Regulation No. 81-00

Name:Regulation No. 81-00
Description:Mirrors.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Rear-view Mirrors of Two-wheeled Power-driven Vehicles with or without Side Car, with Regard to the Mounting of Rear-view Mirrors on Handlebars.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1989-09-18
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 2
Number of Pages:33
Vehicle Types:Component, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Driver's Vision
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Keywords:

approval, rear-view, regulation, mirror, type, vehicle, mirrors, paragraph, test, production, annex, surface, granted, reflecting, requirements, holder, mark, number, tests, curvature, means, approved, vehicles, extension, pursuant, technical, conformity, position, radius, form, service, authority, impact, communication, figure, pendulum, agreement, applying, point, prescribed, manufacturer, ensure, parties, device, plane, results, centre, installation, model, conforming

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.80/Amend.2
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
August 7, 2007
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 81-00
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
REAR-VIEW MIRRORS OF TWO-WHEELED POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES WITH OR
WITHOUT SIDE CAR, WITH REGARD TO THE MOUNTING OF REAR-VIEW MIRRORS ON
HANDLEBARS
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.03.89
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.01.98
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.07

REGULATION NO. 81
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF REAR-VIEW MIRRORS OF TWO-
WHEELED POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES WITH OR WITHOUT SIDE CAR, WITH REGARD TO THE
MOUNTING OF REAR-VIEW MIRRORS ON HANDLEBARS
REGULATION
1. Scope
CONTENTS
I. REAR-VIEW MIRRORS
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for approval
4.
Markings
5.
Approval
6.
General requirements
7.
Special specifications
8.
Tests
9.
Conformity of production
10.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
11.
Modification and extension of approval of the type of rear-view mirror
12.
Production definitely discontinued
II. INSTALLATION OF REAR-VIEW MIRRORS
13.
Definitions
14.
Application for approval
15.
Approval
16.
Requirements
17.
Conformity of production
18.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
19.
Modifications and extension of approval of the vehicle type
20.
Production definitely discontinued
21.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests and of
administrative departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1 – Communication concerning the approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or
production definitely discontinued of a type of rear-view mirror, pursuant to Regulation No. 81
Annex 2 – Communication concerning the approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or
production definitely discontinued of a vehicle type with regard to the installation of rear-view
mirrors, pursuant to Regulation No. 81
Annex 3 – Arrangement of the rear-view mirror approval mark
Annex 4 – Arrangements of the vehicle approval mark concerning the installation of rear-view mirrors
Annex 5 – Test method for determining reflectivity
Annex 6 – Procedure for determining the radius of curvature "r" of a mirror's reflecting surface
Annex 7 – Control of the conformity of production

2.6. "Radius of curvature at one point on the reflecting surface (rp)" means the arithmetic
average of the principal radii of curvature ri and r'i, i.e.:
ri + r' i
rp =
2
2.7. "Centre of the mirror" means the centroid of the visible area of the reflecting surface;
2.8. "Radius of curvature of the constituent parts of the rear-view mirror" means the radius
"c" of the arc of the circle which most closely approximates to the curved form of the part in
question.
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a type of rear-view mirror shall be submitted by the holder of
the trade name or mark or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. For each type of rear-view mirror the application shall be accompanied by the
undermentioned documents in triplicate and by the following particulars:
3.2.1. A technical description, including mounting instructions and specifying the type(s) of vehicles
for which the rear-view mirror is intended,
3.2.2. Drawings sufficiently detailed to enable:
3.2.2.1. Compliance with the general specifications prescribed in Paragraph 6 to be verified,
3.2.2.2. Compliance with the dimensions prescribed in Paragraph 7.1. to be verified and
3.2.2.3. Compliance with the positioning of the spaces provided for the approval mark and prescribed
by Paragraph 4.2. below to be checked.
3.3. In addition, the application for approval shall be accompanied by four samples of the type of
rear-view mirror. At the request of the technical service responsible for conducting approval
tests supplementary samples may be required.
3.4. The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring
effective control of the conformity of production before type-approval is granted.
4. MARKINGS
4.1. The samples of rear-view mirrors submitted for approval shall bear the trade name or mark of
the manufacturer; this marking shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.2. Every rear-view mirror shall possess on its holder a space large enough to accommodate the
approval mark, which must be legible when the rear-view mirror has been mounted on the
vehicle; this space shall be shown on the drawings referred to in Paragraph 3.2.2. above.

6.3. When the rear-view mirror is mounted on a plane surface, all its parts, irrespective of the
adjustment position of the device, including those parts remaining attached to the holder after
the test set out in Paragraph 8.2., which are in potential static contact with a sphere 100 mm in
diameter shall have a radius of curvature "c" of not less than 2.5 mm.
6.3.1. Edges of fixing holes or recesses, which are less than 12 mm in width are exempt from the
radius requirements of Paragraph 6.3. provided they are blunted.
6.4. The parts of rear-view mirrors that are made of a Shore A hardness not greater than 60 are
exempt from the provisions set out in Paragraphs 6.2. and 6.3. above.
7. SPECIAL SPECIFICATIONS
7.1. Dimensions
7.1.1. The minimum dimensions of the reflecting surface must be such that:
7.1.1.1. The area shall not be less than 69 cm ,
7.1.1.2. In the case of circular mirrors, the diameter shall not be less than 94 mm,
7.1.1.3. In the case of non-circular mirrors, the dimension will permit the inscription of a circle with a
diameter of 78 mm on the reflecting surface.
7.1.2. The maximum dimensions of the reflecting surface must be such that:
7.1.2.1. In the case of circular mirrors, the diameter shall not be greater than 150 mm,
7.1.2.2. In the case of non-circular mirrors, the reflecting surface shall fit into a rectangle measuring
120 mm by 200 mm.
7.2. Reflecting Surface and Coefficient of Reflection
7.2.1. The reflecting surface of a rear-view mirror shall be spherically convex.
7.2.2. Differences between the radii of curvature:
7.2.2.1. The difference between ri or r'i and rp at each reference point shall not exceed 0.15 r.
7.2.2.2. The difference between any of the radii of curvature (r , r and r ) and r shall not exceed
0.15 r.
7.2.3. The value of "r" shall not be less than 1 000 mm nor greater than 1 500 mm.
7.2.4. The value of the normal coefficient of reflection, determined according to the method described
in Annex 5 to this Regulation, shall not be less than 40%. If the mirror has two positions ("day"
and "night"), the "day" position shall allow the colours of the signals used for road traffic to be
recognised. The value of the normal coefficient of reflection in the "night" position shall not be
less than 4%.
7.2.5. The reflecting surface shall retain the characteristics specified in Paragraph 7.2.4., in spite of
prolonged exposure to adverse weather conditions, in normal conditions of use.

(dimensions in mm)
Figure 1
8.2.2. Description of the Test:
8.2.2.1. The procedure used to clamp the rear-view mirror to the support shall be that recommended
by the manufacturer of the device, or where appropriate, by the vehicle manufacturer.
8.2.2.2. Positioning the rear-view mirror for the test.
8.2.2.2.1. Rear-view mirrors shall be positioned on the pendulum impact rig such that the axes which
are horizontal and vertical when installed on a vehicle in accordance with the vehicle or
rear-view mirror manufacturers' mounting instructions, are in a similar position.
8.2.2.2.2. When a rear-view mirror is adjustable in relation to the base, the test position shall be the
least favourable for any pivoting device to operate within the limits provided by the mirror or
vehicle manufacturer.
8.2.2.2.3. When a rear-view mirror has a device for adjusting its distance from the base, the device
shall be set in the position where the distance between the holder and the base is shortest.

Figure 2
Example of Bending Test Apparatus for Rear-View Mirror Holders
8.3.2. The test load shall be 25 kg applied for one minute.
8.4. Results of the Tests
8.4.1. In the tests described in Paragraph 8.2. above, the pendulum shall return in such a way that
the projection on the release plane of the position taken by the arm makes an angle of at least
20° with the vertical.
8.4.1.1. The accuracy of the angle measurement shall be ± 1°.
8.4.2. The mirror shall not break during the tests described in Paragraphs 8.2. and 8.3. above.
However, breakage of the reflecting surface of the mirror shall be allowed if one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
8.4.2.1. The fragments of glass still adhere to the back of the holder or to a surface firmly attached to
the holder, except that partial separation of the glass from its backing is permitted, provided this
does not exceed 2.5 mm either side of the crack. It is permissible for small splinters to become
detached from the surface of the glass at the point of impact;
8.4.2.2. The mirror is made of safety glass.

10. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
10.1. The approval granted in respect of a type of rear-view mirror pursuant to this Regulation may
be withdrawn if the requirements set forth above are not met.
10.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation.
11. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF A TYPE OF REAR-VIEW MIRROR
11.1. Every modification of the vehicle type shall be notified to the administrative department which
approved the type of rear-view mirror. The department may then either:
11.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the rear-view mirror still complies with the requirements; or
11.1.2. Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.
11.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 5.3 above to the Parties to the Agreement applying this
Regulation.
11.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for
such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation.
12. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of rear-view mirror
approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication
form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
13. DEFINITION
For the purpose of this Regulation,
II − INSTALLATION OF REAR-VIEW MIRRORS
13.1. "The maximum design speed" as specified in Paragraph 16.2. of this Regulation.
13.2. "Type of vehicle as regards rear-view mirrors" means vehicles which are identical in respect
of the following basic features:
13.2.1. The geometrical features of the vehicle, liable to influence the installation of rear-view mirrors,
13.2.2. The positions and types of rear-view mirror specified.

15.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved, under one or more other Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation,
the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 15.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a case, the
Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under
which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in
Paragraph 15.4.1.
15.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
15.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the
manufacturer.
15.8. Annex 4 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of the approval mark.
16. REQUIREMENTS
16.1. The vehicle shall meet the following requirements:
16.1.1. The rear-view mirrors installed on the vehicle shall be of Class L type approved under this
Regulation.
16.1.2. Rear-view mirrors shall be fixed in such a way that they remain steady under normal conditions
of use.
16.2. Number
16.2.1. All two-wheeled vehicles with a maximum design speed not exceeding 50 km/h must be fitted
with at least one rear-view mirror. If one only, this rear-view mirror must be fitted on the left
side of the vehicle in countries with right-hand rule of the road, and on the right side of the
vehicle in countries with left-hand rule of the road.
16.2.2. All two-wheeled vehicles with a maximum design speed exceeding 50 km/h and all
three-wheeled vehicles must be fitted with two rear-view mirrors, one on the left and one on the
right of the vehicle.
16.3. Site
16.3.1. Rear-view mirrors must be mounted or adjusted in such a way that the distance of the centre of
the reflective surface, as measured in a horizontal plane, is at least 280 mm outward from the
longitudinal vertical plane passing through the centre of the steering head of the vehicle.
Before the measurement, the handlebar shall be placed in the straight ahead position and the
mirror(s) shall be adjusted to its (their) normal position.
16.4. Adjustment
16.4.1. Rear-view mirror(s) shall be such that the driver can adjust it (them) in the normal driving
position.

19.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for
such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this
Regulation.
20. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a vehicle type approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the approval.
Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other Parties
to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming
to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
21. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United
Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for
conducting approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval and to
which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in
other countries, are to be sent.

9. Number of report issued by that service: ...........................................................................................
10. Vehicles for which the equipment is designed: ..................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
11. Approval is granted/refused/extended/withdrawn
12. Reason(s) for extension of approval: .................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
13. Place: .................................................................................................................................................
14. Date: ..................................................................................................................................................
15. Signature:...........................................................................................................................................
16. A list of documents contained in the approval file transmitted to the administrative service which
has granted approval is annexed to this communication.

12. Approval is granted/refused/extended/withdrawn
12. Reason(s) for extension of approval: .................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
13. Place: .................................................................................................................................................
14. Date: ..................................................................................................................................................
15. Signature:...........................................................................................................................................
16. A list of documents contained in the approval file transmitted to the administrative service which
has granted approval is annexed to this communication.

ANNEX 4
ARRANGEMENTS OF THE VEHICLE APPROVAL MARK CONCERNING THE INSTALLATION OF
REAR-VIEW MIRRORS
Model A
(See paragraph 15.4. of the Regulation)
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 81 under approval number 002439. The first two
digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements
of Regulation No. 81 in its original form.
Model B
(See Paragraph 15.5. of the Regulation)
a = 8 mm min
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulations No. 81 and 47. The first two digits of the approval
numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were granted, Regulation No. 81 had
not been modified and Regulation No. 47 already included the 01 series of amendments.

2.3. Geometric Conditions
2.3.1. The angle of the incident beam (0) should preferably be 0.44 ± 0.09 rad (25 ± 5°) from the
perpendicular to the test surface and shall not exceed the upper limit of the tolerance (i.e.
0.53 rad or 30°). The axis of the receptor shall make an angle (0) with this perpendicular equal
to that of the incident beam (see Figure 1). The incident beam upon arrival at the test surface
shall have a diameter of not less than 19 mm. The reflected beam shall not be wider than the
sensitive area of the photodetector, shall not cover less than 50% of such area and as nearly as
possible shall cover the same area segment as used during instrument calibration.
2.3.2. When an integrating sphere is used in the receiver section, the sphere shall have a minimum
diameter of 127 mm. The sample and incident beam apertures in the sphere wall shall be of
such a size as to admit the entire incident and reflected light beams. The photodetector shall be
located so as to receive direct light from either the incident or the reflected beams.
2.4. Electrical Characteristics of the Photodetector-Indicator Unit
The photodetector output as read on the indicating meter shall be a linear function of the light
intensity on the photosensitive area. Means (electrical and/or optical) shall be provided to
facilitate zeroing and calibration adjustments. Such means shall not affect the linearity or the
spectral characteristics of the instrument. The accuracy of the receptor-indicator unit shall be
with ± 2% of full scale, or ± 10% of the magnitude of the reading, whichever is the smaller.
2.5. Sample Holder
The mechanism shall be capable of locating the test sample so that the axes of the source arm
and receptor are intersect at the reflecting surface. The reflecting surface may lie within or at
either face of the mirror sample, depending on whether it is a first-surface, second-surface, or
prismatic "flip" type mirror.
3. PROCEDURE
3.1. Direct Calibration Method
3.1.1. In the direct calibration method, air is used as the reference standard. This method is applicable
for those instruments which are so constructed as to permit calibration at the 100% point by
swinging the receiver to a position directly on the axis of the light source (see Figure 1).
3.1.2. It may be desired in some cases (such as when measuring low-reflectivity surfaces) to use an
intermediate calibration point (between 0 and 100% on the scale) with this method. In these
cases a neutral density filter of known transmittance shall then be adjusted until the meter reads
the percentage transmission of the neutral density filter. This filter shall be removed before
making reflectivity measurements.
3.2. Indirect Calibration Method
The indirect calibration method is applicable for those instruments with fixed source and receiver
geometry. A properly calibrated and maintained reflectance standard is required. This reference
standard should preferably be a flat mirror with a reflectance value as near as possible to that of
the test samples.

Figure 2
Generalised Reflectometer Incorporating an Integrating Sphere in the Receptor

EXPLANATORY FIGURE
Example of device for measuring the reflection factor of spherical mirrors
Key
C = Receiver
D = Diaphragm
E = Window of entry
F = Window of measurement
L = Lens
M = Object window
S = Light source
(S) = Integrating sphere

Figure 1

3.2.2. Results:
All results shall be recorded.
The provisions of Paragraph 8.4. of this Regulation shall be complied with.
3.3. Selection of Samples
The selection of samples to be tested shall take account of the quantity produced for each type
of rear-view mirrors.
Mirrors.