Regulation No. 84-00

Name:Regulation No. 84-00
Description:Fuel Consumption - Passenger Cars.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Passenger Cars Equipped with an Internal Combustion Engine with Regard to the Measurement of Fuel Consumption.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1991-08-23
Amendment Level:00 Series
Number of Pages:61
Vehicle Types:Car, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

vehicle, speed, test, type, fuel, dynamometer, approval, tests, paragraph, consumption, regulation, power, annex, mass, load, reference, measurement, total, temperature, cycle, conditions, inertia, manufacturer, engine, road, air, system, time, bench, gear, constant, appendix, track, measured, make, accuracy, carried, device, average, defined, vehicles, values, maximum, characteristics, procedure, technical, number, production, period, equipment

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.83
August 23, 1991
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 84
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
PASSENGER CARS EQUIPPED WITH AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE MEASUREMENT OF FUEL CONSUMPTION
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments Date of Entry into Force: 15.07.90

REGULATION NO. 84
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF PASSENGER CARS EQUIPPED WITH
AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE MEASUREMENT OF
FUEL CONSUMPTION
REGULATION
ANNEXES
CONTENTS
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for approval
4.
Approval
5.
Specifications and tests
6.
Modification and extension of approval of the vehicle type
7.
Extension of the type approval for vehicle type
8.
Conformity of production
9.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
10.
Production definitely discontinued
11.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting tests, and of
administrative departments
Annex 1

Essential characteristics of the engine and information concerning the conduct of
tests
Annex 2

Communication concerning the approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of
approval or production definitely discontinued of a vehicle type with regard the
measurement of fuel consumption
Annex 3 ― Arrangements of approval marks
Annex 4 — ECE method of measuring fuel consumption
Annex 5 — Test on the chassis dynamometer - urban cycle tests
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Breakdown of the operating cycle of urban driving
Characteristics of the chassis dynamometer
Determination of the total road load power of a vehicle and calibration of
the dynamometer
Verification of inertias other than mechanical
Annex 6 — Checks of conformity of production

3.2. It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following
particulars:
3.2.1. A description of the engine type comprising all the particulars referred to in Annex 1;
3.2.2. Description of the basic features of the vehicle, including those used in drafting Annex 2.
3.3. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
technical services responsible for conducting approval tests.
3.4. The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory provisions to ensure an
effective check of conformity of production before approval of the vehicle type is granted.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the fuel consumption of the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation
has been measured according to the conditions specified in Paragraph 5 below, approval of
that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
00 for the regulation in its original form) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same
number to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this
Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation,
an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval.
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.

6. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE VEHICLE TYPE
6.1. Every modification of the vehicle type shall be notified to the administrative department
which approved the vehicle type. The department may then either:
6.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect on
fuel consumption values and that, in this case, the original approval will be valid for the
modified vehicle type; or
6.1.2. Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests
according to conditions in Paragraph 7 of this Regulation.
6.2. Confirmation or extension of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by
the procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3 above to the Parties to the Agreement applying
this Regulation.
6.3. The competent authority which grants the extension of the approval shall assign a series
number for such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement
applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in
Annex 2 to this Regulation.
7. CONDITIONS OF EXTENSION OF THE TYPE APPROVAL FOR VEHICLE TYPE
7.1. Where the manufacturer produces, whether simultaneously or successively, vehicles which
differ in certain respects but may be considered as variants of a single basic model, further
consumption tests shall be carried out on each variant in the following cases:
7.1.1. Differences which necessitate repetition of the measurement of pollutant emissions required
under Regulation No. 83 or under Regulation No. 24; further urban cycle and constant
speed tests shall be carried out.
7.1.1.1. However, if the differences clearly affect consumption only in the urban cycle, the constant
speed tests need not be performed.
7.1.2. Further constant speed tests shall be required in the following cases: modifications in the
outer shape of the vehicle, such as the type of body (coupe, estate, saloon), addition of
particular items (spoiler, deflector, etc.) or in the dimensions (wheelbase, track width) or
mass of the vehicle. However, such further tests shall not be required if the manufacturer of
the vehicle can show that the resulting change in total road load power on fuel consumption
is less than 5%.
7.1.3. Further urban cycle tests shall be required in either of the following cases:
(a)
(b)
a modification in the reference mass entails a change in the inertia class and the
variation in mass is greater than 10%;
a modification in the reference mass entails a change of more than one inertia class.

7.1.5.10. Changes in the exhaust manifold configuration likely to affect the gas flow.
7.1.5.11. Modifications of or changes in the exhaust box, silencer, resonator or tail pipe resulting in a
variation in the exhaust back pressure exceeding 740 Pa, measured at the collector outlet
under the operating conditions for each test. Only the corresponding tests need be
repeated.
7.1.5.12. Changes in maximum engine power
7.1.5.12.1. If the change in maximum power is obtained solely by modification of the regulator cut-out
action (max-min for instance) or of the stop which in some systems limits the opening of the
throttle, no further test shall be required.
7.1.5.12.2. However, if the modifications referred to in 7.1.5.12.1 above have an effect on the operation
of the engine within the range of use in question (all-speed governor, for instance),
additional urban cycle and constant speed tests shall be carried out.
7.1.5.13. Addition of air-conditioning equipment, provided that the compressor is designed for
continuous operation without producing excessive cold in the passenger compartment.
7.1.5.14. A change in the type or dimension of fan, type of drive system (mechanical or electric),
temperature and speed regulating system, in so far as this change has an influence on the
maximum power in the range of tolerance for engine speed.
7.2. However, in the case of minor modifications affecting the design of a whole range or series
of vehicles, the additional tests need be carried out only on certain models selected from the
range by the technical service. The variation in consumption measured in litres per 100 km
thus found may be attributed to all the vehicles of the range affected by that modification
only, with the agreement of the technical service.
7.3. For certain minor modifications, the manufacturer may submit to the technical service
comparative results or technical proofs demonstrating that the modification has no
significant effect on the consumption measurement results. The corresponding additional
tests need not be carried out, provided the technical service agrees.
7.4. Interpretation of the results of further tests.
7.4.1. If no further tests are required for the variant, the consumption values attributed to the
variant shall be those recorded for the basic model.
7.4.2. If further urban cycle and/or constant speed tests have been required for the variant:
7.4.2.1. The corresponding consumption values attributed to the variant shall be those of the basic
model if the values measured on the variant during the further tests do not differ by more
than ± 5% from the values recorded for the basic model.
7.4.2.1.1. However, at the request of the manufacturer the consumption values measured during the
further tests may be attributed to each variant.

8.4.3. When the quality standard does not seem satisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify
the validity of the tests conducted under Paragraph 8.4.2., the inspector shall collect
samples to be sent to the technical service which carried out the approval tests.
8.4.4. The competent authorities may carry out all the tests prescribed in this Regulation.
8.4.5. Normally, the competent authorities shall conduct an inspection every two years. If, during
one of these inspections, negative results are observed, the competent authority shall
ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish conformity of production as soon
as possible.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1 above are not complied with.
9.2. If a Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously
granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by
means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication
form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
11. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible
for conducting approval tests, and of the administrative departments which grant approval
and to which, forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval,
issued in other countries, are to be sent.

1.11.2.
Characteristics of air-cooling system
Blower: characteristics or make(s) and type(s) ... drive ratio:...................................................
Air ducting (standard production):..............................................................................................
Temperature regulating system: yes/no
Brief description .........................................................................................................................
1.11.3.
Temperatures permitted by the manufacturer
1.11.3.1.
Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at engine outlet ............................................................
1.11.3.2.
Air cooling: Reference point .....................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point .............................................................
1.11.3.3.
Maximum outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler..................................................................
1.11.3.4.
Maximum exhaust temperature .................................................................................................
1.11.3.5.
Fuel temperature: min........................ max...............................................................................
1.11.3.6.
Lubricant temperature: min................ max...............................................................................
1.12.
Pressure charger: yes/no
Description of the system ............................................................
1.13.
Intake system
Intake manifold:.........................
Description....................................................................
Air filter: ..................................... Make............................... Type ...............................
Intake silencer:.......................... Make............................... Type ...............................
1.14. Device for recycling crank-case gases (description and diagrams)
2. Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)
Description and diagrams ..........................................................................................................
3. Air intake and fuel feed
3.1. Description and diagrams of inlet pipes and their accessories (dash-pot, heating device,
additional air intakes, etc.)
...................................................................................................................................................

3.2.2.3.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.3. Cut-off point under load min .....................................................................................................
3.2.2.3.4 Maximum speed without load min ...........................................................................................
3.2.2.3.5. Idle speed...................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4. Cold start device ........................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.4.3. System description.....................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5. Starting aid .................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
3.2.2.5.3. System description.....................................................................................................................
4. VALVE TIMING OR EQUIVALENT DATA
4.1. Maximum lift of valves, angles of opening and closing, or timing details of alternative
distribution systems, in relation to top dead centre
...................................................................................................................................................
4.2. Reference and/or setting ranges ............................................................................................
5. IGNITION
5.1. Ignition system type ...................................................................................................................
5.1.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
5.1.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
5.1.3. Ignition advance curve ...........................................................................................................
5.1.4. Ignition timing .........................................................................................................................
5.1.5. Contact-point gap and dwell-angle .................................................................................

10.2.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
10.3. Ignition condenser
10.3.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
10.3.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
10.4. Radio interference suppression equipment
10.4.1. Make ..........................................................................................................................................
10.4.2. Type ...........................................................................................................................................
11. Engine performance (declared by manufacturer)
11.1. Idle rpm .......................................................................................................................... min
11.2. Carbon monoxide content by volume in the exhaust gas with the engine idling - per cent
(manufacturer's standard)
...................................................................................................................................................
11.3. RPM at maximum power ............................................................................................... min
11.4. Maximum power - kW ................................................................................................................
12. Lubricant used............................................................................................................................
12.1 Make ..........................................................................................................................................
12.2 Type ...........................................................................................................................................

6.5. Engine: .......................................................................................................................................
6.5.1. Cylinder capacity:.......................................................................................................................
6.5.2. Fuel feed: carburettor, injection .............................................................................................
6.5.3. Fuel recommended by the manufacturer:..................................................................................
6.5.4. Maximum engine power:................ kW at..................... rpm......................................................
6.5.5. Super-charger: yes/no ...........................................................................................................
6.5.6. Ignition: compression ignition, positive ignition (mechanical or electronic) ..........................
6.5.7. Exhaust gas cleaning device: yes/no ....................................................................................
Type of additional anti-pollution device......................................................................................
6.6. Transmission..............................................................................................................................
6.6.1. Type of gear box: manual, automatic, variable transmission .................................................
6.6.2. Number of gears ........................................................................................................................
6.6.3. Overall transmission ratios (including tyre tread circumference under load): speed in km/h
per engine 1000 rpm:
first gear: ................................... fourth gear: ...................................................................
second gear: .............................
third gear: ..................................
fifth gear:.......................................................................
overdrive:......................................................................
6.6.4. Final torque ratio: .......................................................................................................................
6.6.5. Tyres: .........................................................................................................................................
Type: .........................................
Dimensions:..................................................................
Tread circumference under load:...............................................................................................
7. Conventional fuel consumption:
Urban cycle ................................................................................................................. 1/100 km
Constant speed at 90 km/h ......................................................................................... 1/100 km
Constant speed at 120 km/h ....................................................................................... 1/100 km
8. Vehicle submitted for approval on:.............................................................................................

ANNEX 3
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
Model A
(see Paragraph 4.4 of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the Netherlands (E 4) with regard to the measurement of the fuel consumption pursuant to Regulation
No. 84 and under the approval number 002492. The approval number indicates that the approval was
granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 84 in its original form.
Model B
(see Paragraph 4.5 of this Regulation)
a = 8 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 84 and 31. The first two digits of the approval
numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were granted, Regulation No. 84 had
not been modified, and Regulation No. 31 already included the 01 series of amendments.

1.3. Tyres
1.4. Test Fuel
The tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer and
shall be inflated to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer for the highest
test load and speed (adapted if appropriate for bench running in the test conditions). These
pressures shall be indicated in the test report. The tyres shall either have been run in at the
same time as the vehicle or shall have a tread depth between 90% and 50% of the original
tread depth.
Test fuels shall have the characteristics of the CEC reference fuels defined in Consolidated
Resolution (R.E.3)
1.5. Measuring the Fuel Consumption
1.5.1. Distances shall be measured to an accuracy of 0.3% and times to an accuracy of 0.2 s. The
measurement systems for the fuel consumed, for the distance covered and for the time,
shall be engaged simultaneously.
1.5.2. Fuel shall be supplied to the engine through a device capable of measuring the quantity
consumed to within ± 2%; this device shall not influence the pressure or the temperature of
the fuel at the inlet of the fuel metering system by more than ± 10% for pressure and ± 5°C
(5 K) for fuel temperature. If the system of measurement is volumetric, the temperature of
the fuel at the point of measurement shall be measured.
1.5.3. If necessary, a valve system shall be used for rapid change-over from the normal fuel
supply line to the measuring system. The change-over shall not take longer than 0.2 s.
1.6. Reference Conditions
1.6.1. Air density
Total pressure: H = 100 kPa
Temperature: T = 293 K (20°C)
1.6.1.1. The air density when the vehicle is tested, calculated as described in Paragraph 1.6.1.2.
below, shall not differ by more than 7.5% from the air density under the reference
conditions.

1.7.2. If the fuel consumption is measured volumetrically the consumption "C" shall be expressed
(in litres/100 km) by the following formula:
where:
C =
V (1 + α (T
D
+ T
))
V : volume of fuel consumed (litres)
α
:
coefficient of volumetric expansion for the fuel (0.001 per °C for both diesel fuel
and petrol)
T : reference temperature expressed in °C: 20° C (293 K)
T
:
average temperature of fuel expressed in °C and calculated as the arithmetic
mean of the fuel temperature measurements taken in the volumetric measuring
device at the beginning and at the end of the test
2. MEASUREMENT OF FUEL CONSUMPTION ON A CYCLE SIMULATING URBAN
DRIVING
2.1. The test cycle shall be that described in Annex 5 to this Regulation.
2.1.1. Test mass of the vehicle
2.1.1.1. The test mass of category M vehicles shall be the reference mass as defined in Paragraph
2.4 of this Regulation.
2.1.1.2. The unladen mass shall be as defined in Paragraph 2.3 of this Regulation.
2.1.1.3. The test mass of Category N vehicles shall be the unladen kerb mass plus 180 kg or half
the vehicle's maximum load if greater than 180 kg, including the measuring equipment and
occupants.
2.1.1.4. For Category N vehicles, the load shall be distributed as specified in Paragraph 3.1.1.4 of
this Annex.

2.4.2. If the extreme measurements of the first three tests differ by more than 5% from the mean
value, further tests shall be carried out in accordance with this procedure in order to obtain a
degree of accuracy of measurement at least equal to 5%.
2.4.3. The accuracy of the measurement shall be calculated by the formula:

accuracy =
⎜k


where:
_
C is the arithmetical mean of n values C
S
n
100
⎟ %
C



C is given by the formulae in Paragraph 1.7
n is the number of measurements taken
i = n (C − C )
S = ∑ i = 1
n − 1
k is given by the following table:
Number of
measurements "n"
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
k 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3
2.4.4. If an accuracy of 5% has not been attained after 10 measurements, the consumption shall
be determined by using another vehicle of the same type.
3. MEASUREMENT OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AT CONSTANT SPEED
3.1. These tests may be carried out either on a chassis dynamometer or on a track.
3.1.1. Test mass of the vehicle
The mass of the vehicle shall be the unladen mass as defined in Paragraph 2.3 of the
present Regulation plus 180 kg, or half the useful load if more than 180 kg, including
measuring equipment and occupants.
3.1.1.1. For Category M vehicles, the attitude of the vehicle shall be that obtained when the centre
of gravity of this load is placed in the middle of the straight line joining the R points of the
front side seats.
3.1.1.2. For vehicles with not more than two rows of seats, the attitude of the vehicle shall be that
obtained when the centre of gravity of this load is placed in the middle of the straight line
joining the R points of the front side seats.

3.3.1.4. To determine the consumption at a steady reference speed, at least two measurements
shall be made below or at the reference speed and at least two others at or above the
reference speed, but not exceeding the tolerances prescribed below.
3.3.1.5. During each test run, the speed shall be kept steady within ± 2 km/h. The average speed
for each test shall not differ from the reference speed by more than 2 km/h.
3.3.1.6. The fuel consumption for each test run shall be calculated by the formulae in Paragraph 1.7.
3.3.1.7. The consumption at the reference speed shall be calculated by linear regression of the test
data obtained in 3.3.1.4. In the case of tests performed in two directions of the test track,
data points obtained in each direction shall be introduced individually.
The consumption shall be determined within ± 3% at a 95% confidence level. To achieve
this accuracy, the number of tests may be increased. The accuracy is defined by the
following formula:
where:
Accuracy = k ⋅
(C − C
n − 2

1
n
C
+
V
V
− V)
− V)
⋅100
C
:
measured consumption at the speed V
_
C
:
consumption at the speed V calculated by regression
C
:
consumption at the reference speed V calculated by regression
V
:
reference speed
V
:
actual speed of determination i
_
V
:
average speed =

n
n : number of tests
k
is given by the following table:
n
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
k
4.30
3.18
2.78
2.57
2.45
2.37
2.31
n
12
14
16
18
20
k
2.23
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.10

3.3.1.9.3. If during the constant speed test there is any change in the ambient conditions greater than
2°C or 0.7 kPa, the correction factor given in Paragraph 3.3.1.9.1 shall be applied before
determining the consumption or the degree of accuracy.
3.3.2. Chassis dynamometer test
3.3.2.1. The characteristics of the dynamometer shall comply with the requirements in Annex 5,
Appendix 2 to this Regulation.
3.3.2.2. The conditions in the test chamber shall be capable of adjustment so that the vehicle can be
tested in its normal operating conditions with the temperatures of lubricants, coolant and fuel
within the range normally obtained at the same speed on the road. The manufacturer shall if
required confirm those temperature ranges on the basis of data previously obtained during
road tests with comparable engine/vehicle configurations.
3.3.2.3. Preparation of the vehicle for the bench test
3.3.2.3.1. The vehicle shall be loaded to the same mass as for the road.
3.3.2.3.2. The tyres of the driven wheels shall meet the conditions defined in Paragraph 1.3 of this
Annex.
3.3.2.3.3. The vehicle shall be positioned on the bench so that:
— its longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the axis of the roller or rollers
— the anchorage system for the vehicle does not increase the load on the driving wheels
3.3.2.3.4. After warming-up, the vehicle shall be run on the bench at a speed close to the test speed
long enough to allow stabilization of the vehicle temperatures by regulation of the auxiliary
cooling system.
This preconditioning time shall not be less than five minutes.
3.3.2.4. Test procedure
3.3.2.4.1. The bench shall be set as described in Paragraph 5.1.2 of Appendix 3 to Annex 5. The
bench shall be set for the appropriate test speed and the test mass defined in Paragraph
3.1.1. for determining the total road load power.
3.3.2.4.2. The test distance shall be not less than 2 km and shall be measured with a suitable device.
3.3.2.4.3. The inertia device may be disconnected during the test provided that the speed variation
does not exceed an amplitude of 0.5 km/h during the actual test.
3.3.2.4.4. Not less than four measurements shall be taken.
3.3.2.4.5. The provisions of Paragraphs 3.3.1.4., 3.3.1.5., 3.3.1.6., 3.3.1.7. and 3.3.1.8. shall apply as
appropriate.
3.3.2.5. The type of dynamometer used shall be indicated in the test report.

ANNEX 5
TESTS ON THE CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER - URBAN CYCLE TESTS
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex describes the procedure for the test required in Paragraph 5.2.1.1. of the
Regulation.
2. OPERATING CYCLE ON THE CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
2.1. Description of the Cycle
The operating cycle on the chassis dynamometer shall be that indicated in the following
table and depicted in the graph in Appendix 1 to this Annex. The breakdown by operations
is also given in the table in the said appendix.
2.2. General Conditions Under Which the Cycle is Carried Out
Preliminary testing cycles should be carried out if necessary to determine how best to
actuate the accelerator and brake controls so as to achieve a cycle approximating to the
theoretical cycle within the prescribed limits.
2.3. Use of the Gear-Box
2.3.1. If the maximum speed which can be attained in first gear is below 15 km/h the second, third
and fourth gears shall be used. The second, third and fourth gears may also be used when
the driving instructions recommend starting in second gear on level ground, or when first
gear is therein defined as a gear reserved for cross-country driving, crawling or towing.
2.3.2. Vehicles equipped with semi-automatic-shift gear-boxes shall be tested by using the gears
normally employed for driving, and the gear shift shall be used in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.
2.3.3. Vehicles equipped with automatic-shift gear-boxes shall be tested with the highest gear
("Drive") engaged. The accelerator shall be used in such a way as to obtain the steadiest
acceleration possible, enabling the various gears to be engaged in the normal order.
Furthermore, the gear-change points shown in Appendix 1 to this Annex shall not apply:
acceleration shall continue throughout the period represented by the straight line connecting
the end of each period of idling with the beginning of the following period of steady speed.
The tolerances given in Paragraph 2.4. below shall apply.
2.3.4. Vehicles equipped with an overdrive which the driver can actuate shall be tested with the
overdrive out of action.
2.3.5. In view of the limitations inherent in existing facilities, four-wheel drive vehicles may be
tested on dynamometers designed for two-wheel drive vehicles; this shall be noted in the
test report.

Table III.1.2
Operating cycle on the chassis dynamometer (Part one)
No of
operation
Operation
Phase Acceleration
(m/s )
Speed
(km/h)
Duration of each
Operation
(s)
Phase
(s)
Cumulative
time (s)
Gear to be used in
the case of a
manual gearbox
1 Idling 1 11 11 11 6 s PM + 5 s K
2 Acceleration 2 1,04 0-15 4 4 15 1
3 Steady speed 3 15 9 8 23 1
4 Deceleration -0,69 15-10 2 25 1
5 Deceleration,
clutch disengaged
4
-0,92 10-0 3
5
28 K
6 Idling 5 21 21 49 16 s PM + 5 s K
7 Acceleration 0,83 0-15 5 54 1
8 Gear change 6 2 12 56
9 Acceleration 0.94 15-32 5 61 2
10 Steady speed 7 32 24 24 85 2
11 Deceleration -0.75 32-10 8 93 2
12 Deceleration
clutch disengaged
8
-0.92 10-0 3
11
96 K
13 Idling 9 21 21 117 16 s PM + 5 s K
14 Acceleration 0 - 15 0-15 5 122 1
15 Gear change 2 124
16 Acceleration 10 0,62 15-35 9 26 133 2
17 Gear change 2 135
18 Acceleration 0,52 35-50 8 143 3
19 Steady speed 11 50 12 12 155 3
20 Deceleration 12 -0,52 50-35 8 8 163 3
21 Steady speed 13 35 13 13 176 3
22 Gear change 2 178
23 Deceleration 14 -0,86 32-10 7 12 185 2
24 Deceleration,
clutch disengaged -0,92 10-0 3 188 K
25 Idling 15 7 7 195 7 s PM

4.5. Loading Setting
4.5.1. The absorber unit shall be adjusted to simulate the total road load power in relation to
speed; it shall in no case be negative. The accuracy of regulation shall be ± 3% at 50 km/h,
± 5% at 40 and 30 km/h and ± 10% at 20 km/h. If the dynamometer is not capable of
complying with the upper tolerance limit at speeds below 50 km/h, as specified above, the
test results may be accepted, subject to the agreement of the manufacturer and the
technical service.
4.5.2. The procedures for determining the total road load power and the calibration of the
dynamometer are defined in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
4.6. Inertia Setting
Dynamometers with electrical inertia simulation must be demonstrated to be equivalent to
mechanical inertia systems. The means by which equivalence is established is described in
Appendix 4 to this Annex.
5. PROCEDURE FOR BENCH TESTS
5.1. Special Conditions for Carrying out the Cycle
5.1.1. During the test, the test cell temperature shall be between 20°C and 30°C. The absolute
humidity (H) of either the air in the test cell or the intake air of the engine shall be such that:
5.5 < H < 12.2 gH O/kg dry air
5.1.2. The vehicle shall be approximately horizontal during the test so as to avoid any abnormal
distribution of the fuel.
5.1.3. The test shall be carried out with the bonnet raised unless this is technically impossible. An
auxiliary ventilating device acting on the radiator (water-cooling) or on the air intake
(air-cooling) may be used if necessary to keep the engine temperature normal.
5.1.4. During the test the speed shall be recorded against time so that the correctness of the
cycles performed can be assessed.
5.2. Starting-Up the Engine
5.2.1. The engine shall be started up by means of the devices provided for this purpose according
to the manufacturer's instructions, as incorporated in the driver's handbook of production
vehicles.
5.2.2. The engine shall be kept idling for a period of 40 seconds. The first cycle shall begin at the
end of the aforesaid period of 40 seconds at idle.

5.6. Steady Speeds
5.6.1. "Pumping" or the closing of the throttle shall be avoided when passing from acceleration to
the following steady speed.
5.6.2. Periods of constant speed shall be achieved by keeping the accelerator position fixed.


(d)
(e)
When used to determine fuel consumption, the measurement systems for the fuel
consumed, for the distance covered and for time shall be simultaneously engaged;
When used to determine steady speed fuel consumption, the instruments to record
speed and measured distance may be driven by the test vehicle transmission if it can
be shown that better representation of the road speed is obtained.
2. CALIBRATION OF THE CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
2.1. Introduction
This paragraph sets out a procedure to be used to determine the power absorbed by the
dynamometer.
The absorbed power comprises the power absorbed by frictional effects and by the powerabsorption
unit. The dynamometer is brought into operation at a speed greater than the
maximum test speed. The device used for starting the dynamometer is then disconnected
and the rotational speed of the driven roller decreases. The kinetic energy of the rollers is
dissipated by the power-absorption unit and by the frictional effects. This method
disregards variations in the roller's internal friction resulting from the presence or absence of
load and friction in the rear roller if this is free.
This procedure identifies for every speed the relationship between the indicated power (P )
and the absorbed power (P ) of the dynamometer.
This relationship may be useful in practice to evaluate over a period of time the power
absorbed by friction in the dynamometer and to reproduce the same total road load power
on different days or on different bench units of the same type.
2.2. Calibration of the Indicated Power P (at 50 km/h) in Relation to Absorbed Power (P )
The following procedure shall be used:
2.2.1. Measure the rotational speed of the roller if this has not already been done. A fifth wheel, a
revolution counter or some other method may be used.
2.2.2. Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or apply some other method of starting the
dynamometer.
2.2.3. Use the fly-wheel or other system of inertia simulation for the particular inertia class under
consideration.
2.2.4. Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 50 km/h.
2.2.5. Note the indicated power (P ).
2.2.6. Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 60 km/h.
2.2.7. Disconnect the device used to start the dynamometer.

2.2.13. The procedure set out in Paragraphs 2.2.3. to 2.2.12. shall be repeated for all inertia classes
to be considered.
2.3. Calibration of the indicated power (P ) in relation to absorbed power (P ) at other
speeds
The procedure of Paragraph 2.2. shall be repeated as often as necessary for other chosen
speeds.
3. DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL POWER OF A VEHICLE DRIVEN ON THE
DYNAMOMETER
As indicated in Paragraph 1.2.1. of this Appendix, the total-power is equal to the rolling
resistance plus the power absorbed by the bench dynamometer.
The determination of total power is effected either by the coast-down method or by
measurement of the torque.

3.3.2. Ambient Conditions
3.3.2.1. The ambient temperature shall be between 5°C (278 K) and 35°C (308 K) and the
barometric pressure between 91 kPa and 104 kPa. The relative humidity shall be less than
95%.
3.3.2.2. However, with the manufacturer's agreement, the tests may be made at lower ambient
temperatures down to 1°C. In this case the correction factor calculated for 5°C should be
used.
4. PREPARATION OF THE VEHICLE
4.1. Running-in
4.2. Checks
The vehicle shall be in normal running order and adjustment after having been run in for at
least 3 000 km. The tyres shall be run in at the same time as the vehicle or shall have a
tread depth within 10% and 50% of the initial tread depth.
The following checks shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications for
the use considered: wheels, wheel trim, tyres (make, type, pressure), front axle geometry,
brake adjustment (elimination of parasitic drag), lubrication of front and rear axles,
adjustment of the suspension and vehicle attitude, etc.
4.3. Preparation for the Test
4.3.1. The vehicle shall be loaded to its reference mass. The attitude of the vehicle shall be that
obtained when the centre of gravity of the load is situated in the middle of the straight line
joining the "R" points of the front outer seats.
The determination of the total road load power at constant speeds of 90 and 120 km/h to be
simulated on the dynamometer for measurement of the fuel consumption must take due
account of the vehicle mass as defined in Paragraph 3.1.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation.
4.3.2. In the case of track tests, the windows of the vehicle shall be closed. Any covers for air
conditioning systems, headlights, etc. shall be closed.
4.3.3. The vehicle shall be clean.
4.3.4. Immediately before the test, the vehicle shall be brought to normal running temperature in
an appropriate manner.
5. METHODS
5.1. Energy variation during coast-down
5.1.1. Total road load power determination
5.1.1.1. Measurement equipment and accuracy
The margin of measurement error shall be less than 0.1 s for time and less than ± 0.5 km/h
for speed.

5.1.1.2. 7. Calculate the power by the formula:
where:
M ⋅ V ⋅ ΔV
P =
500 T
P
is expressed in kW
V = test speed in m/s
ΔV = speed deviation from speed V in m/s
T = time in seconds
M = vehicle mass in kg.
5.1.1.2.8. The total road load power (P ) determined on the track shall be corrected to the reference
ambient conditions as follows:
P corrected = K P measured
where:
R
R
K = 1 + K (t − t ) +
R
R
P
P
R = rolling resistance at speed V
R = aerodynamic drag at speed V
R = total road load = R + R
K
=
temperature correction factor of rolling resistance, taken to be equal to:
3.6 ⋅ 10
t = road test ambient temperature in °C
t = reference ambient temperature = 20°C
ρ = air density at the test conditions
ρo = air density at the reference conditions (20°C; 100 KPa)
The ratios R /R and R /R shall be specified by the vehicle manufacturer on the basis of
the data normally available to the company.

5.1.2.2.6. Adjust the brake to reproduce the corrected total road load power (Paragraph 5.1.1.2.8.)
and to take into account the difference between the vehicle mass on the track and the
equivalent inertia test mass (I) to be used. This may be done by calculating the mean
corrected road coast-down time from V to V and reproducing the same time on the
dynamometer by the following relationship:
T
=
T
K

I
M
5.1.2.2.7. The power P to be absorbed by the bench should be determined in order to enable the
same total road load power to be reproduced for the same vehicle on different days or on
different bench units of the same type.
5.2. Method of Torque Measurement at Constant Speed
5.2.1. Total torque determination on the track
5.2.1.1. Measurement equipment and accuracy
Torque measurement equipment shall have an accuracy of ± 2%. The margin of error in
measuring speed shall not exceed ± 0.5% km/h.
5.2.1.2. Test procedure
5.2.1.2.1. Bring the vehicle to the chosen stabilized speed V.
5.2.1.2.2. Record the torque C and speed over a period of at least 20 s. The accuracy of the data
recording system shall be at least ± 1 Nm for the torque and ± 0.2 km/h for the speed.
5.2.1.2.3. Within the measuring period the variation coefficient (standard deviation divided by the
average value) shall not exceed 2% for the speed or for the torque. The standard deviation
shall be calculated from equidistant sampling points not more than one second apart. If this
requirement cannot be met, the measuring period shall be sufficiently lengthened until the
requirement is met.
5.2.1.2.4. The torque C is the average torque derived from the following formula:
C
=
1
Δt
t + Δt
∫ C(t) dt
t
5.2.1.2.5. The test shall be carried out three times in each direction. Determine the average torque
from these six measurements for the reference speed. If the average speed deviates by
more than 1 km/h from the reference speed, a linear regression shall be used for calculating
the average torque.
5.2.1.2.6. If a total road load curve is necessary, it shall be calculated from the torque values obtained
at at least seven equidistant speeds. The data points for a reference speed may be
represented separately as speed/torque pairs.

5.3.1.2.7. Calculate the average decelerationγ γ i corresponding to the speed V by the formula
where:
γ1 =
1 t
∫ o
[ γ (t) − g cos α (t)] dt
t
γ 1 = average deceleration value at speed V in one direction of the test track
t = deceleration time between V + 5 km/h and V - 5 km/h
γ (t) = deceleration recorded during time t
g = 9.81 ms
α (t) =
gyroscopic axis deviation from the vertical
5.3.1.2.8. Perform the same test in the other direction of the test track to obtain
γ2
repeating the operations described in Paragraphs 5.3.1.2.1. to 5.3.1.2.6.
5.3.1.2.9. Calculate the average γ i of γ 1 and γ2
:
γ i =
γ 1 + γ 2
2
5.3.1.2.10. Perform a number of tests sufficient for the statistical accuracy p of the average
to be within 2% (p < 2%).
1
γ = ∑ μ γ i
n i
The statistical accuracy p is defined by:
where:
p =
t ⋅ s 100

n γ
t = coefficient given by the table of Paragraph 5.1.1.2.6. of this Appendix
n = number of tests
s = standard deviation =
n 2
∑ ( γ i − γ)
i
n − i

5.3.2.2.2. For the determination of F , the rolling force F to be subtracted from F corrected must be
known:
For single-roller dynamometers with a roller diameter greater than 1.5 m, the rolling force Fr
at the chosen speed may be that specified for the track test by the manufacturer
(Paragraph 5.1.1.2.8.) multiplied by the ratio of the driving axle mass to the total mass. This
value shall be checked by the technical service responsible for the tests;
For twin-roller dynamometers and for single-roller dynamometers with a roller diameter less
than 1.50 m, the rolling force F is measured on the dynamometer at the chosen speed with
the vehicle gearbox in neutral, by driving the rollers at the chosen speed and measuring the
rolling force with precision apparatus accurate to within 2%.
5.3.2.2.3. It may be preferable, and is necessary if the value of F is uncertain, to observe the vehicle
coast-down on the dynamometer:
Drive the vehicle to a speed of 10 km/h greater than the chosen speed;
Let the vehicle decelerate with the gearbox in neutral and continuously record the

deceleration
dt
Calculate the total resistance F by the formula:
where:
F
=
J
R


dt
J
=
rotational inertia of the rollers' assembly plus the vehicle rotational mass (with
gearbox in neutral)
R = radius of roller(s)
ω = angular speed
Vary the dynamometer load and repeat the previous determination until:
Ft = F corrected
Note the power (P ) to be absorbed by the dynamometer for use in subsequent tests on the
same vehicle type.

ANNEX 5 - APPENDIX 4
VERIFICATION OF INERTIAS OTHER THAN MECHANICAL
1. OBJECT
The method described in this Appendix makes it possible to check that the simulated total
inertia of the dynamometer is carried out satisfactorily in the running phases of the operating
cycle.
2. PRINCIPLE
2.1. Drawing up Working Equations
Since the bench is subjected to variations in the rotating speed of the roller(s), the force at
the surface of the roller(s) can be expressed by the formula:
where:
F = I ⋅ γ = I ⋅ γ + F
F = force at the surface of the roller(s)
I
=
total inertia of the bench (equivalent inertia of the vehicle: see table
Paragraph 2.2 of Annex 4)
I = inertia of the mechanical masses of the bench
γ = tangential acceleration at roller surface
F = inertia force
The total inertia is expressed as follows:
where:
I = I
F
+
γ
I
F
γ
can be calculated or measured by traditional methods
can be measured on the bench
can be calculated from the peripheral speed of the rollers.
The total inertia "I" will be determined during an acceleration or deceleration test with values
higher than or equal to those obtained on an operating cycle.

5.3. Equilibrium of the forces of dynamometer with non-mechanically simulated inertia’s
⎛ J Re
dWt ⎞


Ce = k J r
dθ1
+ k ⎜
dt
r +
C1
r ⎟ + k
dt ⎜ Re Re ⎟


F
r
= k J r
dθ1
+ k (I γ + F ) r + k
dt
F
r
In these formulae:
CR = engine torque on the road
C = engine torque on the bench with mechanically simulated inertias
Ce = engine torque on the bench with electrically simulated inertias
J r
=
Moment of inertia of the vehicle transmission brought back to the driving
wheels
J r = Moment of inertia of the non-driving wheels
J Rm =
J Re =
Moment of inertia of the bench with mechanically simulated inertias
Moment of mechanical inertia of the bench with electrically simulated inertias
M
=
Mass of the vehicle on the road
I
=
Equivalent inertia of the bench with mechanically simulated inertias
I
=
Mechanical inertia of the bench with electrically simulated inertias
F
=
Resultant force at stabilized speed
C1
=
Resultant torque from electrically simulated inertias
F
=
Resultant force from electrically simulated inertias
dθ1
dt
dθ2
dt
= Angular acceleration of the driving wheels
= Angular acceleration of the non-driving wheels
dω m = Angular acceleration of the mechanical bench
dt

ANNEX 6
CHECKS OF CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
1. GENERAL
These requirements refer to tests to be made to check conformity of production in
accordance with Paragraph 8.4.3.
2. TEST PROCEDURES
The test methods and the measuring instruments used shall be those described in Annex 4
to this Regulation.
3. COLLECTION OF SAMPLES
A vehicle shall be selected by the inspector. If, following the test referred to in
Paragraph 5.1. below, this vehicle is not considered to conform to the requirements of this
Regulation, another two vehicles shall be selected by the inspector to undergo the test.
4. MEASUREMENT CRITERIA
During the tests for conformity of production, the value of fuel consumption measured shall
not differ by more than 10% from the approved figure.
5. ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS
5.1. If the value of the fuel consumption measured according to Paragraph 2. above meets the
requirements of Paragraph 4. above, production is considered to conform to the approved
type.
5.2. If the requirements of Paragraph 4. above are not met, two other vehicles shall be tested in
the same way.
5.3. If the value of the fuel consumption of the second and/or third vehicle of Paragraph 5.2.
does not meet the requirements of paragraph 4. above, production shall be considered not
to conform to the requirements of this Regulation and the provisions of Paragraph 8.4.5.
shall be put into effect.
Fuel Consumption - Passenger Cars.