Regulation No. 94-01

Name:Regulation No. 94-01
Description:Occupant Protection in Frontal Collision.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicles with Regard to the Protection of the Occupants in the Event of a Frontal Collision.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1995-03-20
Amendment Level:01 Series, Supplement 5
Number of Pages:65
Vehicle Types:Car
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

vehicle, test, annex, approval, point, seat, regulation, position, data, paragraph, impact, machine, foot, dummy, angle, torso, manufacturer, measured, reference, force, figure, barrier, vertical, channel, front, time, horizontal, means, procedure, series, seats, amendments, axis, mass, structure, assembly, plane, type, leg, seating, longitudinal, direction, system, head, requirements, line, determined, passenger, frequency, vehicles

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.93/Rev.1/Amend.5
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
June 24, 2014
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 94-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE PROTECTION OF THE
OCCUPANTS IN THE EVENT OF A FRONTAL COLLISION
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.10.95
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.96
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.98
Corr. 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 01.08.02
Corr. 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 18.01.08
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 21.02.02
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.01.03
Supplement 3 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.02.07
Corr. 2 to Revision 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 17.09.09
Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Corr. 1 to Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 26.07.12
Supplement 5 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.06.14

REGULATION No. 94-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE
PROTECTION OF THE OCCUPANTS IN THE EVENT OF A FRONTAL COLLISION
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications
CONTENTS
6. Instructions for users of vehicles equipped with airbags
7. Modification and Extension of approval of the vehicle type
8. Conformity of production
9. Penalties for non-conformity of production
10. Production definitely discontinued
11. Transitional provisions
12. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
administrative departments
ANNEXES
Annex 1 -
Annex 2 -
Annex 3 -
Annex 4 -
Annex 5 -
Communication concerning the approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or
production definitely discontinued of a vehicle type with regard to the protection of the
occupants in the event of a frontal collision, pursuant to Regulation No. 94
Arrangements of the approval mark
Test procedure
Determination of performance criteria
Arrangement and installation of dummies and adjustment of restraint systems

REGULATION No. 94-01
1. SCOPE
This Regulation applies to vehicles of Category M of a total permissible mass not
exceeding 2.5 t; other vehicles may be approved at the request of the manufacturer;
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation:
2.1. "Protective system" means interior fittings and devices intended to restrain the occupants
and contribute towards ensuring compliance with the requirements set out in Paragraph 5
below;
2.2. "Type of protective system" means a category of protective devices which do not differ in
such essential respects as:
Their technology;
Their geometry;
Their constituent materials;
2.3. "Vehicle width" means the distance between two planes parallel to the longitudinal median
plane (of the vehicle) and touching the vehicle on either side of the said plane but excluding
the rear-view mirrors, side marker lamps, tyre pressure indicators, direction indicator lamps,
position lamps, flexible mud-guards and the deflected part of the tyre side-walls immediately
above the point of contact with the ground;
2.4. "Overlap" means the percentage of the vehicle width directly in line with the barrier face;
2.5. "Deformable barrier face" means a crushable section mounted on the front of a rigid
block;
2.6. "Vehicle type" means a category of power-driven vehicles which do not differ in such
essential respects as:
2.6.1. The length and width of the vehicle, in so far as they have a negative effect on the results of
the impact test prescribed in this Regulation,
2.6.2. The structure, dimensions, lines and materials of the part of the vehicle forward of the
transverse plane through the "R" Point of the driver's seat, in so far as they have a negative
effect on the results of the impact test prescribed in this Regulation,
2.6.3. The lines and inside dimensions of the passenger compartment and the type of protective
system, in so far as they have a negative effect on the results of the impact test prescribed
in this Regulation,
2.6.4. The siting (front, rear or centre) and the orientation (transversal or longitudinal) of the
engine,

3.2.3. Particulars of the vehicle's unladen kerb mass;
3.2.4. The lines and inside dimensions of the passenger compartment;
3.2.5. A description of the interior fittings and protective systems installed in the vehicle.
3.3. The applicant for approval shall be entitled to present any data and results of tests carried
out which make it possible to establish that compliance with the requirements can be
achieved with a sufficient degree of confidence.
3.4. A vehicle which is representative of the type to be approved shall be submitted to the
technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests.
3.4.1. A vehicle not comprising all the components proper to the type may be accepted for test
provided that it can be shown that the absence of the components omitted has no
detrimental effect on the results of the test in so far as the requirements of this Regulation
are concerned.
3.4.2. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant for approval to show that the application of
Paragraph 3.4.1. is compatible with compliance with the requirements of this Regulation.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the
requirements of this Regulation, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.1.1. The technical service appointed in accordance with Paragraph 12 below shall check
whether the required conditions have been satisfied.
4.1.2. In case of doubt, account shall be taken, when verifying the conformity of the vehicle to the
requirements of this Regulation, of any data or test results provided by the manufacturer
which can be taken into consideration in validating the approval test carried out by the
technical service.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
01 corresponding to the 01 series of amendments), shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party may not assign the same
approval number to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation
shall be communicated by the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by
means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation and photographs
and/or diagrams and drawings supplied by the applicant for approval, in a format not
exceeding A4 (210 × 297mm) or folded to that format and on an appropriate scale.

5.2. Specifications
The test of the vehicle carried out in accordance with the method described in Annex 3 shall
be considered satisfactory if all the conditions set out in Paragraphs 5.2.1. to 5.2.6. below
are all satisfied at the same time.
5.2.1. The performance criteria recorded, in accordance with Annex 8, on the dummies in the front
outboard seats shall meet the following conditions:
5.2.1.1. The head performance criterion (HPC) shall not exceed 1,000 and the resultant head
acceleration shall not exceed 80g for more than 3ms. The latter shall be calculated
cumulatively, excluding rebound movement of the head;
5.2.1.2. The neck injury criteria (NIC) shall not exceed the values shown in Figures 1 and 2
Figure 1
Neck Tension Criterion

5.2.1.7. The tibia compression force criterion (TCFC) shall not exceed 8kN;
5.2.1.8. The tibia index (TI), measured at the top and bottom of each tibia, shall not exceed 1.3 at
either location;
5.2.1.9. The movement of the sliding knee joints shall not exceed 15mm.
5.2.2. Residual steering wheel displacement, measured at the centre of the steering wheel hub,
shall not exceed 80mm in the upwards vertical direction and 100mm in the rearward
horizontal direction.
5.2.3. During the test no door shall open;
5.2.4. During the test no locking of the locking systems of the front doors shall occur;
5.2.5. After the impact, it shall be possible, without the use of tools, except for those necessary to
support the weight of the dummy:
5.2.5.1. To open at least one door, if there is one, per row of seats and, where there is no such door,
to move the seats or tilt their backrests as necessary to allow the evacuation of all the
occupants; this is, however, only applicable to vehicles having a roof of rigid construction;
5.2.5.2. To release the dummies from their restraint system which, if locked, shall be capable of
being released by a maximum force of 60N on the centre of the release control;
5.2.5.3. To remove the dummies from the vehicle without adjustment of the seats.
5.2.6. In the case of a vehicle propelled by liquid fuel, no more than slight leakage of liquid from
the fuel feed installation shall occur on collision;
5.2.7. If there is continuous leakage of liquid from the fuel-feed installation after the collision, the
rate of leakage shall not exceed 30g/min; if the liquid from the fuel-feed system mixes with
liquids from the other systems and the various liquids cannot easily be separated and
identified, all the liquids collected shall be taken into account in evaluating the continuous
leakage.
6. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USERS OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH AIRBAGS
6.1. The vehicles shall carry information to the effect that it is equipped with airbags for seats.
6.1.1. For a vehicle fitted with an airbag assembly intended to protect the driver, this information
shall consist of the inscription "AIRBAG" located in the interior of the circumference of the
steering wheel; this inscription shall be durably affixed and easily visible.
6.1.2. For a vehicle fitted with a passenger airbag intended to protect occupants other than the
driver, this information shall consist of the warning label described in Paragraph 6.2. below.
6.2. A vehicle fitted with one or more passenger frontal protection airbags shall carry information
about the extreme hazard associated with the use of rearward-facing child restraints on
seats equipped with airbag assemblies.

6.2.3. Detailed information, making reference to the warning, shall be contained in the owner's
manual of the vehicle; as a minimum the following text in all official languages of the country
where the vehicle could reasonably be expected to be registered (e.g. within the territory of
the European Union, in Japan, in Russian Federation or in New Zealand, etc.), shall at least
include:
"NEVER use a rearward facing child restraint on a seat protected
by an ACTIVE AIRBAG in front of it, DEATH or SERIOUS INJURY
to the CHILD can occur"
The text shall be accompanied by an illustration of the warning label as-found in the vehicle.
The information shall be easily found in the owner's manual (e.g. specific reference to the
information printed on the first page, identifying page tab or separate booklet, etc.)
The requirements of Paragraph 6.2.3. do not apply to vehicles of which all passenger
seating positions are equipped with a device which automatically deactivates the frontal
protection airbag assembly when any rearward facing child restraint is installed.
7. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE VEHICLE TYPE
7.1. Any modification affecting the structure, the number of seats, the interior trim or fittings, or
the position of the vehicle controls or of mechanical parts which might affect the
energy-absorption capability of the front of the vehicle shall be brought to the notice of the
administrative department granting approval. The department may then either:
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements; or
7.1.2. Require the technical service responsible for conducting the tests to carry out a further test,
among those described below, according to the nature of the modifications;
7.1.2.1. Any modification of the vehicle affecting the general form of the structure of the vehicle
and/or any increase in mass greater than 8% which in the judgement of the authority would
have a marked influence on the results of the tests shall require a repetition of the test as
described in Annex 3;
7.1.2.2. If the modifications concern only the interior fittings, if the mass does not differ by more than
8% and if the number of front seats initially provided in the vehicle remains the same, the
following shall be carried out:
7.1.2.2.1. A simplified test as provided for in Annex 7 and/or,
7.1.2.2.2. A partial test as defined by the technical service in relation to the modifications made.
7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above to the Parties to the Agreement which apply
this Regulation.
7.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for
such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation.

12. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible
for conducting approval tests, of manufacturers authorised to carry out tests and of the
administrative departments which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or
refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

6. Site of engine: forward/rear/central
7. Drive: front-wheel: rear-wheel
8.
Mass of vehicle submitted for testing: ..................................................................................................
Front axle
: ........................................................................................................................................
Rear axle
: ........................................................................................................................................
Total
: ........................................................................................................................................
9. Vehicle submitted for approval on ........................................................................................................
10. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests ...............................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................
11. Date of report issued by that service ....................................................................................................
12. Number of report issued by that service ..............................................................................................
13. Approval granted/ refused/ extended/ withdrawn
14. Position of approval mark on vehicle ...................................................................................................
15. Place .....................................................................................................................................................
16. Date ......................................................................................................................................................
17. Signature ..............................................................................................................................................
18. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are annexed to this
communication: ....................................................................................................................................
(Photographs and/or diagrams and drawings permitting the basic identification of the type(s) of
vehicle and its possible variants which are covered by the approval)

ANNEX 3
TEST PROCEDURE
1. INSTALLATION AND PREPARATION OF THE VEHICLE
1.1. Testing Ground
1.2. Barrier
The test area shall be large enough to accommodate the run-up track, barrier and technical
installations necessary for the test. The last part of the track, for at least 5 m before the
barrier, shall be horizontal, flat and smooth.
The front face of the barrier consists of a deformable structure as defined in Annex 9 of this
Regulation. The front face of the deformable structure is perpendicular within ±1° to the
direction of travel of the test vehicle. The barrier is secured to a mass of not less than
7 × 10 kg, the front face of which is vertical within ±1°. The mass is anchored in the ground
or placed on the ground with, if necessary, additional arresting devices to restrict its
movement.
1.3. Orientation of the Barrier
The orientation of the barrier is such that the first contact of the vehicle with the barrier is on
the steering-column side. Where there is a choice between carrying out the test with a
right-hand or left-hand drive vehicle, the test shall be carried out with the less favourable
hand of drive as determined by the technical service responsible for the tests.
1.3.1. Alignment of the Vehicle to the Barrier
The vehicle shall overlap the barrier face by 40% ± 20mm.
1.4. State of Vehicle
1.4.1. General Specification
The test vehicle shall be representative of the series production, shall include all the
equipment normally fitted and shall be in normal running order. Some components may be
replaced by equivalent masses where this substitution clearly has no noticeable effect on
the results measured under Paragraph 6.
1.4.2. Mass of Vehicle
1.4.2.1. For the test, the mass of the vehicle submitted shall be the unladen kerb mass;
1.4.2.2. The fuel tank shall be filled with water to mass equal to 90% of the mass of a full as
specified by the manufacturer with a tolerance of ±1%.
1.4.2.3. All the other systems (brake, cooling, ...) may be empty in this case, the mass of the liquids
shall be carefully compensated.

1.4.3.9. Arm-rests
Arm-rests at the front and rear, if movable, shall be in the lowered position, unless this is
prevented by the position of the dummies in the vehicles.
1.4.3.10. Head restraints
1.4.3.11. Seats
Head restraints adjustable for height shall be in their uppermost position.
1.4.3.11.1. Position of front seats
Seats adjustable longitudinally shall be placed so that their "H" Point, determined in
accordance with the procedure set out in Annex 6 is in the middle position of travel or in the
nearest locking position thereto, and at the height position defined by the manufacturer (if
independently adjustable for height). In the case of a bench seat, the reference shall be to
the "H" Point of the driver's place.
1.4.3.11.2 Position of the front seat-backs
1.4.3.11.3. Rear seats
2. DUMMIES
If adjustable, the seat-backs shall be adjusted so that the resulting inclination of the torso of
the dummy is as close as possible to that recommended by the manufacturer for normal use
or, in the absence of any particular recommendation by the manufacturer, to 25° towards
the rear from the vertical.
2.1. Front Seats
If adjustable, the rear seats or rear bench seats shall be placed in the rearmost position.
2.1.1. A dummy corresponding to the specifications for Hybrid III fitted with a 45° ankle and
meeting the specifications for its adjustment shall be installed in each of the front outboard
seats in accordance with the conditions set out in Annex 5. The ankle of the dummy shall be
certified in accordance with the procedures in Annex 10.
2.1.2. The car will be tested with restraint systems, as provided by the manufacturer.
3. PROPULSION AND COURSE OF VEHICLE
3.1. The vehicle shall be propelled either by its own engine or by any other propelling device.
3.2. At the moment of impact the vehicle shall no longer be subject to the action of any additional
steering or propelling device;

ANNEX 4
DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
1. HEAD PERFORMANCE CRITERION (HPC) AND 3ms HEAD ACCELERATION
1.1. The head performance criterion (HPC) is considered to be satisfied when, during the test,
there is no contact between the head and any vehicle component.
1.2. If, during the test, there is contact between the head and any vehicle component, a
calculation of HPC is made, on the basis of the acceleration (a), measured according to
Paragraph 5.2.1. of Annex 3, by the following expression:
in which:

1

HPC = (t − t ) ⎢ dt⎥
⎢t
− t ∫ a



1.2.1. The term 'a' is the resultant acceleration measured according to Paragraph 5.2.1. of
Annex 3 and is measured in units of gravity, g (1g = 9.81m/s );
1.2.2. If the beginning of the head contact can be determined satisfactorily, t and t are the two
time instants, expressed in seconds, defining an interval between the beginning of the head
contact and the end of the recording for which the value of HPC is maximum;
1.2.3. If the beginning of the head contact cannot be determined, t and t are the two time
instants, expressed in seconds, defining a time interval between the beginning and the end
of the recording for which the value of HPC is maximum.
1.2.4. Values of HPC for which the time interval (t and t ) is greater than 36ms are ignored for the
purposes of calculating the maximum value.
1.3. The value of the resultant head acceleration during forward impact which is exceeded for
3ms cumulatively is calculated from the resultant head acceleration measured according to
Paragraph 5.2.1. of Annex 3.
2. NECK INJURY CRITERIA (NIC)
2.1. These criteria are determined by the compressive axial force, the axial tensile force and the
fore/aft shear forces at the head/neck interface, expressed in kN and measured according to
Paragraph 5.2.2. of Annex 3 and by the duration of these forces expressed in ms.
2.2. The neck bending moment criterion is determined by the bending moment, expressed in
Nm, about a lateral axis at the head/neck interface and measured according to
Paragraph 5.2.2. of Annex 3.
2.3. The neck flexion bending moment, expressed in Nm, shall be recorded.

6.2. The sternum deflection response is filtered once at CFC 180. The compression at time t is
calculated from this filtered signal as:
D
C =
0.229
The sternum deflection velocity at time t is calculated from the filtered deflection as:
V
8 (D
=
− D
) − (D
12∂t
− D
)
where D is the deflection at time t in metres and ∂t is the time interval in seconds between
the measurements of deflection. The maximum value of ∂t shall be 1.25 × 10 s. This
calculation procedure is shown diagrammatically below:

2.3. Hands
2.3.1. The palms of the driver test dummy shall be in contact with the outer part of the steering
wheel rim at the rim's horizontal centreline. The thumbs shall be over the steering wheel rim
and shall be lightly taped to the steering wheel rim so that if the hand of the test dummy is
pushed upward by a force of not less than 9N and not more than 22N, the tape shall release
the hand from the steering wheel rim.
2.3.2. The palms of the passenger test dummy shall be in contact with outside of thigh. The little
finger shall be in contact with the seat cushion.
2.4. Torso
2.4.1. In vehicles equipped with bench seats, the upper torso of the driver and passenger test
dummies shall rest against the seat back. The midsagittal plane of the driver dummy shall
be vertical and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centreline, and pass through the centre
of the steering wheel rim. The midsagittal plane of the passenger dummy shall be vertical
and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centreline and the same distance from the vehicle's
longitudinal centreline as the midsagittal plane of the driver dummy.
2.4.2. In vehicles equipped with individual seat(s), the upper torso of the driver and passenger test
dummies shall rest against the seat back. The midsagittal plane of the driver and the
passenger dummy shall be vertical and shall coincide with the longitudinal centreline of the
individual seat.
2.4.3. Lower Torso
2.4.3.1. "H" Point
The "H" Point of the driver and passenger test dummies shall coincide within 13mm in the
vertical dimension and 13mm in the horizontal dimension, with a point 6mm below the
position of the "H" Point determined using the procedure described in Annex 6 except that
the length of the lower leg and thigh segments of the "H" Point machine shall be adjusted to
414 and 401mm, instead of 417 and 432mm respectively.
2.4.3.2. Pelvic angle
2.5. Legs
As determined using the pelvic angle gauge (GM) drawing 78051-532 incorporated by
reference in Part 572 which is inserted into the "H" Point gauging hole of the dummy, the
angle measured from the horizontal on the 76.2mm (3 inch) flat surface of the gauge shall
be 22.5° plus or minus 2.5°.
The upper legs of the driver and passenger test dummies shall rest against the seat cushion
to the extent permitted by placement of the feet. The initial distance between the outboard
knee clevis flange surface shall be 270mm ± 10mm. To the extent practicable, the left leg of
the driver dummy and both legs of the passenger dummy shall be in vertical longitudinal
planes. To the extent practicable, the right leg of the driver dummy shall be in a vertical
plane. Final adjustment to accommodate placement of feet in accordance with
Paragraph 2.6. for various passenger compartment configurations is permitted.

ANNEX 6
PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE "H" POINT AND THE ACTUAL
TORSO ANGLE FOR SEATING POSITIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES
1. PURPOSE
The procedure described in this Annex is used to establish the "H" Point location and the
actual torso angle for one or several seating positions in a motor vehicle and to verify the
relationship of measured data to design specifications given by the vehicle manufacturer.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Annex:
2.1. "Reference data" means one or several of the following characteristics of a seating
position:
2.1.1. the "H" Point and the "R" Point and their relationship,
2.1.2. the actual torso angle and the design torso angle and their relationship.
2.2. "Three-dimensional 'H' Point machine" (3-D H machine) means the device used for the
determination of "H" Points and actual torso angles. This device is described in Appendix l
to this Annex;
2.3. "'H' Point" means the pivot centre of the torso and the thigh of the 3-D H machine installed
in the vehicle seat in accordance with Paragraph 4 below. The "H" Point is located in the
centre of the centreline of the device which is between the "H" Point sight buttons on either
side of the 3-D H machine. The "H" Point corresponds theoretically to the "R" Point (for
tolerances see Paragraph 3.2.2. below). Once determined in accordance with the procedure
described in Paragraph 4, the "H" Point is considered fixed in relation to the seat-cushion
structure and to move with it when the seat is adjusted;
2.4. "'R' Point" or "seating reference point" means a design point defined by the vehicle
manufacturer for each seating position and established with respect to the
three-dimensional reference system;
2.5. "Torso-line" means the centreline of the probe of the 3-D H machine with the probe in the
fully rearward position;
2.6. "Actual torso angle" means the angle measured between a vertical line through the
"H" Point and the torso line using the back angle quadrant on the 3-D H machine. The
actual torso angle corresponds theoretically to the design torso angle (for tolerances see
Paragraph 3.2.2. below):

3.2.4. If the "H" Point or the actual torso angle does not satisfy the requirements of
Paragraph 3.2.2. above, the "H" Point and the actual torso angle shall be determined twice
more (three times in all). If the results of two of these three operations satisfy the
requirements, the conditions of Paragraph 3.2.3. above shall apply.
3.2.5. If the results of at least two of the three operations described in Paragraph 3.2.4. above do
not satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 3.2.2. above, or if the verification cannot take
place because the vehicle manufacturer has failed to supply information regarding the
position of the "R" Point or regarding, the design torso angle, the centroid of the three
measured points or the average of the three measured angles shall be used and be
regarded as applicable in all cases where the "R" Point or the design torso angle is referred
to in this Regulation.
4. PROCEDURE FOR "H" POINT AND ACTUAL TORSO ANGLE DETERMINATION
4.1. The vehicle shall be preconditioned at the manufacturer's discretion, at a temperature of
20 ± 10°C to ensure that the seat material reached room temperature. If the seat to be
checked has never been sat upon, a 70 to 80kg person or device shall sit on the seat twice
for 1min to flex the cushion and back. At the manufacturer's request, all seat assemblies
shall remain unloaded for a minimum period of 30min prior to installation of the 3-D H
machine.
4.2. The vehicle shall be at the measuring attitude defined in Paragraph 2.11. above.
4.3. The seat, if it is adjustable, shall be adjusted first to the rearmost normal driving or riding
position, as indicated by the vehicle manufacturer, taking into consideration only the
longitudinal adjustment of the seat, excluding seat travel used for purposes other than
normal driving or riding positions. Where other modes of seat adjustment exist (vertical,
angular, seat-back, etc.) these will then be adjusted to the position specified by the vehicle
manufacturer. For suspension seats, the vertical position shall be rigidly fixed corresponding
to a normal driving position as specified by the manufacturer.
4.4. The area of the seating position contacted by the 3-D H machine shall be covered by a
muslin cotton, of sufficient size and appropriate texture, described as a plain cotton fabric
having 18.9 threads per cm and weighing 0.228kg/m or knitted or non-woven fabric having
equivalent characteristics. If the test is run on a seat outside the vehicle, the floor on which
the seat is placed shall have the same essential characteristics as the floor of the vehicle
in which the seat is intended to be used.
4.5. Place the seat and back assembly of the 3-D H machine so that the centreplane of the
occupant (C/LO) coincides with the centreplane of the 3-D H machine. At the manufacturer's
request, the 3-D H machine may be moved inboard with respect to the C/LO if the 3-D H
machine is located so far outboard that the seat edge will not permit levelling of the 3-D H
machine.
4.6. Attach the foot and lower leg assemblies to the seat pan assembly, either individually or by
using the T-bar and lower leg assembly. A line through the "H" Point sight buttons shall be
parallel to the ground and perpendicular to the longitudinal centreplane of the seat.

4.12. Tilt the back pan forward to release the tension on the seat-back. Rock the 3-D H machine
from side to side through a 10° arc (5° to each side of the vertical centreplane) for three
complete cycles to release any accumulated friction between the 3-D H machine and the
seat.
During the rocking action, the T-bar of the 3-D H machine may tend to diverge from the
specified horizontal and vertical alignment. The T-bar must therefore be restrained by
applying an appropriate lateral load during the rocking motions. Care shall be exercised in
holding the T-bar and rocking the 3-D H machine to ensure that no inadvertent exterior
loads are applied in a vertical or fore and aft direction.
The feet of the 3-D H machine are not to be restrained or held during this step. If the feet
change position, they should be allowed to remain in that attitude for the moment.
Carefully return the back pan to the seat-back and check the two spirits levels for zero
position. If any movement of the feet has occurred during the rocking operation of the 3-D H
machine, they must be repositioned as follows:
Alternately, lift each foot off the floor the minimum necessary amount until no additional foot
movement is obtained. During this lifting, the feet are to be free to rotate; and no forward or
lateral loads are to be applied. When each foot is placed back in the down position, the heel
is to be in contact with the structure designed for this.
Check the lateral spirit level for zero position; if necessary, apply a lateral load to the top of
the back pan sufficient to level the 3-D H machine's seat pan on the seat.
4.13. Holding the T-bar to prevent the 3-D H machine from sliding forward on the seat cushion,
proceed as follows:
(a)
(b)
return the back pan to the seat-back;
alternately apply and release a horizontal rearward load, not to exceed 25N, to the
back angle bar at a height approximately at the centre of the torso weights until the
hip angle quadrant indicates that a stable position has been reached after load
release. Care shall be exercised to ensure that no exterior downward or lateral loads
are applied to the 3-D H machine. If another level adjustment of the 3-D H machine is
necessary, rotate the back pan forward, re-level, and repeat the procedure from
Paragraph 4.12.
4.14. Take all measurements:
4.14.1. The co-ordinates of the "H" Point are measured with respect to the three-dimensional
reference system.
4.14.2. The actual torso angle is read at the back angle quadrant of the 3-D H machine with the
probe in its fully rearward position.
4.15. If a re-run of the installation of the 3-D H machine is desired, the seat assembly should
remain unloaded for a minimum period of 30min prior to the re-run. The 3-D H machine
should not be left loaded on the seat assembly longer than the time required to perform the
test.

ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX 1
DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL "H" POINT MACHINE
(3-D H machine)
1. BACK AND SEAT PANS
The back and seat pans are constructed of reinforced plastic and metal; they simulate the
human torso and thigh and are mechanically hinged at the "H" Point. A quadrant is fastened
to the probe hinged at the "H" Point to measure the actual-torso angle. An adjustable thigh
bar, attached to the seat pan, establishes the thigh centreline and serves as a baseline for
the hip angle quadrant.
2. BODY AND LEG ELEMENTS
Lower leg segments are connected to the seat pan assembly at the T-bar joining the knees,
which is a lateral extension of the adjustable thigh bar. Quadrants are incorporated in the
lower leg segments to measure knee angles. Shoe and foot assemblies are calibrated to
measure the foot angle. Two spirit levels orient the device in space. Body element weights
are placed at the corresponding centres of gravity to provide seat penetration equivalent to
a 76kg male. All joints of the 3-D H machine should be checked for free movement without
encountering noticeable friction.

Figure 2
Dimensions of the 3-D H Machine Elements and Load Distribution

ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX 3
REFERENCE DATA CONCERNING SEATING POSITIONS
1. CODING OF REFERENCE DATA
Reference data are listed consecutively for each seating position. Seating positions are
identified by a two-digit code. The first digit is an Arabic numeral and designates the row of
seats, counting from the front to the rear of the vehicle. The second digit is a capital letter
which designates the location of the seating position in a row, as viewed in the direction of
forward motion of the vehicle; the following letters shall be used:
L = left
C = centre
R = right
2. DESCRIPTION OF VEHICLE MEASURING ATTITUDE
2.1. Co-ordinates of Fiducial Marks
X ..............................
Y ..............................
Z ..............................
3. LIST OF REFERENCE DATA
3.1. Seating Position:
3.1.1. Co-ordinates of "R" Point
X ..............................
Y ..............................
Z ..............................
3.1.2. Design Torso Angle:
............................................................
3.1.3. Specifications for Seat Adjustment
horizontal
:
..............................
vertical
:
..............................
angular
:
..............................
torso angle :
..............................
Note:
List reference data for further seating positions under 3.2., 3.3., etc.

1.5. Measuring Apparatus
1.5.1. Deceleration of the Structure
The position of the transducers measuring the deceleration of the structure during the
impact shall be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the trolley according to the specifications
of Annex 8 (CFC 180).
1.5.2. Measurements to be Made on the Dummies
All the measurements necessary for checking the listed criteria are set out in Annex 3,
Paragraph 5.
1.6. Deceleration Curve of the Structure
The deceleration curve of the structure during the impact phase shall be such that the
"variation of speed in relation to time" curve obtained by integration at no point differs by
more than ± 1m/s from the "variation of speed in relation to time" reference curve of the
vehicle concerned as defined in Appendix to this Annex. A displacement with regard to the
time axis of the reference curve may be used to obtain the structure velocity inside the
corridor.
1.7. Reference Curve ΔV = f(t) of the Vehicle Concerned
This reference curve is obtained by integration of the deceleration curve of the vehicle
concerned measured in the frontal collision test against a barrier as provided for in
Paragraph 6 of Annex 3 to this Regulation.
1.8. Equivalent Method
The test may be performed by some other method than that of deceleration of a trolley,
provided that such method complies with the requirement concerning the range of variation
of speed described in Paragraph 1.6.

ANNEX 8
TECHNIQUE OF MEASUREMENT IN MEASUREMENT TESTS: INSTRUMENTATION
1. DEFINITIONS
1.1. Data Channel
A data channel comprises all the instrumentation from a transducer (or multiple transducers
whose outputs are combined in some specified way) up to and including any analysis
procedures that may alter the frequency content or the amplitude content of data.
1.2. Transducer
The first device in a data channel used to convert a physical quantity to be measured into a
second quantity (such as an electrical voltage) which can be processed by the remainder of
the channel.
1.3. Channel Amplitude Class: CAC
The designation for a data channel that meets certain amplitude characteristics as specified
in this Annex. The CAC number is numerically equal to the upper limit of the measurement
range.
1.4. Characteristic Frequencies F , F , F
These frequencies are defined in Figure 1.
1.5. Channels Frequency Class: CFC
The channel frequency class is designated by a number indicating that the channel
frequency response lies within the limits specified in Figure 1. This number and the value of
the frequency F in Hz are numerically equal.
1.6. Sensitivity Coefficient
The slope of the straight line representing the best fit to the calibration values determined by
the method of least square within the channel amplitude class.
1.7. Calibration Factor of a Data Channel
The mean value of the sensitivity coefficients evaluated over frequencies which are evenly
spaced on a logarithmic scale between F and F .
2.5
1.8. Linearity Error
The ratio, in per cent, of the maximum difference between the calibration value and the
corresponding value read on the straight line defined in Paragraph 1.6. at the upper limit of
the channel amplitude class.

2.5. Transducer Cross Sensitivity
2.6. Calibration
2.6.1. General
The transducer cross sensitivity shall be less than 5% in any direction.
A data channel shall be calibrated at least once a year against reference equipment
traceable to known standards. The methods used to carry out a comparison with reference
equipment shall not introduce an error greater than 1% of the CAC. The use of the
reference equipment is limited to the frequency range for which they have been calibrated.
Subsystems of a data channel may be evaluated individually and the results factored into
the accuracy of the total data channel. This can be done for example by an electrical signal
of known amplitude simulating the output signal of the transducer which allows a check to
be made on the gain factor of the data channel, excluding the transducer.
2.6.2. Accuracy of Reference Equipment for Calibration
The accuracy of the reference equipment shall be certified or endorsed by an official
metrology service.
2.6.2.1. Static calibration
2.6.2.1.1. Accelerations
2.6.2.1.2. Forces
The errors shall be less than ± 1.5% of the channel amplitude class.
The error shall be less than ± 1% of the channel amplitude class.
2.6.2.1.3. Displacements
The error shall be less than ± 1% of the channel amplitude class.
2.6.2.2. Dynamic calibration
2.6.2.2.1. Accelerations
2.6.2.3. Time
The error in the reference accelerations expressed as a percentage of the channel
amplitude class shall be less than ± 1.5% below 400Hz, less than ± 2% between 400Hz and
900Hz, and less than ± 2.5% above 900Hz.
The relative error in the reference time shall be less than 10 .

4. RECORDING
4.1. Analogue Magnetic Recorder
Tape speed should be stable to within not more than 0.5% of the tape speed used. The
signal-to-noise ratio of the recorder should not be less than 42 dB at the maximum tape
speed. The total harmonic distortion should be less than 3% and the linearity error should
be less than 1% of the measurement range.
4.2. Digital Magnetic Recorder
Tape speed should be stable to within not more than 10% of the tape speed used.
4.3. Paper Tape Recorder
In case of direct data recording the paper speed in mm/s should be at least 1.5 times the
number expressing F in Hz. In other cases the paper speed should be such that equivalent
resolution is obtained.
5. DATA PROCESSING
5.1. Filtering
5.2. Digitilizing
Filtering corresponding to the frequencies of the data channel class may be carried out
during either recording or processing of data. However, before recording, analogical filtering
at a higher level than CFC should be effected in order to use at least 50% of the dynamic
range of the recorder and to reduce the risk of high frequencies saturating the recorder or
causing aliasing errors in the digitilizing process.
5.2.1. Sampling Frequency
The sampling frequency should be equal to at least 8 F . In the case of analogical
recording, when the recording and reading speeds are different, the sampling frequency can
be divided by the speed ratio.
5.2.2. Amplitude Resolution
The size of digital words should be at least 7 bits and a parity bit.
6. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
The results should be presented on A4 size paper (ISO/R 216). Results presented as
diagrams should have axes scaled with a measurement unit corresponding to a suitable
multiple of the chosen unit (for example, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 millimetres). SI units shall be used,
except for vehicle velocity, where km/h may be used, and for accelerations due to impact
where g, with g = 9.81m/s , may be used.

ANNEX 9
DEFINITION OF DEFORMABLE BARRIER
1. COMPONENT AND MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
The dimensions of the barrier are illustrated in Figure 1 of this Annex. The dimensions of the
individual components of the barrier are listed separately below.
1.1. Main Honeycomb Block
Dimensions
Height:
Width:
Depth:
650mm (in direction of honeycomb ribbon axis)
1000mm
450mm (in direction of honeycomb cell axes)
All above dimensions should allow a tolerance of ±2.5mm
Material:
Aluminium 3003 (ISO 209, Part 1)
Foil Thickness:
0.076mm ± 15%
Cell Size:
19.1mm ± 20%
Density:
28.6kg/m ± 20%
Crush Strength:
0.342MPa +0% -10%

1.5. Bumper Facing Sheet
Dimensions
Height:
Width:
Thickness:
330mm ± 2.5mm
1,000mm ± 2.5mm
0.81mm ± 0.07mm
Material: Aluminium 5251/5052 (ISO 209, Part 1)
Adhesive
The adhesive to be used throughout should be a two-part polyurethane (such as Ciba-Geigy
XB5090/1 resin with XB5304 hardener, or equivalent).
2. ALUMINIUM HONEYCOMB CERTIFICATION
A complete testing procedure for certification of aluminium honeycomb is given in
NHTSA TP-214D. The following is a summary of the procedure that should be applied to
materials for the frontal impact barrier, these materials having a crush strength of 0.342MPa
and 1.711MPa respectively.
2.1. Sample Locations
To ensure uniformity of crush strength across the whole of the barrier face, eight samples
shall be taken from four locations evenly spaced across the honeycomb block. For a block
to pass certification, seven of these eight samples shall meet the crush strength
requirements of the following sections.
The location of the samples depends on the size of the honeycomb block. First, four
samples, each measuring 300mm × 300mm × 50mm thick shall be cut from the block of
barrier face material. Please refer to Figure 2 for an illustration of how to locate these
sections within the honeycomb block. Each of these larger samples shall be cut into
samples for certification testing (150mm × 150mm × 50mm). Certification shall be based on
the testing of two samples from each of these four locations. The other two should be made
available to the applicant, upon request.

2.6. Crush Strength Determination
Ignore all data prior to 6.4mm of crush and after 16.5mm of crush. Divide the remaining data
into three sections or displacement intervals (n = 1, 2, 3) (see Figure 4) as follows:
(1) 06.4mm - 09.7mm inclusive,
(2) 09.7mm - 13.2mm exclusive,
(3) 13.2mm - 16.5mm inclusive.
Find the average for each section as follows:
(F(n) 1 + F(n) 2 + ... + F(n) m)
F (n) =
; m = 1,
m
where m represents the number of data points measured in each of the three intervals.
Calculate the crush strength of each section as follows:
F(n)
S (n) = ; n = 1,
A
2.7. Sample Crush Strength Specification
For a honeycomb sample to pass this certification, the following conditions shall be met:
2, 3
0.308MPa ≤ S(n) ≤ 0.342MPa for 0.342MPa material
1.540MPa ≤ S(n) ≤ 1.711MPa for 1.711MPa material
n = 1, 2, 3.
2.8. Block Crush Strength Specification
Eight samples are to be tested from four locations, evenly spaced across the block. For a
block to pass certification, seven of the eight samples shall meet the crush strength
specification of the previous section.
3. ADHESIVE BONDING PROCEDURE
3.1. Immediately before bonding, aluminium sheet surfaces to be bonded shall be thoroughly
cleaned using a suitable solvent, such as 1-1-1 Trichloroethane. This is to be carried out at
least twice or as required to eliminate grease or dirt deposits. The cleaned surfaces shall
then be abraded using 120 grit abrasive paper. Metallic/Silicon Carbide abrasive paper is
not to be used. The surfaces shall be thoroughly abraded and the abrasive paper changed
regularly during the process to avoid clogging, which may lead to a polishing effect.
Following abrading, the surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned again, as above. In total, the
surfaces shall be solvent cleaned at least four times. All dust and deposits left as a result of
the abrading process shall be removed, as these will adversely affect bonding.
2, 3

5.2. The deformable barrier shall be fixed to the concrete block by means of ten bolts, five in the
top mounting flange and five in the bottom. These bolts shall be of at least 8mm diameter.
Steel clamping strips shall be used for both the top and bottom mounting flanges (see
Figures 1 and 5). These strips shall be 60mm high and 1,000mm wide and have a thickness
of at least 3mm. The edges of the clamping strips should be rounded-off to prevent tearing
of the barrier against the strip during impact. The edge of the strip should be located no
more than 5mm above the base of the upper barrier-mounting flange, or 5mm below the top
of the lower barrier-mounting flange. Five clearance holes of 9.5mm diameter must be
drilled in both strips to correspond with those in the mounting flange on the barrier (see
Paragraph 4). The mounting strip and barrier flange holes may be widened from 9.5mm up
to a maximum of 25mm in order to accommodate differences in back-plate arrangements
and/or load cell wall hole configurations. None of the fixtures shall fail in the impact test. In
the case where the deformable barrier is mounted on a load cell wall (LCW) it should be
noted that the above dimensional requirements for mountings are intended as a minimum.
Where a LCW is present, the mounting strips may be extended to accommodate higher
mounting holes for the bolts. If the strips are required to be extended, then thicker gauge
steel should be used accordingly, such that the barrier does not pull away from the wall,
bend or tear during the impact. If an alternative method of mounting the barrier is used, it
should be at least as secure as that specified in the above paragraphs.
Figure 1
Deformable Barrier for Frontal Impact Testing

Figure 3
Honeycomb Axes and Measured Dimensions

ANNEX 10
CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE FOR THE DUMMY LOWER LEG AND FOOT
1. UPPER FOOT IMPACT TEST
1.1. The objective of this test is to measure the reponse of Hybrid III foot and ankle to
well-defined, hard-faced pendulum impacts.
1.2. The complete Hybrid III lower leg assembly, left (86-5001-001) and right (86-5001-002),
equipped with the foot and ankle assembly, left (78051-614) and right (78051-615), shall be
used, including the knee assembly.
The load cell simulator (78051-319 Rev A) shall be used to secure the knee assembly
(79051-16 Rev B) to the test fixture.
1.3. Test Procedure
1.3.1. Each leg assembly shall be maintained (soaked) for 4 hours prior to the test at a
temperature of 22°C ± 3°C and a relative humidity of 40 ± 30%. The soak period shall not
include the time required to reach steady state conditions.
1.3.2. Clean the impact surface of the skin and also the impactor face with isopropyl alcohol or
equivalent prior to the test. Dust with talc.
1.3.3. Align the impactor accelerometer with its sensitive axis parallel to the direction of impact at
contact with the foot.
1.3.4. Mount the leg assembly to the fixture shown in Figure 1. The text fixture shall be rigidly
secured to prevent movement during impact. The centre line of the femur load cell simulator
(78051-319) shall be vertical with a tolerance of ±0.5°. Adjust the mount such that the line
joining the knee clevis joint and the ankle attachment bolt is horizontal with a tolerance of
±3°, with the heel resting on two sheets of a flat low friction (PTFE sheet) surface. Ensure
that the tibia flesh is located fully towards the knee end of the tibia. Adjust the ankle such
that the plane of the underside of the foot is vertical and perpendicular to the direction of
impact with a tolerance of ±3° and such that the mid sagittal plane of the foot is aligned with
the pendulum arm. Adjust the knee joint to 1.5 ± 0.5g range before each test. Adjust the
ankle joint so that it is free and then tighten just sufficiently to keep the foot stable on the
PTFE sheet.
1.3.5. The rigid impactor comprises a horizontal cylinder diameter 50 ± 2mm and a pendulum
support arm diameter 19 ± 1mm (Figure 4). The cylinder has a mass of 1.25 ± 0.02kg
including instrumentation and any part of the support arm within the cylinder. The pendulum
arm has a mass of 285 ± 5g. The mass of any rotating part of the axle to which the support
arm is attached should not be greater than 100g. The length between the central horizontal
axis of the impactor cylinder and the axis of rotation of the whole pendulum shall be
1 250 ± 1mm. The impact cylinder is mounted with its longitudinal axis horizontal and
perpendicular to the direction of impact. The pendulum shall impact the underside of the
foot, at a distance of 185 ± 2mm from the base of the heel resting on the rigid horizontal
platform, so that the longitudinal centre line of the pendulum arm falls within 1° of a vertical
line at impact. The impactor shall be guided to exclude significant lateral, vertical or
rotational movement.

2.3.5. The rigid impactor comprises a horizontal cylinder diameter 50 ± 2mm and a pendulum
support arm diameter 19 ± 1mm (Figure 4). The cylinder has a mass of 1.25 ± 0.02kg
including instrumentation and any part of the support arm within the cylinder. The pendulum
arm has a mass of 285 ± 5g. The mass of any rotating part of the axle to which the support
arm is attached should not be greater than 100g. The length between the central horizontal
axis of the impactor cylinder and the axis of rotation of the whole pendulum shall be
1 250 ± 1mm. The impact cylinder is mounted with its longitudinal axis horizontal and
perpendicular to the direction of impact. The pendulum shall impact the underside of the
foot, at a distance of 62 ± 2mm from the base of the heel resting on the rigid horizontal
platform, so that the longitudinal centre line of the pendulum arm falls within 1° of a vertical
line at impact. The impactor shall be guided to exclude significant lateral, vertical or
rotational movement.
2.3.6. Allow a period of at least 30min between successive tests on the same leg.
2.3.7. The data acquistion system, including transducers, shall conform to the specifications for
CFC 600, as described in Annex 8.
2.4. Performance Specification
2.4.1. When each heel of the foot is impacted at 4.4 ± 0.1m/s in accordance with Paragraph 2.3.,
the maximum impactor acceleration shall be 295 ± 50g.
3. LOWER FOOT IMPACT TEST (WITH SHOE)
3.1. The objective of this test is to control the response of the shoe and Hybrid III heel flesh and
ankle joint to well-defined hard-faced pendulum impacts.
3.2. The complete Hybrid III lower leg assembly, left (86-5001-001) and right (86-5001-002),
equipped with the foot and ankle assembly, left (78051-614) and right (78051-615), shall be
used, including the knee assembly. The load cell simulator (78051-319 Rev A) shall be used
to secure the knee assembly (79051-16 Rev B) to the test fixture. The foot shall be fitted
with the shoe specified in Annex 5, Paragraph 2.9.2.
3.3. Test Procedure
3.3.1. Each leg assembly shall be maintained (soaked) for 4 hours prior to the test at a
temperature of 22 ± 3°C and a relative humidity of 40 ± 30%. The soak period shall not
include the time required to reach steady state conditions.
3.3.2. Clean the impact surface of the underside of the shoe with a clean cloth and the impactor
face with isopropyl alcohol or equivalent prior to the test. Check that there is no visible
damage to the energy absorbing insert to the heel.
3.3.3. Align the impactor accelerometer with its sensitive axis parallel to the impactor longitudinal
centre line.

Figure 1
Upper Foot Impact Test - Test Set-up Specifications
Figure 2
Lower Foot Impact Test (Without Shoe) - Test Set-up Specifications

Figure 4
Pendulum Impactor
Occupant Protection in Frontal Collision.