Regulation No. 96-01

Name:Regulation No. 96-01
Description:Emissions - Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and Non-road Mobile Machinery Engines.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Compression Ignition (CI) Engines to be Installed in Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and in Non-road Mobile Machinery with Regard to the Emissions of Pollutants by the Engine.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2001-09-16
Amendment Level:01 Series, Revision 1
Number of Pages:99
Vehicle Types:Agricultural Tractor, Component
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
Available on InterRegs.NET

Our online subscription service, offering immediate access to our extensive library of global vehicle regulations, standards and legislation. A fully searchable, accurate, user-friendly resource for consolidated regulations that are updated quickly and frequently.

Tell me more | Already a subscriber

Available on SelectRegs.com

Our fast and easy means of purchasing up-to-date global vehicle and component standards and regulations on a pay-as-you-go basis. Pay securely by credit card and your documents are delivered directly and immediately to your computer as PDF files.

Tell me more | Go straight to site

Keywords:

flow, exhaust, dilution, gas, engine, air, sampling, system, particulate, temperature, paragraph, test, annex, regulation, filter, pressure, concentration, approval, maximum, sample, measurement, tunnel, measured, fuel, type, figure, calibration, probe, speed, ratio, full, mass, rate, appendix, analyser, diluted, method, systems, filters, figures, engines, total, manufacturer, family, emissions, diameter, minimum, pipe, mode, power

Text Extract:

All InterRegs documents are formatted as PDF files and contain the full text, tables, diagrams and illustrations of the original as issued by the national government authority. We do not re-word, summarise, cut or interpret the regulatory documents. They are consolidated, published in English, and updated on a regular basis. The following text extract indicates the scope of the document, but does not represent the actual PDF content.

E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.95/Rev.1
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
November 2, 2006
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 96-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.) ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED
IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTORS AND IN
NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY WITH REGARD TO THE
EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.12.95
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 30.06.95
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.03.97
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.02.00
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 16.09.01
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.01.03
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.04

REGULATION NO. 96
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.)
ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTORS AND IN
NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSIONS OF
POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions and abbreviations
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications and tests
6. Installation on the vehicle
7. Conformity of production
8. Penalties for non-conformity of production
CONTENTS
9. Modification and extension of approval of the approved type
10. Production definitely discontinued
11. Transitional provisions
12. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
administrative departments

REGULATION NO. 96
1. SCOPE
This regulation applies to the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from C.I.
engines:
1.1.
Used in Category T vehicles
having an installed net power higher than 18 kW but not
more than 560 kW,
1.2. Used in machinery intended and suited, to move, or to be moved on the ground, with or
without road, having an installed net power higher than 18 kW but not more than 560 kW,
operated under intermittent speed, including but not limited to:
1.2.1. Industrial drilling rigs, compressors etc.;
1.2.2. Construction equipment including wheel loaders, bulldozers, crawler tractors, crawler
loaders, truck-type loaders, off-highway trucks, hydraulic excavators etc.;
1.2.3. Agricultural equipment, rotary tillers;
1.2.4. Forestry equipment;
1.2.5. Self-propelled agricultural vehicles;
1.2.6. Material handling equipment;
1.2.7. Fork lift trucks;
1.2.8. Road maintenance equipment (motor graders, road rollers, asphalt finishers);
1.2.9. Snow plough equipment;
1.2.10. Ground support equipment in airports;
1.2.11. Aerial lifts;
1.2.12. Mobile cranes.
2. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
For the purpose of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of an engine" means the approval of an engine type or family with regard to the
level of emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by the engine;
2.2. "Compression ignition (C.I.) engine" means an engine which works on the
compression-ignition principle (e.g. diesel engine);

2.14.
Symbols and Abbreviations
2.14.1.
Symbols for Test Parameters
Symbol
Unit
Term
A
m
Cross-sectional area of the isokinetic sampling probe.
A
m
Cross-sectional area of the exhaust pipe.
aver
m /h
kg/h
g/kWh
Weighted average values for:
volume flow;
mass flow;
specific emission.
α − Hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the fuel
C1 − Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon.
conc
ppm
Concentration (with suffix of the component
Vol%
nominating)
conc
ppm
Background corrected concentration.
Vol%
conc
ppm
Concentration of dilution air.
Vol%
DF − Dilution factor.
f − Laboratory atmospheric factor.
F − Fuel specific factor used for the calculations of wet
concentrations from dry concentrations hydrogen to carbon ratio.
G kg/h Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis.
G kg/h Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis.
G kg/h Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis.
G kg/h Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis.
G kg/h Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis.
G kg/h Fuel mass flow rate.
G kg/h Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis.
H
g/kg
Reference value of absolute humidity 10.71 g/kg for calculation
of NO and particulate humidity correction factors.

q − Dilution ratio.
r

Ratio of cross sectional areas of isokinetic probe and exhaust
pipe.
R % Relative humidity of the intake air.
R % Relative humidity of the dilution air.
R − FID response factor.
S kW Dynamometer setting.
T K Absolute temperature of the intake air.
T K Absolute dewpoint temperature.
T K Temperature of the intercooled air.
T K Reference temperature (of combustion air 298K (25° C))
T K Intercooled air reference temperature.
V m /h Intake air volume flow rate on dry basis.
V m /h Intake air volume flow rate on wet basis.
V
m
Volume of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate
sample filters.
V m /h Dilution air volume flow rate on wet basis.
V m /h Equivalent diluted exhaust gas volume flow rate on wet basis.
V m /h Exhaust gas volume flow rate on dry basis.
V m /h Exhaust gas volume flow rate on wet basis.
V m Volume of sample through particulate sampling filters.
V m /h Diluted exhaust gas volume flow rate on wet basis.
WF − Weighting factor.
WF − Effective weighting factor.

4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the engine submitted for approval pursuant to Paragraphs 3.1. of this Regulation meets
the requirements of Paragraph 5.2. below, approval of that type of engine or family of
engines shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type or family approved. Its first two digits
shall indicate the series of amendments (at present 01) incorporating the most recent major
technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The
same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another engine type or family.
4.3. Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval of an engine type or family pursuant
to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply
this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2, as applicable, to
this Regulation. Values measured during the type test shall also be shown.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place to every engine
conforming to an engine type or family approved under this Regulation, an international
approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval;
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.4.3. an additional symbol consisting of a letter from D to G indicating the emission level
(Paragraph 5.2.1.) according to which the engine or the engine family has been approved.
4.5. If the engine conforms to an approved type or family under one or more Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed need not be repeated; in such a case, the regulation and
approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval
has been granted under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the
symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.2.
4.6. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the data plate affixed by the manufacturer
to the approved type.
4.7. Annex 3 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.

for gaseous emissions measured in the dilute exhaust of a full flow dilution system, the
system shown in Figure 3 of Appendix 4 of Annex 4;
for particulate emissions, the full flow dilution system, operating with a separate filter for
each mode, shown in Figure 13 of Appendix 4 of Annex 4.
The determination of system equivalency shall be based upon a seven test cycle (or larger)
correlation study between the system under consideration and one or more of the above
reference systems.
The equivalency criterion is defined as a ± 5% agreement of the averages of the weighted
cycle emissions values. The cycle to be used shall be that given in Annex 4,
Paragraph 3.6.1.
For introduction of a new system into the Regulation the determination of equivalency shall
be based upon the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility, as described in ISO 5725.
5.2.1. The emissions of the carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons, the emissions of the
oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of particulate obtained shall not exceed the amount
shown in the table below:
Power
band
Net Power
(P)
(kW)
Carbon
Monoxide
(CO)
(g/kWh)
Hydrocarbons
(HC)
(g/kWh)
Oxides of
Nitrogen
(NO )
(g/kWh)
Particulates
(PT)
(g/kWh)
E
130 ≤ P ≤ 560
3.5
1.0
6.0
0.2
F
75 ≤ P < 130
5.0
1.0
6.0
0.3
G
37 ≤ P < 75
5.0
1.3
7.0
0.4
D
18 ≤ P < 37
5.5
1.5
8.0
0.8
5.2.2. Where, as defined, according to Annex 1B, one engine family covers more than one power
band, the emission values of the parent engine (type approval) and of all engine types within
the same family (COP) must meet the more stringent requirements of the higher power
band.
6. INSTALLATION ON THE VEHICLE
6.1. The engine installation on the vehicle shall comply with the following characteristics in
respect to the approval of the engine.
6.1.1. Intake depression shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex 1,
Appendix 1.
6.1.2. Exhaust back pressure shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex 1,
Appendix 1.

7.2.3. The technical service responsible for verifying the conformity of production shall carry out
tests on engines which have been run-in partially or completely, according to the
manufacturer's specifications.
7.2.4. The normal frequency of inspections authorized by the competent authority shall be one per
year. If the requirements of Paragraph 7.2.2.1. are not met, the competent authority shall
ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the conformity of production as
rapidly as possible.
8. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. The approval granted in respect of an engine type or family pursuant to this regulation may
be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 7.2. are not complied with or if the
engine or engines taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in Paragraph 7.2.2.1.
8.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this
Regulation.
9. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE APPROVED TYPE
9.1. Every modification of the approved type or family shall be notified to the administrative
department which approved the type. The department may then either:
9.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the modified type still complies with the requirement; or
9.1.2. Require a further test report from the technical service conducting the tests.
9.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation.
9.3. The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for
such an extension and inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement
applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in
Annex 2 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture the type or family approved
in accordance with this Regulation he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a communication
form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.

11.10. By derogation to the provisions stipulated in Paragraphs 11.6., 11.7., 11.8. and 11.9.,
Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may postpone each date mentioned in the
above paragraphs for two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to the said
dates.
11.11. By derogation to the provisions stipulated in Paragraphs 11.6., 11.7., 11.8. and 11.9.,
Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may continue to permit the placing on the
market of engines approved on the basis of a previous technical standard, provided that the
engines are intended as replacement for fitting in vehicles in use, and that it is not
technically feasible for the engines in question to satisfy the new requirements of the
01 series of amendments.
12. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate
to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services
responsible for conducting approval tests and the administrative departments which grant
approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of
approval, issued in other countries are to be sent.

1.14.2. Air
1.14.2.1. Blower: yes/no
1.14.2.2. Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): ..............................................................
1.14.2.3. Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): .......................................................................................................
1.15. Temperature permitted by the manufacturer
1.15.1. Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: ...................................................................... K
1.15.2. Air cooling: Reference point: ......................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point: ............................................................................... K
1.15.3. Maximum charge air outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler
(if applicable): ........................................................................................................................... K
1.15.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the
outer flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s): .............................................................................. K
1.15.5.
Fuel temperature:
min: ............................................................................. K
max: ............................................................................ K
1.15.6.
Lubricant temperature:
min: ............................................................................. K
max: ............................................................................ K
1.16. Pressure charger: yes/no
1.16.1. Make: .........................................................................................................................................
1.16.2. Type: ..........................................................................................................................................
1.16.3. Description of the system (e.g. max charge pressure, waste-gate, if applicable): ....................
1.16.4. Intercooler: yes/no
1.17. Intake system: Maximum allowable intake depression at rated engine speed and at
100% load: ........................................................................................................................... kPa
1.18. Exhaust system: Maximum allowable exhaust backpressure at rated engine speed
and at 100% load: ................................................................................................................ kPa
2. Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading) -
Description and/or diagram(s): ...................................................................................................
Strike out what does not apply.

3.3.2.4. Maximum no-load speed : ................................................................................................. rpm
3.3.2.5. Idling speed : ..................................................................................................................... rpm
3.4. Cold Start System
3.4.1. Make(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.4.2. Type(s): ......................................................................................................................................
3.4.3. Description: ................................................................................................................................
4. Valve Timing
4.1. Maximum lift and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres or equivalent
data: ..........................................................................................................................................
4.2. Reference and/or setting ranges
5. Additional Information On Test Conditions
5.1. Reference fuel used for test
5.1.1. Cetane number: .........................................................................................................................
5.1.2. Sulphur content: .........................................................................................................................
5.1.3. Density at 15° C : ....................................................................................................................
5.2. Lubricant
5.2.1. Lubricant used: ...........................................................................................................................
5.2.2. Make(s): .....................................................................................................................................
5.2.3. Type(s): ......................................................................................................................................
(state percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel are mixed)
5.3. Engine Driven Equipment (if applicable)
5.3.1. Enumeration and identifying details: ..........................................................................................
Strike out what does not apply.
Only to be indicated where the value was higher than foreseen in the table in Annex 5 in combination with its Note 10.

5.5. Dynamometer Setting (kW)
Dynamometer setting (kW) at various engine speeds
Percent Load
Intermediate
Rated
10
XXXXXXX
50
75
100
6. Engine Performance
6.1. Engine Speeds:
Idle: ........................... rpm
Intermediate: ............. rpm
Rated: ........................ rpm
6.2. Engine Power
Power setting (kW) at various engine speeds
Condition Intermediate Rated
Maximum power measured on test (P ) (kW) (a)
Total power absorbed by engine driven equipment as
per Paragraph 5.3. of this Annex (P ) (kW) (b)
Net engine power as specified in Paragraph 2.8. of
this Regulation (kW) (c)
c = a + b
Uncorrected power measured in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 2.8. of this Regulation.

1.7. Fuel System:
pump - line - injector
rotary pump
in-line pump
single element
unit injector
1.8. Miscellaneous Features:
exhaust gas recirculation
water injection/emulsion
air injection
charge cooling system
1.9. Exhaust After-treatment
oxidation catalyst
reduction catalyst
thermal reactor
particulates trap
2. CHOICE OF THE PARENT ENGINE
2.1. The parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criteria of the highest
fuel delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or
more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine shall be selected using the
secondary criteria of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed. Under certain
circumstances, the approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the
family can best be characterised by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority
may select an additional engine for test based upon features which indicate that it may have
the highest emission levels of the engines within that family.
2.2. If engines within the family incorporate other variable features which could be considered to
affect exhaust emissions, these features must also be identified and taken into account in
the selection of the parent engine.

2. ENGINE FAMILY LISTING
2.1. Engine family name:...................................................................................................................
2.2. Specification of engines within this family:
Engine
Type
No. of
cylinders
Rated
Speed
Rated Net
Power
(kW)
Maximum
Torque
Speed
Maximum
Torque
Low Idle
Speed
PARENT ENGINE (FOR FULL DETAILS SEE ANNEX 1A)
2.3. In addition, for each engine type within the family, the information required in Annex 1B −
Appendix B shall be submitted to the approval authority.

1.14.2. Air
1.14.2.1. Blower: yes/no
1.14.2.2. Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): ..............................................................
1.14.2.3. Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): .......................................................................................................
1.15. Temperature permitted by the manufacturer
1.15.1. Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: ...................................................................... K
1.15.2. Air cooling: Reference point: ......................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point: ............................................................................... K
1.15.3. Maximum charge air outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler (if applicable): ....................... K
1.15.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the
outer flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s): .............................................................................. K
1.15.5.
Fuel temperature:
min: ............................................................................. K
max: ............................................................................ K
1.15.6.
Lubricant temperature:
min: ............................................................................. K
max: ............................................................................ K
1.16. Pressure charger: yes/no
1.16.1. Make: .........................................................................................................................................
1.16.2. Type: ..........................................................................................................................................
1.16.3. Description of the system (e.g. max. charge pressure, waste-gate, if applicable): ...................
1.16.4. Intercooler: yes/no
1.17. Intake system: Maximum allowable intake depression at rated engine speed and at
100% load: ........................................................................................................................... kPa
1.18. Exhaust system: Maximum allowable exhaust back pressure at rated engine speed and
at 100% load: ....................................................................................................................... kPa
2. Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading) -
Description and/or diagram(s): ...................................................................................................
3. Fuel feed
3.1. Feed pump
Pressure
or characteristic diagram: ................................................................................. kPa
Strike out what does not apply.

3.4.
Cold Start System
3.4.1.
Make(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.4.2.
Type(s): ......................................................................................................................................
3.4.3.
Description: ................................................................................................................................
4.
Valve timing
4.1.
Maximum lift and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres or equivalent data: .........
4.2.
Reference and/or setting ranges
Strike out what does not apply.

7.
Maximum permissible power absorbed by the engine-driven equipment:
Intermediate: ......................................................................................................................... kW
Rated: .................................................................................................................................... kW
8.
Restriction of use (if any): ..........................................................................................................
9.
Emission levels - 8 mode emission test values:
CO:
..............................
g/kWh
HC:
..............................
g/kWh
NO : ..............................
Particulates: ....................
g/kWh
g/kWh
10. Engine submitted for test on: .....................................................................................................
11. Technical service responsible for conducting the approval test: ...............................................
...................................................................................................................................................
12. Date of test report issued by that service: .................................................................................
13. Number of test report issued by that service: ............................................................................
14. Site of approval mark on the engine: .........................................................................................
15. Place: .........................................................................................................................................
16. Date: ...........................................................................................................................................
17. Signature: ...................................................................................................................................
18. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are Annexed to this
communication:
One copy of Annex 1A or Annex 1B to this Regulation completed and with drawings and
diagrams referred to attached.

ANNEX 4
TEST PROCEDURE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex describes the method of determining emissions of gaseous and particulate
pollutants from the engines to be tested.
1.2. The test shall be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a
dynamometer.
2. TEST CONDITIONS
2.1. General Requirements
All volumes and volumetric flow rates shall be related to 273K (0° C) and 101.3 kPa.
2.2. Engine Test Conditions
2.2.1. The absolute temperature T of the engine intake air expressed in Kelvin, and the dry
atmospheric pressure p expressed in kPa, shall be measured, and the parameter f shall be
determined according to the following provisions:
Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines:
f
⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛
= ⎜ ⎟
× ⎜
p
⎝ ⎠ ⎝
T
298



Turbocharged engine with or without cooling of the intake air:
f
⎛ 99 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
p
⎝ ⎠

× ⎜

T
298



2.2.2. Test Validity
For a test to be recognised as valid, the parameter f shall be such that:
2.2.3. Engines with Charge Air Cooling
0.96 ≤ f ≤ 1.06
The temperature of the cooling medium and the temperature of the charge air have to be
recorded.

3.4. Adjustment of the Dilution Ratio
The particulate sampling system shall be started and running on bypass for the single filter
method (optional for the multiple filter method). The particulate background level of the
dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If
filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done at any time prior to, during, or
after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, measurements at a minimum of three points,
after the starting, before the stopping, and at a point near the middle of the cycle, are
required, and the values averaged.
The dilution air shall be set to obtain a maximum filter face temperature of 325K (52° C) or
less at each mode. The total dilution ratio shall not be less than four.
For the single filter method, the sample mass flow rate through the filter shall be maintained
at a constant proportion of the dilute exhaust mass flow rate for full flow systems for all
modes. This mass ratio shall be within ± 5%, except for the first 10 seconds of each mode
for systems without bypass capability. For partial flow dilution systems with single filter
method, the mass flow rate through the filter shall be constant within ± 5% during each
mode, except for the first 10 seconds of each mode for systems without bypass capability.
For CO or NO concentration controlled systems, the CO or NO content of the dilution air
must be measured at the beginning and at the end of each test. The pre- and post-test
background CO or NO concentration measurements of the dilution air must be within
100 ppm or 5 ppm of each other, respectively.
When using a dilute exhaust gas analysis system, the relevant background concentrations
shall be determined by sampling dilution air into a sampling bag over the complete test
sequence.
Continuous (non bag) background concentration may be taken at the minimum of three
points, at the beginning, at the end, and a point near the middle of the cycle and
averaged. At the manufacturers request background measurements may be omitted.
3.5. Checking the Analysers
3.6. Test Cycle
The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned.
3.6.1. The following 8-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine:
Mode Number
Engine Speed
Percent Load
Weighting Factor
1
Rated
100
0.15
2
Rated
75
0.15
3
Rated
50
0.15
4
Rated
10
0.1
5
Intermediate
100
0.1
6
Intermediate
75
0.1
7
Intermediate
50
0.1
8
Idle

0.15

For the single filter method the modal weighting factors specified in the test cycle procedure
shall be taken into account during sampling by adjusting sample flow rate and/or sampling
time, accordingly.
Sampling must be conducted as late as possible within each mode. The sampling time per
mode must be at least 20 seconds for the single filter method and at least 60 seconds for
the multi-filter method. For systems without bypass capability, the sampling time per mode
must be at least 60 seconds for single and multiple filter methods.
3.6.6. Engine Conditions
The engine speed and load, intake air temperature, fuel flow and air or exhaust gas flow
shall be measured for each mode once the engine has been stabilised.
If the measurement of the exhaust gas flow or the measurement of combustion air and fuel
consumption is not possible, it can be calculated using the carbon and oxygen balance
method (see Annex 4, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.2.3.).
Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded (see Annex 4, Appendix 3,
Paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2.).
3.7. Re-checking the Analysers
After the emission test a zero gas and the same span gas will be used for re-checking. The
test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the two measuring results is
less than 2%.

1.2.3. Carbon Balance Method
Exhaust mass calculation from fuel consumption and exhaust gas concentrations using the
carbon balance method (see Annex 4, Appendix 3).
1.2.4. Total Dilute Exhaust Gas Flow
1.3. Accuracy
Number
Key:
When using a full flow dilution system, the total flow of the dilute exhaust (G , V )
shall be measured with a PDP or CFV - Annex 4, Appendix 4, Paragraph 1.2.1.2. The
accuracy shall conform to the provisions of Annex 4, Appendix 2, Paragraph 2.2.
The calibration of all measurement instruments shall be traceable to national (international)
standards and comply with the following requirements:
Item
Permissible Deviation (±
Values based on Engines
Maximum Values)
Permissible Deviation
(± Values According
to ISO 3046)
Calibration
Intervals
(Months)
1
Engine Speed
2%
2%
3
2
Torque
2%
2%
3
3
Power
2% *
3%
N/A
4
Fuel Consumption
2% *
3%
6
5
Specific Fuel Consumption
N/A
3%
N/A
6
Air Consumption
2% *
5%
6
7
Exhaust Gas Flow
4% *
N/A
6
8
Coolant Temperature
2K
2K
3
9
Lubricant Temperature
2K
2K
3
10
Exhaust Gas Pressure
5% of max.
5%
3
11
Inlet Manifold Depressions
5% of max.
5%
3
12
Exhaust Gas Temperature
15K
15K
3
13
Air Inlet Temperature
2K
2K
3
(Combustion Air)
14
Atmospheric Pressure
0.5% of reading
0.5%
3
15
Intake Air Humidity (Relative)
3%
N/A
1
16
Fuel Temperature
2K
5K
3
17
Dilution Tunnel Temperatures
1.5K
N/A
3
18
Dilution Air Humidity
3%
N/A
1
19
Diluted Exhaust Gas Flow
2% of reading
N/A
24 (Partial flow)
(full flow) **
* The calculations of the exhaust emissions as described in this Regulation are, in some
cases, based on different measurement and/or calculation methods. Because of limited
total tolerances for the exhaust emission calculation, the allowable values for some items,
used in the appropriate equations, must be smaller than the allowed tolerances given in
ISO 3046-3.

1.4.1.5. Span Drift
1.4.2. Gas Drying
1.4.3. Analysers
The span drift during a one hour period shall be less than 2% of full scale on the lowest
range used. Span is defined as the difference between the span response and the zero
response. The span response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a span
gas during a 30 seconds time interval.
The optional gas drying device must have a minimal effect on the concentration of the
measured gases. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from
the sample.
Paragraphs 1.4.3.1. to 1.4.3.5. of this Appendix describe the measurement principles to be
used. A detailed description of the measurement systems is given in Annex 4, Appendix 4.
The gases to be measured shall be analysed with the following instruments. For non-linear
analysers, the use of linearising circuits is permitted.
1.4.3.1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Analysis
The carbon monoxide analyser shall be of the Non-Dispersive InfraRed (NDIR) absorption
type.
1.4.3.2. Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Analysis
The carbon dioxide analyser shall be of the Non-Dispersive InfraRed (NDIR) absorption
type.
1.4.3.3. Oxygen (O ) Analysis
Oxygen analysers shall be of the ParaMagnetic Detector (PMD), Zirconium Dioxide (ZRDO)
or ElectroChemical Sensor (ECS) type.
1.4.3.4. Hydrocarbon (HC) Analysis
The hydrocarbon analyser shall be of the Heated Flame Ionisation Detector (HFID) type with
detector, valves, pipework, etc, heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of 463K
(190° C) ± 10K.
1.4.3.5. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO ) Analysis
The oxides of nitrogen analyser shall be of the ChemiLuminescent Detector (CLD) or
Heated ChemiLuminescent Detector (HCLD) type with a NO /NO converter, if measured on
a dry basis. If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 333K
(60° C) shall be used, provided the water quench check (Annex 4, Appendix 2,
Paragraph 1.9.2.2.) is satisfied.

For particulate sampling, two methods may be applied:
The Single Filter Method uses one pair of filters (see Paragraph 1.5.1.3. of this Appendix) for all
modes of the test cycle. Considerable attention must be paid to sampling times and flows during
the sampling phase of the test. However, only one pair of filters will be required for the test cycle.
The Multiple Filter Method dictates that one pair of filters (see Paragraph 1.5.1.3. of this
appendix) is used for each of the individual modes of the test cycle. This method allows
more lenient sample procedures but uses more filters.
1.5.1. Particulate Sampling Filters
1.5.1.1. Filter Specification
1.5.1.2. Filter Size
Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon based membrane filters are required
for certification tests. For special applications different filter materials may be used. All filter
types shall have a 0.3 μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least 95% at a
gas face velocity between 35 and 80 cm/s. When performing correlation tests between
laboratories or between a manufacturer and a regulatory agency, filters of identical quality
must be used.
Particulate filters must have a minimum diameter of 47 mm (37 mm stain diameter). Larger
diameter filters are acceptable (Paragraph 1.5.1.5.).
1.5.1.3. Primary and Back-up Filters
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a pair of filters placed in series (one primary and
one back-up filter) during the test sequence. The back-up filter shall be located no more
than 100 mm downstream of, and shall not be in contact with the primary filter. The filters
may be weighed separately or as a pair with the filters placed stain side to stain side.
1.5.1.4. Filter Face Velocity
A gas face velocity through the filter of 35 to 80 cm/s shall be achieved. The pressure drop
increase between the beginning and the end of the test shall be no more than 25 kPa.
1.5.1.5. Filter Loading
The recommended minimum filter loading shall be 0.5 mg/1075 mm stain area for the
single filter method. For the most common filter size the values are as follows:
Filter Diameter (mm)
Recommended Stain Recommended Minimum
Diameter (mm)
Loading (mg)
47
37
0.5
70
60
1.3
90
80
2.3
110
100
3.6

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 2
1. CALIBRATION OF THE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS
1.1. Introduction
Each analyser shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements
of this Regulation. The calibration method that shall be used is described in this paragraph
for the analysers indicated in Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.4.3.
1.2. Calibration Gases
1.2.1. Pure Gases
The shelf life of all calibration gases must be respected.
The expiry date of the calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.
The required purity of the gases is defined by the contamination limits given below. The
following gases must be available for operation:
Purified Nitrogen
(Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO , ≤ 0.1 ppm NO)
Purified Oxygen
(Purity > 99.5% vol O )
Hydrogen-Helium Mixture
(40 ± 2% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO )
Purified Synthetic Air
(Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO , ≤ 0.1 ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 18-21% vol)
1.2.2. Calibration and Span Gases
Mixture of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available:
C H and purified synthetic air (see Paragraph 1.2.1.)
CO and purified nitrogen
NO and purified nitrogen (the amount of NO contained in this calibration gas must
not exceed 5% of the NO content)

1.5.2. Warming-up Time
The warming-up time should be according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. If
not specified, a minimum of two hours is recommended for warming-up the analysers.
1.5.3. NDIR and HFID Analyser
1.5.4. Calibration
The NDIR analyser shall be tuned, as necessary, and the combustion flame of the HFID
analyser shall be optimised (Paragraph 1.8.1).
Each normally used operating range shall be calibrated.
Using purified synthetic air (or nitrogen), the CO, CO , NO , HC and O analysers shall be
set at zero.
The appropriate calibration gases shall be introduced to the analysers, the values recorded,
and the calibration curve established according to Paragraph 1.5.6.
The zero setting shall be re-checked and the calibration procedure repeated, if necessary.
1.5.5. Establishment of the Calibration Curve
1.5.5.1. General Guidelines
The analyser calibration curve is established by at least five calibration points (excluding
zero) spaced as uniformly as possible. The highest nominal concentration must be equal to
or higher than 90% of full scale.
The calibration curve is calculated by the method of least squares. If the resulting
polynomial degree is greater than three, the number of calibration points (zero included)
must be at least equal to this polynomial degree plus two.
The calibration curve must not differ by more than ± 2% from the nominal value of each
calibration point and by more than ± 1% of full scale at zero.
From the calibration curve and the calibration points, it is possible to verify that the
calibration has been carried out correctly. The different characteristic parameters of the
analyser must be indicated, particularly:
the measuring range
the sensitivity
the date of carrying out the calibration.

Figure 1
Schematic of NO Converter Efficiency Device
1.7.2. Calibration
1.7.3. Calculation
The CLD and the HCLD shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following
the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which must
amount to about 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas mixture
to less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyser must be in the NO mode so
that the span gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated concentration has to
be recorded.
The efficiency of the NO converter is calculated as follows:
where:
a − b
Efficiency (%) = (1 + ) × 100
c − d
a = NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.6.;
b = NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.7.;
c = NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.4.;
d = NO concentration according to Paragraph 1.7.5.

With the fuel and air flow rates set at the manufacturer's recommendations, a
350 ± 75 ppm C span gas shall be introduced to the analyser. The response at a given fuel
flow shall be determined from the difference between the span gas response and the zero
gas response. The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the
manufacturer's specification. The span and zero response at these fuel flows shall be
recorded. The difference between the span and zero response shall be plotted and the fuel
flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve.
1.8.2. Hydrocarbon Response Factors
The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air, according to
Paragraph 1.5.
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and after
major service intervals. The response factor (R ) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the
ratio of the FID C1 reading to the gas concentration in the cylinder expressed by ppm C1.
The concentration of the test gas must be at a level to give a response of approximately
80% of full scale. The concentration must be known to an accuracy of ± 2% in reference to
a gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder must be
pre-conditioned for 24 hours at a temperature of 298 (25° C) ± 5K.
The test gases to be used and the recommended relative response factor ranges are as follows:
Methane and purified synthetic air: 1.00 ≤ R ≤ 1.15
Propylene and purified synthetic air: 0.90 ≤ R ≤ 1.1
Toluene and purified synthetic air: 0.90 ≤ R ≤ 1.10
These values are relative to the response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified synthetic air.
1.8.3. Oxygen Interference Check
The oxygen interference check shall be determined when introducing an analyser into
service and after major service intervals.
The response factor is defined and shall be determined as described in Paragraph 1.8.2. The test
gas to be used and the recommended relative response factor range are as follows:
Propane and nitrogen: 0.95 ≤ R ≤ 1.05
This value is relative to the response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified synthetic air.
The FID burner air oxygen concentration must be within ± 1 mole % of the oxygen concentration of
the burner air used in the latest oxygen interference check. If the difference is greater, the oxygen
interference must be checked and the analyser adjusted, if necessary.

1.9.2.2. Water Quench Check
This check applies to wet gas concentration measurements only. Calculation of water
quench must consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapour and scaling of water
vapour concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing. A NO span gas having
a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale to the normal operating range shall be passed
through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded as D. The NO gas shall be bubbled through
water at room temperature and passed through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded
as C. The water temperature shall be determined and recorded as F. The mixture's
saturation vapour pressure that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature (F) shall be
determined and recorded as G. The water vapour concentration (in %) of the mixture shall
be calculated as follows:
G
H = 100 × ( )
p
and recorded as H. The expected diluted NO span gas (in water vapour) concentration
shall be calculated as follows:
⎛ H ⎞
De = D × ⎜1
− ⎟
⎝ 100 ⎠
and recorded as De. For diesel exhaust, the maximum exhaust water vapour concentration
(in %) expected during testing shall be estimated, under the assumption of a fuel atom H/C
ratio of 1.8 to 1.0, from the maximum CO concentration in the exhaust gas or from the
undiluted CO span gas concentration (A, as measured in Paragraph 1.9.2.1.) as follows:
and recorded as Hm.
Hm = 0.9 × A
The water quench shall be calculated as follows:
% H
O Quench = 100 ×
⎛ De



De
C ⎞


×



Hm
H



and must not be greater than 3%
De = Expected diluted NO concentration (ppm)
C = Diluted NO concentration (ppm)
Hm = Maximum water vapour concentration (%)
H = Actual water vapour concentration (%)
Note: It is important that the NO span gas contains minimal NO concentration for this
check, since absorption of NO in water has not been accounted for in the quench
calculations.

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 3
1. DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS
1.1. Gaseous Emissions Data Evaluation
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 60 seconds of
each mode shall be averaged, and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO, NO and
CO if the carbon balance method is used, during each mode shall be determined from the
average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data. A different type of recording
can be used if it ensures an equivalent data acquisition.
The average background concentrations (conc ) may be determined from the bag readings
of the dilution air or from the continuous (non-bag) background reading and the
corresponding calibration data.
1.2. Particulate Emissions
For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (M
) or volumes (V
)
through the filters shall be recorded for each mode.
The filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber and conditioned for at least one hour,
but not more than 80 hours, and then weighed. The gross weight of the filters shall be
recorded and the tare weight (see Paragraph 11.1.) subtracted. The particulate mass (M
for the single filter method; M for the multiple filter method) is the sum of the particulate
masses collected on the primary and back-up filters.
If background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (M
) or volume (V
)
through the filters and the particulate mass (M ) shall be recorded. If more than one
measurement was made, the quotient M /M
or M /V
must be calculated for each single
measurement and the values averaged.
1.3. Calculation of the Gaseous Emissions
The finally reported test results shall be derived through the following steps:
1.3.1. Determination of the Exhaust Gas Flow
The exhaust gas flow rate (G , V or V ) shall be determined for each mode
according to Annex 4, Appendix 1, Paragraphs 1.2.1. to 1.2.3.
When using a full flow dilution system, the total dilute exhaust gas flow rate (G , V )
shall be determined for each mode according to Annex 4, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.2.4.

For the intake air (if different from the dilution air):
K = l – K
K
1.608 × H
=
1000 + (1.608 × H
)
H
=
p
6.22 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
H = g, water per kg dry air (intake air)
H = g, water per kg dry air (dilution air)
R = relative humidity of the dilution air, %
R = relative humidity of the intake air, %
p = saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air, kPa
p = saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, kPa
p = total barometric pressure, kPa
1.3.3. Humidity Correction for NO
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity by the factors K given in the following
formulae.
K
=
1 + A × (H
1
− 10.71) + B × (T
− 298)
where:
A = 0.309 G / G - 0.0266
B = – 0.209 G / G + 0.00954
T = temperatures of the air in K
G
G
= Fuel air ratio (dry air basis)

The coefficients u - wet, v - dry, w - wet shall be used according to the following table:
Gas u v w conc
NO 0.001587 0.002053 0.002053 ppm
CO 0.000966 0.00125 0.00125 ppm
HC 0.000479 − 0.000619 ppm
CO 15.19 19.64 19.64 percent
The density of HC is based upon an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1/1.85.
1.3.5. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The specific emission (g/kWh) of individual gas shall be calculated for all individual
components in the following way:
I ndividual
gas =

Gas mass × WF

P × WF
where P = P + P
The weighting factors and the number of modes (n) used in the above calculation are
according to Annex 4, Paragraph 3.6.1.
1.4. Calculation of the Particulate Emission
The particulate emission shall be calculated in the following way:
1.4.1. Humidity Correction Factor for Particulates
As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the
particulate mass flow rate shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor K given
in the following formulae.
Kp = 1/ (1 + 0.0133 × (H – 10.71))
H = humidity of the intake air, grams of water per kg dry air
H
=
p
6.22 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
R = relative humidity of the intake air, %
p = saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, kPa
p = total barometric pressure, kPa

1.4.2.3. Systems with CO Measurement and Carbon Balance Method
G
206.6 × G
=
CO − CO
where:
CO = CO concentration of the diluted exhaust
CO = CO concentration of the dilution air
(concentrations in volume % on wet basis)
This equation is based upon the carbon balance assumption (carbon atoms supplied to the
engine are emitted as CO ) and derived through the following steps:
G = G × q
and:
q
=
G
206.6 × G
×
( CO − CO )
1.4.2.4. Systems with Flow Measurement
G = G × q
q
=
(G
G
− G
)
1.4.3. Full Flow Dilution System
The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be derived through the
following steps.
All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes during the
sampling period.
G = G
or:
V = V

The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:
For Single Filter Method:

M

M ⎛ 1
⎞⎤
G
PT ⎢ ⎜
⎛ ⎞ ⎞
= −
1 WF
⎟⎥
×
⎢ ⎜ × ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟

M M
⎜∑
− ×
⎜ DF ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ 1000
⎣ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎠⎦
If more than one measurement is made, (M /M ) or (M /V ) shall be replaced with
(M /M ) or (M /V ) , respectively.
DF =
concCO
13.4
+ (concCO + concHC) × 10
or:
DF = 13.4/concCO
For Multiple Filter Method:
PT
⎡ M ⎛
⎞⎤

⎢ ⎜
M ⎛ 1 ⎞ (G
= − × ⎜1
− ⎟⎟⎥
× ⎢
⎢ ⎜

⎣M
⎝ M ⎝ DF ⎠⎠⎥
⎦ ⎣ 1000
) ⎤


or:
PT
⎡ M ⎛
⎞⎤

⎢ ⎜
M ⎛ 1 ⎞ (V
= − × ⎜1
− ⎟⎟⎥
× ⎢
⎢ ⎜

⎣ V ⎝ M ⎝ DF ⎠⎠⎥
⎦ ⎢⎣
1000
) ⎤

⎥⎦
If more than one measurement is made, (M /M ) or (M /V ) shall be replaced with
(M /M ) or (M /V ) , respectively.
DF =
concCO
13.4
+ (concCO + concHC) × 10
or:
DF = 13.4/concCO

ANNEX 4 - APPENDIX 4
1. ANALYTICAL AND SAMPLING SYSTEM
Gaseous and particulate sampling systems
Figure Number
Description
2 Exhaust gas analysis system for raw exhaust;
3 Exhaust gas analysis system for dilute exhaust;
4 Partial flow, isokinetic flow, suction blower control, fractional
sampling;
5 Partial flow, isokinetic flow, pressure blower control, fractional
sampling;
6 Partial flow, CO or NO measurement, fractional sampling;
7 Partial flow, CO and carbon balance, total sampling;
8 Partial flow, single venturi and concentration measurement,
fractional sampling;
9 Partial flow, twin venturi or orifice and concentration
measurement, fractional sampling;
10 Partial flow, multiple tube splitting and concentration
measurement, fractional sampling;
11 Partial flow, flow control, total sampling;
12 Partial flow, flow control, fractional sampling;
13 Full flow, positive displacement pump or critical flow venturi,
fractional sampling;
14 Particulate sampling system;
15 Dilution system for full flow system.

Figure 2
Flow Diagram of Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, NO and HC
Figure 3
Flow Diagram of Dilute Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, CO , NO and HC

Be made of stainless steel or PTFE;
Maintain a wall temperature of 463K (190° C) ± 10K as measured at every separately
controlled heated section, if the temperature of the exhaust gas at the sampling probe is
equal or below 463K (190° C)
Maintain a wall temperature greater than 453K (180° C) if the temperature of the exhaust
gas at the sampling probe is above 463K (190° C)
Maintain a gas temperature of 463K (190° C) ± 10K immediately before the heated filter (F2)
and the HFID.
HSL2 Heated NO Sampling Line
The sampling line shall:
Maintain a wall temperature of 328 to 473K (55 to 200° C) up to the converter when using a
cooling bath, and up to the analyser when a cooling bath is not used;
Be made of stainless steel or PTFE;
Since the sampling line need only be heated to prevent condensation of water and sulphuric
acid, the sampling line temperature will depend on the sulphur content of the fuel.
SL Sampling Line for CO (CO )
The line shall be made of PTFE or stainless steel. It may be heated or unheated.
BK Background Bag (optional; Figure 3 only)
For the measurement of the background concentrations.
BG Sample Bag (optional; Figure 3 CO and CO only)
For the measurement of the sample concentrations.
F1 Heated Pre-Filter (Optional)
The temperature shall be the same as HSL1.
F2 Heated Filter
The filter shall extract any solid particles from the gas sample prior to the analyser. The
temperature shall be the same as HSL1. The filter shall be changed as needed.
P Heated Sampling Pump
The pump shall be heated to the temperature of HSL1.

FL1, FL2. FL3 Flowmeter
To monitor the sample bypass flow.
FL4 to FL7 Flowmeter (optional)
To monitor the flow rate through the analysers.
V1 to V6 Selector Valve
Suitable valving for selecting sample, span gas or air gas flow to the analyser.
V7, V8 Solenoid Valve
To bypass the NO - NO converter.
V9 Needle Valve
To balance the flow through the NO - NO converter and the bypass.
V10, V11 Needle Valve
To regulate the flows to the analysers.
V12, V13 Toggle Valve
To drain the condensate from the Bath B.
V14 Selector -Valve
Selecting the sample or background bag.
1.2. Determination of the Particulates
Paragraphs 1.2.1. and 1.2.2. and Figures 4 to 15 contain detailed descriptions of the
recommended dilution and sampling systems. Since various configurations can produce
equivalent results, exact conformance with these figures is not required. Additional
components such as instruments, valve, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to
provide additional information and co-ordinate the functions of the component systems.
Other components which are not needed to maintain the accuracy on some systems, may
be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgement.
1.2.1. Dilution System
1.2.1.1. Partial Flow Dilution System (Figures 4 to 12)
A dilution system is described based upon the dilution of a part of the exhaust stream.
Splitting of the exhaust stream and the following dilution process may be done by different
dilution system types. For subsequent collection of the particulates, the entire dilute
exhaust gas or only a portion of the dilute exhaust gas may be passed to the particulate
sampling system (Paragraph 1.2.2., Figure 14). The first method is referred to as total
sampling type, the second method as fractional sampling type.

Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the transfer tube TT by the isokinetic sampling probe ISP. The differential pressure of the
exhaust gas between exhaust pipe and inlet to the probe is measured with the pressure
transducer DPT. This signal is transmitted to the flow controller FC1 that controls the
suction blower SB to maintain a differential pressure of zero at the tip of the probe. Under
these conditions, exhaust gas velocities in EP and ISP are identical, and the flow through
ISP and TT is a constant fraction (split) of the exhaust gas flow. The split ratio is
determined from the cross-sectional areas of EP and ISP. The dilution air flow rate is
measured with the flow measurement device FM1. The dilution ratio is calculated from the
dilution air flow rate and the split ratio.
Figure 4
Partial Flow Dilution System with Isokinetic Probe and Fractional Sampling
(SB Control)

Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The concentrations of a tracer gas (CO or
NO ) are measured in the raw and diluted exhaust gas as well as in the dilution air with the
exhaust gas analyser(s) EGA. These signals are transmitted to the flow controller FC2 that
controls either the pressure blower PB or the suction blower SB to maintain the desired
exhaust split and dilution ratio in DT. The dilution ratio is calculated from the tracer gas
concentrations in the raw exhaust gas, the diluted exhaust gas, and the dilution air.
Figure 6
Partial Flow Dilution System with CO or NO Concentration Measurement
and Fractional Sampling

Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT due to the negative pressure created by the
venturi VN in DT. The gas flow rate through TT depends on the momentum exchange at
the venturi zone, and is therefore affected by the absolute temperature of the gas at the exit
of TT. Consequently, the exhaust split for a given tunnel flow rate is not constant, and the
dilution ratio at low load is slightly lower than at high load. The tracer gas concentrations
(CO or NO ) are measured in the raw exhaust gas, the diluted exhaust gas, and the dilution
air with the exhaust gas analyser(s) EGA, and the dilution ratio is calculated from the values
so measured.
Figure 8
Partial Flow Dilution System with Single Venturi, Concentration Measurement
and Fractional Sampling

Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the transfer tube TT by the flow divider FD3 that consists of a number of tubes of the same
dimensions (same diameter, length and bend radius) installed in EP. The exhaust gas is
passed through one of these tubes to DT, and the exhaust gas going through the remaining
tubes is passed through the damping chamber DC. Thus, the exhaust split is determined by
the total number of tubes. A constant split control requires a differential pressure of zero
between DC and the outlet of TT, which is measured with the differential pressure
transducer DPT. A differential pressure of zero is achieved by injecting fresh air into DT at
the outlet of TT. The tracer gas concentrations (CO or NO ) are measured in the raw
exhaust gas, the diluted exhaust gas, and the dilution air with the exhaust gas analyser(s)
EGA. They are necessary for checking the exhaust split and may be used to control the
injection air flow rate for precise split control. The dilution ratio is calculated from the tracer
gas concentrations.
Figure 10
Partial Flow Dilution System with Multiple Tube Splitting,
Concentration Measurement and Fractional Sampling

Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The exhaust split and the flow into DT is
controlled by the flow controller FC2 that adjusts the flows (or speeds) of the pressure
blower PB and the suction blower SB, accordingly. This is possible since the sample taken
with the particulate sampling system is returned into DT. G , G , or G may be used
as command signals for FC2. The dilution air flow rate is measured with the flow
measurement device FM1, the total flow with the flow measurement device FM2. The
dilution ratio is calculated from these two flow rates.
Figure 12
Partial Flow Dilution System with Flow Control and Fractional Sampling
Description - Figures 4 to 12
EP Exhaust Pipe
The exhaust pipe may be insulated to within 0.5m of the engine. To reduce the thermal
inertia of the exhaust pipe a thickness to diameter ratio of 0.015 or less is
recommended. The use of flexible sections shall be limited to a length to diameter ratio of
12 or less. Bends will be minimised to reduce inertial deposition. If the system includes the
test bed silencer, the silencer may also be insulated.
For an isokinetic system, the exhaust pipe must be free of elbows, bends and sudden
diameter changes for at least six pipe diameters upstream and three pipe diameters
downstream of the tip of the probe. The gas velocity at the sampling zone must be higher
than 10 m/s except at idle mode. Pressure oscillations of the exhaust gas must not exceed
± 500 Pa on the average. Any steps to reduce pressure oscillations beyond using a
chassis-type exhaust system (including silencer and after treatment device) must not alter
engine performance nor cause the deposition of particulates.

TT Transfer Tube (Figures 4 to 12)
The particulate sample transfer tube shall be:
As short as possible, but not more than 5 m in length;
Equal to or greater than the probe diameter, but not more than 25 mm in diameter;
Exiting on the centre-line of the dilution tunnel and pointing downstream.
If the tube is 1 metre or less in length, it is to be insulated with material with a maximum
thermal conductivity of 0.05 W/(m × K) with a radial insulation thickness corresponding to
the diameter of the probe. If the tube is longer than 1 metre, it must be insulated and
heated to a minimum wall temperature of 523K (250° C).
Alternatively, the transfer tube wall temperatures required may be determined through
standard heat transfer calculations.
DPT Differential Pressure Transducer (Figures 4, 5 and 10)
The differential pressure transducer shall have a range of ± 500 Pa or less.
FC1 Flow Controller (Figures 4, 5 and 10)
For the isokinetic systems (Figures 4 and 5) a flow controller is necessary to maintain a
differential pressure of zero between EP and ISP. The adjustment can be done by:
(a)
Controlling the speed or flow of the suction blower (SB) and keeping the speed of the
pressure blower (PB) constant during each mode (Figure 4);
or
(b)
Adjusting the suction blower (SB) to a constant mass flow of the diluted exhaust and
controlling the flow of the pressure blower PB, and therefore the exhaust sample flow
in a region at the end of the transfer tube (TT) (Figure 5).
In the case of a pressure controlled system the remaining error in the control loop must not
exceed ± 3 Pa. The pressure oscillations in the dilution tunnel must not exceed ± 250 Pa on
the average.
For a multi-tube system (Figure 10) a flow controller is necessary for proportional exhaust
splitting to maintain a differential pressure of zero between the outlet of the multi-tube unit
and the exit of TT. The adjustment can be done by controlling the injection air flow rate into
DT at the exit of TT.
PCV1, PCV2 Pressure Control Valve (Figure 9)
Two pressure control valves are necessary for the twin venturi/twin orifice system for
proportional flow splitting by controlling the backpressure of EP and the pressure in
DT. The valves shall be located downstream of SP in EP and between PB and DT.

PSP Particulate Sampling Probe (Figures 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 12)
The probe is the leading section of PTT and
Shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the dilution air and exhaust gas are well
mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centre-line of the dilution systems approximately
10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel;
Shall be 12 mm in minimum inside diameter;
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52° C) wall temperature by direct heating or by
dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52° C) prior to
the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
May be insulated.
DT Dilution Tunnel (Figures 4 to 12)
The dilution tunnel:
Shall be of a sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air under
turbulent flow conditions;
Shall be constructed of stainless steel with:
a thickness to diameter ratio of 0.025 or less for dilution tunnels of greater than
75 mm inside diameter;
a nominal wall thickness of not less than 1.5 mm for dilution tunnels of equal to or
less than 75 mm inside diameter;
Shall be at least 75 mm in diameter for the fractional sampling type;
Is recommended to be at least 25 mm in diameter for the total sampling type.
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52° C) wall temperature by direct heating or by
dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52° C) prior to
the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel.
May be insulated.
The engine exhaust shall be thoroughly mixed with the dilution air. For fractional sampling
systems, the mixing quality shall be checked after introduction into service by means of a
CO profile of the tunnel with the engine running (at least four equally spaced measuring
points). If necessary, a mixing orifice may be used.

The total amount of raw exhaust gas is mixed in the dilution tunnel DT with the dilution air.
The diluted exhaust gas flow rate is measured either with a Positive Displacement Pump
PDP or with a Critical Flow Venturi CFV. A heat exchanger HE or electronic flow
compensation EFC may be used for proportional particulate sampling and for flow
determination. Since particulate mass determination is based on the total diluted exhaust
gas flow, the dilution ratio is not required to be calculated.
PDP Positive Displacement Pump
Figure 13
Full Flow Dilution System
The PDP meters total diluted exhaust flow from the number of the pump revolutions and the
pump displacement. The exhaust system back pressure must not be artificially lowered by
the PDP or dilution air inlet system. Static exhaust back pressure measured with the CVS
system operating shall remain within ± 1.5 kPa of the static pressure measured without
connection to the CVS at identical engine speed and load.
The gas mixture temperature immediately ahead of the PDP shall be within ± 6K of the average
operating temperature observed during the test, when no flow compensation is used.
Flow compensation can only be used if the temperature at the inlet of the PDP does not
exceed 323K (50° C).

The flow capacity of the PDP or CFV must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust
stream in the DT at a temperature of less than or equal to 464K (191° C) at the sampling
zone. The secondary dilution system must provide sufficient secondary dilution air to
maintain the doubly-diluted exhaust stream at a temperature of less than or equal to
325K (52° C) immediately before the primary particulate filter.
DAF Dilution Air Filter
It is recommended that the dilution air be filtered and charcoal scrubbed to eliminate
background hydrocarbons. The dilution air shall have a temperature of 298K
(25° C) ± 5K. At the manufacturers' request the dilution air shall be sampled according to
good engineering practice to determine the background particulate levels, which can then
be subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust.
PSP Particulate Sampling Probe
The probe is the leading section of PTT and
Shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the dilution air and exhaust gas
are well mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centre-line of the dilution systems
approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters
the dilution tunnel;
Shall be 12 mm in minimum inside diameter;
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52° C) wall temperature by direct heating or
by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K
(52° C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
May be insulated.
1.2.2 Particulate Sampling System (Figures 14 and 15)
The particulate sampling system is required for collecting the particulates on the particulate
filter. In the case of total sampling partial flow dilution, which consists of passing the entire
dilute exhaust sample through the filters, dilution (Paragraph 1.2.1.1., Figures 7 and 11) and
sampling system usually form an integral unit. In the case of fractional sampling partial flow
dilution or full flow dilution, which consists of passing through the filters only a portion of the
diluted exhaust, the dilution (Paragraph 1.2.1.1., Figures 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 12 and
Paragraph 1.2.1.2., Figure 13) and sampling systems usually form different units.
In this regulation, the double dilution system (Figure 15) of a full flow dilution system is
considered as a specific modification of a typical particulate sampling system as shown in
Figure 14. The double dilution system includes all important parts of the particulate
sampling system, like filter holders and sampling pump, and additionally some dilution
features, like a dilution air supply and a secondary dilution tunnel.
In order to avoid any impact on the control loops, it is recommended that the sample pump
be running throughout the complete test procedure. For the single filter method, a bypass
system shall be used for passing the sample through the sampling filters at the desired
times. Interference of the switching procedure on the control loops must be minimised.

A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the dilution tunnel DT of a partial flow or
full flow dilution system through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate
transfer tube PTT by means of the sampling pump P. The sample is passed through the
filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The sample flow rate is
controlled by the flow controller FC3. If electronic flow compensation EFC (see Figure 13) is
used, the diluted exhaust gas flow is used as command signal for FC3.
Figure 14
Particulate Sampling System

SDT Secondary Dilution Tunnel (Figure 15)
The secondary dilution tunnel should have a minimum diameter of 75 mm and should be of
sufficient length so as to provide a residence time of at least 0.25 seconds for the
doubly-diluted sample. The primary filter holder, FH, shall be located within 300 mm of the
exit of the SDT.
The secondary dilution tunnel:
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52° C) wall temperature by direct heating or
by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K
(52° C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
May be insulated.
FH Filter Holder(s) (Figures 14 and 15)
For primary and back-up filters one filter housing or separate filter housings may be
used. The requirements of Annex 4, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.5.1.3. have to be met.
The filter holder(s):
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52° C) wall temperature by direct heating or
by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K
(52° C);
May be insulated.
P Sampling Pump (Figures 14 and 15)
The particulate sampling pump shall be located sufficiently distant from the tunnel so that
the inlet gas temperature is maintained constant (± 3K), if flow correction by FC3 is not
used.
DP Dilution Air Pump (Figure 15) (full flow double dilution only)
The dilution air pump shall be located so that the secondary dilution air is supplied at a
temperature of 298K (25° C) ± 5K.
FC3 Flow Controller (Figures 14 and 15)
A flow controller shall be used to compensate the particulate sample flow rate for temperature
and backpressure variations in the sample path, if no other means are available. The flow
controller is required if electronic flow compensation EFC (see Figure 13) is used.
FM3 Flow Measurement Device (Figures 14 and 15) (particulate sample flow)
The gas meter or flow instrumentation shall be located sufficiently distant from the sample
pump so that the inlet gas temperature remains constant (± 3K), if flow correction by FC3 is
not used.

ANNEX 5
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REFERENCE FUEL PRESCRIBED FOR
APPROVAL TESTS AND TO VERIFY CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTOR REFERENCE FUEL
Note:
Key properties for engine performance/exhaust emissions are highlighted.
Limits and Units (1) (2)
Test Method
Cetane Number (4)
min. 45 (7)
ISO 5165
max. 50
Density at 15° C
min. 835 kg/m
ISO 3675, ASTM D4052
max. 845 kg/m (10)
Distillation (3) 95% point
Maximum 370° C
ISO 3405
Viscosity at 40° C
Minimum 2.5 mm /s
ISO 3104
Maximum 3.5 mm /s
Sulphur content
Minimum 0.1% mass (9)
ISO 8754, EN 24260
Maximum 0.2% mass (8)
Flash Point
Minimum 55° C
ISO 2719
CFPP
Minimum -
EN 116
Maximum +5° C
Copper corrosion
Maximum 1
ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue
Maximum 0.3% mass
ISO 10370
(10% DR)
Ash content
Maximum 0.01% mass
ASTM D482 (11)
Water content
Maximum 0.05% mass
ASTM D95, D1744
Neutralisation (strong acid) number
Minimum 0.20 mg KOH/g
Oxidation stability (5)
Maximum 2.5 mg/100 ml
ASTM D2274
Additives (6)
Note 1:
If it is required to calculate thermal efficiency of an engine or vehicle, the calorific value of
the fuel can be calculated from:
Specific energy (calorific value) (net) MJ/kg =
(46.423 - 8.792 d + 3.170 d) × (l - (x + y + s)) + 9.420 s - 2.499 x
where:
d is the density at 15° C
x is the proportion by mass of water (%/100)
y is the proportion by mass of ash (%/100)
s is the proportion by mass of sulphur (%/100)

Equation for the calculation of the weighted specific fuel consumption:
SFC =

G

P
× WF
× WF
where: P = P + P
For the purpose of conformity of production assessments in accordance with
Paragraph 7.4.2., the requirements must be met using reference fuel which complies with
the minimum/maximum level of 0.1/0.2% mass.
Note 10:
Note 11:
Note 12:
Higher values are permitted up to 855 kg/m , in which case the density of the reference fuel
used is to be reported. For the purpose of conformity of production assessments in
accordance with Paragraph 7.4.2., the requirements must be met using reference fuel which
complies with the minimum/maximum level of 835/845 kg/m .
To be replaced by EN/ISO 6245 with effect of the date of implementation.
All fuel characteristics and limit values are to be kept under review in light of trends in the
markets.
Emissions - Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and Non-road Mobile Machinery Engines.