Regulation No. 78-03

Name:Regulation No. 78-03
Description:Brakes for L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 Category Vehicles.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicles of Categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 with Regard to Braking.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2007-06-18
Amendment Level:03 Series, Supplement 3
Number of Pages:43
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Braking
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.77/Rev.1/Amend.3
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
February 22, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 78-03
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES L , L , L , L AND L WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
Incorporating:
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.11.90
Corr. 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 01.07.92
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.01.95
Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 21.03.95
Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.02.97
Supplement 3 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 07.12.02
03 series of amendments (including Erratum)
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.07
Corr. 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Dated: 08.04.08
Corr. 2 to the 03 series of amendments
Dated: 30.07.10
Supplement 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.02.09
Supplement 2 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 08.10.15
Supplement 3 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.02.17

REGULATION
REGULATION NO. 78-03
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES
OF CATEGORIES L , L , L , L AND L WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
CONTENTS
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for Approval
4.
Approval
5.
Specifications
6.
Tests
7.
Modifications of Vehicle Type or Braking Device and Extension of Approval
8.
Conformity of Production
9.
Transitional Provisions
10.
Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
11.
Production Definitely Discontinued
12.
Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests
and of Administrative Departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1 – Communication Concerning the Approval or Extension or Refusal or Withdrawal of Approval
or Production Definitely Discontinued of a Type of Vehicle of Category L with Regard to
Braking Pursuant to Regulation No. 78.
Annex 1 − Appendix − List of Vehicle Data for the Purpose of Regulation No. 90
Approvals
Annex 2 – Arrangements of Approval Mark
Annex 3 – Test Conditions, Procedures and Performance Requirements

2.7. "Components of the braking system" means one of the individual parts which, when
assembled, constitute the braking system.
2.8. "Control" means the part actuated directly by the rider in order to supply or control the
energy required for braking the vehicle to the transmission.
2.9. "Different types of braking systems" means devices which differ in such essential
respects as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Components having different characteristics;
A component made of materials having different characteristics, or a component
differing in shape or size;
A different assembly of the components.
2.10. "Driver mass" means the nominal mass of a driver that shall be 75kg (subdivided into 68kg
occupant mass at the seat and 7kg luggage mass).
2.11. "Engine disconnected" means when the engine is no longer connected to the driving
wheel(s).
2.12. "Gross vehicle mass" or "maximum mass" means the technically permissible maximum
laden mass as declared by the manufacturer.
2.13. "Initial brake temperature" means the temperature of the hottest brake before any brake
application.
2.14. "Laden" means so loaded as to attain the gross vehicle mass as defined in Paragraph 2.12.
2.15. "Lightly loaded" means mass in running order plus 15kg for test equipment, or the laden
condition, whichever is less. In the case of ABS tests on a low friction surface (Annex 3,
Paragraphs. 9.4. to 9.7.), the mass for test equipment is increased to 30kg to account for
outriggers.
2.16. "Mass in running order" means the sum of the unladen vehicle mass and driver mass.
2.17. "Peak braking coefficient (PBC)" means the measure of tyre to road surface friction
based on the maximum deceleration of a rolling tyre.
2.18. "Power-assisted braking system" means a brake system in which the energy necessary
to produce the braking force is supplied by the physical effort of the rider assisted by one or
more energy supplying devices, for example vacuum assisted (with vacuum booster).
2.19. "Secondary brake system" means the second service brake system on a vehicle
equipped with a combined brake system.
2.20. "Service brake system" means a brake system which is used for slowing the vehicle when
in motion.
2.21. "Single brake system" means a brake system which acts on only one axle.

3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking shall be submitted by
the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the under mentioned documents in triplicate and by the following
particulars:
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in Paragraph 2.27. The
numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and the engine type shall be specified;
3.2.2. A list of components, duly identified, constituting the braking device;
3.2.3. A diagram of the assembled braking device and an indication of the position of its
components on the vehicle;
3.2.4. Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified.
3.3. A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the
technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the
requirements of Paragraphs 5 and 6 below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type-approved. Its first two digits (at present
03 corresponding to the series 03 of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number
to the same vehicle type equipped with another type of braking device, or to another vehicle
type.
4.3. Notice of approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or production definitely
discontinued of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the
Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the
model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

5.1.3. Secondary Brake System Control Operation
Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to actuate the secondary brake
system control while seated in the normal driving position and with at least one hand on the
steering control.
5.1.4. Parking Brake System
If a parking brake system is fitted, it shall hold the vehicle stationary on the slope prescribed
in Paragraph 1.1.4. of Annex 3.
The parking brake system shall:
(a)
(b)
Have a control which is separate from the service brake system controls; and
Be held in the locked position by solely mechanical means.
Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to be able to actuate the parking brake
system while seated in the normal driving position.
For L , L , L , L and L , the parking brake system shall be tested in accordance with
Paragraph 8 of Annex 3.
5.1.5. Two-wheeled vehicles of Categories L and L shall be equipped with either two separate
service brake systems, or a split service brake system, with at least one brake operating on
the front wheel and at least one brake operating on the rear wheel.
5.1.6. Three-wheeled vehicles of vehicles Category L shall comply with the brake system
requirements set out in Paragraph 5.1.5. A brake on the sidecar wheel is not required if the
vehicle meets the performance requirements prescribed in Annex 3.
5.1.7. Three-wheeled vehicles of Category L and four-wheeled vehicles of Category L shall be
equipped with a parking brake system plus one of the following service brake systems:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Two separate service brake systems, except CBS, which, when applied together,
operate the brakes on all wheels; or
A split service brake system; or
A CBS that operates the brakes on all wheels and a secondary brake system which
may be the parking brake system.
5.1.8. Category L vehicles and Category L vehicles shall be equipped with:
5.1.8.1. A parking brake system; and
5.1.8.2. A foot-actuated service brake system which operates on the brakes on all wheels, by way of
either:
(a)
(b)
A split service brake system; or
A CBS that operates the brakes on all wheels and a secondary brake system, which
may be the parking brake system.

5.1.14. The effectiveness of the braking systems, including the anti-lock system, shall not be
adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields. This shall be demonstrated by fulfilling
the technical requirements and respecting the transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10
(EMC) by applying:
(a)
(b)
The 03 series of amendments for vehicles without a coupling system for charging the
Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries);
The 04 series of amendments for vehicles with a coupling system for charging the
Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries).
5.1.15. When a vehicle is equipped with the means to indicate emergency braking, activation and
de-activation of the emergency braking signal shall only be generated by the application of
the service braking system when the following conditions are fulfilled:
5.1.15.1. The signal shall not be activated when the vehicle deceleration is below 6m/s but it may be
generated at any deceleration at or above this value, the actual value being defined by the
vehicle manufacturer.
The signal shall be de-activated at the latest when the deceleration has fallen below
2.5m/s .
5.1.15.2. The following conditions may also be used:
(a)
(b)
The signal may be generated from a prediction of the vehicle deceleration resulting
from the braking demand respecting the activation and de-activation thresholds
defined in Paragraph 5.1.15.1. above; or
The signal may be activated at a speed above 50km/h when the antilock system is
fully cycling (as defined in Paragraph 9.1. of Annex 3) and deceleration is at least
2.5m/s . The deceleration may be generated from the prediction described in
Point (a). The signal shall be deactivated when the antilock system is no longer fully
cycling.
5.2. Durability
5.2.1. Wear of the brakes shall be compensated for by means of a system of automatic or manual
adjustment.
5.2.2. The friction material thickness shall either be visible without disassembly, or where the
friction material is not visible, wear shall be assessed by means of a device designed for
that purpose.
5.2.3. During all the tests in this Regulation and on their completion, there shall be no friction
material detachment and no leakage of brake fluid.

5.4. Brake lining materials:
6. TESTS
Brake linings shall not contain asbestos.
The braking tests (test conditions and procedures) which the vehicles submitted for approval
are required to undergo, and the braking performance required, are prescribed in Annex 3 to
this Regulation.
7. MODIFICATIONS OF VEHICLE TYPE OR BRAKING SYSTEM AND EXTENSION OF
APPROVAL
7.1. Every modification of the vehicle type or of its braking system shall be communicated to the
Administrative Department which approved the vehicle type. That department may then
either:
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are likely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements; or
7.1.2. Require a further test report from the Technical Service responsible for conducting the tests.
7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated, by
the procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3, to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this
Regulation.
7.3. The Competent Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to
each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. Every vehicle (system) approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform
to the type-approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraph 5.
8.2. In order to verify that the requirements of Paragraph 8.1. are met, suitable controls of the
production shall be carried out.
8.3. The holder of the approval shall in particular:
8.3.1. Ensure existence of procedures for the effective control of the quality of products,
8.3.2. Have access to the control equipment necessary for checking the conformity to each
approved type,
8.3.3. Ensure that data of test results are recorded and that annexed documents shall remain
available for a period to be determined in accordance with the Administrative Service,

10. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
10.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with or if
a vehicle of this type has failed to pass the checks prescribed in Paragraph 8.3.
10.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation, by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the
signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".
11. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the approval
form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "PRODUCTION
DISCONTINUED".
12. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of Administrative Departments which grant approval and to
which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in
other countries, are to be sent.

5.3. Transmission:
Number and ratios of gears: ......................................................................................................
Final drive ratio: ..........................................................................................................................
Tyre dimensions: ........................................................................................................................
5.4. Braking system: ..........................................................................................................................
Make(s) and type(s) of linings: ...................................................................................................
Service brake(s) (front, rear, combined)
Secondary braking, parking brake (if applicable)
Other devices (anti-lock brakes, etc.)
6. Technical service conducting approval tests: ............................................................................
7. Date of test report: .....................................................................................................................
8. Number of test report: ................................................................................................................
9. Reason for extension of approval (if applicable): .......................................................................
10. Other remarks (if applicable), [right or left hand driven]:............................................................
11. Place: .........................................................................................................................................
12. Date: ...........................................................................................................................................
13. Signature: ...................................................................................................................................
14. Annexed the list of parts constituting the approval documents, which can be obtained on
request, submitted to the Administrative Service which has delivered the approval

ANNEX 2
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
Model A
(See Paragraph 4.4 of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulation No. 78 under approval
number 032439. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that Regulation No. 78 already
included the 03 series of amendments when the approval was granted.
Model B
(See Paragraph 4.5 of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulation Nos. 78 and 40. The first two digits of the
approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were granted,
Regulation No. 78 included the 03 series of amendments but Regulation No. 40 was still in its original
form.

1.3. Wind Speed
The wind speed is not more than 5m/s.
1.4. Test Speed Tolerance
The test speed tolerance is ±5km/h.
In the event of the actual test speed deviating from the specified test speed, the actual
stopping distance is corrected using the formula in Paragraph 5.3.2. of this Regulation.
1.5. Automatic Transmission
Vehicles with automatic transmission shall complete all tests - whether they are for "engine
connected" or "engine disconnected".
If an automatic transmission has a neutral position, the neutral position is selected for tests
where "engine disconnected" is specified.
1.6. Vehicle Position and Wheel Lock:
(a)
(b)
The vehicle is positioned in the centre of the test lane for the beginning of each stop;
Stops are made without the vehicle wheels passing outside the applicable test lane and
without wheel lock.
1.7. Test Sequence
Test order
1.
Dry stop − single brake control actuated
2.
Dry stop − all service brake controls actuated
3.
High speed
4.
Wet brake
5.
Heat fade
6.
If fitted:
6.1.
Parking brake system
6.2.
ABS
6.3.
Partial failure, for split service brake systems
6.4.
Power-assisted braking system failure
Paragraph
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
2. PREPARATION
2.1. Engine Idle Speed
The engine idle speed is set to the manufacturer's specification.

(d)
Brake application:
(i)
Each service brake system control actuated separately;
(e)
Vehicle deceleration:
(i)
Single front brake system only:
3.0-3.5m/s for vehicle Categories L and L ;
1.5-2.0m/s for vehicle Categories L and L ;
(ii) Single rear brake system only: 1.5-2.0m/s ;
(iii) CBS or split service brake system: 3.5-4.0m/s ;
(f)
(g)
(h)
Number of decelerations: 100 per brake system;
Initial brake temperature before each brake application ≤100°C;
For the first stop, accelerate the vehicle to the initial speed and then actuate the brake
control under the conditions specified until the final speed is reached. Then
reaccelerate to the initial speed and maintain that speed until the brake temperature
falls to the specified initial value. When these conditions are met, reapply the brake as
specified. Repeat this procedure for the number of specified decelerations. After
burnishing, adjust the brakes in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
3. DRY STOP TEST − SINGLE BRAKE CONTROL ACTUATED
3.1. Vehicle Condition:
(a)
(b)
The test is applicable to all vehicle categories;
Laden:
For vehicles fitted with CBS and split service brake systems: the vehicle is tested in the
lightly loaded condition in addition to the laden condition;
(c)
Engine disconnected.
3.2. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a) Initial brake temperature: ≥55°C and ≤100°C;
(b)
Test speed:
(i) Vehicle Categories L , L and L : 40km/h or 0.9V , whichever is lower;
(ii) Vehicle Categories L , L , L and L : 60km/h or 0.9V , whichever is lower;
(c)
Brake application:
(i)
Each service brake system control actuated separately;

4. DRY STOP TEST − ALL SERVICE BRAKE CONTROLS ACTUATED
4.1. Vehicle Condition:
(a) The test is applicable to vehicle Categories L , L , L and L ;
(b)
(c)
Lightly loaded;
Engine disconnected.
4.2. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≥55°C and ≤100°C;
(b) Test speed: 100km/h or 0.9V , whichever is lower;
(c)
Brake application:
Simultaneous actuation of both brake controls, in the case of a vehicle with two service
brake systems or actuation of the single brake control in the case of a vehicle with one
service brake system.
(d)
Brake actuation force:
Hand control: ≤250N;
Foot control: ≤400N for vehicle Categories L and L ;
≤500N for vehicle Categories L and L ;
(e)
(f)
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a
maximum of six stops;
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
controls under the conditions specified in this Paragraph.
4.3. Performance Requirements
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in Paragraph 4.2.,
the stopping distance (S) shall be S ≤0.0060V (where V is the specified test speed in km/h
and S is the required stopping distance in metres).

6. WET BRAKE TEST
6.1. General:
(a)
The test is comprised of two parts that are carried out consecutively for each brake
system:
(i)
(ii)
A baseline test based on the dry stop test − single brake control actuated
(Section 3 of this Annex);
A single wet brake stop using the same test parameters as in (i), but with the
brake(s) being continuously sprayed with water while the test is conducted in
order to measure the brakes' performance in wet conditions;
(b)
(c)
(d)
The test is not applicable to a parking brake system, unless it is the secondary brake;
Drum brakes or fully enclosed disc brakes are exempt from this test unless ventilation
or open inspection ports are present;
This test requires the vehicle to be fitted with instrumentation that gives a continuous
recording of brake control force and vehicle deceleration. The MFDD and the stopping
distance measurements are not appropriate in this case.
6.2. Vehicle condition:
(a)
(b)
The test is applicable to all vehicle categories;
Laden:
For vehicles fitted with CBS and split service brake systems: the vehicle is tested in the
lightly loaded condition in addition to the laden condition;
(c)
(d)
Engine disconnected;
Each brake is fitted with water spray equipment:
(i)
Disc brakes: Sketch of water spray equipment:

(ii)
Drum brakes with ventilation and open inspection ports:
6.3. Baseline Test
6.3.1. Test conditions and procedure:
The water spray equipment is installed as follows:
a. Water is sprayed equally onto both sides of the drum brake assembly (on
the stationary back plate and on the rotating drum) with a flow rate of
15L/h;
b. The spray nozzles are positioned two thirds of the distance from the outer
circumference of the rotating drum to the wheel hub centre;
c. The nozzle position is >15° from the edge of any opening in the drum back
plate.
(a)
The test in Section 3. of this Annex (dry stop test − single brake control actuated) is
carried out for each brake system but with the brake control force that results in a
vehicle deceleration of 2.5 − 3.0m/s , and the following is determined:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The average brake control force measured when the vehicle is travelling
between 80% and 10% of the specified test speed;
The average vehicle deceleration in the period 0.5 to 1.0s after the point of
actuation of the brake control;
The maximum vehicle deceleration during the complete stop but excluding the
final 0.5s;
(b)
Conduct 3 baseline stops and average the values obtained in (i), (ii), and (iii).
6.4. Wet Brake Stop
6.4.1. Test conditions and procedure:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The vehicle is ridden at the test speed used in the baseline test set out in
Paragraph 6.3. with the water spray equipment operating on the brake(s) to be tested
and with no application of the brake system;
After a distance of ≥500m, apply the averaged brake control force determined in the
baseline test for the brake system being tested;
Measure the average vehicle deceleration in the period 0.5 to 1.0s after the point of
actuation of the brake control;
Measure the maximum vehicle deceleration during the complete stop but excluding the
final 0.5s.

(c)
Brake application:
Each service brake system control actuated separately;
(d)
Brake actuation force:
Hand control: ≤200N;
Foot control: ≤350N for vehicle Categories L and L ;
≤500N for vehicle Categories L and L ;
(e)
Accelerate the vehicle to the test speed, actuate the brake control under the conditions
specified and record the control force required to achieve the vehicle braking
performance specified in the table to Paragraph 3.3. of this Annex.
7.3. Heating Procedure
7.3.1. Vehicle condition:
(a)
Engine transmission:
(i)
(ii)
From the specified test speed to 50% specified test speed: connected, with the
highest appropriate gear selected such that the engine speed remains above the
manufacturer's specified idle speed;
From 50% specified test speed to standstill: disconnected.
7.3.2. Test conditions and procedure:
(a)
(b)
Initial brake temperature prior to first stop only: ≥55°C and ≤100°C;
Test speed:
Single brake system, front wheel braking only: 100km/h or 0.7V
Single brake system, rear wheel braking only: 80km/h or 0.7V
, whichever is lower;
, whichever is lower;
CBS or split service brake system: 100km/h or 0.7V
, whichever is lower;
(c)
Brake application:
Each service brake system control actuated separately;

8. PARKING BRAKE SYSTEM TEST − FOR VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH PARKING
BRAKES
8.1. Vehicle condition:
(a) The test is applicable to vehicle Categories L , L , L and L ;
(b)
(c)
Laden;
Engine disconnected.
8.2. Test conditions and procedure:
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≤100°C;
(b) Test surface gradient = 18%;
(c)
Brake actuation force:
Hand control: ≤400N;
Foot control: ≤500N;
(d)
(e)
For the first part of the test, park the vehicle on the test surface gradient facing up the
slope by applying the parking brake system under the conditions specified in this
Paragraph. If the vehicle remains stationary, start the measurement of the test period;
On completion of the test with vehicle facing up the gradient, repeat the same test
procedure with the vehicle facing down the gradient.
8.3. Performance requirements:
When tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in Paragraph 8.2., the parking
brake system shall hold the vehicle stationary for 5 minutes when the vehicle is both facing up
and facing down the gradient.
9. ABS TESTS
9.1. General:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The tests are only applicable to the ABS if fitted;
The tests are to confirm the performance of brake systems equipped with ABS and
their performance in the event of ABS electrical failure;
"Fully cycling" means that the anti-lock system is repeatedly or continuously modulating
the brake force to prevent the directly controlled wheels from locking;
Wheel-lock is allowed as long as the stability of the vehicle is not affected to the extent
that it requires the operator to release the control or causes a vehicle wheel to pass
outside the test lane.

9.3.2. Performance Requirements
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures referred to in
Paragraph 9.3.1.:
(a)
(b)
The stopping distance (S) shall be ≤0.0063V (where V is the specified test speed
in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres) or the MFDD shall be
≥6.17m/s ; and
There shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.
9.4. Stops on a low friction surface:
9.4.1. Test conditions and procedure:
As set out in Paragraph 9.3.1., but using the low friction surface instead of the high friction
one;
9.4.2. Performance Requirements
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in
Paragraph 9.4.1.:
(a)
(b)
The stopping distance (S) shall be ≤0.0056V /P (where V is the specified test speed
in km/h, P is the peak braking coefficient and S is the required stopping distance in
metres) or the MFDD shall be ≥6.87 × P, in m/s ; and
There shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.
9.5. Wheel lock checks on high and low friction surfaces:
9.5.1. Test conditions and procedure:
(a)
Test surfaces:
(i)
(ii)
High friction; and
Low friction;
(b)
(c)
Initial brake temperature: ≥55°C and ≤100°C;
Test speed:
(i) On the high friction surface: 80km/h or 0.8V , whichever is lower;
(ii) On the low friction surface: 60km/h or 0.8V , whichever is lower;
(d)
Brake application:
(i)
(ii)
Each service brake system control actuated separately;
Where ABS is fitted to both brake systems, simultaneous actuation of both brake
controls in addition to (i);

9.6.2. Performance requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in
Paragraph 9.6.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the
test lane.
9.7. Wheel lock check − low to high friction surface transition:
9.7.1. Test conditions and procedure:
(a)
Test surfaces:
A low friction surface immediately followed by a high friction surface with a PBC ≥0.8;
(b)
(c)
Initial brake temperature: ≥55°C and ≤100°C;
Test speed:
The speed that will result in 50km/h or 0.5V , whichever is lower, at the point where
the vehicle passes from the low friction to the high friction surface;
(d)
Brake application:
(i)
(ii)
Each service brake system control applied separately;
Where ABS is fitted to both brake systems, simultaneous application of both
brake controls in addition to (i);
(e)
Brake actuation force:
The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will be fully cycling
throughout each stop, down to 10km/h;
(f)
(g)
(h)
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a
maximum of three stops;
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control before the vehicle reaches the transition from one friction surface to the other;
Record the vehicle's continuous deceleration;
9.7.2. Performance requirements:
(a)
(b)
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in
Paragraph 9.7.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within
the test lane;
Within 1 second of the rear wheel passing the transition point between the low and high
friction surfaces, the vehicle deceleration shall increase.

(e)
(f)
Alter the service brake system to induce a complete loss of braking in any one
subsystem. Then, for each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then
actuate the brake control under the conditions specified in this Paragraph;
Repeat the test for each subsystem.
10.4. Performance requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in Paragraph 10.3.;
(a)
(b)
The system shall comply with the failure warning requirements set out in
Paragraph 5.1.11. of this Regulation; and
The stopping distance (S) shall be ≤0.1V + 0.0117V (where V is the specified test
speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres) or the MFDD shall be
≥3.3m/s .
11. POWER-ASSISTED BRAKING SYSTEM FAILURE TEST
11.1. General information:
(a)
(b)
The test is not conducted when the vehicle is equipped with another separate service
brake system;
The test is to confirm the performance of the service brake system in the event of
failure of the power assistance.
11.2. Test conditions and procedure:
(a)
Carry out the test set out in Section 3. of this Annex, (dry stop test − single brake
control actuated) for each service brake system with the power assistance disabled.

12.3. Performance Requirements
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in Paragraph 12.2.,
the stopping distance shall be as specified in Column 2 or the MFDD shall be as specified in
Column 3 of the following table:
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
Vehicle
category
Front wheel(s) braking only
STOPPING DISTANCE (S)
(Where V is the specified test speed in km/h and
S is the required stopping distance in metres)
L S ≤0.1V + 0.0111V ≥3.4m/s
L and L S ≤0.1V + 0.0143V ≥2.7m/s
L S ≤0.1V + 0.0087V ≥4.4m/s
L S ≤0.1V + 0.0105V ≥3.6m/s
L and L S ≤0.1V + 0.0117V ≥3.3m/s
Rear wheel(s) braking only
L S ≤0.1V + 0.0143V ≥2.7m/s
L and L S ≤0.1V + 0.0143V ≥2.7m/s
L S ≤0.1V + 0.0133V ≥2.9m/s
L S ≤0.1V + 0.0105V ≥3.6m/s
L and L S ≤0.1V + 0.0117V ≥3.3m/s
MFDD

1.3. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≥55°C and ≤100°C.
(b) Test speed: 60km/h or 0.9V , whichever is lower.
(c)
Brake application:
Simultaneous actuation of both service brake system controls, if so equipped, or of the
single service brake system control in the case of a service brake system that operates on
all wheels.
For vehicles equipped with a single service brake system control, it may be necessary to
modify the brake system if one of the wheels is not approaching maximum deceleration.
(d)
Brake actuation force:
The control force that achieves the maximum vehicle deceleration rate as defined in
Paragraph 1.1.(c).
The application of the control force must be constant during braking.
(e)
(f)
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets its maximum deceleration rate.
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control(s) under the conditions specified in this Paragraph.
Brakes for L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 Category Vehicles.