 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of
amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the
Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign
the same number to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or extension of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this
Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this
Regulation, by means of a communication form (see Annex 1) and of drawings and
diagrams supplied by the applicant for approval, in a format agreed between the
manufacturer and the technical service. Paper documentation shall be foldable to
A4 (210 mm × 297 mm) format.

5.1.2. No part of the residual space shall project outside the contour of the deformed structure.
The contour of the deformed structure shall be determined sequentially, between every
adjacent window and/or door pillar. Between two deformed pillars the contour shall be a
theoretical surface, determined by straight lines, connecting the inside contour points of the
pillars which were the same height above the floor level before the roll-over test (see
Figure 1).
5.2. Residual Space
Figure 1
Specification of the Contour of the Deformed Structure
The envelope of the vehicle's residual space is defined by creating a vertical transverse
plane within the vehicle which has the periphery described in Figures 2(a) and 2(c), and
moving this plane through the length of the vehicle (see Figure 2(b)) in the following
manner:
5.2.1. The S point is located on the seat-back of each outer forward or rearward facing seat (or
assumed seat position), 500 mm above the floor under the seat, 150 mm from the inside
surface of the side wall. No account shall be taken of wheel arches and other variations of
the floor height. These dimensions shall also be applied in the case of inward facing seats
in their centre planes.
5.2.2. If the two sides of the vehicle are not symmetrical in respect of floor arrangement and,
therefore, the height of the S points are different, the step between the two floor lines of the
residual space shall be taken as the longitudinal vertical centre plane of the vehicle (see
Figure 2(c));

Figure 2
Specification of Residual Space

5.4. Specifications of Equivalent Approval Tests
Instead of the roll-over test on a complete vehicle, at the discretion of the manufacturer, one
of the following equivalent approval test methods can be chosen:
5.4.1. Roll-over test on body sections which are representative of the complete vehicle, in
accordance with the specifications of Annex 6.
5.4.2. Quasi-static loading tests of body sections in accordance with the specifications of Annex 7.
5.4.3. Quasi-static calculations based on the results of component tests in accordance with the
specifications of Annex 8.
5.4.4. Computer simulation − via dynamic calculations − of the basic roll-over test on a complete
vehicle in accordance with the specifications of Annex 9.
5.4.5. The basic principle is that the equivalent approval test method must be carried out in such a
way that it represents the basic roll-over test specified in Annex 5. If the equivalent approval
test method chosen by the manufacturer cannot take account of some special feature or
construction of the vehicle (e.g. air-conditioning installation on the roof, changing height of
the waist rail, changing roof height) the complete vehicle may be required by the technical
service to undergo the roll-over test specified in Annex 5.
5.5. Testing of Articulated Buses
In the case of an articulated vehicle, each rigid section of the vehicle shall comply with the
general requirement specified in Paragraph 5.1. Each rigid section of an articulated vehicle
may be tested separately or in combination as described in Annex 5, Paragraph 2.3, or in
Annex 3, Paragraph 2.6.7.
5.6. Direction of Roll-over Test
The roll-over test shall be carried out on that side of the vehicle which is more dangerous
with respect to the residual space. The decision is made by the technical service on the
basis of the manufacturer's proposal, considering at least the following:
5.6.1. The lateral eccentricity of the centre of gravity and its effect on the reference energy in the
unstable, starting position of the vehicle, see Paragraph 3.2.2.1;
5.6.2. The asymmetry of the residual space, see Paragraph 5.2.2
5.6.3. The different, asymmetrical constructional features of the two sides of the vehicle, and the
support given by partitions or inner boxes (e.g. wardrobe, toilet, kitchenette). The side with
the lesser support shall be chosen as the direction of the roll-over test.
6. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE TYPE
6.1. Every modification of the approved vehicle type shall be advised to the Administrative
Department which granted the type approval. The Administrative Department may then
either,
6.1.1. Agree that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable effect and that in any
case the modified vehicle type still complies with the requirements of this Regulation and
constitutes part of a family of vehicle types together with the approved vehicle type; or

8. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 7. above are not complied with.
8.2. If a party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously
granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by
means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and
dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
9. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Administrative Department which
granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that Administrative
Department shall inform the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by
means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and
dated annotation "PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED".
10. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
10.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 01 series of amendments, no Contracting
Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant ECE approval under this Regulation as
amended by the 01 series of amendments.
10.2. As from 60 months after the date of entry into force, Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation shall grant ECE approvals for new vehicle types as defined in this Regulation
only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as
amended by the 01 series of amendments.
10.3. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of approval
to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.
10.4. ECE approvals granted under this Regulation, in its original form, earlier than 60 months
after the date of entry into force and all extensions of such approvals, shall remain valid
indefinitely, subject to Paragraph 10.6. below. When the vehicle type approved to the
preceding series of amendments meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by
the 01 series of amendments, the Contracting Party which granted the approval shall notify
the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation thereof.
10.5. No Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse national type approval of a
vehicle type approved to the 01 series of amendments to this Regulation.
10.6. Starting 144 months after the entry into force of the 01 series of amendments to this
Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse first national
registration (first entry into service) of a vehicle which does not meet the requirements of the
01 series of amendments to this Regulation.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297 mm))
Issued by:
Name of administration
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with regard to the strength of its superstructure pursuant to Regulation No. 66
Approval No....................................
Extension No............................................
1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle type: ..........................................................................................
2. Vehicle type: .....................................................................................................................................
3. Vehicle category/class: .....................................................................................................................
4. Manufacturer's name and address: ..................................................................................................
5. If applicable, name and address of the manufacturer's representative: ...........................................
6. Brief summary of description of the superstructure in respect of Paragraph 3.2.2.2. of this
Regulation and Annex 4: ..................................................................................................................
7. Reference number of detailed drawing showing the residual space used in the approval
procedure: .........................................................................................................................................
8. Unladen kerb mass (kg): ..................... and associated axle loads (kg): .........................................
9. Maximum number of seats permitted to be fitted with occupant restraints ......................................
10. The position of the centre of gravity of the unladen vehicle in the longitudinal, transverse and
vertical planes: ..................................................................................................................................
10.1. for unladen kerb mass: .....................................................................................................................
10.2. for total effective mass: .....................................................................................................................

ANNEX 2
ARRANGEMENT OF THE APPROVAL MARK
(See Paragraph 4.4 of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
the strength of the superstructure, been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to
Regulation No. 66 under approval number 012431. The first two digits of the approval number indicate
that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of the 01 series of amendments to
Regulation No. 66.

2. MEASUREMENTS
2.1. The position of the vehicle's centre of gravity shall be determined in the unladen kerb mass
condition or the total effective vehicle mass condition as defined in Paragraphs 1.5. and 1.6.
For the determination of the position of the centre of gravity in the total effective vehicle mass
condition, the individual occupant mass (factored by the constant, k = 0.5) shall be positioned
and rigidly held 100 mm above and 100 mm forward of the R point (which is defined in
Regulation No. 21, Annex 5) of the seat.
2.2. The longitudinal (l ) and transverse (t) coordinates of centre of gravity shall be determined on
a common horizontal ground (see Figure A3.1) where each wheel or twinned wheel of the
vehicle is standing on an individual load cell. Each steered wheel shall be set to its
straight-ahead position.
2.3. The individual load-cell readings shall be noted simultaneously and shall be used to calculate
the total vehicle mass and centre of gravity position.
2.4. The longitudinal position of the centre of gravity relative to the centre of the contact point of
the front wheels (see Figure A3.1) is given by,
l
=
( P
+ P
).
L
+ ( P
+ P
)
( P
)
. L
where:
P
P
P
P
P
= reaction load on the load cell under the left-hand wheel of the first axle
= reaction load on the load cell under the right-hand wheel of the first axle
= reaction load on the load cell under the left-hand wheel(s) of the second axle
= reaction load on the load cell under the right-hand wheel(s) of the second axle
= reaction load on the load cell under the left-hand wheel(s) of the third axle
P reaction load on the load cell under the right-hand wheel(s) of the third axle
P
L
L
= (P +P +P +P +P +P ) = M unladen kerb mass; or,
= M total effective vehicle mass, as appropriate
= the distance from centre of wheel on 1 axle to centre of wheel on second axle
= the distance from centre of wheel on 1 axle to centre of wheel on third axle, if fitted

Figure A3.2
Transverse Position of Centre of Gravity
2.6. The height of the centre of gravity (h ) shall be determined by tilting the vehicle longitudinally
and using individual load-cells at the wheels of two axles.
2.6.1. Two load-cells shall be positioned on a common horizontal plane, to receive the front wheels.
The horizontal plane shall be at sufficient height above the surrounding surfaces that the
vehicle can be tilted forward to the required angle (see Paragraph 2.6.2. below) without its
nose touching that surface.
2.6.2. A second pair of load-cells shall be placed in a common horizontal plane on top of support
structures, ready to receive the wheels of the second axle of the vehicle. The support
structures shall be sufficiently tall to generate a significant angle of inclination α (> 20°) for the
vehicle. The greater the angle, the more accurate will be the calculation − see Figure A3.3.
The vehicle is repositioned on the four load-cells, with the front wheels chocked to prevent the
vehicle rolling forward. Each steered wheel shall be set to its straight-ahead steer position.
2.6.3. The individual load-cell readings shall be noted simultaneously and shall be used to check the
total vehicle mass and centre of gravity position.
2.6.4. The inclination of the tilting test shell be determined by the equation (see Figure A3.3)
where:
α =
arc sin



H
L



H
L
= height difference between the footprints of the wheels of the first and second axles
= the distance from centre of wheel's first and second axles

ANNEX 4
VIEWPOINTS ON THE STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE
1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1.1. The manufacturer shall define unambiguously the superstructure of the bodywork (see
Figure A4.1, for example) and shall state:
1.1.1. Which bays contribute to the strength and energy absorption of the superstructure;
1.1.2. Which connecting elements between the bays contribute to the torsional stiffness of the
superstructure;
1.1.3. The mass distribution among the nominated bays;
1.1.4. Which elements of the superstructure are assumed as rigid parts.
Figure A4.1
Derivation of the Superstructure from the Bodywork

2.3. The length of a bay is measured in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and is
determined by the distance between two planes perpendicular to the VLCP of the vehicle.
There are two limits which define the length of a bay: the window (door) arrangement, and the
shape and construction of the window (door) pillars.
Figure A4.2
Definition of Length of Bays
2.3.1. The maximum length of a bay is defined by the length of the two neighbouring window (door)
frames
where:
1
( W ) = ( a + b)
a = the length of the window (door) frame behind the j pillar, and
b = the length of the window (door) frame in front of the j pillar
2

3. CONNECTING STRUCTURES BETWEEN THE BAYS
3.1. The connecting structures between bays shall be clearly defined in the superstructure. These
structural elements fall into two distinct categories:
3.1.1. The connecting structures which form part of the superstructure. These elements shall be
identified by the manufacturer, in this design submission: they include:
3.1.1.1. Side-wall structure, roof structure, floor structure, which connect several bays,
3.1.1.2. Structural elements which reinforce one or more bays; for example, boxes under seats, wheel
arches, seat structures connecting side-wall to floor, kitchen, wardrobe and toilet structures.
3.1.2. The additional elements which do not contribute to the structural strength of the vehicle but
which may intrude into the residual space, for example: ventilation ducts, hand luggage
boxes, heating ducts.
4. MASS DISTRIBUTION
4.1. The manufacturer shall clearly define the portion of the mass of the vehicle attributed to each
of the bays of the superstructure. This mass distribution shall express the energy absorbing
capability and load bearing capacity of each bay. The following requirements shall be met
when defining the distribution of mass:
4.1.1. The sum of the masses attributed to each bay shall be related to the mass M of the complete
vehicle:

( m ) ≥ M
where:
m
n
M
= the mass attributed to the j bay
= the number of bays in the superstructure
= M , unladen kerb mass; or,
= M , total effective vehicle mass, as appropriate

Figure A4.4
Distribution of Mass in the Cross Section of a Bay

1.4. Wheel supports shall be applied at the wheels being close to the axis of rotation against
sliding of the vehicle sideways when tilting it. The main characteristics of the wheel
supports (see Figure A5.1) shall be:
1.4.1. Dimensions of the wheel support:
Height
Width
Edge radius
Length
shall not be greater than two-thirds of the distance between the surface on
which the vehicle stands before it is tilted and part of the rim of the wheel
which is nearest to the surface
20 mm
10 mm
500 mm minimum;
1.4.2. The wheel supports at the widest axle shall be placed on the tilting platform so that the side
of the tyre is at maximum 100 mm from the axis of rotation;
1.4.3. The wheel supports at the other axles shall be adjusted so that the vertical longitudinal
centre plane (VLCP) of the vehicle shall be parallel to the axis of rotation.
1.5. The tilting platform shall be constructed to prevent the vehicle moving along its longitudinal
axis.
1.6. The impact area of the ditch shall have a horizontal, uniform, dry and smooth concrete
surface.
2. PREPARATION OF TEST VEHICLE
2.1. The vehicle to be tested need not be in a fully finished, "ready for operation" condition.
Generally, any alteration from the fully finished condition is acceptable if the basic features
and behaviour of the superstructure are not influenced by it. The test vehicle shall be the
same as its fully finished version in respect of the following:
2.1.1. The position of the centre of gravity, the total value of vehicle mass (unladen kerb mass, or
total effective vehicle mass where restraints are fitted) and the distribution and location of
masses, as declared by the manufacturer.
2.1.2. All of those elements which − according to the manufacturer - contribute to the strength of
the superstructure shall be installed in their original position (see Annex 4 to this
Regulation).
2.1.3. Elements, which do not contribute to the strength of the superstructure and are too valuable
to risk damage (e.g. drive chain, dashboard instrumentation, driver's seat, kitchen
equipment, toilet equipment, etc.) can be replaced by additional elements equivalent in
mass and method of installation. These additional elements must not have a reinforcing
effect on the strength of superstructure.
2.1.4. Fuel, battery acid and other combustible, explosive or corrosive materials may be
substituted with other materials provided that the conditions of Paragraph 2.1.1. are met.

2.2.3. Every door and opening window of the vehicle shall be closed but not locked.
2.3. The rigid sections of an articulated vehicle may be tested separately or in combination.
2.3.1. For testing the articulated sections as a combination, the sections of the vehicle shall be
fixed to each other in such a way that,
2.3.1.1. There is no relative movement between them during the roll-over process.
2.3.1.2. There is no significant change in mass distribution and centre of gravity positions.
2.3.1.3. There is no significant change in the strength and deformation capability of the
superstructure.
2.3.2. For testing the articulated sections separately, the single-axle sections shall be attached to
an artificial support which keeps them in fixed relation to the tilting platform during its
movement from the horizontal to the point of roll-over. This support shall meet the following
requirements:
2.3.2.1. It shall be fixed to the structure in such a way that it does not cause either reinforcement or
extra additional load to the superstructure.
2.3.2.2. It shall be constructed so that it does not suffer any deformation which could change the
direction of the roll-over of the vehicle.
2.3.2.3. Its mass shall be equal to the mass of those elements, parts of the articulated joint, which
nominally belong to the section being tested, but which are not placed on it (e.g. turntable
and its floor, handholds, rubber sealing curtains, etc.).
2.3.2.4. Its centre of gravity shall have the same height as the common centre of gravity of those
parts which are listed in Paragraph 2.3.2.3.
2.3.2.5. It shall have an axis of rotation parallel to the longitudinal axis of the multi-axle section of
the vehicle, and passing through the points of contact of the tyres of that section.
3. TEST PROCEDURE, TEST PROCESS
3.1. The roll-over test is a very rapid, dynamic process having distinguishable stages, should be
taken into consideration when a roll-over test, its instrumentation and measurement are
planned.
3.2. The vehicle shall be tilted without rocking and without dynamic effects until it reaches
unstable equilibrium and commences its roll-over. The angular velocity of the tilt platform
shall not exceed 5 degrees/sec. (0.087 radians/sec).
3.3. For inside observation high-speed photography, video, deformable templates, electrical
contact sensors or other suitable means shall be used to determine that the requirements of
Paragraph 5.1. of this Regulation has been met. This shall be verified at any places of the
passenger, driver's and crew compartment where the residual space seems to be
endangered, the exact positions being at the discretion of the technical service. At least two
positions, nominally at the front and rear of the passenger compartment shall be used.

Figure A5.3b
Recommended Marking of the Centre of Gravity Position
and the Contour of the Vehicle
4. DOCUMENTATION OF THE ROLL-OVER TEST
4.1. Detailed description of the tested vehicle shall be given by the manufacturer in which:
4.1.1. All the deviations between the fully finished vehicle type in running order and the tested
vehicle are listed.
4.1.2. The equivalent substitution (in respect of mass, mass distribution and installation) shall be
proved in every case, when structural parts, units are substituted by other units or masses.
4.1.3. There is a clear statement of the position of centre of gravity in the tested vehicle which may
be based on measurements carried out on the test vehicle when it is ready for test, or a
combination of measurement (carried out on the fully finished vehicle type) and calculation
based on the mass substitutions.
4.2. The test report shall contain all the data (pictures, records, drawings, measured values, etc.)
which show:
4.2.1. That test was carried out according to this Annex;
4.2.2. That the requirements given in Paragraphs 5.1.1. and 5.1.2. of this Regulation are met (or
not);

ANNEX 6
ROLL-OVER TEST USING BODY SECTIONS AS AN EQUIVALENT APPROVAL METHOD
1. ADDITIONAL DATA AND INFORMATION
If the manufacturer chooses this method of testing, the following information shall be given to
the technical service in addition to the data, information and drawings listed in Paragraph 3. of
this Regulation:
1.1. Drawings of the body sections to be tested;
1.2. Verification of the validity of the distribution of masses given in Annex 4, Paragraph 4., upon
successful completion of the body section roll-over tests;
1.3. The measured masses of the body sections to be tested, and verification that their centre of
gravity positions are the same as that of the vehicle with unladen kerb mass if not fitted with
occupant restraints, or with total effective vehicle mass if occupant restraints are fitted.
(Presentation of measuring reports)
2. THE TILTING BENCH
The tilting bench shall meet the requirements given in Annex 5, Paragraph 1.
3. PREPARATION OF BODY SECTIONS
3.1. The number of the body sections to be tested shall be determined by the following rules:
3.1.1. All the different bay configurations which are part of the superstructure shall be tested in at
least one body section;
3.1.2. Every body section shall have at least two bays;
3.1.3. In an artificial body section (see Paragraph 2.27. of this Regulation) the ratio of the mass of any
one bay to any other bay shall not exceed 2;
3.1.4. The residual space of the whole vehicle shall be well represented in the body sections,
including any peculiar combinations arising from the vehicles bodywork configuration;
3.1.5. The whole roof structure shall be well represented in the body sections if there are local
specialities, like changing height, air condition installation, gas tanks, luggage carrier, etc.
3.2. The bays of the body section shall be exactly the same structurally as they are represented in
the superstructure, as regards shape, geometry, material, joints.
3.3. The connecting structures between the bays shall represent the manufacturer's description of
the superstructure (see Annex 4, Paragraph 3.) and the following rules shall be considered:
3.3.1. In the case of an original body section taken directly from the actual vehicle layout, the basic
and the additional connecting structures (see Annex 4 Paragraph 3.1.) shall be the same as
that of the vehicle superstructure;
3.3.2. In the case of an artificial body section, the connecting structures shall be equivalent in terms of
strength, stiffness and behaviour to that of the vehicle superstructure;

6. DOCUMENTATION OF BODY SECTION ROLL-OVER TESTS
The test report shall contain all the data necessary to demonstrate:
6.1. The construction of the tested body sections (dimensions, materials, masses, centre of gravity
position, construction methods).
6.2. That the tests were carried out according to this Annex
6.3. Whether, or not, the requirements - given in Paragraph 5.1. of this Regulation - are met
6.4. The individual evaluation of the body sections and their bays.
6.5. The identity of the vehicle type, its superstructure, the tested body sections, the tests
themselves and the personnel responsible for the tests and their evaluation.

3.2.2. The direction of the applied load (see Figure A7.1) shall be related to the longitudinal vertical
centre plane of the vehicle and its inclination (α) shall be determined as follows:
where:
⎛ 800 ⎞
α = 90 ° − arcsin ⎜ ⎟
⎝ H ⎠
H = the cantrail height (in mm) of the vehicle measured from the horizontal plane on
which it is standing.
Figure A7.1
Application of Load to the Body Section

4. EVALUATION OF TEST RESULTS
4.1. From the plotted load-deformation curve the actual energy absorbed by the body section
(E ) shall be expressed as the area below the curve (see Figure A7.2).
Figure A7.2
Absorbed Energy for the Body Section, Derived from
the Measured Load-deformation Curve

5. DOCUMENTATION OF BODY SECTION QUASI-STATIC LOADING TESTS
The test report shall follow the form and content of Annex 6, Paragraph 6.

Figure A7.A1.2
Determination of the Vertical Movement
of the Vehicle Centre of Gravity
3. The vertical movement of the centre of gravity (Δh) is,
Δh = h − h
4. If more than one body section is tested and each body section has a different final deformed
shape, the vertical movement of centre of gravity (Δh ) shall be determined for each body section
and the combined mean value (Δh) is taken as,
1
Δh
=
k

Δh
where:
Δh = the vertical movement of the centre of gravity of the i body section,
k
= the number of body sections tested.

1.3. A statement of the total energy (E ) to be absorbed by the superstructure, using the formula
stated in Paragraph 3.1. below.
1.4. A brief technical description of the algorithm and computer program which are used for the
calculation.
2. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE QUASI-STATIC CALCULATION
2.1. For the calculation, the complete superstructure shall be mathematically modelled as a
load-bearing and deformable structure, taking account of the following:
2.1.1. The superstructure shall be modelled as a single loaded unit containing deformable PZ's and
PH's, connected by appropriate structural elements.
2.1.2. The superstructure shall have the actual dimensions of the bodywork. The inner contour of the
side-wall pillars and roof structure shall be used when checking the residual space.
2.1.3. The PH's shall utilise the actual dimensions of the pillars and structural elements on which they
are located (see Appendix 1 of this Annex).
2.2. The applied loads in the calculation shall meet the following requirements:
2.2.1. The active load shall be applied in the transverse plane containing the centre of gravity of the
superstructure (vehicle) which is perpendicular to the vertical longitudinal centre plane (VLCP)
of the vehicle. The active load shall be applied on the cantrail of the superstructure through an
absolutely rigid load application plane, which extends in both directions beyond the cantrail and
any adjacent structure.
2.2.2. At the beginning of the simulation the load application plane shall touch the cantrail at its most
distant part from the vertical longitudinal central plane. The contact points between the load
application plane and the superstructure shall be defined to ensure an exact load transfer.
2.2.3. The active load shall have an inclination α related to the vertical longitudinal centre plane of the
vehicle (see Figure A8.2).
where:
⎛ 800 ⎞
α = 90 ° − arcsin ⎜ ⎟
⎝ H ⎠
H
= the cantrail height (in mm) of the vehicle measured from the horizontal plane on which
it is standing.
The direction of action of the active load shall not be changed during the calculation.
2.2.4. The active load shall be increased by small incremental steps and the whole structural
deformation shall be calculated at every loading step. The number of loading steps shall
exceed 100 and the steps shall be quasi-equal.
2.2.5. During the deformation process the load application plane may, in addition to parallel
translation, be allowed to rotate around the axis of intersection of the load application plane
with the transverse plane containing the centre of gravity, in order to follow the asymmetric
deformation of the superstructure.

3. EVALUATION OF THE CALCULATION
3.1. The total energy (E ) to be absorbed by the superstructure shall be determined as follows:
E = 0.75 M.g .Δh
where:
M
G
= M the unladen kerb mass of the vehicle, if there are no restraints, or
M the total effective vehicle mass when occupant restraints are fitted
= the gravitational constant
Δh = the vertical movement (in metres) of the vehicle centre of gravity during a roll-over test,
as determined in Appendix 1 of Annex 7
3.2. The absorbed energy (E ) of the superstructure is calculated at the incremental load step at
which the residual space is first touched by any of the rigid structural parts.
3.3. The vehicle type shall be approved if E ≥ E
4. DOCUMENTATION OF QUASI-STATIC CALCULATION
The calculation report shall contain the following information:
4.1. Detailed mechanical description of the superstructure containing the location of PZ's and PH's
and defining the rigid and elastic parts,
4.2. Data obtained from the tests and the resultant graphs,
4.3. A statement of whether or not the requirement of Paragraph 5.1. of this Regulation are met,
4.4. Identification of the vehicle type and the personnel responsible for the tests, the calculations,
and the evaluation.

3. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
There are two kinds of PH and PZ characteristics: quasi-static and dynamic. The dynamic
characteristics of a PH may be determined in two ways:
3.1. By dynamic impact testing of the component.
3.2. By using a dynamic factor K to transform the quasi-static PH characteristics.
This transformation means that the values of the quasi-static bending moment may be increased
by K
For steel structural elements K = 1.2 may be used without laboratory test.
Figure A8.A1.2
Derivation of Plastic Hinge Dynamic Characteristics from the Static Curve

3.3. The simulation program shall run, at least, until the maximum deformation is reached.
3.4. The simulation program shall produce a stable solution, in which the result is independent of
the incremental time step.
3.5. The simulation program shall be able to calculate the energy components for the energy
balance at every incremental time step.
3.6. Non-physical energy components introduced by the process of mathematical modelling (for
example, "hourglass" and internal damping) shall not exceed 5% of the total energy at any
time.
3.7. The friction coefficient used at the ground contact shall be validated with physical test results,
or the calculation shall prove that the friction coefficient chosen produces conservative
results.
3.8. All the possible physical contacts between parts of the vehicle shall be taken into account in
the mathematical model.
4. EVALUATION OF THE SIMULATION
4.1. When the stated requirements for the simulation program are met, the simulation of the
changes in geometry of the interior structure and comparison with the geometrical shape of
the residual space can be evaluated as defined in the Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.2. of this
Regulation.
4.2. If the residual space is not infringed during the roll-over simulation, the approval shall be
granted.
4.3. If the residual space is infringed during the roll-over simulation, the approval shall be refused.
5. DOCUMENTATION
5.1. The report on the simulation shall contain the following information:
5.1.1. All the data and information stated in Paragraph 1. of this Annex,
5.1.2. A drawing showing the mathematical model of the superstructure,
5.1.3. A statement of the values of angle, velocity, and angular velocity at the unstable equilibrium
position of the vehicle and at the position of first contact with the ground,
5.1.4. A table of the value of the total energy and the values of all its components (kinetic energy,
internal energy, hourglass energy), at time increments of 1 ms covering, at least, the period
from first contact with the ground until the maximum deformation is reached,
5.1.5. The assumed ground friction coefficient,
5.1.6. Plots or data which show in an appropriate way that the requirements specified in
Paragraphs 5.1.1. and 5.1.2. of this Regulation are met. This requirement can be satisfied by
the provision of a plot, against time, of the distance between the inside contour of the
deformed structure and the periphery of the residual space,

Strength of Superstructure - Large Passenger Vehicles.