Regulation No. 78-02

Name:Regulation No. 78-02
Description:Brakes for Category L Vehicles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicles of Category L with Regard to Braking.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1995-01-08
Amendment Level:02 Series, Supplement 3
Number of Pages:30
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

braking, vehicle, approval, test, device, brake, regulation, speed, type, tests, brakes, control, devices, vehicles, paragraph, prescribed, maximum, service, performance, force, wheel, annex, category, series, distance, carried, means, deceleration, fully, amendments, anti-lock, disc, case, production, conditions, provisions, number, driver, surface, stopping, mass, parking, wheels, categories, requirements, granted, equipped, developed, applied, water

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.77/Amend.4
February 28, 2003
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 78
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLES OF CATEGORY L WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.88
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.11.90
Corr. 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 01.07.92
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.01.95
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 21.03.95
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.02.97
Supplement 3 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 07.12.02

REGULATION
REGULATION No. 78
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES
OF CATEGORY L WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
CONTENTS
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Approval
5.
Specifications
6.
Tests
7.
Modifications of Vehicle Type or Braking Device and Extension of Approval
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10.
Production Definitely Discontinued
11.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests
and of Administrative Departments
12.
Transitional Provisions
ANNEXES
Annex 1 − Communication Concerning the Approval or Refusal or Extension or Withdrawal of Approval
or Production Definitely Discontinued of a Vehicle Type with Regard to Braking, Pursuant to
Regulation No. 78.
Annex 2 − Arrangements of Approval Mark
Annex 3 − Braking Tests and Performance
Annex 4 − Requirements applicable to vehicles of Category L and L equipped with anti-lock devices

2.3. "Braking device" means the combination of parts whose function is progressively to
reduce the speed of a moving vehicle or to bring it to a halt, or to keep it stationary if it is
already halted; these functions are specified in Paragraph 5.1.2. below. The device consists
of the control, the transmission, and the brake proper;
2.4. "Control" means the part actuated directly by the driver to furnish to the transmission the
energy required for braking or controlling it. This energy may be the muscular energy of the
driver, or the energy from another source controlled by the driver, or a combination of these
various kinds of energy;
2.5. "Transmission" means the combination of components comprised between the control and
the brake and linking them functionally. Where the braking power is derived from or
assisted by a source of energy independent of the driver but controlled by him, the reserve
of energy in the device is likewise part of the transmission;
2.6. "Brake" means the parts of the braking device in which the forces opposing the movement
of the vehicle are developed.
2.7. "Different types of braking devices" means devices which differ in such essential
respects as:
2.7.1. components having different characteristics,
2.7.2. a component made of materials having different characteristics, or a component differing in
shape or size,
2.7.3. a different assembly of the components;
2.8. "Component(s) of a braking device" means one or more of the individual parts which,
when assembled, constitute the braking device;
2.9. "Combined braking system" means
2.9.1. in the case of vehicles of Categories L and L , a system whereby at least two brakes on
different wheels are actuated in combination by the operation of a single control. This
method of actuation requires a control which is independent of the second braking device
which operates on one wheel only;
2.9.2. in the case of vehicles of Categories L and L , a braking device which operates on all the
wheels;
2.9.3. in the case of vehicles of Category L , a braking device which operates at least on the front
and rear wheel. Therefore a braking device which operates simultaneously on the rear
wheel and on the sidecar wheel is regarded as a rear brake.
2.10. "Progressive and graduated braking" means braking during which, within the normal
operating range of the device, and whether during application or during release of the
brakes,
2.10.1. the driver can at any moment increase or decrease the braking force by acting on the
control,
2.10.2. the braking force varies proportionally to the action on the control (monotonic function), and

4.3. Notice of approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or production definitely
discontinued of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the
Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the
model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type-approved under this Regulation
an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval;
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to
the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type-approved, under one or more other Regulations
annexed to this Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a
case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the
Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted
approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol
prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the
manufacturer.
4.8. Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
5. SPECIFICATIONS
5.1. General
5.1.1. Braking Device
5.1.1.1. The braking device shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to enable the vehicle in
normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions
of this Regulation.
5.1.1.2. In particular, the braking device shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be able to
resist the corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed.
5.1.1.3. Brake linings shall not contain asbestos.

5.2.3. Every vehicle of Category L shall be equipped:
5.2.3.1. with either two independent service braking devices which together actuate the brakes on all
the wheels, or
5.2.3.2. with a service braking device which operates on all the wheels and a secondary
(emergency) braking device which may be the parking brake.
5.2.3.3. In addition, every vehicle of Category L shall be equipped with a parking brake device
acting on the wheel or wheels of at least one axle. The parking brake device, which may be
one of the two devices specified in Paragraphs 5.2.3.1. above, must be independent of the
device acting on the other axle or axles.
5.2.4. Every vehicle of Category L shall be equipped:
5.2.4.1. with a foot controlled service braking device which operates on all the wheels, and a
secondary (emergency) braking device which may be the parking brake, and
5.2.4.2. with a parking braking device acting on the wheels of at least one axle. The control of the
parking braking device must be independent of the control of the service braking device.
5.2.5. The braking devices must act on brake surfaces permanently connected to the wheels
either rigidly or through components unlikely to fail.
5.2.6. The component parts of all braking devices, where attached to the vehicle, shall be so
secured that the braking devices do not fail in their function under normal operating
conditions.
5.2.7. The braking devices shall operate freely when correctly lubricated and adjusted.
5.2.7.1. Wear of the brakes must be capable of being easily taken up by means of either manual or
automatic adjustment. The brakes shall be capable of being adjusted to an efficient
operating position until the brake linings have worn to the point of requiring replacement.
5.2.7.2. The control and the components of the transmission and of the brakes must possess a
reserve of travel such that when the brakes become heated and the brake linings have
reached maximum permitted degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate
adjustment being necessary.
5.2.7.3 When correctly adjusted the components of a braking device shall not, when operated,
contact anything other than the intended parts.
5.2.8. In braking devices where the transmission is hydraulic, the receptacles containing the
reserve fluid must be so designed and constructed that the level of the reserve fluid can be
easily checked.
6. TESTS
Braking tests which the vehicles submitted for approval are required to undergo, and the
braking performance required, are prescribed in Annex 3 to this Regulation.

8.4. The competent authority which has granted type-approval may at any time verify the
conformity control methods applicable to each production unit.
8.4.1. In every inspection, the test books and production survey records shall be presented to the
visiting inspector.
8.4.2. The inspector may take samples at random which will be tested in the manufacturer's
laboratory. The minimum number of samples may be determined according to the results of
the manufacturer's own verification.
8.4.3. When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the
validity of the tests carried out in application of Paragraph 8.4.2. the inspector shall select
samples to be sent to the technical service which has conducted the type-approval tests.
8.4.4. The competent authority may carry out any test prescribed in this Regulation.
8.4.5. The normal frequency of inspections authorised by the competent authority shall be once
every two years. In the case where negative results are recorded during one of these visits,
the competent authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the
conformity of production as rapidly as possible.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with or if
a vehicle of this type has failed to pass the checks prescribed in Paragraph 8.3 above.
9.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation, by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the
signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the approval
form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "PRODUCTION
DISCONTINUED".
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of administrative departments which grant approval and to
which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in
other countries, are to be sent.

ANNEX 1
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm))
COMMUNICATION
issued by:
Name of administration:
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of vehicle of Category L with regard to braking pursuant to Regulation No. 78
Approval No...................................................
Extension No. ................................
1.
Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ...........................................................................................
2.
Vehicle type designation by the manufacturer:..........................................................................
3.
Name and address of the manufacturer: ...................................................................................
4.
Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if applicable):
...............................................................................................................................
5.
Summarised description: ...........................................................................................................
5.1
Vehicle:
Category of vehicle:...............................................................................................
Maximum mass of vehicle: ....................................................................................

ANNEX 1 − APPENDIX 1
LIST OF VEHICLE DATA FOR THE PURPOSE OF
REGULATION No. 90 APPROVALS
1.
Description of the vehicle type: ..................................................................................................
1.1.
Trade name or mark of the vehicle, if available: ........................................................................
1.2.
Vehicle category:........................................................................................................................
1.3.
Vehicle type according to Regulation No. 78 approval:.............................................................
1.4.
Models or trade names of vehicles constituting the vehicle type, if available:...........................
1.5.
Manufacturer's name and address: ...........................................................................................
2.
Make and type of brake linings: .................................................................................................
3.
Minimum mass of vehicle:..........................................................................................................
3.1.
Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): .................................................................
4.
Maximum mass of vehicle:.........................................................................................................
4.1.
Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): .................................................................
5.
Maximum vehicle speed: ................................................................................................... km/h
6.
Tyre and wheel dimensions: ......................................................................................................
7.
Configuration of the independent braking systems:...................................................................
8.
Specifications of brake valves (if applicable): ............................................................................
8.1.
Adjustment specifications of the load sensing valve:.................................................................
8.2.
Setting of pressure valve: ..........................................................................................................
9.
Specification of brake:................................................................................................................
9.1.
Disc brake type (e.g. number of pistons with diameter(s), ventilated or solid disc):..................
9.2.
Drum brake type (e.g. simplex, with piston size and drum dimensions):...................................
10.
Master cylinder type and size (if applicable):.............................................................................

ANNEX 3
BRAKING TESTS AND PERFORMANCE
1. BRAKING TESTS
1.1. General
1.1.1. The performance prescribed for braking devices shall be based on the stopping distance
and/or the mean fully developed deceleration. The performance of a braking device shall be
determined by measuring the stopping distance in relation to the initial speed of the vehicle
and/or measuring the mean fully developed deceleration during the test.
1.1.2. The stopping distance shall be the distance covered by the vehicle from the moment when
the driver begins to actuate the control of the braking system until the moment when the
vehicle stops; the initial vehicle speed, v , shall be the speed at the moment when the driver
begins to actuate the control of the braking system; the initial speed shall not be less than
98% of the prescribed speed for the test in question. The mean fully developed
deceleration, (d ), shall be calculated as the deceleration averaged with respect to distance
over the interval v to v according to the following formula:
d
v
=
25.92
v
( s − s ) m/s
Where:
d = mean fully developed deceleration
v = as defined above
v = vehicle speed at 0.8 v in km/h
v = vehicle speed at 0.1 v in km/h
s = distance travelled between v and v in metres
s = distance travelled between v and v in metres
The speed and distance shall be determined using instrumentation having an accuracy of
± 1% at the prescribed speed for the test. The "d " may be determined by other methods
than the measurement of speed and distance, in this case, the accuracy of the "d " shall be
within ± 3%.
1.2. For the approval of the vehicle, the braking performance shall be measured during road
tests conducted under the following conditions:
1.2.1. the vehicle's condition as regards its mass shall be as prescribed for each type of test and
shall be specified in the test report;

1.4.3. Type-0 Test with Engine CONNECTED for Vehicles of Categories L , L and L
Tests must be carried out in the unladen condition at various speeds, the lowest being equal
to 30% of the maximum speed of the vehicle and the highest being equal to 80% of that
speed or 160 km/h whichever is the lower.
The maximum practical performance figures shall be measured and together with the
behaviour of the vehicle must be recorded in the test report.
In the case where two service braking devices can be applied separately, both these
braking devices shall be tested together and simultaneously, with the vehicle unladen.
1.4.4. Type-0 Test with Engine Disconnected; with WET BRAKES
This test shall (subject to the exemption contained in Paragraph 1.5.1. below) be carried out
on vehicles of Categories L , L , L and L . The test procedure is identical to that for the
Type-0 test with engine disconnected, except for the provisions for wetting the brakes
described in Paragraph 1.5. of this Annex.
1.5. Special Provisions Relating to Testing with Wet Brakes
1.5.1. Enclosed brakes: it shall not be necessary to carry out this series of Type-0 tests on
vehicles equipped with conventional drum brakes or with fully enclosed disc brakes which
are not subject to water penetration under normal running conditions.
1.5.2. The test with brakes subject to wetting shall be carried out under the same conditions as the
test with dry brakes. There shall be no adjustment or alteration of the braking system other
than fitting the equipment to allow brake wetting.
1.5.3. The test equipment shall continuously wet the brakes for each test run at a flow rate of
15 l/h for each brake. Two disc brakes on one wheel will be considered as two brakes.
1.5.4. For exposed or partly exposed disc brakes, the prescribed amount of water shall be directed
on to the rotating disc in such a manner that it is equally distributed on the surface or
surfaces of the disc swept by the friction pad or pads:
1.5.4.1 For fully exposed disc brakes, the water shall be directed on to the surface(s) of the disc 45°
in advance of the friction pad(s);
1.5.4.2. For partly exposed disc brakes, the water shall be directed on to the surface(s) of the disc
45° in advance of the shield or baffle.
1.5.4.3. The water shall be directed on the surface(s) of the disc(s) in a continuous jet, in a direction
perpendicular to the surface of the disc, from single jet nozzles so positioned as to be
between the inner extremity and a point two thirds of the distance from the outer extremity of
that part of the disc swept by the friction pad(s) (See Figure in Appendix).
1.5.5. For fully enclosed disc brakes, where the provisions of Paragraph 1.5.1. above do not apply,
the water shall be directed on to both sides of the shield or baffle at a point and in a manner
corresponding with that described in subparagraphs 1.5.4.1. and 1.5.4.3. of this
Annex. Where the nozzle would be coincident with a ventilation or inspection port, the water
shall be applied one quarter of a revolution in advance of the said port.

1.6.2.2. The initial test speed shall be:
1.6.2.2.1. for testing the front brake(s)
whichever is the lower of 70% of the vehicle's maximum speed and 100 km/h;
1.6.2.2.2. for testing the rear brake(s)
whichever is the lower of 70% of the vehicle's maximum speed and 80 km/h;
1.6.2.2.3. for testing a combined braking system
whichever is the lower of 70% of the vehicle's maximum speed and 100 km/h;
1.6.2.3. The distance between the initiation of one stop and the initiation of the next shall be
1 000 metres.
1.6.2.4. The use of the gear box and/or clutch shall be as follows:
1.6.2.4.1. In the case of a vehicle with a manual gear box or an automatic transmission where the
gear box can be disengaged manually, the highest gear, consistent with attaining the initial
test speed, shall be engaged during the stops.
When the vehicle speed has fallen to 50% of the initial test speed, the engine shall be
disengaged.
1.6.2.4.2. In the case of a vehicle with a fully automatic transmission, the test shall be carried out
under the normal operating conditions for such equipment.
For the approach, the gear suitable to the initial test speed shall be used.
1.6.2.5. After each stop, the vehicle shall immediately be subjected to maximum acceleration to
reach the initial test speed and maintained at that speed until the initiation of the next
stop. If appropriate, the vehicle may be turned round on the test track before acceleration.
1.6.2.6. The force applied to the control must be so adjusted as to maintain a mean deceleration of
3 m/s or the maximum deceleration achievable with that brake, whichever is the lower, at
the first stop: this force must remain constant throughout the succeeding stops required by
subparagraphs 1.6.1.2.2. above.

2.1.2.1 Braking with the front brake only
Category
2.1.2.2. Braking with the rear brake only
L
L
L
L
Stopping distances (S)
(m)
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /90
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /70
S ≤ 0.1· V + V /115
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /95
Corresponding mean
fully developed deceleration
(m/s )
3.4
2.7
4.4
3.6
Category
L
L
L
L
Stopping distances (S)
(m)
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /70
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /70
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /75
S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /95
Corresponding mean fully
developed deceleration
(m/s )
2.7
2.7
2.9
3.6
2.1.3. Braking Performance with the Vehicle Unladen
A practical test of the vehicle ridden by the driver alone shall not be required if a calculation
shows that the distribution of the mass on the braked wheels allows a mean fully developed
deceleration of at least 2.5 m/s or a stopping distance S ≤ 0.1 · V + V /65 to be achieved
with each of the single axle braking devices.
2.2. Provisions relating to tests of vehicles of which (at least) one of the braking devices is a
combined braking system.
For the purposes of the Type-I residual performance test (vehicles of Categories L , L and
L , the recorded performance levels in terms of stopping distance, mean fully developed
deceleration, as well as the control force used, shall be recorded.
2.2.1. Prescribed speed V = 40 km/h for Categories L and L .
V = 60 km/h for Categories L , L and L .
2.2.2. The vehicle shall be tested unladen and laden.

ANNEX 3 - APPENDIX
METHOD OF WATER APPLICATION

ANNEX 4
REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES L and L
EQUIPPED WITH ANTI-LOCK DEVICES
1. GENERAL
1.1. The purpose of these provisions is to define minimum performance for braking systems with
anti-lock devices fitted to vehicles of Categories L and L . This does not make it
compulsory to fit vehicles with anti-lock devices but if such devices are fitted to a vehicle
they must meet the requirements below.
1.2. The devices known at present comprise a sensor or sensors, a controller or controllers and
a modulator or modulators. Any devices of a different design will be deemed to be anti-lock
devices within the meaning of this Annex if they provide performances at least equal to
those prescribed by this Annex.
2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. An "anti-lock device" is a component of a service braking system which automatically
controls the degree of slip, in the direction of rotation of the wheel(s) on one or more wheels
of the vehicle during braking;
2.2. "Sensor" means a component designed to identify and transmit to the controller the
conditions of rotation of the wheel(s) or the dynamic conditions of the vehicle;
2.3. "Controller" means a component designed to evaluate the data transmitted by the
sensor(s) and to transmit a signal to the modulator;
2.4. "Modulator" means a component designed to vary the braking force(s) in accordance with
the signal received from the controller.
3. NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM
3.1. Each controlled wheel shall be such that it can bring at least its own device into operation.
3.2. Any break in the supply of electricity to the device and/or in the wiring external to the
electronic controller(s) shall be signalled to the driver by an optical warning signal, which
must be visible even in daylight; it must be easy for the driver to check that it is in working
order.
3.3. In the event of a failure in an anti-lock device, the braking efficiency of the laden vehicle
shall not be less than that prescribed for whichever is the lower of the two requirements for
the vehicle defined in Paragraph 2.1.2.1. or Paragraph 2.1.2.2. of Annex 3 of this
Regulation.
3.4. The operation of the device must not be affected adversely by electro-magnetic fields.

5.5. However, in the tests provided for in Paragraphs 5.1., 5.2., 5.3. and 5.4. above periods of
wheel locking or of extreme wheel slip shall be allowed provided that the stability of the
vehicle is not adversely affected. Below vehicle speeds of 10 km/h wheel locking is
permitted.

Brakes for Category L Vehicles.