Regulation No. 88-00

Name:Regulation No. 88-00
Description:Tyres with Reflectors - Mopeds.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Retro-reflective Tyres for Two-wheeled Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1993-03-31
Amendment Level:00 Series, Supplement 1
Number of Pages:20
Vehicle Types:Component, Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Lighting and Light Signalling Equipment, Steering, Wheels and Tyres
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Keywords:

approval, tyre, annex, retro-reflective, regulation, test, type, axis, retro-reflecting, number, angle, tests, mark, observation, production, material, tyres, photometric, granted, specifications, sample, extension, vehicles, form, resistance, communication, technical, annulus, agreement, means, device, illumination, area, min, force, amendments, discontinued, parties, applying, table, reference, centre, direction, approved, luminous, responsible, incorporating, conducting, circle, clean

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324 )
E/ECE/TRANS/505 ) Rev.1/Add.87/Amend.1
August 7, 2007
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 88
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
RETRO-REFLECTIVE TYRES FOR TWO-WHEELED VEHICLES
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.04.91
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 27.08.93
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.07

REGULATION NO. 88
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF RETRO-REFLECTIVE TYRES FOR
TWO-WHEELED VEHICLES
CONTENTS
REGULATION
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Applications for approval
4.
Markings
S.
Approval
6.
Modifications of the retro-reflective tyre type and extension of approval
7.
Conformity of production
8.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
9.
Production definitely discontinued
10.
General specifications
11.
Special specifications (tests)
12.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
administrative departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1 – The CIE Coordinate system
Annex 2 – Communication concerning the approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or
production definitely discontinued of a type of retro-reflective tyre, pursuant to Regulation
No. 88
Annex 3 – Example of the arrangement of the approval mark
Annex 4 – Test procedures
Annex 5 – Colorimetric specifications
Annex 6 – Photometric specifications
Annex 7 – Resistance to external agents
Annex 8 – Resistance to heat

2.2.4 Observation Angle (Symbol ∝)
The angle between the illumination axis and the observation axis. The observation angle is
always positive and in the context of retro-reflection is restricted to small acute angles.
Maximum range: 0 ≤ ∝ < 180°.
2.2.5 Observation Half-Plane
The half-plane which originates on the illumination axis and which contains the observation
axis.
2.2.6 Reference Axis
The axis of the wheel on which the tyre is mounted.
2.2.7 Entrance Angle (Symbol β)
2.2.8 First Axis
The angle from the illumination axis to the reference axis. The entrance angle is usually no
larger than 90°, but for completeness its full range is defined as 0 ≤ β ≤ 180°. In order to
completely specify the orientation, this angle is characterized by two components β and β .
An axis through the reference centre and perpendicular to the observation half-plane.
2.2.9 First Component of the Entrance Angle (Symbol β )
The angle from the illumination axis to the plane containing the reference axis and the first
axis.
Range: -180° < β ≤ 180°.
2.2.10 Second Component of the Entrance Angle (Symbol β )
2.2.11 Second Axis
The angle from the plane containing the observation half-plane to the reference axis.
Range: -90 ≤ β ≤ 90°.
An axis through the reference centre and perpendicular to both the first axis and the reference
axis. The positive direction of the second axis lies in the observation half-plane when -90 < β
< 90° as shown in figure of Annex 1.

4.2 A space of sufficient size to accommodate the approval mark shall be provided on every tyre.
This space shall be shown on the drawings referred to in Paragraph 3.1.1 above.
4.3 The markings must be clearly legible and be indelible and well visible, even when the tyre is
mounted on the rim.
5. APPROVAL
5.1 If all the samples submitted meet the requirements of this Regulation, approval shall be
granted.
5.2 An approval number shall be assigned to each tyre approved. Its first two digits (at present 00
for the Regulation in its original form) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating
the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of
the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another type
of retro-reflecting tyre as defined in Paragraph 2.4 above.
5.3 Notice of approval or of refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or production definitely
discontinued of a retro-reflective tyre type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated
to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to
the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
5.4 There shall be affixed to every retro-reflecting tyre conforming to a type approved under this
Regulation, in the space referred to in Paragraph 4.2 above and in addition to the markings
prescribed in Paragraphs 4.1.1 and 4.1.2:
5.4.1 An international approval mark consisting of:
5.4.1.1 A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval;
5.4.1.2 The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number;
5.5 Annex 3 to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the approval mark.

10. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
10.1 Retro-reflecting tyres must be so constructed that they function satisfactorily and will continue
to do so in normal use. In addition, they must not have any defect in design or manufacture
that is detrimental to their efficient operation or to their maintenance in good condition.
10.2 The retro-reflective annulus shall be in the form of a continuous circle of retro-reflective
material moulded into each sidewall of the tyre.
10.3 The retro-reflective annulus shall not be replaceable.
10.4 The outer surfaces of each retro-reflecting annulus must be easy to clean. Hence it must not
be a rough surface; any protuberances it may exhibit must not prevent easy cleaning.
11. SPECIAL SPECIFICATIONS (TESTS)
11.1 Retro-reflective tyres must also satisfy the conditions as to the colorimetric, photometric,
physical and mechanical requirements set forth in Annexes 5 to 8 to this Regulation. The test
procedures are described in Annex 4.
12. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for
conducting approval tests, and of the administrative departments which grant approval and to
which forms certifying approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval, or production
definitely discontinued, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

ANNEX 2
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm))
COMMUNICATION
issued by:
Name of administration
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of retro-reflective tyre pursuant to Regulation No. 88
Approval No. ..........................................
Extension No.........................
1.
Trade name or mark of the retro-reflective tyre: ........................................................................................
2.
Retro-reflective tyre type:............................................................................................................................
3.
Manufacturer's name and address:............................................................................................................
4.
If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative:..........................................................
5.
Submitted for approval on:..........................................................................................................................
6.
Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: ...................................................................
7.
Date of test report: ......................................................................................................................................
8.
Number of test report: .................................................................................................................................
9.
Remarks: .....................................................................................................................................................
10.
Vehicles to which the device is intended to be fitted (if applicable): .........................................................
11.
Position and nature of the marking:............................................................................................................
12.
Approval granted/extended/refused/withdrawn
......................................................................................
13.
Reason(s) for extension (if applicable):......................................................................................................

ANNEX 3
EXAMPLE OF THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE APPROVAL MARK
a = 5 mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a retro-reflective tyre shows that the type of retro-reflective tyre
concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No. 88 under the approval
number 002439. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in
accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 88 in its original form.
Note: The approval number must be placed close to the circle and either above or below the "E" or to the
left or right of that letter. The digits of the approval number must be on the same side of the "E" and face
the same direction. The use of Roman numerals as approval numbers should be avoided so as to prevent
any confusion with other symbols.

ANNEX 5
COLORIMETRIC SPECIFICATIONS
1. The colour of the retro-reflective annulus when illuminated by CIE Standard Illuminant A and viewed
at an observation angle of 20' and an entrance angle of 5° shall fall with the boundaries on the 1931
CIE Chromaticity diagram specified in Table 1.
Table 1
Chromaticity Limits for Retro-reflective Tyres
Point 1 2 3 4 5
x 0.380 0.509 0.618 0.440 0.380
y 0.408 0.490 0.382 0.382 0.337
2. Either a spectrophotometric method or a colorimeter may be used. A colorimeter shall be calibrated
with a standard source or a reference surface having spectral characteristics closely related to that of
the test sample.
3. A visual comparison test may be used to check compliance of the colour following the environment
tests of Annex 7, Clauses 4 and 5 and Annex 8.

2.7 The angular sector of the light source and of the photometer head at the tyre shall not exceed
10'.
3. The ratio between the highest and the lowest R value when measured on an annular piece of
the tyre consisting of an annular section of 30°, at an observation angle of 20', and an
entrance angle of 5°, shall not exceed 3:1, for any position around the annulus.
4.1 Each retro-reflective annulus when illuminated by the headlight of a vehicle shall give the
visual impression of a circle or, at an angle, an ellipse, at entrance angles up to 30°.
4.2 The tyre shall be deemed to comply if the ratio between the lowest and the highest mean R
value measured at an observation angle of 20' and an entrance angle of 30°, does not exceed
1:6.
The test is performed by placing a mask with an opening corresponding to a sector of 30° in
front of the wheel.
The mean R value is obtained by rotating the wheel in the required position behind the mask
at an appropriate speed, which is sufficient to ensure a steady reading from the photometric
equipment, or by calculating the mean value of 12 sequential measurements of consecutive
annular pieces of the tyre of 30° each.
The mask will be rotated (in steps) in front of the wheel such that the highest and lowest mean
R values will be found.

5. WATER TEST
Immerse the test sample for 1 min in water at a temperature of 23 ± 5°C. Thirty seconds after
removal measure the coefficient of luminous intensity at ∝ = 20' and β = 5°C. The value shall
not be less than 50% of the minimum value in Table 2 of Annex 6. The colour shall be
checked visually as in Annex 5.

Tyres with Reflectors - Mopeds.