Regulation No. 96-02

Name:Regulation No. 96-02
Description:Emissions - Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and Non-road Mobile Machinery Engines.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Compression Ignition (CI) Engines to be Installed in Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and in Non-road Mobile Machinery with Regard to the Emissions of Pollutants by the Engine.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2008-02-03
Amendment Level:02 Series, Revision 2
Number of Pages:428
Vehicle Types:Agricultural Tractor, Component
Subject Categories:Prior Versions
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Keywords:

flow, gas, exhaust, engine, test, air, paragraph, dilution, system, mass, sampling, concentration, speed, sample, rate, cycle, analyser, emission, measurement, measured, temperature, calibration, pressure, time, diluted, particulate, reference, torque, filter, mol, values, calculated, emissions, annex, response, fuel, determined, total, ratio, manufacturer, maximum, appendix, verification, span, recorded, raw, power, factor, type, inlet

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.95/Rev.2
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
October 5, 2012
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 96-02
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.) ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED
IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTORS AND IN
NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY WITH REGARD TO THE
EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.12.95
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 30.06.95
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.03.97
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.02.00
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 16.09.01
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.01.03
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.04
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.02.08
Revision 2 to the 02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.10.12

REGULATION NO. 96-02
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.)
ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTORS AND IN
NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSIONS OF
POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions and abbreviations
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications and tests
6. Installation on the vehicle
7. Conformity of production
8. Penalties for non-conformity of production
CONTENTS
9. Modification and extension of approval of the approved type
10. Production definitely discontinued
11. Transitional provisions
12. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of Type
Approval Authorities

Annex 4B –
Test procedure for compression-ignition engines to be installed in agricultural and
forestry tractors and in non-road mobile machinery with regard to the emissions of
pollutants by the engine
Appendix A.1
Appendix A.2
Appendix A.3
Appendix A.4
Appendix A.5
Appendix A.6
Appendix A.7
– (reserved)
– Statistics
– 1980 international gravity formula
– Carbon flow check
– (reserved)
– (reserved)
– Molar based emission calculations
Appendix A.7.1 – Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration
Appendix A.7.2 – Drift correction
Appendix A.8
– Mass based emission calculations
Annex 5 – Test cycles
Appendix A.8.1 – Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration
Appendix A.8.2 – Drift correction
Annex 6

Technical characteristics of reference fuel prescribed for approval tests and to verify
conformity of production
Annex 7 – Installation requirements for equipment and auxiliaries
Annex 8 – Durability requirements

2.1.8. "Compression ignition (C.I.) engine" means an engine which works on the
compression-ignition principle (e.g. diesel engine);
2.1.9. "Constant-speed engine" means an engine whose type approval or certification is limited
to constant-speed operation. Engines whose constant-speed governor function is removed
or disabled are no longer constant-speed engines;
2.1.10. "Constant-speed operation" means engine operation with a governor that automatically
controls the operator's demand to maintain engine speed, even under changing load.
Governors do not always maintain exactly constant speed.
Typically, speed can decrease (0.1 to 10) % below the speed at zero load, such that the
minimum speed occurs near the engine's point of maximum power;
2.1.11. "Continuous regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust after-treatment
system that occurs either in a sustained manner or at least once over the applicable
transient test cycle or ramped-modal cycle; in contrast to periodic (infrequent) regeneration;
2.1.12. "Conversion efficiency of non-methane cutter (NMC) E" means the efficiency of the
conversion of a NMC that is used for removing the non-methane hydrocarbons from the
sample gas by oxidizing all hydrocarbons except methane. Ideally, the conversion for
methane is 0% (E = 0) and for the other hydrocarbons represented by ethane is 100%
(E = 100%). For the accurate measurement of NMHC, the two efficiencies shall be
determined and used for the calculation of the NMHC emission mass flow rate for methane
and ethane. Contrast with "penetration fraction";
2.1.13. "Delay time" means the difference in time between the change of the component to be
measured at the reference point and a system response of 10% of the final reading (t10)
with the sampling probe being defined as the reference point. For the gaseous components,
this is the transport time of the measured component from the sampling probe to the
detector (see Figure 3.1);
2.1.14. "DeNO system" means an exhaust after-treatment system designed to reduce emissions
of oxides of nitrogen (NO ) (e.g. passive and active lean NO catalysts, NO adsorbers and
selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems);
2.1.15. "Dew point" means a measure of humidity stated as the equilibrium temperature at which
water condenses under a given pressure from moist air with a given absolute humidity. Dew
point is specified as a temperature in °C or K, and is valid only for the pressure at which it is
measured;
2.1.16. "Discrete-mode" means relating to a discrete-mode type of steady-state test, as described
in Paragraph 7.4.1.1. and Annex 5;
2.1.17. "Drift" means the difference between a zero or calibration signal and the respective value
reported by a measurement instrument immediately after it was used in an emission test, as
long as the instrument was zeroed and spanned just before the test;
2.1.18. "Electronic control unit" means an engine's electronic device that uses data from engine
sensors to control engine parameters;
2.1.19. "Emission control system" means any device, system, or element of design that controls
or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine;

2.1.33. "High speed (n )" means the highest engine speed where 70% of the maximum power
occurs;
2.1.34. "Idle speed" means the lowest engine speed with minimum load (greater than or equal to
zero load), where an engine governor function controls engine speed. For engines without a
governor function that controls idle speed, idle speed means the manufacturer-declared
value for lowest engine speed possible with minimum load. Note that warm idle speed is the
idle speed of a warmed up engine;
2.1.35. "Intermediate speed" means that engine speed which meets one of the following
requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For engines which are designed to operate over a speed range on a full load torque
curve, the intermediate speed shall be the declared maximum torque speed if it
occurs between 60% and 75% of the rated speed;
If the declared maximum torque speed is less than 60% of the rated speed, then the
intermediate speed shall be 60% of the rated speed;
If the declared maximum torque speed is greater than 75% of the rated speed then
the intermediate speed shall be 75% of the rated speed.
2.1.36. "Linearity" means the degree to which measured values agree with respective reference
values. Linearity is quantified using a linear regression of pairs of measured values and
reference values over a range of values expected or observed during testing;
2.1.37. "Low speed (n )" means the lowest engine speed where 50% of the maximum power
occurs;
2.1.38.
"Maximum power (P
)" means the maximum power in kW as designed by the
manufacturer;
2.1.39. "Maximum torque speed" means the engine speed at which the maximum torque is
obtained from the engine, as specified by the manufacturer;
2.1.40. "Means of a quantity" based upon flow-weighted mean values means the mean level of a
quantity after it is weighted proportionally to the corresponding flow rate;
2.1.41. "Net power" means the power in "ECE kW" obtained on the test bench at the end of the
crankshaft, or its equivalent, measured in accordance with the method described in
Regulation No. 120 on the measurement of the net power, net torque and specific fuel
consumption of internal combustion engines for agricultural and forestry tractors and nonroad
mobile machinery.
2.1.42. "Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC)" means the sum of all hydrocarbon species except
methane;
2.1.43. "Open crankcase emissions" means any flow from an engine's crankcase that is emitted
directly into the environment;

2.1.55. "Probe" means the first section of the transfer line which transfers the sample to next
component in the sampling system;
2.1.56. "PTFE" means polytetrafluoroethylene, commonly known as Teflon ;
2.1.57. "Ramped modal steady state test cycle" means a test cycle with a sequence of steady
state engine test modes with defined speed and torque criteria at each mode and defined
speed and torque ramps between these modes;
2.1.58. "Rated speed" means the maximum full load speed allowed by the governor, as designed
by the manufacturer, or, if such a governor is not present, the speed at which the maximum
power is obtained from the engine, as designed by the manufacturer;
2.1.59. "Reagent" means any consumable or non-recoverable medium required and used for the
effective operation of the exhaust after-treatment system;
2.1.60. "Regeneration" means an event during which emissions levels change while the aftertreatment
performance is being restored by design. Two types of regeneration can occur:
continuous regeneration (see Paragraph 6.6.1.) and infrequent (periodic) regeneration (see
Paragraph 6.6.2.);
2.1.61. "Response time" means the difference in time between the change of the component to be
measured at the reference point and a system response of 90% of the final reading (t90)
with the sampling probe being defined as the reference point, whereby the change of the
measured component is at least 60% full scale (FS) and the devices for gas switching shall
be specified to perform the gas switching in less than 0.1s. The system response time
consists of the delay time to the system and of the rise time of the system;
2.1.62. "Rise time" means the difference in time between the 10% and 90% response of the final
reading (t – t );
2.1.63. "Shared atmospheric pressure meter" means an atmospheric pressure meter whose
output is used as the atmospheric pressure for an entire test facility that has more than one
dynamometer test cell;
2.1.64. "Shared humidity measurement" means a humidity measurement that is used as the
humidity for an entire test facility that has more than one dynamometer test cell;
2.1.65. "Span" means to adjust an instrument so that it gives a proper response to a calibration
standard that represents between 75% and 100% of the maximum value in the instrument
range or expected range of use;
2.1.66. "Span gas" means a purified gas mixture used to span gas analysers. Span gases shall
meet the specifications of paragraph 9.5.1. Note that calibration gases and span gases are
qualitatively the same, but differ in terms of their primary function. Various performance
verification checks for gas analysers and sample handling components might refer to either
calibration gases or span gases;
2.1.67. "Specific emissions" means the mass emissions expressed in g/kWh;

2.1.82. "Verification" means to evaluate whether or not a measurement system's outputs agree
with a range of applied reference signals to within one or more predetermined thresholds for
acceptance. Contrast with "calibration";
2.1.83. "To zero" means to adjust an instrument so it gives a zero response to a zero calibration
standard, such as purified nitrogen or purified air for measuring concentrations of emission
constituents;
2.1.84. "Zero gas" means a gas that yields a zero response in an analyser. This may either be
purified nitrogen, purified air, a combination of purified air and purified nitrogen.
Figure 1
Definitions of System Response: Delay Time (Paragraph 2.1.13.),
Response Time (Paragraph 2.1.59.), Rise Time (Paragraph 2.1.60.) and
Transformation Time (Paragraph 2.1.74.)

2.2.3. Abbreviations
ASTM
BMD
BSFC
CFV
CI
CLD
CVS
DeNO
DF
ECM
EFC
EGR
FID
GC
HCLD
HFID
IBP
ISO
LPG
NDIR
NDUV
NIST
NMC
PDP
%FS
American Society for Testing and Materials
Bag mini-diluter
Brake-specific fuel consumption
Critical Flow Venturi
Compression-ignition
Chemiluminescent Detector
Constant Volume Sampler
NO after-treatment system
Deterioration factor
Electronic control module
Electronic flow control
Exhaust gas recirculation
Flame Ionization Detector
Gas Chromatograph
Heated Chemiluminescent Detector
Heated Flame Ionization Detector
Initial boiling point
International Organization for Standardization
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Nondispersive infrared (Analyser)
Nondispersive ultraviolet (Analyser)
US National Institute for Standards and Technology
Non-Methane Cutter
Positive Displacement Pump
% of full scale

4.3. Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval of an engine type or family pursuant
to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply
this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2, as applicable, to
this Regulation. Values measured during the type test shall also be shown.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place to every engine
conforming to an engine type or family approved under this Regulation, an international
approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval;
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.4.3. an additional symbol consisting of a letter from D to R indicating the emission level
(Paragraph 5.2.1.) according to which the engine or the engine family has been approved.
4.5. If the engine conforms to an approved type or family under one or more Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed need not be repeated; in such a case, the regulation and
approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval
has been granted under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the
symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.2.
4.6. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the data plate affixed by the manufacturer
to the approved type.
4.7. Annex 3 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
4.8. The engine approved as a technical unit must bear, in addition to the approval mark:
4.8.1. The trademark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;
4.8.2. The manufacturer's engine code;
4.9. These marks must be clearly legible and indelible.

5.2. Specifications Concerning the Emissions of Pollutants
The gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall
be measured by the methods described in Annex 4A for the power bands up to P, and in
Annex 4B for power bands Q and R. At the request of the manufacturer and with the
agreement of the Type Approval Authority the methods described in Annex 4B may be used
for power bands up to P.
5.2.1. The emissions of the carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons, the emissions of the
oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of particulate obtained shall not exceed the amount
shown in the table below:
Power
band
Net Power
(P)
(kW)
Carbon Monoxide
(CO)
(g/kWh)
Hydrocarbons
(HC)
(g/kWh)
Oxides of Nitrogen
(NO )
(g/kWh)
Particulate Matter
(PM)
(g/kWh)
E 130 ≤P ≤560 3.5 1.0 6.0 0.2
F 75 ≤P <130 5.0 1.0 6.0 0.3
G 37 ≤P <75 5.0 1.3 7.0 0.4
D 18 ≤P <37 5.5 1.5 8.0 0.8
Net Power
(P)
(kW)
Carbon Monoxide
(CO)
(g/kWh)
Sum of hydro-carbons and
oxides of nitrogen
(HC + NO )
(g/kWh)
Particulate Matter
(PM)
(g/kWh)
H 130 ≤P ≤560 3.5 4.0 0.2
I 75 ≤P <130 5.0 4.0 0.3
J 37 ≤P <75 5.0 4.7 0.4
K
19 ≤P <37
5.5
7.5
0.6
L
130 ≤P ≤560
3.5
0.19
2.0
0.025
M
75 ≤P <130
5.0
0.19
3.3
0.025
N
56 ≤P <75
5.0
0.19
3.3
0.025
Sum of hydro-carbons and
oxides of nitrogen (HC + NO )
(g/kWh)
P
37 ≤P <56
5.0
4.7
0.025
Net power
(P)
(kW)
Carbon monoxide
(CO)
(g/kWh)
Hydrocarbons
(HC)
(g/kWh)
Oxides of nitrogen
(NO )
(g/kWh)
Particulate Matter
(PM)
(g/kWh)
Q
130 ≤P ≤560
3.5
0.19
0.4
0.025
R
56 ≤P <130
5.0
0.19
0.4
0.025
The limit values for power bands H to R shall include deterioration factors calculated in
accordance with Annex 8.

5.3.2.2.3. An auxiliary emission control strategy may be activated in particular for the following
purposes:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
By on-board signals, for protecting the engine (including air-handling device
protection) and/or non-road mobile machine into which the engine is installed from
damage;
For operational safety and strategies;
For prevention of excessive emissions, during cold start or warming-up, during shutdown;
If used to trade-off the control of one regulated pollutant under specific ambient or
operating conditions, for maintaining control of all other regulated pollutants, within
the emission limit values that are appropriate for the engine concerned. The purpose
is to compensate for naturally occurring phenomena in a manner that provides
acceptable control of all emission constituents.
5.3.2.2.4. The manufacturer shall demonstrate to the technical service at the time of the type approval
test that the operation of any auxiliary emission strategy complies with the provisions of
Paragraph 5.3.2.2. The demonstration shall consist of an evaluation of the documentation
referred to in Paragraph 5.3.2.3.
5.3.2.2.5. Any operation of an auxiliary emission control strategy not compliant with Paragraph 5.3.2.2.
is prohibited.
5.3.2.3. Documentation Requirements
5.3.2.3.1. The manufacturer shall provide an information folder accompanying the application for type
approval at the time of submission to the technical service, which ensures access to any
element of design and emission control strategy and the means by which the auxiliary
strategy directly or indirectly controls the output variables. The information folder shall be
made available in two parts:
(a)
(b)
The documentation package, annexed to the application for type approval, shall
include a full overview of the emission control strategy. Evidence shall be provided
that all outputs permitted by a matrix, obtained from the range of control of the
individual unit inputs, have been identified. This evidence shall be attached to the
information folder as referred to in Annex 1 A.
The additional material, presented to the technical service but not annexed to the
application for type approval, shall include all the modified parameters by any
auxiliary emission control strategy and the boundary conditions under which this
strategy operates and in particular:
(i)
A description of the control logic and of timing strategies and switch points,
during all modes of operation for the fuel and other essential systems, resulting
in effective emissions control (such as exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR)
or reagent dosing);

(c)
(d)
Information on the correct use of the reagent, accompanied by an instruction on
refilling the reagent between normal maintenance intervals;
A clear warning, that the type approval certificate, issued for the type of engine
concerned, is valid only when all of the following conditions are met:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The engine is operated, used and maintained in accordance with the
instructions provided;
Prompt action has been taken for rectifying incorrect operation, use or
maintenance in accordance with the rectification measures indicated by the
warnings referred to in sub-Paragraphs (a) and (b);
No deliberate misuse of the engine has taken place, in particular de-activating
or not maintaining an EGR or reagent dosing system.
The instructions shall be written in a clear and non-technical manner using the same
language as is used in the operator's manual on non-road mobile machinery or engine.
5.3.3.7. Reagent Control (Where Applicable)
5.3.3.7.1. The type approval shall be made conditional, in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph 6.1., upon providing indicators or other appropriate means, according to the
configuration of the non-road mobile machinery, informing the operator on:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The amount of reagent remaining in the reagent storage container and by an
additional specific signal, when the remaining reagent is less than 10% of the full
container's capacity;
When the reagent container becomes empty, or almost empty;
When the reagent in the storage tank does not comply with the characteristics
declared and recorded in Paragraph 2.2.1.13. of Appendix 1 and Paragraph 2.2.1.13.
of Appendix 3 to Annex 1A, according to the installed means of assessment;
When the dosing activity of the reagent is interrupted, in cases other than those
executed by the engine ECU or the dosing controller, reacting to engine operating
conditions where the dosing is not required, provided that these operating conditions
are made available to the Type Approval Authority.
5.3.3.7.2. By the choice of the manufacturer the requirements of reagent compliance with the declared
characteristics and the associated NO emission tolerance shall be satisfied by one of the
following means:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Direct means, such as the use of a reagent quality sensor.
Indirect means, such as the use of a NO sensor in the exhaust to evaluate reagent
effectiveness.
Any other means provided that its efficacy is at least equal to the one resulting by the
use of the means of Sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) and the main requirements of this
Paragraph are maintained.

7.2.2.2. If the engine taken from the series does not satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 7.2.2.1.
the manufacturer may ask for measurements to be performed on a sample of engines of the
same specification taken from the series and including the engine originally taken. The
manufacturer shall determine the size n of the sample in agreement with the technical
service. Engines other than the engine originally taken shall be subjected to a test. The
arithmetical mean ( x) of the results obtained with the sample shall then be determined for
each pollutant. The production of the series shall then be deemed to confirm if the following
condition is met:
S
x + ks ≤ 1
Where:
( x − x)
∑ = Where x is any one of the individual results obtained with the sample n;
n − l
l
k
is the limit value laid down in Paragraph 5.2.1. for each pollutant considered;
is a statistical factor depending on n and given in the following table:
n
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
k
0.973
0.613
0.489
0.421
0.376
0.342
0.317
0.296
0.279
n
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
k
0.265
0.253
0.242
0.233
0.224
0.216
0.210
0.203
0.198
0.860
if n ≥ 20, k =
n
7.2.3. The technical service responsible for verifying the conformity of production shall carry out
tests on engines which have been run-in partially or completely, according to the
manufacturer's specifications.
7.2.4. The normal frequency of inspections authorized by the Type Approval Authority shall be one
per year. If the requirements of Paragraph 7.2.2.1. are not met, the competent authority
shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the conformity of production
as rapidly as possible.

11. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
11.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, no Contracting
Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant approval under this Regulation as
amended by the 02 series of amendments.
11.2. As from the date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation may refuse to grant approvals to intermittent speed engines, or
engine families, of the power bands H, I, J and K which do not meet the requirements of this
Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments.
11.3. As from the date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation may refuse the placing on the market of variable speed engines, or
engine families, included in the power bands H, I, J and K not approved under this
Regulation as amended by the series 02 of amendments.
11.4. As from January 1, 2010, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse to grant
approvals to constant speed engines, or engine families, of the power band H, I and K which
do not meet the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of
amendments.
11.5. As from January 1, 2011, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse to grant
approvals to constant speed engines, or engine families, of the power band J which do not
meet the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments.
11.6. As from January 1, 2011, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of constant speed engines, or engine families, included in the power
bands H, I and K not approved under this Regulation as amended by the series 02 of
amendments.
11.7. As from January 1, 2012, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of constant speed engines, or engine families, included in the power
band J not approved under this Regulation as amended by the series 02 of amendments.
11.8. By derogation to the provisions stipulated on Paragraphs 11.3., 11.6. and 11.7., Contracting
Parties applying this Regulation may postpone each date mentioned in the above
Paragraphs for two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to the said
dates.
11.9. By derogation to the provisions stipulated in Paragraphs 11.3., 11.6. and 11.7., Contracting
Parties applying this Regulation may continue to permit the placing on the market of engines
approved on the basis of a previous technical standard, provided that the engines are
intended as replacement for fitting in vehicles in use, and that it is not technically feasible for
the engines in question to satisfy the new requirements of the 02 series of amendments.
11.10. As from the official date of entry into force of the 03 series of amendments, no Contracting
Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant approval under this Regulation as
amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.11. As from the date of entry into force of the 03 series of amendments, Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation may refuse to grant approvals to variable speed engines, or engine
families, of the power bands L, M, N and P which do not meet the requirements of this
Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.

ANNEX 1A
INFORMATION DOCUMENT NO. ... RELATING TO THE TYPE APPROVAL AND REFERRING TO
MEASURES AGAINST THE EMISSION OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS FROM
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED IN NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY
Parent engine/engine type
: .........................................................................................................................
1.
General
1.1.
Make (name of undertaking): ............................................................................................................
1.2.
Type and commercial description of the parent – and (if applicable) of the family engine(s): .........
1.3.
Manufacturer's type coding as marked on the engine(s): .................................................................
1.4.
Specification of machinery to be propelled by the engine
: ...........................................................
1.5.
Name and address of manufacturer: ................................................................................................
Name and address of manufacturer's authorized representative (if any): ........................................
1.6.
Location, coding and method of affixing of the engine identification ................................................
1.7.
Location and method of affixing of the approval mark: .....................................................................
1.8.
Address(es) of assembly plant(s): ....................................................................................................
Attachments:
1.1.
Essential characteristics of the (parent) engine(s) (see Appendix 1)
1.2.
Essential characteristics of the engine family (see Appendix 2)
1.3.
Essential characteristics of engine types within the family (see Appendix 3)
2.
Characteristics of engine-related parts of the mobile machinery (if applicable)
3.
Photographs of the parent engine
4.
List further attachments if any
Date, file

1.15. Temperature permitted by the manufacturer
1.15.1. Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: .................................................................... K
1.15.2. Air cooling: Reference point: .....................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point: ............................................................................. K
1.15.3. Maximum charge air outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler (if applicable): ..................... K
1.15.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer
flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s): ...................................................................................... K
1.15.5. Fuel temperature: ........................................................................................................... min: K
....................................................................................................................................... max: K
1.15.6. Lubricant temperature: ................................................................................................... min: K
....................................................................................................................................... max: K
1.16. Pressure charger: yes/no
1.16.1. Make: ........................................................................................................................................
1.16.2. Type:
1.16.3. Description of the system (e.g. max charge pressure, waste-gate, if applicable):
1.16.4. Intercooler: yes/no
1.17. Intake system: Maximum allowable intake depression at rated engine speed and at 100%
load: ................................................................................................................................... kPa
1.18. Exhaust system: Maximum allowable exhaust backpressure at rated engine speed and at
100% load: ......................................................................................................................... kPa
2. Measures taken against air pollution
2.1. Device for recycling crankcase gases: yes/no
2.2. Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)
2.2.1. Catalytic converter: yes/no
2.2.1.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.1.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
2.2.1.3. Number of catalytic converters and elements ...........................................................................
2.2.1.4. Dimensions- and volume of the catalytic converter(s): .............................................................

2.2.5.4. Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing: ...............................................
2.2.5.5. Normal operating temperature (K) and pressure (kPa) range: .................................................
2.2.6. Other systems: yes/no
2.2.6.1. Description and operation: ........................................................................................................
3. Fuel feed
3.1. Feed pump
Pressure or characteristic diagram: ................................................................................ kPa
3.2. Injection system
3.2.1. Pump
3.2.1.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.1.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.1.3. Delivery: .................... mm per stroke or cycle at pump speed of: .............................. min
at full injection, or characteristic diagram.
Mention the method used: On engine/on pump bench
3.2.1.4. Injection advance
3.2.1.4.1. Injection advance curve : ........................................................................................................
3.2.1.4.2. Timing : ...................................................................................................................................
3.2.2. Injection piping
3.2.2.1. Length: ............................................................................................................................... mm
3.2.2.2. Internal diameter: ............................................................................................................... mm
3.2.3. Injector(s)
3.2.3.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.3.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.3.3. Opening pressure or characteristic diagram: .................................................................. kPa

ANNEX 1A – APPENDIX 2
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE FAMILY
1. Common parameters
1.1. Combustion cycle: ..........................................................................................................................
1.2. Cooling medium: ............................................................................................................................
1.3. Method of air aspiration: .................................................................................................................
1.4. Combustion chamber type/design: ................................................................................................
1.5. Valve and porting 3/4 configuration, size and number: ..................................................................
1.6. Fuel system: ...................................................................................................................................
1.7. Engine management systems ........................................................................................................
Proof of identity pursuant to drawing number(s): ...........................................................................
1.7.1. Charge cooling system: ..................................................................................................................
1.7.2. Exhaust gas recirculation : ...........................................................................................................
1.7.3. Water injection/emulsion : ............................................................................................................
1.7.4. Air injection : .................................................................................................................................
1.8. Exhaust after-treatment system : .................................................................................................
Proof of identical (or lowest for the parent engine) ratio: system capacity/fuel delivery per
stroke, pursuant to diagram number(s): .........................................................................................

ANNEX 1A – APPENDIX 3
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGINE TYPES WITHIN THE FAMILY
1.
Description of engine
1.1.
Manufacturer: ............................................................................................................................
1.2.
Manufacturer's engine code: .....................................................................................................
1.3.
Cycle: four stroke/two stroke
1.4.
Bore: ................................................................................................................................... mm
1.5.
Stroke: ................................................................................................................................ mm
1.6.
Number and layout of cylinders: ...............................................................................................
1.7.
Engine capacity: ................................................................................................................. cm
1.8.
Rated speed: .............................................................................................................................
1.9.
Maximum torque speed: ...........................................................................................................
1.10.
Volumetric compression ratio
: ................................................................................................
1.11.
Combustion system description: ...............................................................................................
1.12.
Drawing(s) of combustion chamber and piston crown: .............................................................
1.13.
Minimum cross-sectional area of inlet and outlet ports: ............................................................
1.14.
Cooling system
1.14.1.
Liquid
1.14.1.1.
Nature of liquid: .........................................................................................................................
1.14.1.2.
Circulating pump(s): yes/no
1.14.1.3.
Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.14.1.4.
Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
1.14.2.
Air
1.14.2.1.
Blower: yes/no
1.14.2.2.
Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.14.2.3.
Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................

2.2.1.5. Type of catalytic action: ............................................................................................................
2.2.1.6. Total charge of precious metals: ...............................................................................................
2.2.1.7. Relative concentration: .............................................................................................................
2.2.1.8. Substrate (structure and material): ...........................................................................................
2.2.1.9. Cell density: ...............................................................................................................................
2.2.1.10. Type of casing for the catalytic converter(s): ............................................................................
2.2.1.11. Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place(s) and maximum/minimum distance(s) from
engine): .....................................................................................................................................
2.2.1.12. Normal operating range (K) ......................................................................................................
2.2.1.13. Consumable reagent (where appropriate): ...............................................................................
2.2.1.13.1. Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action: ...............................................
2.2.1.13.2. Normal operational temperature range of reagent: ...................................................................
2.2.1.13.3. International standard (where appropriate): ..............................................................................
2.2.1.14. NO sensor: yes/no
2.2.2. Oxygen sensor: yes/no
2.2.2.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.3. Location: ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.3. Air injection: yes/no
2.2.3.1. Type (pulse air, air pump, etc.): ................................................................................................
2.2.4. EGR: yes/no
2.2.4.1. Characteristics (cooled/uncooled, high pressure/low pressure, etc.): ......................................
2.2.5. Particulate trap: yes/no
2.2.5.1. Dimensions and capacity of the particulate trap: ......................................................................
2.2.5.2. Type and design of the particulate trap: ...................................................................................
2.2.5.3. Location (place(s) and maximum/minimum distance(s) from engine): .....................................

3.2.4. Governor
3.2.4.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.4.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.4.3. Speed at which cut-off starts under full load : ................................................................ min
3.2.4.4. Maximum no-load speed : .............................................................................................. min
3.2.4.5. Idling speed : .................................................................................................................. min
3.3. Cold Start System
3.3.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.3.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.3.3. Description: ...............................................................................................................................
4. Valve timing
4.1. Maximum lift and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres or equivalent
data: ..........................................................................................................................................
4.2. Reference and/or setting ranges

1.3.2. Configuration of the Cylinders
1.3.2.1. Position of the cylinders in the block:
(a) V;
(b)
(c)
(d)
In-line;
Radial;
Others (F, W, etc.).
1.3.2.2. Relative Position of the Cylinders
Engines with the same block may belong to the same family as long as their bore
centre-to-centre dimensions are the same.
1.3.3. Main Cooling Medium:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Air;
Water;
Oil.
1.3.4. Individual Cylinder Displacement
Within 85% and 100% for engines with a unit cylinder displacement ≥ 0.75dm of the largest
displacement within the engine family.
Within 70% and 100% for engines with a unit cylinder displacement <0.75dm of the largest
displacement within the engine family.
1.3.5. Method of Air Aspiration:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Naturally aspirated;
Pressure charged;
Pressure charged with charge cooler.
1.3.6. Combustion Chamber Type/Design:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Open chamber;
Divided chamber;
Other types.

1.3.11. Exhaust After-treatment Systems
The function and combination of the following devices are regarded as membership criteria
for an engine family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Oxidation catalyst;
DeNO system with selective reduction of NO (addition of reducing agent);
Other DeNO systems;
Particulate trap with passive regeneration;
Particulate trap with active regeneration;
Other particulate traps;
Other devices.
When an engine has been certified without an after-treatment system, whether as parent
engine or as member of the family, then this engine, when equipped with an oxidation catalyst
(not with particulate trap), may be included in the same engine family, if it does not require
different fuel characteristics. If it requires specific fuel characteristics (e.g. particulate traps
requiring special additives in the fuel to ensure the regeneration process), the decision to
include it in the same family shall be based on technical elements provided by the
manufacturer. These elements shall indicate that the expected emission level of the equipped
engine complies with the same limit value as the non-equipped engine.
When an engine has been certified with after-treatment system, whether as parent engine or
as member of a family, whose parent engine is equipped with the same after-treatment
system, then this engine, when equipped without after-treatment system, shall not be added
to the same engine family.
2. CHOICE OF THE PARENT ENGINE
2.1. The parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criteria of the highest fuel
delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or more
engines share this primary criterion, the parent engine shall be selected using the secondary
criteria of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed. Under certain circumstances, the
approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the family can best be
characterized by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority may select an
additional engine for test based upon features which indicate that it may have the highest
emission levels of the engines within that family.
2.2. If engines within the family incorporate other variable features which could be considered to
affect exhaust emissions, these features shall also be identified and taken into account in the
selection of the parent engine.

8. Emission levels – final test results with DF:
CO (g/kWh)
HC (g/kWh)
NO (g/kWh)
PM (g/kWh)
NRSC
NRTC
9. Engine submitted for test on: .....................................................................................................
10. Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval test: ...............................................
11. Date of test report issued by that service: .................................................................................
12. Number of test report issued by that service: ............................................................................
13. Site of approval mark on the engine: .........................................................................................
14. Place: .........................................................................................................................................
15. Date: ...........................................................................................................................................
16. Signature: ...................................................................................................................................
17. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are Annexed to this
communication:
One copy of Annex 1A or Annex 1B to this Regulation completed and with drawings and
diagrams referred to attached.

1.4. Engine performance
1.4.1. Engine speeds:
Idle: ..................................................................................................................................... min
Intermediate: ....................................................................................................................... min
Rated: ................................................................................................................................. min
1.4.2. Engine power
Power setting (kW) at
various engine speeds
Condition Intermediate (if applicable) Rated
Maximum power measured on test (P ) (kW) (a)
Total power absorbed by engine driven equipment as
per Paragraph 1.3.2. of this Appendix or Annex 7
(kW) (b)
Net engine power as specified in Paragraph 2.1.41.
(kW) (c)
c = a + b
2. Information Concerning the Conduct of the NRSC Test:
2.1. Dynamometer setting (kW)
10 (if applicable)
25 (if applicable)
50
75
100
Dynamometer setting (kW) at
various engine speeds
Per cent Load Intermediate (if applicable) Rated

3.
Information Concerning the Conduct of the NRTC Test
:
3.1.
Emission results of the engine/parent engine
Deterioration Factor (DF): calculated/fixed
Specify the DF values and the emission results in the following table
:
NRTC Test
DF
mult/add
CO HC NO PM
Emissions CO (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh) NO (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh)
Cold start
Emissions CO (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh) NO (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh)
Hot start w/o regeneration
Hot start with regeneration
k (mult/add)
k (mult/add)
Weighted test result
Final test result with DF
3.2. Sampling system used for the NRTC test:
Gaseous emissions : .................................................................................................................
Particulates : ..............................................................................................................................
Method
: single/multiple filter

ANNEX 4A
METHOD OF DETERMINING EMISSIONS OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex describes the method of determining emissions of gaseous and particulate
pollutants from the engine to be tested.
The following test cycles shall apply:
The NRSC (non-road steady cycle) appropriate for the equipment specification which shall be
used for the measurement of the emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of
nitrogen and particulates for all power bands of engines described in Paragraphs 1.1., 1.2.
and 1.3. of this Regulation, and the NRTC (non-road transient cycle) which shall be used for
the measurement of the emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and
particulates for Power Bands L and upwards of engines described in Paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2.
of this Regulation.
The gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be
measured by the methods described in Annex 4A, Appendix 4.
Other systems or analysers may be accepted if they yield equivalent results to the following
reference systems:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For gaseous emissions measured in the raw exhaust, the system shown in Figure 2 of
Annex 4A, Appendix 4;
For gaseous emissions measured in the dilute exhaust of a full flow dilution system, the
system shown in Figure 3 of Appendix 4 of Annex 4A;
For particulate emissions, the full flow dilution system, operating with a separate filter
for each mode, shown in Figure 13 of Appendix 4 of Annex 4A.
The determination of system equivalency shall be based upon a seven test cycle (or larger)
correlation study between the system under consideration and one or more of the above
reference systems.
The equivalency criterion is defined as a ±5% agreement of the averages of the weighted
cycle emissions values. The cycle to be used shall be that given in Annex 4A,
Paragraph 3.6.1.
For introduction of a new system into the Regulation the determination of equivalency shall be
based upon the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility, as described in ISO 5725.
1.2. The test shall be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a
dynamometer.

During this test sequence the above pollutants shall be examined. The test sequence consists
of a cold start cycle following natural or forced cool-down of the engine, a hot soak period and
a hot start cycle, resulting in a composite emissions calculation. Using the engine torque and
speed feedback signals of the engine dynamometer, the power shall be integrated with
respect to the time of the cycle, resulting in the work produced by the engine over the cycle.
The concentrations of the gaseous components shall be determined over the cycle, either in
the raw exhaust gas by integration of the analyser signal in accordance with Appendix 3 to
this Annex, or in the diluted exhaust gas of a CVS full-flow dilution system by integration or by
bag sampling in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex. For particulates, a proportional
sample shall be collected from the diluted exhaust gas on a specified filter by either partial
flow dilution or full-flow dilution. Depending on the method used, the diluted or undiluted
exhaust gas flow rate shall be determined over the cycle to calculate the mass emission
values of the pollutants. The mass emission values shall be related to the engine work to give
the grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt-hour.
Emissions (g/kWh) shall be measured during both the cold and hot start cycles. Composite
weighted emissions shall be computed by weighing the cold start results 10% and the hot
start results 90%. Weighted composite results shall meet the limits.
1.4. Symbols for Test Parameters
Symbol Unit Term
A m Cross-sectional area of the isokinetic sampling probe.
A m Cross-sectional area of the exhaust pipe.
aver
Weighted average values for:
m /h
kg/h
g/kWh
volume flow;
mass flow;
specific emission.
α – Hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the fuel
C1 – Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon.
conc
ppm
Concentration (with suffix of the component nominating)
Vol%
conc
ppm
Background corrected concentration.
Vol%
conc
ppm
Concentration of dilution air.
Vol%
DF − Dilution factor.
f − Laboratory atmospheric factor.

Symbol Unit Term
M mg Particulate sample mass collected.
p
kPa
Saturation vapour pressure of the engine intake air
(ISO 3046 P = PSY test ambient).
p
kPa
Total barometric pressure (ISO 3046: P = PX Site ambient total
pressure; P = PY Test ambient total pressure).
p kPa Saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air.
p kPa Dry atmospheric pressure.
P kW Power, brake uncorrected.
P
kW
Declared total power absorbed by auxiliaries fitted for the test which are
not required by Paragraph 2.1.41. of this Regulation.
P
kW
Maximum measured power at the test speed under test conditions (see
Annex 1A)
P kW Power measured at the different test modes.
q − Dilution ratio.
r − Ratio of cross sectional areas of isokinetic probe and exhaust pipe.
R % Relative humidity of the intake air.
R % Relative humidity of the dilution air.
R − FID response factor.
S kW Dynamometer setting.
T K Absolute temperature of the intake air.
T K Absolute dewpoint temperature.
T K Temperature of the intercooled air.
T K Reference temperature (of combustion air 298K (25°C))
T K Intercooled air reference temperature.
V m /h Intake air volume flow rate on dry basis.
V m /h Intake air volume flow rate on wet basis.
V
m
Volume of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate sample
filters.

2.2.3. Engines with Charge Air Cooling
The charge air temperature shall be recorded and, at the declared rated speed and full load,
shall be within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer.
The temperature of the cooling medium shall be at least 293K (20°C).
If a test shop system or external blower is used, the charge air temperature shall be set to
within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer at the
speed of the declared maximum power and full load. Coolant temperature and coolant flow
rate of the charge air cooler at the above set point shall not be changed for the whole test
cycle. The charge air cooler volume shall be based upon good engineering practice and
typical vehicle/machinery applications.
Optionally, the setting of the charge air cooler may be done in accordance with SAE J 1937
as published in January 1995.
2.3. Engine Air Inlet System
The test engine shall be equipped with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction
within ±300Pa of the value specified by the manufacturer for a clean air cleaner at the engine
operating conditions as specified by the manufacturer, which result in maximum air flow. The
restrictions are to be set at rated speed and full load. A test shop system may be used,
provided it duplicates actual engine operating conditions.
2.4. Engine Exhaust System
The test engine shall be equipped with an exhaust system with exhaust back pressure within
±650Pa of the value specified by the manufacturer at the engine operating conditions
resulting in maximum declared power.
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment device, the exhaust pipe shall have
the same diameter as found in-use for at least four pipe diameters upstream to the inlet of the
beginning of the expansion section containing the after-treatment device. The distance from
the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust after-treatment device shall
be the same as in the machine configuration or within the distance specifications of the
manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as above,
and may be set with a valve. The after-treatment container may be removed during dummy
tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container having an
inactive catalyst support.
2.5. Cooling System
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating
temperatures shall be prescribed by the manufacturer.
2.6. Lubricating Oil
Specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test shall be recorded and presented with the
results of the test.

3.2. Preparation of the Sampling Filters
At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) shall be placed in a closed, but unsealed,
petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilization. At the end of the stabilization
period, each filter (pair) shall be weighed and the tare weight shall be recorded. The filter
(pair) shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or filter holder until needed for testing. If the
filter (pair) is not used within 8h of its removal from the weighing chamber, it shall be
reweighed before use.
3.3. Installation of the Measuring Equipment
The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. When using a full flow
dilution system for exhaust gas dilution, the tailpipe shall be connected to the system.
3.4. Starting the Dilution System and Engine
The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures and
pressures have stabilized at full load and rated speed (Paragraph 3.6.2.).
3.5. Adjustment of the Dilution Ratio
The particulate sampling system shall be started and running on bypass for the single filter
method (optional for the multiple filter method). The particulate background level of the
dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If filtered
dilution air is used, one measurement may be done at any time prior to, during, or after the
test. If the dilution air is not filtered, the measurement shall be done on one sample taken for
the duration of the test.
The dilution air shall be set to obtain a filter face temperature between 315K (42°C) and 325K
(52°C) at each mode. The total dilution ratio shall not be less than four.
Note: For power bands up to and including K using discrete mode cycles the filter
temperature may be kept at or below the maximum temperature of 325K (52°C)
instead of respecting the temperature range of 42°C to 52°C.
For the single and multiple filter methods, the sample mass flow rate through the filter shall be
maintained at a constant proportion of the dilute exhaust mass flow rate for full flow systems
for all modes. This mass ratio shall be within ±5% with respect to the averaged value of the
mode, except for the first 10s of each mode for systems without bypass capability. For partial
flow dilution systems with single filter method, the mass flow rate through the filter shall be
constant within ±5% with respect to the averaged value of the mode, except for the first 10s of
each mode for systems without bypass capability.

3.7.2. Conditioning of the Engine
Warming up of the engine and the system shall be at maximum speed and torque in order to
stabilize the engine parameters according to the recommendations of the manufacturer.
Note: The conditioning period should also prevent the influence of deposits from a former
test in the exhaust system. There is also a required period of stabilization between
test points which has been included to minimize point to point influences.
3.7.3. Test Sequence
The test sequence shall be started. The test shall be performed in the order of the mode
numbers as set out above for the test cycles.
During each mode of the given test cycle after the initial transition period, the specified speed
shall be held to within ±1% of rated speed or ±3min , whichever is greater, except for low idle
which shall be within the tolerances declared by the manufacturer. The specified torque shall
be held so that the average over the period during which the measurements are being taken
is within ±2% of the maximum torque at the test speed.
For each measuring point a minimum time of ten minutes is necessary. If for the testing of an
engine, longer sampling times are required for reasons of obtaining sufficient particulate mass
on the measuring filter the test mode period can be extended as necessary.
The mode length shall be recorded and reported.
The gaseous exhaust emission concentration values shall be measured and recorded during
the last three minutes of the mode.
The particulate sampling and the gaseous emission measurement should not commence
before engine stabilization, as defined by the manufacturer, has been achieved and their
completion shall be coincident.
The fuel temperature shall be measured at the inlet to the fuel injection pump or as specified
by the manufacturer, and the location of measurement recorded.
3.7.4. Analyser Response
The output of the analysers shall be recorded on a strip chart recorder or measured with an
equivalent data acquisition system with the exhaust gas flowing through the analysers at least
during the last three minutes of each mode. If bag sampling is applied for the diluted CO and
CO measurement (see Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.4.4.), a sample shall be bagged
during the last three minutes of each mode, and the bag sample analysed and recorded.

4.2. Engine Mapping Procedure
When generating the NRTC on the test cell, the engine shall be mapped before running the
test cycle to determine the speed vs. torque curve.
4.2.1. Determination of the Mapping Speed Range
The minimum and maximum mapping speeds are defined as follows:
Minimum mapping speed = idle speed
Maximum mapping speed
=
n × 1.02 or speed where full load torque drops off to zero,
whichever is lower (where n is the high speed, defined as
the highest engine speed where 70% of the rated power is
delivered).
4.2.2. Engine Mapping Curve
The engine shall be warmed up at maximum power in order to stabilize the engine
parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering
practice. When the engine is stabilized, the engine mapping shall be performed according to
the following procedures.
4.2.2.1. Transient Map
(a)
(b)
(c)
The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed.
The engine shall be operated at full load setting of the injection pump at minimum
mapping speed.
The engine speed shall be increased at an average rate of 8 min /s ± 1min /s from
minimum to maximum mapping speed. Engine speed and torque points shall be
recorded at a sample rate of at least one point per second.
4.2.2.2. Step Map
(a)
(b)
(c)
The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed.
The engine shall be operated at full load setting of the injection pump at minimum
mapping speed.
While maintaining full load, the minimum mapping speed shall be maintained for at
least 15s, and the average torque during the last 5s shall be recorded. The maximum
torque curve from minimum to maximum mapping speed shall be determined in no
greater than 100 min ± 20min speed increments. Each test point shall be held for at
least 15s, and the average torque during the last 5s shall be recorded.

4.3.2. Denormalization of Engine Speed
The speed shall be denormalized using the following equation:
ActualSpeed =
%speed
100
4.3.3. Denormalization of Engine Torque
× (referencespeed – idlespeed) + idlespeed
The torque values in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex 5 are normalized to the
maximum torque at the respective speed. The torque values of the reference cycle shall be
denormalized, using the mapping curve determined according to Paragraph 4.2.2., as follows:
Actualtorque =
%torque
100
× max.torque
for the respective actual speed as determined in Paragraph 4.3.2.
4.3.4. Example of Denormalization Procedure
As an example, the following test point shall be denormalized:
% speed = 43%
% torque = 82%
Given the following values:
referencespeed = 2,200 min
idlespeed = 600 min
results in
43
ActualSpeed = × (2,200 – 600) + 600 = 1288 min
100
With the maximum torque of 700Nm observed from the mapping curve at 1,288min
82
Actualtorque = × 700 = 574Nm
100
4.4. Dynamometer
4.4.1. When using a load cell, the torque signal shall be transferred to the engine axis and the
inertia of the dyno shall be considered. The actual engine torque is the torque read on the
load cell plus the moment of inertia of the brake multiplied by the angular acceleration. The
control system has to perform this calculation in real time.

4.5.1. Preparation of the Sampling Filters
At least one hour before the test, each filter shall be placed in a petri dish, which is protected
against dust contamination and allows air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilization. At the end of the stabilization period, each filter shall be weighed and the weight
shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter holder
until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the weighing
chamber. The tare weight shall be recorded.
4.5.2. Installation of the Measuring Equipment
The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. The tailpipe shall be
connected to the full-flow dilution system, if used.
4.5.3. Starting the Dilution System
The dilution system shall be started. The total diluted exhaust gas flow of a full-flow dilution
system or the diluted exhaust gas flow through a partial flow dilution system shall be set to
eliminate water condensation in the system, and to obtain a filter face temperature between
315K (42°C) and 325K (52°C).
4.5.4. Starting the Particulate Sampling System
The particulate sampling system shall be started and run on by-pass. The particulate
background level of the dilution air may be determined by sampling the dilution air prior to
entrance of the exhaust into the dilution tunnel. It is preferred that background particulate
sample be collected during the transient cycle if another PM sampling system is available.
Otherwise, the PM sampling system used to collect transient cycle PM can be used. If filtered
dilution air is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after the test. If the dilution air
is not filtered, measurements should be carried out prior to the beginning and after the end of
the cycle and the values averaged.
4.5.5. Checking the Analysers
The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned. If sample bags are used, they shall
be evacuated.
4.5.6. Cool-down Requirements
A natural or forced cool-down procedure may be applied. For forced cool-down, good
engineering judgment shall be used to set up systems to send cooling air across the engine,
to send cool oil through the engine lubrication system, to remove heat from the coolant
through the engine cooling system, and to remove heat from an exhaust after-treatment
system. In the case of a forced after-treatment cool down, cooling air shall not be applied until
the after-treatment system has cooled below its catalytic activation temperature. Any cooling
procedure that results in unrepresentative emissions is not permitted.
The cold start cycle exhaust emission test may begin after a cool-down only when the engine
oil, coolant and after-treatment temperatures are stabilized between 20°C and 30°C for a
minimum of fifteen minutes.

4.5.7.3. Particulate Sampling
At the start of the engine the particulate sampling system shall be switched from by-pass to
collecting particulates.
If a partial flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow
rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained proportional to the
exhaust mass flow rate.
If a full flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow rate
through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within ±5% of
the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e. proportional control of sample flow) is used, it shall
be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not change
by more than ±5% of its set value (except for the first 10s of sampling).
Note: For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate
through the sample filters and the secondary dilution airflow rate.
The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet shall
be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle (within ±5%)
because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test shall be
rerun using a lower flow rate and/or a larger diameter filter.
4.5.7.4. Engine Stalling During the Cold Start Test Cycle
If the engine stalls anywhere during the cold start test cycle, the engine shall be
preconditioned, then the cool-down procedure repeated; finally the engine shall be restarted,
and the test repeated. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the
test cycle, the test shall be voided.
4.5.7.5. Operations After Cold Start Cycle
At the completion of the cold start cycle of the test, the measurement of the exhaust gas mass
flow rate, the diluted exhaust gas volume, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the
particulate sample pump shall be stopped. For an integrating analyser system, sampling shall
continue until system response times have elapsed.
The concentrations of the collecting bags, if used, shall be analysed as soon as possible and
in any case not later than 20min after the end of the test cycle.
After the emission test, a zero gas and the same span gas shall be used for rechecking the
analysers. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and
post-test results is less than 2% of the span gas value.
The particulate filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber no later than one hour after
completion of the test. They shall be conditioned in a petri dish, which is protected against
dust contamination and allows air exchange, for at least one hour, and then weighed. The
gross weight of the filters shall be recorded.

4.5.7.9. Operations After Hot Start Cycle
At the completion of the hot start cycle, the measurement of the exhaust gas mass flow rate,
the diluted exhaust gas volume, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the particulate
sample pump shall be stopped. For an integrating analyser system, sampling shall continue
until system response times have elapsed.
The concentrations of the collecting bags, if used, shall be analysed as soon as possible and
in any case not later than 20min after the end of the test cycle.
After the emission test, a zero gas and the same span gas shall be used for re-checking the
analysers. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and
post-test results is less than 2% of the span gas value.
The particulate filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber no later than one hour after
completion of the test. They shall be conditioned in a petri dish, which is protected against
dust contamination and allows air exchange, for at least one hour, and then weighed. The
gross weight of the filters shall be recorded.
4.6. Verification of the Test Run
4.6.1. Data Shift
To minimize the biasing effect of the time lag between the feedback and reference cycle
values, the entire engine speed and torque feedback signal sequence may be advanced or
delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the feedback
signals are shifted, both speed and torque shall be shifted by the same amount in the same
direction.
4.6.2. Calculation of the Cycle Work
The actual cycle work W (kWh) shall be calculated using each pair of engine feedback
speed and torque values recorded. The actual cycle work W is used for comparison to the
reference cycle work W and for calculating the brake specific emissions. The same
methodology shall be used for integrating both reference and actual engine power. If values
are to be determined between adjacent references or adjacent measured values, linear
interpolation shall be used.
In integrating the reference and actual cycle work, all negative torque values shall be set
equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a frequency of less than 5Hz, and if,
during a given time segment, the torque value changes from positive to negative or negative
to positive, the negative portion shall be computed and set equal to zero. The positive portion
shall be included in the integrated value.
W shall be between –15% and +5% of W .

Table 2
Permitted Point Deletions from Regression Analysis
(Points to which the Point Deletion is Applied have to be Specified)
First 24 (±1) s and last 25s
Condition
Wide open throttle, and torque feedback <95% torque
reference
Wide open throttle, and speed feedback <95% speed
reference
Closed throttle, speed feedback > idle speed +50min , and
torque feedback >105% torque reference
Closed throttle, speed feedback ≤ idle speed +50min , and
torque feedback = Manufacturer defined/measured idle
torque ±2% of max torque
Closed throttle and speed feedback >105% speed
reference
Speed and/or torque and/or power points
which may be deleted with reference to the
conditions listed in the left column
Speed, torque and power
Torque and/or power
Speed and/or power
Torque and/or power
Speed and/or power
Speed and/or power

1.2.4. Tracer Measurement Method
This method involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust. A
known amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas flow as
a tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but shall not react in the exhaust
pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas sample.
In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall be
located at least 1m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger,
downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to the
injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration with
the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.
The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle speed
after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyser.
The calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:
G
=
60 ×
G
× ρ
( conc − conc )
where:
G = instantaneous exhaust mass flow (kg/s)
G = tracer gas flow (cm /min)
conc = instantaneous concentration of the tracer gas after mixing, (ppm)
ρ = density of the exhaust gas (kg/m )
conc = background concentration of the tracer gas in the intake air (ppm)
The background concentration of the tracer gas (conc ) may be determined by averaging the
background concentration measured immediately before and after the test run.
When the background concentration is less than 1% of the concentration of the tracer gas
after mixing (conc ) at maximum exhaust flow, the background concentration may be
neglected.
The total system shall meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow and shall be
calibrated according to Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.11.2.

1.3. Accuracy
The calibration of all measurement instruments shall be traceable to national or international
standards and comply with the requirements listed in Table 3.
Table 3
Accuracy of Measuring Instruments
No.
Measuring
instrument
Accuracy
1 Engine speed
±2% of reading or ±1% of engine's max. value whichever is larger
2 Torque
±2% of reading or ±1% of engine's max. value whichever is larger
3 Fuel consumption
±2% of engine's max. value
4 Air consumption
±2% of reading or ±1% of engine's max. value whichever is larger
5 Exhaust gas flow
±2.5% of reading or ±1.5% of engine's max. value whichever is
larger
6 Temperatures ≤600K ±2K absolute
7 Temperatures >600K ±1% of reading
8 Exhaust gas
±0.2kPa absolute
pressure
9 Intake air depression ±0.05kPa absolute
10 Atmospheric
±0.1kPa absolute
pressure
11 Other pressures
±0.1kPa absolute
12 Absolute humidity
±5% of reading
13 Dilution air flow
±2% of reading
14 Diluted exhaust gas
±2% of reading
flow
1.4. Determination of the Gaseous Components
1.4.1. General Analyser Specifications
The analysers shall have a measuring range appropriate for the accuracy required to
measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components (Paragraph 1.4.1.1.). It is
recommended that the analysers be operated in such a way that the measured concentration
falls between 15% and 100% of full scale.
If the full scale value is 155ppm (or ppm C) or less or if read-out systems (computers, data
loggers) that provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15% of full scale are used,
concentrations below 15% of full scale are also acceptable. In this case, additional
calibrations are to be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves – Annex 4A,
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.5.5.2.
The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be on a level as to minimize
additional errors.

1.4.3.2. Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Analysis
The carbon dioxide analyser shall be of the non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) absorption type.
1.4.3.3. Hydrocarbon (HC) Analysis
The hydrocarbon analyser shall be of the heated flame ionization detector (HFID) type with
detector, valves, pipework, etc., heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of 463K (190°C)
±10K.
1.4.3.4. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO ) Analysis
The oxides of nitrogen analyser shall be of the chemiluminescent detector (CLD) or heated
chemiluminescent detector (HCLD) type with a NO /NO converter, if measured on a dry
basis. If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 328K (55°C)
shall be used, provided the water quench check (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.9.2.2.)
is satisfied.
For both CLD and HCLD, the sampling path shall be maintained at a wall temperature of
328K to 473K (55°C to 200°C) up to the converter for dry measurement, and up to the
analyser for wet measurement.
1.4.4. Air to Fuel Measurement
The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified
in Paragraph 1.2.5. shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of Zirconia
type.
The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust gas temperature
is high enough to eliminate water condensation.
The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:
±3% of reading λ <2
±5% of reading 2 ≤λ <5
±10% of reading 5 ≤λ
To fulfil the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the
instrument manufacturer.

To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, particulate
sampling filters, a microgram balance and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing
chamber are required.
For particulate sampling, two methods may be applied:
(a)
(b)
The single filter method uses one pair of filters (Paragraph 1.5.1.3. of this Appendix) for
all modes of the test cycle. Considerable attention shall be paid to sampling times and
flows during the sampling phase of the test. However, only one pair of filters will be
required for the test cycle,
The multiple filter method dictates that one pair of filters (Paragraph 1.5.1.3. of this
Appendix) is used for each of the individual modes of the test cycle. This method allows
more lenient sample procedures but uses more filters.
1.5.1. Particulate Sampling Filters
1.5.1.1. Filter Specification
1.5.1.2. Filter Size
Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon based membrane filters are required for
certification tests. For special applications different filter materials may be used. All filter types
shall have a 0.3μm DOP (dioctylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least 99% at a gas face
velocity between 35cm/s and 100cm/s. When performing correlation tests between
laboratories or between a manufacturer and an approval authority, filters of identical quality
shall be used.
Particulate filters shall have a minimum diameter of 47mm (37mm stain diameter). Larger
diameter filters are acceptable (Paragraph 1.5.1.5.).
1.5.1.3. Primary and Back-up Filters
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a pair of filters placed in series (one primary and one
back-up filter) during the test sequence. The back-up filter shall be located no more than
100mm downstream of, and shall not be in contact with, the primary filter. The filters may be
weighed separately or as a pair with the filters placed stain side to stain side.
1.5.1.4. Filter Face Velocity
A gas face velocity through the filter of 35cm/s to 100cm/s shall be achieved. The pressure
drop increase between the beginning and the end of the test shall be no more than 25kPa.

1.5.2.3. Analytical Balance
The analytical balance used to determine the weights of all filters shall have a precision
(standard deviation) of 2μg and a resolution of 1μg (1 digit = 1μg) specified by the balance
manufacturer.
1.5.2.4. Elimination of Static Electricity Effects
To eliminate the effects of static electricity, the filters shall be neutralized prior to weighing, for
example, by a Polonium neutralizer or a device of similar effect.
1.5.3. Additional Specifications for Particulate Measurement
All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the filter
holder, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, shall be designed to minimize
deposition or alteration of the particulates. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive
materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be electrically grounded to
prevent electrostatic effects.
2. MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES (NRTC TEST)
2.1. Introduction
Gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be
measured by the methods of Annex 4A, Appendix 4. The methods of Annex 4A, Appendix 4
describe the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous emissions (Paragraph 1.1.)
and the recommended particulate dilution and sampling systems (Paragraph 1.2.).
2.2. Dynamometer and Test Cell Equipment
The following equipment shall be used for emission tests of engines on engine
dynamometers:
2.2.1. Engine Dynamometer
An engine dynamometer shall be used with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle
described in Appendix 4 to this Annex. The instrumentation for torque and speed
measurement shall allow the measurement of the power within the given limits. Additional
calculations may be necessary. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be such that
the maximum tolerances of the figures given in Table 4 are not exceeded.

Direct measurement method
Direct measurement of the instantaneous exhaust flow may be done by systems, such as:
(a) Pressure differential devices, like flow nozzle, (for details see ISO 5167: 2000);
(b)
(c)
Ultrasonic flow-meter;
Vortex flow-meter.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors, which will impact emission value
errors. Such precautions include the careful installation of the device in the engine exhaust
system according to the instrument manufacturers' recommendations and to good
engineering practice. Especially, engine performance and emissions shall not be affected by
the installation of the device.
The flow-meters shall meet the accuracy specifications of Table 3.
Air and fuel measurement method
This involves measurement of the airflow and the fuel flow with suitable flowmeters. The
calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas flow is as follows: G
= G
+ G
(for wet
exhaust mass)
The flow-meters shall meet the accuracy specifications of Table 3, but shall also be accurate
enough to also meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow.
Tracer measurement method
This involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust.
A known amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas flow
as a tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but shall not react in the
exhaust pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas
sample.
In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall be
located at least 1m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger,
downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to the
injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration with
the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.
The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle speed
after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyser.

2.3. Determination of the Gaseous Components
2.3.1. General Analyser Specifications
The analysers shall have a measuring range appropriate for the accuracy required to
measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components (Paragraph 1.4.1.1.). It is
recommended that the analysers be operated in such a way that the measured concentration
falls between 15% and 100% of full scale.
If the full scale value is 155ppm (or ppm C) or less, or if read-out systems (computers, data
loggers) that provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15% of full scale are used,
concentrations below 15% of full scale are also acceptable. In this case, additional
calibrations are to be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves – Annex 4A,
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.5.5.2.
The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be of a level such as to
minimize additional errors.
2.3.1.1. Measurement Error
The analyser shall not deviate from the nominal calibration point by more than ±2% of the
reading or ±0.3% of full scale, whichever is larger.
Note: For the purpose of this standard, accuracy is defined as the deviation of the analyser
reading from the nominal calibration values using a calibration gas (≡ true value).
2.3.1.2. Repeatability
2.3.1.3. Noise
2.3.1.4. Zero Drift
2.3.1.5. Span Drift
The repeatability, defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation of 10 repetitive responses to a
given calibration or span gas, shall be no greater than ±1% of full scale concentration for each
range used above 155ppm (or ppm C) or ±2% for each range used below 155ppm (or
ppm C).
The analyser peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10s
periods shall not exceed 2% of full scale on all ranges used.
The zero drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2% of full scale on the lowest range
used. The zero response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a zero gas
during a 30s time interval.
The span drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2% of full scale on the lowest range
used. Span is defined as the difference between the span response and the zero response.
The span response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a span gas during a
30s time interval.

2.3.3.4. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO ) Analysis
The oxides of nitrogen analyser shall be of the chemiluminescent detector (CLD) or heated
chemiluminescent detector (HCLD) type with a NO /NO converter, if measured on a dry
basis. If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 328K (55°C shall
be used, provided the water quench check (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.9.2.2.) is
satisfied.
For both CLD and HCLD, the sampling path shall be maintained at a wall temperature of
328K to 473K (55°C to 200°C) up to the converter for dry measurement, and up to the
analyser for wet measurement.
2.3.4. Air to Fuel Measurement
The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified
in Paragraph 2.2.3. shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of Zirconia
type.
The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust gas temperature
is high enough to eliminate water condensation.
The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:
±3% of reading λ <2
±5% of reading 2 ≤λ <5
±10% of reading 5 ≤λ
To fulfil the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the
instrument manufacturer.
2.3.5. Sampling of Gaseous Emissions
2.3.5.1. Raw Exhaust Gas Flow
For calculation of the emissions in the raw exhaust gas the same specifications as for NRSC
test cycle apply (Paragraph 1.4.4.), as described here below.
The gaseous emissions sampling probes shall be fitted at least 0.5m or three times the
diameter of the exhaust pipe – whichever is the larger – upstream of the exit of the exhaust
gas system as far as applicable and sufficiently close to the engine as to ensure an exhaust
gas temperature of at least 343K (70°C) at the probe.
In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe
shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative
of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder engines having distinct
groups of manifolds, such as in a "V"-engine configuration, it is permissible to acquire a
sample from each group individually and calculate an average exhaust emission. Other
methods which have been shown to correlate with the above methods may be used. For
exhaust emissions calculation the total exhaust mass flow of the engine shall be used.

For the control of a partial flow dilution system, a fast system response is required. The
transformation time for the system shall be determined by the procedure described in
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.11.1.
If the combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement (see previous
Paragraph) and the partial flow system is less than 0.3s, online control may be used. If the
transformation time exceeds 0.3s, look ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run shall
be used. In this case, the rise time shall be ≤1s and the delay time of the combination ≤10s.
The total system response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the
particulates, G , proportional to the exhaust mass flow. To determine the proportionality, a
regression analysis of G versus G shall be conducted on a minimum 5Hz data
acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:
(a)
The correlation coefficient r of the linear regression between G
and G
shall be
not less than 0.95;
(b) The standard error of estimate of G on G shall not exceed 5% of G maximum;
(c) G intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ±2% of G maximum.
Optionally, a pre-test may be run, and the exhaust mass flow signal of the pre-test be used for
controlling the sample flow into the particulate system (look-ahead control). Such a procedure
is required if the transformation time of the particulate system, t or/and the transformation
time of the exhaust mass flow signal, t are >0.3s. A correct control of the partial dilution
system is obtained, if the time trace of G of the pre-test, which controls G , is shifted
by a 'look-ahead' time of t + t .
For establishing the correlation between G and G the data taken during the actual test
shall be used, with G time aligned by t relative to G (no contribution from t to the
time alignment). That is, the time shift between G and G is the difference in their
transformation times that were determined in Appendix 2, Paragraph 2.6.
For partial flow dilution systems, the accuracy of the sample flow G is of special concern, if
not measured directly, but determined by differential flow measurement:
G = G – G
In this case an accuracy of ±2% for G and G is not sufficient to guarantee acceptable
accuracies of G . If the gas flow is determined by differential flow measurement, the
maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of G is within ±5% when
the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking the root-mean-square of the
errors of each instrument.

2.4.1.5. Filter Loading
The recommended minimum filter loadings for the most common filter sizes are shown in the
following table. For larger filter sizes, the minimum filter loading shall be 0.065mg/1000mm
filter area.
Filter diameter
(mm)
Recommended stain diameter
(mm)
Recommended minimum loading
(mg)
47 37 0.11
70 60 0.25
90 80 0.41
110 100 0.62
2.4.2. Weighing Chamber and Analytical Balance Specifications
2.4.2.1. Weighing Chamber Conditions
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned and
weighed shall be maintained to within 295K (22°C) ±3K during all filter conditioning and
weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dewpoint of 282.5 (9.5°C) ±3K and a relative
humidity of 45% ± 8%.
2.4.2.2. Reference Filter Weighing
The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as dust)
that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilization. Disturbances to weighing
room specifications as outlined in Paragraph 2.4.2.1. will be allowed if the duration of the
disturbances does not exceed 30min. The weighing room should meet the required
specifications prior to personnel entrance into the weighing room. At least two unused
reference filters or reference filter pairs shall be weighed within 4h of, but preferably at the
same time as the sample filter (pair) weighing. They shall be the same size and material as
the sample filters.
If the average weight of the reference filters (reference filter pairs) changes between sample
filter weighing by more than 10μg, then all sample filters shall be discarded and the emissions
test repeated.
If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in Paragraph 2.4.2.1. are not met, but the
reference filter (pair) weighing meet the above criteria, the engine manufacturer has the
option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests, fixing the weighing room
control system and re-running the test.
2.4.2.3. Analytical Balance
The analytical balance used to determine the weights of all filters shall have a precision
(standard deviation) of 2μg and a resolution of 1μg (1 digit = 1μg) specified by the balance
manufacturer.

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 2
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE (NRSC, NRTC )
1. CALIBRATION OF THE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS
1.1. Introduction
Each analyser shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements
of this Regulation. The calibration method that shall be used is described in this Paragraph
for the analysers indicated in Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.4.3.
At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the approval authority the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraphs 8.1. and 8.2. may be used as an alternative to
those in Paragraph 1. of this Appendix.
1.2. Calibration Gases
1.2.1. Pure Gases
The shelf life of all calibration gases must be respected.
The expiry date of the calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.
The required purity of the gases is defined by the contamination limits given below. The
following gases must be available for operation:
(a)
Purified Nitrogen
(Contamination ≤1ppm C, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO)
(b)
Purified Oxygen
(Purity >99.5% vol O )
(c)
Hydrogen-Helium Mixture
(40% ± 2% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤1ppm C, ≤400ppm CO )
(d)
Purified Synthetic Air
(Contamination ≤1ppm C, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 18-21% vol)

1.3. Operating Procedure for Analysers and Sampling System
The operating procedure for analysers shall follow the start-up and operating instructions of
the instrument manufacturer. The minimum requirements given in Paragraphs 1.4. to 1.9.
shall be included.
1.4. Leakage Test
A system leakage test shall be performed. The probe shall be disconnected from the
exhaust system and the end plugged. The analyser pump shall be switched on. After an
initial stabilisation period all flow meters should read zero. If not, the sampling lines shall be
checked and the fault corrected. The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side
shall be 0.5% of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being checked. The
analyser flows and bypass flows may be used to estimate the in-use flow rates.
Another method is the introduction of a concentration step change at the beginning of the
sampling line by switching from zero to span gas.
If after an adequate period of time the reading shows a lower concentration compared to the
introduced concentration, this points to calibration or leakage problems.
1.5. Calibration Procedure
1.5.1. Instrument Assembly
The instrument assembly shall be calibrated and calibration curves checked against
standard gases. The same gas flow rates shall be used as when sampling exhaust.
1.5.2. Warming-up Time
The warming-up time should be according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. If
not specified, a minimum of 2h is recommended for warming-up the analysers.
1.5.3. NDIR and HFID Analyser
1.5.4. Calibration
The NDIR analyser shall be tuned, as necessary, and the combustion flame of the HFID
analyser shall be optimised (Paragraph 1.8.1).
Each normally used operating range shall be calibrated.
Using purified synthetic air (or nitrogen), the CO, CO , NO , HC and O analysers shall be
set at zero.
The appropriate calibration gases shall be introduced to the analysers, the values recorded,
and the calibration curve established according to Paragraph 1.5.6.
The zero setting shall be re-checked and the calibration procedure repeated, if necessary.

1.7. Efficiency Test of the NO Converter
1.7.1. Test Set-up
The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO into NO is tested as given in
Paragraphs 1.7.1. to 1.7.8. (Figure 1).
Using the test set-up as shown in Figure 1 (see also Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.4.3.5.) and
the procedure below, the efficiency of converters can be tested by means of an ozonator.
1.7.2. Calibration
Figure 1
Schematic of NO Converter Efficiency Device
The CLD and the HCLD shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following
the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which must
amount to about 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas mixture
to less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyser must be in the NO mode so
that the span gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated concentration has to
be recorded.

1.7.9. Test Interval
The efficiency of the converter shall be tested prior to each calibration of the NO analyser.
1.7.10. Efficiency Requirement
The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 90%, but a higher efficiency of 95% is
strongly recommended.
Note: If, with the analyser in the most common range, the ozonator cannot give a
reduction from 80% to 20% according to Paragraph 1.7.5., then the highest range
which will give the reduction shall be used.
1.8. Adjustment of the FID
1.8.1. Optimisation of the Detector Response
The HFID must be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. A propane in air
span gas should be used to optimise the response on the most common operating range.
With the fuel and air flow rates set at the manufacturer's recommendations, a
350ppmC ± 75ppmC span gas shall be introduced to the analyser. The response at a given
fuel flow shall be determined from the difference between the span gas response and the
zero gas response. The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the
manufacturer's specification. The span and zero response at these fuel flows shall be
recorded. The difference between the span and zero response shall be plotted and the fuel
flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve.
1.8.2. Hydrocarbon Response Factors
The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air, according to
Paragraph 1.5.
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and after
major service intervals. The response factor (R ) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the
ratio of the FID C1 reading to the gas concentration in the cylinder expressed by ppm C1.
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of approximately
80% of full scale. The concentration shall be known to an accuracy of ±2% in reference to a
gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall be
pre-conditioned for 24h at a temperature of 298 (25° C) ±5K.
The test gases to be used and the recommended relative response factor ranges are as follows:
Methane and purified synthetic air: 1.00 ≤R ≤1.15
Propylene and purified synthetic air: 0.90 ≤R ≤1.1
Toluene and purified synthetic air: 0.90 ≤R ≤1.10
These values are relative to the response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified
synthetic air.

(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
The percent of oxygen interference (%O I) shall be less than ±3.0%for all required
oxygen interference check gases prior to testing.
If the oxygen interference is greater than ±3.0%, the air flow above and below the
manufacturer's specifications shall be incrementally adjusted, repeating
Paragraph 1.8.1. for each flow.
If the oxygen interference is greater than ±3.0% after adjusting the air flow, the fuel
flow and thereafter the sample flow shall be varied, repeating Paragraph 1.8.1. for
each new setting.
If the oxygen interference is still greater than ±3.0%, the analyser, FID fuel, or burner
air shall be repaired or replaced prior to testing. This Paragraph shall then be
repeated with the repaired or replaced equipment or gases.
1.9. Interference Effects with NDIR and CLD Analysers
Gases present in the exhaust other than the one being analysed can interfere with the
reading in several ways. Positive interference occurs in NDIR instruments where the
interfering gas gives the same effect as the gas being measured, but to a lesser degree.
Negative interference occurs in NDIR instruments by the interfering gas broadening the
absorption band of the measured gas, and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas
quenching the radiation. The interference checks in Paragraphs 1.9.1. and 1.9.2. shall be
performed prior to an analyser's initial use and after major service intervals.
1.9.1. CO Analyser Interference Check
Water and CO can interfere with the CO analyser performance. Therefore a CO span gas
having a concentration of 80% to 100% of full scale of the maximum operating range used
during testing shall be bubbled through water at room temperature and the analyser
response recorded. The analyser response shall not be more than 1% of full scale for
ranges equal to or above 300ppm or more than 3ppm for ranges below 300ppm.

1.9.2.2. Water Quench Check
This check applies to wet gas concentration measurements only. Calculation of water
quench shall consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapour and scaling of water
vapour concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing. A NO span gas having a
concentration of 80% to 100% of full scale to the normal operating range shall be passed
through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded as D. The NO gas shall be bubbled through
water at room temperature and passed through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded
as C. The water temperature shall be determined and recorded as F. The mixture's
saturation vapour pressure that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature (F) shall be
determined and recorded as G. The water vapour concentration (in %) of the mixture shall
be calculated as follows:
G
H = 100 × ( )
p
and recorded as H. The expected diluted NO span gas (in water vapour) concentration shall
be calculated as follows:
⎛ H ⎞
De = D × ⎜1
− ⎟
⎝ 100 ⎠
and recorded as De. For diesel exhaust, the maximum exhaust water vapour concentration
(in %) expected during testing shall be estimated, under the assumption of a fuel atom H/C
ratio of 1.8 to 1.0, from the maximum CO concentration in the exhaust gas or from the
undiluted CO span gas concentration (A, as measured in Paragraph 1.9.2.1.) as follows:
and recorded as Hm.
Hm = 0.9 × A
The water quench shall be calculated as follows:
% H
O Quench = 100 ×
⎛ De



De
C ⎞


×



Hm
H



and must not be greater than 3% of full scale
De = Expected diluted NO concentration (ppm)
C = Diluted NO concentration (ppm)
Hm = Maximum water vapour concentration (%)
H = Actual water vapour concentration (%)
Note: It is important that the NO span gas contains minimal NO concentration for this
check, since absorption of NO in water has not been accounted for in the quench
calculations.

2. CALIBRATION OF THE PARTICULATE MEASURING SYSTEM
2.1. Introduction
Each component shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy
requirements of this Regulation. The calibration method to be used is described in this
Paragraph for the components indicated in Annex 4, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.5. and
Appendix 4.
At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the approval authority the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraphs 8.1. and 8.2. may be used as an alternative to
those in Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
2.2. Flow Measurement
The calibration of gas flowmeters or flow measurement instrumentation shall be traceable to
national and/or international standards.
The maximum error of the measured value shall be within ±2% of reading.
For partial flow dilution systems, the accuracy of the sample flow G is of special concern,
if not measured directly, but determined by differential flow measurement:
G = G – G
In this case an accuracy of ±2% for G and G is not sufficient to guarantee
acceptable accuracies of G . If the gas flow is determined by differential flow
measurement, the maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of G is
within ±5% when the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking
root-mean-square of the errors of each instrument.
2.3. Checking the Dilution Ratio
When using particulate sampling systems without EGA (Annex 4A, Appendix 4,
Paragraph 1.2.1.1.), the dilution ratio shall be checked for each new engine installation with
the engine running and the use of either the CO or NO concentration measurements in the
raw and dilute exhaust.
The measured dilution ratio shall be within ±10% of the calculated dilution ratio from CO or
NO concentration measurement.
2.4. Checking the Partial Flow Conditions
The range of the exhaust gas velocity and the pressure oscillations shall be checked and
adjusted according to the requirements of Annex 4A, Appendix 4, Paragraph 1.2.1.1., EP, if
applicable.
2.5. Calibration Intervals
The flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated at least every three months, or
whenever a system change is made that could influence calibration.

2.6.3. Pre-test Check
A pre-test check shall be performed within 2h before the test run in the following way:
The accuracy of the flow-meters shall be checked by the same method as used for
calibration for at least two points, including flow values of G that correspond to dilution
ratios between five and 15 for the G value used during the test.
If it can be demonstrated by records of the calibration procedure described above that the
flow-meter calibration is stable over a longer period of time, the pre-test check may be
omitted.
2.6.4. Determination of the Transformation Time
The system settings for the transformation time evaluation shall be exactly the same as
during measurement of the test run. The transformation time shall be determined by the
following method:
An independent reference flow-meter with a measurement range appropriate for the probe
flow shall be put in series with and closely coupled to the probe. This flow-meter shall have
a transformation time of less than 100ms for the flow step size used in the response time
measurement, with flow restriction sufficiently low not to affect the dynamic performance of
the partial flow dilution system, and consistent with good engineering practice.
A step change shall be introduced to the exhaust flow (or air flow if exhaust flow is
calculated) input of the partial flow dilution system, from a low flow to at least 90% of full
scale. The trigger for the step change should be the same one as that used to start the lookahead
control in actual testing. The exhaust flow step stimulus and the flow-meter response
shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least 10Hz.
From this data, the transformation time shall be determined for the partial flow dilution
system, which is the time from the initiation of the step stimulus to the 50% point of the
flow-meter response. In a similar manner, the transformation times of the G signal of the
partial flow dilution system and of the G signal of the exhaust flow-meter shall be
determined. These signals are used in the regression checks performed after each test
(Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.4.).
The calculation shall be repeated for at least five rise-and-fall stimuli, and the results shall
be averaged. The internal transformation time (<100ms) of the reference flow-meter shall be
subtracted from this value. This is the 'look-ahead' value of the partial flow dilution system,
which shall be applied in accordance with Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.4.

3.2.1. Data Analysis
The air flowrate (Q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /min. from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
air flow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
where:
Q T
V = × ×
n 273
101.3
p
Q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K) (m /s)
T
p
n
= temperature at pump inlet (K)
= absolute pressure at pump inlet (p – p ) (kPa)
= pump speed (rev/s)
To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the
correlation function (X ) between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet to pump
outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:
X
=
1
n
×
Δp
p
where,
∆p = pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet (kPa)
p
= absolute outlet pressure at pump outlet (kPa)
A linear least-square fit shall be performed to generate the calibration equation as follows:
V = D – m × (X )
D and m are the intercept and slope constants, respectively, describing the regression
lines.
For a CVS system with multiple speeds, the calibration curves generated for the different
pump flow ranges shall be approximately parallel, and the intercept values (D ) shall
increase as the pump flow range decreases.
The values calculated by the equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured value of V .
Values of m will vary from one pump to another. Particulate influx over time will cause the
pump slip to decrease, as reflected by lower values for m. Therefore, calibration shall be
performed at pump start-up, after major maintenance, and if the total system verification
(Paragraph 3.5.) indicates a change in the slip rate.

3.4. Calibration of the Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is a
function of inlet pressure and temperature, pressure drop between the SSV inlet and throat,
as shown below:
Q
= A
d
C
P
⎡ 1

⎢⎣
T
( r − r )


⎝1
− β
1
r
⎞⎤
⎟⎥
⎠⎥⎦
where:
A = collection of constants and units conversions =
0 .006111 in SI units



m
min

⎞ ⎜
⎟ ⎜
⎠ ⎜

K
kPa


⎛ 1
⎟ ⎜

⎝ mm




d
C
p
T
= diameter of the SSV throat (m)
= discharge coefficient of the SSV
= absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)
= temperature at the venturi inlet (K)
ΔP
r = ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute, static pressure = 1 −
p
β
= ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d, to the inlet pipe inner diameter = D
d

To determine the range of subsonic flow, C shall be plotted as a function of Reynolds
number, at the SSV throat. The Re at the SSV throat is calculated with the following
formula:
Re = A
Q

where:
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ min ⎞ ⎛ mm ⎞
A = a collection of constants and units conversions = 25 .55152 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠
Q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K) (m /s)
d
μ
= diameter of the SSV throat (m)
= absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas, calculated with the following formula:
μ =
bT
S
+ T
bT
=
1 +
S
T
kg / m
× s
where:
b = empirical constant = 1 .458 × 10
kg
msK
S = empirical constant = 104.4 K
Because Q is an input to the Re formula, the calculations shall be started with an initial
guess for Q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until Q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to 0.1% or better.
For a minimum of sixteen points in the subsonic flow region, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured C for
each calibration point.
3.5. Total System Verification
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated in
the normal manner. The pollutant is analysed, and the mass calculated according to
Annex 4A, Appendix 3, Paragraph 2.4.1. except in the case of propane where a factor of
0.000472 is used in place of 0.000479 for HC. Either of the following two techniques shall
be used.

ANNEX 4A – APPENDIX 3
DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS
1. Data Evaluation and Calculations – NRSC Test
1.1. Gaseous Emissions Data Evaluation
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 60s of each mode
shall be averaged, and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO, NO and CO if the
carbon balance method is used, during each mode shall be determined from the average
chart readings and the corresponding calibration data. A different type of recording can be
used if it ensures an equivalent data acquisition.
The average background concentrations (conc ) may be determined from the bag readings
of the dilution air or from the continuous (non-bag) background reading and the
corresponding calibration data.
If the ramped modal cycles of Annex 5, Sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) of Paragraph 1.2.,
respectively, are used, the data evaluation and calculation procedures of Annex 4B,
Paragraph 7.8.2.2., and the applicable sections of Paragraphs A.8.2., A.8.3. and A.8.4. shall
apply. The final test results shall be calculated according to Equations A.8-60 and A.8-61 or
A.7-49 and A.7-50, respectively.
1.2. Particulate Emissions
For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (M
) through filters shall
be recorded for each mode. The filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber and
conditioned for at least one hour, but not more than 80h, and then weighed. The gross
weight of the filters shall be recorded and the tare weight (see Paragraph 3.1., Annex 4A)
subtracted. The particulate mass (M for the single filter method; M for the multiple filter
method) is the sum of the particulate masses collected on the primary and back-up filters. If
background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (M
) through the filters and the
particulate mass (M ) shall be recorded. If more than one measurement was made, the
quotient M /M
or M /V
shall be calculated for each single measurement and the values
averaged.
If the ramped modal cycles of Annex 5, Sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) of Paragraph 1.2.,
respectively, are used, the data evaluation and calculation procedures of Annex 4B,
Paragraph 7.8.2.2., and the applicable sections of Paragraphs A.8.2., A.8.3. and A.8.4. shall
apply. The final test results shall be calculated according to Equation A.8-64 or A.7-53,
respectively.

For the dilution air:
K = 1 – K
K
1.608 × H
=
1000 +
( 1.608 × H )
H
=
p
6.22 × R
− p × R
× P
× 10
For the intake air (if different from the dilution air):
K = 1 – K
K
1.608 × H
=
1000 + (1.608 × H
)
H
=
p
6.22 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
H = absolute humidity of the intake air (g, water per kg dry air)
H = absolute humidity of the dilution air (g, water per kg dry air)
R = relative humidity of the dilution air, (%)
R = relative humidity of the intake air, (%)
p = saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air, (kPa)
p = saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, (kPa)
p = total barometric pressure, (kPa)
Note: H and H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above,
or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb
measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

1.3.4. Calculation of Emission Mass Flow Rates
The emission mass flow rates for each mode shall be calculated as follows:
(a) For the raw exhaust gas :
Gas = u × conc × G
(b) For the dilute exhaust gas :
Gas = u × conc × G
where:
conc is the background corrected concentration
conc
= conc-conc × (1 – (1/DF))
DF = 13.4/(conc + (conc + conc ) × 10 )
or:
DF
= 13.4/concCO
The coefficients u - wet, shall be used according to Table 5:
Table 5
Values of the Coefficient u – Wet for Various Exhaust Components
Gas
u
conc
NO
0.001587
ppm
CO
0.000966
ppm
HC
0.000479
ppm
CO
15.19
percent
The density of HC is based upon an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1/1.85.

1.4.2. Partial Flow Dilution System
The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be derived through the
following steps. Since various types of dilution rate control may be used, different calculation
methods for equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate G apply. All calculations shall
be based upon the average values of the individual modes (i) during the sampling period.
1.4.2.1. Isokinetic Systems
G = G × q
q
G
=
(G
+ (G
× r)
× r)
where r corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the isokinetic probe A and
the exhaust pipe A :
r =
A
A
1.4.2.2. Systems with Measurement of CO or NO Concentration
G = G × q
q
Conc
=
Conc
− Conc
− Conc
where:
Conc
Conc
Conc
= wet concentration of the tracer gas in raw exhaust
= wet concentration of the tracer gas in the diluted exhaust
= wet concentration of the tracer gas in the dilution air
Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis according to
Paragraph 1.3.2.

1.4.4. Calculation of the Particulate Mass Flow Rate
The particulate mass flow rate shall be calculated as follows:
For the Single Filter Method:
PT
M × (G )
=
M × 1000
where:
(G ) over the test cycle shall be determined by summation of the average values of
the individual modes during the sampling period:
( G
)
= ∑ G × WF
M
= ∑ M
where i = 1, ... n
For the Multiple Filter Method:
PT
M
=
× (G
M
)
× 1000
where i = 1, ... n
The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:
For Single Filter Method:

M

M ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞⎤
PT ⎢ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎞
= −
1 WF
⎟⎥
×
⎢M
⎜ ×

M ⎜∑
⎜ − ×
DF

⎟⎟⎥
⎣ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎠⎦
( G )
1000
If more than one measurement is made, (M /M ) shall be replaced with (M /M ) .
DF =
conc
13.4
+ (conc + conc
) × 10
or:
DF = 13.4/conc

1.4.6. Effective Weighting Factor
For the single filter method, the effective weighing factor WF for each mode shall be
calculated in the following way:
WF
M
=
M
× (G
× (G
)
)
where i = l, ... n
The value of the effective weighting factors shall be within ±0.005 (absolute value) of the
weighting factors listed in Annex 4A, Paragraph 3.7.1.
2. DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS (NRTC TEST)
The two following measurement principles that can be used for the evaluation of pollutant
emissions over the NRTC cycle are described in this Paragraph:
(a)
(b)
The gaseous components are measured in the raw exhaust gas on a real-time basis,
and the particulates are determined using a partial flow dilution system;
The gaseous components and the particulates are determined using a full flow
dilution system (CVS system).
2.1. Calculation of gaseous emissions in the raw exhaust gas and of the particulate emissions
with a partial flow dilution system
2.1.1. Introduction
The instantaneous concentration signals of the gaseous components are used for the
calculation of the mass emissions by multiplication with the instantaneous exhaust mass
flow rate. The exhaust mass flow rate may be measured directly, or calculated using the
methods described in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.2.3. (intake air and fuel flow
measurement, tracer method, intake air and air/fuel ratio measurement). Special attention
shall be paid to the response times of the different instruments. These differences shall be
accounted for by time aligning the signals.
For particulates, the exhaust mass flow rate signals are used for controlling the partial flow
dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The quality of
proportionality is checked by applying a regression analysis between sample and exhaust
flow as described in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.4.

2.1.2.2. Dry/wet Correction
If the instantaneously measured concentration is measured on a dry basis, it shall be
converted to a wet basis according to the following formulae:
where:
conc = K × conc
K

1
= ⎜
⎝1
+ 1.88 × 0.005 ×
( conc + conc )


− K

with:
K
⎛ 1.608 × H
= ⎜
⎝ 1000 +

( 1.608 × H ) ⎟⎟ ⎠
where:
conc
conc
H
= dry CO concentration (percent)
= dry CO concentration (percent)
= intake air humidity, (g water per kg dry air)
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (percent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or
from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb
measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.1.3. Particulate Determination
2.1.3.1. Calculation of Mass Emission
The particulate masses M
and M
(g/test) shall be calculated by either of the
following methods:
(a)
M M
M = ×
M 1000
where:
M = M for the cold start cycle
M = M for the hot start cycle
M
= particulate mass sampled over the cycle (mg)
M = mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (kg)
M = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters (kg)
The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle shall be
determined as follows:
1
M = ∑ G ×
f
G = G × q
q
=
G
( G − G )
where:
G = instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate (kg/s)
G = instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate (kg/s)
q
= instantaneous dilution ratio
G = instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate through dilution tunnel (kg/s)
G = instantaneous dilution air mass flow rate (kg/s)
f
n
= data sampling rate (Hz)
= number of measurements

2.1.3.2. Particulate Correction Factor for Humidity
As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the
particulate concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k given
in the following formulae.
k
=
1
( 1 + 0.0133 × ( H − 10.71)
)
where:
H
= humidity of the intake air in g water per kg dry air
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (percent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described
above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or
dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.
2.1.3.3. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The specific emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for in the following way:
P
=
( 1/10) K
× M
+ ( 9 /10)
( 1/10) W
+ ( 9 /10)W
K
× M
where:
M
= particulate mass over the cold start cycle (g/test)
M = particulate mass over the hot start cycle (g/test)
K = humidity correction factor for particulate over the cold start cycle
K = humidity correction factor for particulate over the hot start cycle
W = actual cycle work over the cold start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A, (kWh)
W = actual cycle work over the hot start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A, (kWh)

The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas
is kept within ±11K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger, is as follows:
where:
M = 1.293 × t × K × p / T
M = mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle
t
K
p
T
= cycle time (s)
= calibration coefficient of the critical flow venturi for standard conditions,
= absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)
= absolute temperature at venturi inlet (K)
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous
mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the
instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
where:
∆t = time interval(s)
SSV-CVS system
M = 1.293 × ∆t × K × p / T
The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle is as follows if the temperature of the diluted
exhaust is kept within ±11K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:
where:
M = 1.293 × Q × ∆t
Q
= A
d
C
P
⎡ 1

⎢⎣
T
( r − r )

× ⎜
⎝ 1 − β
1
r
⎞⎤
⎟⎥
⎠⎥⎦
A
= collection of constants and units conversions

2.2.2. NO Correction for Humidity
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air humidity with the factors given in the following formulae.
k
=
1 − 0.0182 ×
1
( H − 10.71) + 0.0045 × ( T − 298)
where:
T
H
= temperature of the air (K)
= humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air)
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (percent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or
from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb
measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.2.3.2. Systems with Flow Compensation
For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants M (g/test) shall be
determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the
instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied
directly to the instantaneous concentration value. The following formulae shall be applied:
M

⎛ 1 ⎞
(( )
⎟ ⎞
= ∑ M × conc × u −
⎜M
× conc × ⎜1
− ⎟ × u

⎝ DF ⎠ ⎠
where:
conc
conc
u
= instantaneous concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted
exhaust gas (ppm)
= concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air (ppm)
= ratio between density of the exhaust component and density of diluted exhaust
gas, as reported in Table 6, Paragraph 2.1.2.1.
M = instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas (Paragraph 2.2.1.) (kg)
M = total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (Paragraph 2.2.1.) (kg)
DF = dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 2.2.3.1.1.
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k , as described in Paragraph 2.2.2.
2.2.4. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The specific emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual component in the
following way:
Individual Gas =
( 1/10) M
+ ( 9 /10)
M
( 1/10) W
+ ( 9 /10)W
where:
M = total mass of gaseous pollutant over the cold start cycle (g)
M = total mass of gaseous pollutant over the hot start cycle (g)
W = actual cycle work over the cold start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A (kWh)
W = actual cycle work over the hot start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A. (kWh)

If the particulate background level of the dilution air is determined in accordance with
Paragraph 4.4.4. of Annex 4A, the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this
case, the particulate masses M and M (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:
where:
⎛ M ⎛ M 1 ⎞ M
M ⎜
⎛ ⎞⎞
= − 1 ⎟ ×
M
⎜ × ⎜ − ⎟
M DF

⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠⎠
1000
M = M for the cold start cycle
M = M for the hot start cycle
M, M , M = see above
M = mass of primary dilution air sampled by background particulate
sampler (kg)
M
= mass of the collected background particulates of the primary dilution air
(mg)
DF = dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 2.2.3.1.1.
2.2.5.2. Particulate Correction Factor for Humidity
As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the
particulate concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k given
in the following formula.
k
=
1
( 1 + 0.0133 × ( H − 10.71)
)
where:
H
= humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air)
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (percent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or
from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb
measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

ANNEX 4A – APPENDIX 4
ANALYTICAL AND SAMPLING SYSTEM
1. GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Figure
Number
Description
2 Exhaust gas analysis system for raw exhaust;
3 Exhaust gas analysis system for dilute exhaust;
4 Partial flow, isokinetic flow, suction blower control, fractional sampling;
5 Partial flow, isokinetic flow, pressure blower control, fractional sampling;
6 Partial flow, CO or NO measurement, fractional sampling;
7 Partial flow, CO and carbon balance, total sampling;
8 Partial flow, single venturi and concentration measurement, fractional sampling;
9 Partial flow, twin venturi or orifice and concentration measurement, fractional
sampling;
10 Partial flow, multiple tube splitting and concentration measurement, fractional
sampling;
11 Partial flow, flow control, total sampling;
12 Partial flow, flow control, fractional sampling;
13 Full flow, positive displacement pump or critical flow venturi, fractional sampling;
14 Particulate sampling system;
15 Dilution system for full flow system.

Figure 2
Flow Diagram of Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, NO and HC

– SP2 Dilute Exhaust Gas HC Sampling Probe (Figure 3 only)
The probe shall:
– Be defined as the first 254mm to 762mm of the hydrocarbon sampling line
(HSL3);
– Have a 5mm minimum inside diameter;
– Be installed in the dilution tunnel DT (Paragraph 1.2.1.2.) at a point where the
dilution air and exhaust gas are well mixed (i.e. approximately 10 tunnel
diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution
tunnel);
– Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to
be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies;
– Be heated so as to increase the gas stream temperature to 463K (190°C) ±10K
at the exit of the probe.
– SP3 Dilute Exhaust Gas CO, CO , NO Sampling Probe (Figure 3 only)
The probe shall:
– Be in the same plane as SP2;
– Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to
be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies;
– Be heated and insulated over its entire length to a minimum temperature of
328K (55 C) to prevent water condensation.
– HSL1 Heated Sampling Line
The sampling line provides gas sampling from a single probe to the split point(s) and
the HC analyser.
The sampling line shall:
– Have a 5mm minimum and a 13.5mm maximum inside diameter;
– Be made of stainless steel or PTFE;
– Maintain a wall temperature of 463 (190°C) ±10K as measured at every
separately controlled heated section, if the temperature of the exhaust gas at
the sampling probe is equal or below 463K (190°C)
– Maintain a wall temperature greater than 453K (180°C) if the temperature of
the exhaust gas at the sampling probe is above 463K (190°C)
– Maintain a gas temperature of 463K (190°C) ±10K immediately before the
heated filter (F2) and the HFID.

– C Converter
A converter shall be used for the catalytic reduction of NO to NO prior to analysis in
the CLD or HCLD.
– B Cooling Bath
To cool and condense water from the exhaust sample. The bath shall be maintained
at a temperature of 273 to 277K (0 to 4°C) by ice or refrigeration. It is optional if the
analyser is free from water vapour interference as determined in Annex 4A, Appendix
2, Paragraphs 1.9.1. and 1.9.2.
Chemical dryers are not allowed for removing water from the sample.
– T1, T2. T3 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the gas stream.
– T4 Temperature Sensor
Temperature of the NO - NO converter.
– T5 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the cooling bath.
– G1, G2, G3 Pressure Gauge
To measure the pressure in the sampling lines.
– R1, R2 Pressure Regulator
To control the pressure of the air and the fuel, respectively, for the HFID.
– R3. R4, R5 Pressure Regulator
To control the pressure in the sampling lines and the flow to the analysers.
– FL1, FL2. FL3 Flowmeter
To monitor the sample bypass flow.
– FL4 to FL7 Flowmeter (optional)
To monitor the flow rate through the analysers.
– V1 to V6 Selector Valve
Suitable valving for selecting sample, span gas or air gas flow to the analyser.
– V7, V8 Solenoid Valve
To bypass the NO - NO converter.

– Isokinetic Systems (Figures 4 and 5)
With these systems, the flow into the transfer tube is matched to the bulk exhaust flow
in terms of gas velocity and/or pressure, thus requiring an undisturbed and uniform
exhaust flow at the sampling probe. This is usually achieved by using a resonator and
a straight approach tube upstream of the sampling point. The split ratio is then
calculated from easily measurable values like tube diameters. It should be noted that
isokinesis is only used for matching the flow conditions and not for matching the size
distribution. The latter is typically not necessary, as the particles are sufficiently small
as to follow the fluid streamlines.
– Flow Controlled Systems with Concentration Measurement (Figures 6 to 10)
With these systems, a sample is taken from the bulk exhaust stream by adjusting the
dilution air flow and the total dilution exhaust flow. The dilution ratio is determined
from the concentrations of tracer gases, such as CO or NO , naturally occurring in
the engine exhaust. The concentrations in the dilution exhaust gas and in the dilution
air are measured, whereas the concentration in the raw exhaust gas can be either
measured directly or determined from fuel flow and the carbon balance equation, if
the fuel composition is known. The systems may be controlled by the calculated
dilution ratio (Figures 6 and 7) or by the flow into the transfer tube (Figures 8, 9 and
10).
– Flow Controlled Systems with Flow Measurement (Figures 11 and 12)
With these systems, a sample is taken from the bulk exhaust stream by setting the
dilution air flow and the total dilution exhaust flow. The dilution ratio is determined
from the difference of the two flow rates. Accurate calibration of the flow meters
relative to one another is required, since the relative magnitude of the two flow rates
can lead to significant errors at higher dilution ratios. Flow control is very
straightforward by keeping the dilute exhaust flow rate constant and varying the
dilution air flow rate, if needed.
In order to realise the advantages of the partial flow dilution systems, attention must
be paid to avoiding the potential problems of loss of particulates in the transfer tube,
ensuring that a representative sample is taken from the engine exhaust, and
determination of the split ratio.
The systems described pay attention to these critical areas.

Figure 5
Partial Flow Dilution System with Isokinetic Probe and
Fractional Sampling (PB Control)
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT
through the transfer tube TT by the isokinetic sampling probe ISP. The differential
pressure of the exhaust gas between exhaust pipe and inlet to the probe is measured
with the pressure transducer DPT. This signal is transmitted to the flow controller FC1
that controls the pressure blower PB to maintain a differential pressure of zero at the
tip of the probe. This is done by taking a small fraction of the dilution air whose flow
rate has already been measured with the flow measurement device FM1, and feeding
it to TT by means of a pneumatic orifice. Under these conditions, exhaust gas
velocities in EP and ISP are identical, and the flow through ISP and TT is a constant
fraction (split) of the exhaust gas flow. The split ratio is determined from the crosssectional
areas of EP and ISP. The dilution air is sucked through DT by the suction
blower SB, and the flow rate is measured with FM1 at the inlet to DT. The dilution
ratio is calculated from the dilution air flow rate and the split ratio.

Figure 7
Partial Flow Dilution System with CO Concentration
Measurement, Carbon Balance and Total Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT
through the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The CO concentrations are
measured in the diluted exhaust gas and in the dilution air with the exhaust gas
analyser(s) EGA. The CO and fuel flow G signals are transmitted either to the
flow controller FC2, or to the flow controller FC3 of the particulate sampling system
(see Figure 14). FC2 controls the pressure blower PB, while FC3 controls the
particulate sampling system (see Figure 14), thereby adjusting the flows into and out
of the system so as to maintain the desired exhaust split and dilution ratio in DT. The
dilution ratio is calculated from the CO concentrations and G using the carbon
balance assumption.

Figure 9
Partial Flow Dilution System Twin Venturi or Twin Orifice,
Concentration Measurement and Fractional Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT
through the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT by a flow divider that
contains a set of orifices or venturis. The first one (FD1) is located in EP, the second
one (FD2) in TT. Additionally, two pressure control valves (PCV1 and PCV2) are
necessary to maintain a constant exhaust split by controlling the backpressure in EP
and the pressure in DT. PCV1 is located downstream of SP in EP, PCV2 between the
pressure blower PB and DT. The tracer gas concentrations (CO or NO ) are
measured in the raw exhaust gas, the diluted exhaust gas, and the dilution air with
the exhaust gas analyser(s) EGA. They are necessary for checking the exhaust split,
and may be used to adjust PCV1 and PCV2 for precise split control. The dilution ratio
is calculated from the tracer gas concentrations.

Figure 11
Partial Flow Dilution System with Flow Control and Total Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT
through the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The total flow through the
tunnel is adjusted with the flow controller FC3 and the sampling pump P of the
particulate sampling system (see Figure 16).
The dilution air flow is controlled by the flow controller FC2, which may use G ,
G , or G as command signals, for the desired exhaust split. The sample flow into
DT is the difference of the total flow and the dilution air flow. The dilution air flow rate
is measured with flow measurement device FM1, the total flow rate with the flow
measurement device FM3 of the particulate sampling system (see Figure 14). The
dilution ratio is calculated from these two flow rates.

Description – Figures 4 to 12
– EP Exhaust Pipe
The exhaust pipe may be insulated. To reduce the thermal inertia of the exhaust pipe,
a thickness to diameter ratio of 0.015 or less is recommended. The use of flexible
sections shall be limited to a length to diameter ratio of 12 or less. Bends will be
minimised to reduce inertial deposition. If the system includes a test bed silencer, the
silencer may also be insulated.
For an isokinetic system, the exhaust pipe shall be free of elbows, bends and sudden
diameter changes for at least six pipe diameters upstream and three pipe diameters
downstream of the tip of the probe. The gas velocity at the sampling zone shall be
higher than 10m/s except at idle mode. Pressure oscillations of the exhaust gas shall
not exceed ±500Pa on the average. Any steps to reduce pressure oscillations beyond
using a chassis-type exhaust system (including silencer and after treatment device)
shall not alter engine performance nor cause the deposition of particulates.
For systems without isokinetic probes, it is recommended to have a straight pipe of
six pipe diameters upstream and three pipe diameters downstream of the tip of the
probe.
– SP Sampling Probe (Figures 6 to 12)
The minimum inside diameter shall be 4mm. The minimum diameter ratio between
exhaust pipe and probe shall be four. The probe shall be an open tube facing
upstream on the exhaust pipe centreline, or a multiple hole probe as described under
SP1 in Paragraph 1.1.1.
– ISP Isokinetic Sampling Probe (Figures 4 and 5)
The isokinetic sampling probe must be installed facing upstream on the exhaust pipe
centre-line where the flow conditions in section EP are met, and designed to provide
a proportional sample of the raw exhaust gas. The minimum inside diameter shall be
12mm.
A control system is necessary for isokinetic exhaust splitting by maintaining a
differential pressure of zero between EP and ISP. Under these conditions exhaust
gas velocities in EP and ISP are identical and the mass flow through ISP is a constant
fraction of the exhaust gas flow. The ISP has to be connected to a differential
pressure transducer. The control to provide a differential pressure of zero between
EP and ISP is done with blower speed or flow controller.
– FD1, FD2 Flow Divider (Figure 9)
A set of Venturis or orifices is installed in the exhaust pipe EP and in the transfer tube
TT, respectively, to provide a proportional sample of the raw exhaust gas. A control
system consisting of two pressure control valves PCV1 and PCV2 is necessary for
proportional splitting by controlling the pressures in EP and DT.

– FC1 Flow Controller (Figures 4, 5 and 10)
For the isokinetic systems (Figures 4 and 5) a flow controller is necessary to maintain
a differential pressure of zero between EP and ISP. The adjustment can be done by:
(a)
(b)
Controlling the speed or flow of the suction blower (SB) and keeping the speed
of the pressure blower (PB) constant during each mode (Figure 4); or
Adjusting the suction blower (SB) to a constant mass flow of the diluted
exhaust and controlling the flow of the pressure blower PB, and therefore the
exhaust sample flow in a region at the end of the transfer tube (TT) (Figure 5).
In the case of a pressure controlled system the remaining error in the control loop
shall not exceed ±3Pa. The pressure oscillations in the dilution tunnel must not
exceed ±250Pa on average.
For a multi-tube system (Figure 10) a flow controller is necessary for proportional
exhaust splitting to maintain a differential pressure of zero between the outlet of the
multi-tube unit and the exit of TT. The adjustment can be done by controlling the
injection air flow rate into DT at the exit of TT.
– PCV1, PCV2 Pressure Control Valve (Figure 9)
Two pressure control valves are necessary for the twin venturi/twin orifice system for
proportional flow splitting by controlling the backpressure of EP and the pressure in
DT. The valves shall be located downstream of SP in EP and between PB and DT.
– DC Damping Chamber (Figure 10)
A damping chamber shall be installed at the exit of the multiple tube unit to minimise
the pressure oscillations in the exhaust pipe EP.
– VN Venturi (Figure 8)
A venturi is installed in the dilution tunnel DT to create a negative pressure in the
region of the exit of the transfer tube TT. The gas flow rate through TT is determined
by the momentum exchange at the venturi zone, and is basically proportional to the
flow rate of the pressure blower PB leading to a constant dilution ratio. Since the
momentum exchange is affected by the temperature at the exit of TT and the
pressure difference between EP and DT, the actual dilution ratio is slightly lower at
low load than at high load.
– FC2 Flow Controller (Figures 6, 7, 11 and 12; optional)
A flow controller may be used to control the flow of the pressure blower PB and/or the
suction blower SB. It may be connected to the exhaust flow or fuel flow signal and/or
to the CO or NO differential signal.
When using a pressurised air supply (Figure 11) FC2 directly controls the air flow.

– DT Dilution Tunnel (Figures 4 to 12)
The dilution tunnel:
– Shall be of a sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and
dilution air under turbulent flow conditions;
– Shall be constructed of stainless steel with:
– a thickness to diameter ratio of 0.025 or less for dilution tunnels of
greater than 75mm inside diameter;
– a nominal wall thickness of not less than 1.5mm for dilution tunnels of
equal to or less than 75mm inside diameter;
– Shall be at least 75mm in diameter for the fractional sampling type;
– Is recommended to be at least 25mm in diameter for the total sampling type.
– May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct
heating or by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not
exceed 325K (52°C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution
tunnel.
– May be insulated.
The engine exhaust shall be thoroughly mixed with the dilution air. For fractional
sampling systems, the mixing quality shall be checked after introduction into service
by means of a CO profile of the tunnel with the engine running (at least four equally
spaced measuring points). If necessary, a mixing orifice may be used.
Note: If the ambient temperature in the vicinity of the dilution tunnel (DT) is below
293K (20°C), precautions should be taken to avoid particle losses onto the
cool walls of the dilution tunnel. Therefore, heating and/or insulating the
tunnel within the limits given above is recommended.
At high engine loads, the tunnel may be cooled by a non-aggressive means such as a
circulating fan, as long as the temperature of the cooling medium is not below 293K
(20°C).
– HE Heat Exchanger (Figures 9 and 10)
The heat exchanger shall be of sufficient capacity to maintain the temperature at the
inlet to the suction blower SB within ±11K of the average operating temperature
observed during the test.

Figure 13
Full Flow Dilution System
The total amount of raw exhaust gas is mixed in the dilution tunnel DT with the
dilution air. The diluted exhaust gas flow rate is measured either with a Positive
Displacement Pump PDP or with a Critical Flow Venturi CFV or with a Sub-Sonic
Venturi SSV. A heat exchanger HE or electronic flow compensation EFC may be
used for proportional particulate sampling and for flow determination. Since
particulate mass determination is based on the total diluted exhaust gas flow, the
dilution ratio is not required to be calculated.
– PDP Positive Displacement Pump
The PDP meters total diluted exhaust flow from the number of the pump revolutions
and the pump displacement. The exhaust system back pressure shall not be
artificially lowered by the PDP or dilution air inlet system. Static exhaust back
pressure measured with the CVS system operating shall remain within ±1.5kPa of the
static pressure measured without connection to the CVS at identical engine speed
and load.
The gas mixture temperature immediately ahead of the PDP shall be within ±6K of the
average operating temperature observed during the test, when no flow compensation is
used.
Flow compensation can only be used if the temperature at the inlet of the PDP does
not exceed 50°C (323K).

When using double dilution, a sample from the dilution tunnel is transferred to the
secondary dilution tunnel where it is further diluted, and then passed through the
sampling filters (Paragraph 1.2.2., Figure 15). The flow capacity of the PDP or CFV or
SSV shall be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream in the DT at a
temperature of less than or equal to 464K (191°C) at the sampling zone. The
secondary dilution system shall provide sufficient secondary dilution air to maintain
the doubly-diluted exhaust stream at a temperature of less than or equal to 325K
(52°C) immediately before the primary particulate filter.
– DAF Dilution Air Filter
It is recommended that the dilution air be filtered and charcoal scrubbed to eliminate
background hydrocarbons. The dilution air shall have a temperature of 298K (25°C)
±5K. At the manufacturers' request the dilution air shall be sampled according to good
engineering practice to determine the background particulate levels, which can then
be subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust.
– PSP Particulate Sampling Probe
The probe is the leading section of PTT and
– Shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the dilution air and exhaust
gas are well mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centre-line of the dilution
systems approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the
exhaust enters the dilution tunnel;
– Shall be 12mm in minimum inside diameter;
– May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct
heating or by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not
exceed 325K (52°C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution
tunnel;
– May be insulated.
1.2.2 Particulate Sampling System (Figures 14 and 15)
The particulate sampling system is required for collecting the particulates on the particulate
filter. In the case of total sampling partial flow dilution, which consists of passing the entire
dilute exhaust sample through the filters, dilution (Paragraph 1.2.1.1., Figures 7 and 11) and
sampling system usually form an integral unit. In the case of fractional sampling partial flow
dilution or full flow dilution, which consists of passing through the filters only a portion of the
diluted exhaust, the dilution (Paragraph 1.2.1.1., Figures 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 12 and
Paragraph 1.2.1.2., Figure 13) and sampling systems usually form different units.
In this regulation, the double dilution system DDS (Figure 15) of a full flow dilution
system is considered as a specific modification of a typical particulate sampling system as
shown in Figure 14. The double dilution system includes all important parts of the particulate
sampling system, like filter holders and sampling pump, and additionally some dilution
features, like a dilution air supply and a secondary dilution tunnel.
In order to avoid any impact on the control loops, it is recommended that the sample pump
be running throughout the complete test procedure. For the single filter method, a bypass
system shall be used for passing the sample through the sampling filters at the desired
times. Interference of the switching procedure on the control loops shall be minimised.

Figure 15
Dilution System (Full Flow System Only)
A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is transferred from the dilution tunnel DT of a full
flow dilution system through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate
transfer tube PTT to the secondary dilution tunnel SDT, where it is diluted once more.
The sample is then passed through the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate
sampling filters. The dilution air flow rate is usually constant whereas the sample flow
rate is controlled by the flow controller FC3. If electronic flow compensation EFC (see
Figure 13) is used, the total diluted exhaust gas flow is used as command signal for
FC3.
– PTT Particulate Transfer Tube (Figures 14 and 15)
The particulate transfer tube must not exceed 1.2m in length, and shall be minimised
in length whenever possible.
The dimensions are valid for:
– The partial flow dilution fractional sampling type and the full flow single dilution
system from the probe tip to the filter holder.
– The partial flow dilution total sampling type from the end of the dilution tunnel to
the filter holder.
– The full flow double dilution system from the probe tip to the secondary dilution
tunnel.
The transfer tube:
– May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct
heating or by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not
exceed 325K (52°C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution
tunnel;
– May be insulated.

– FM4 Flow Measurement Device (Figure 15) (Dilution Air, Full Flow Double
Dilution Only)
The gas meter or flow instrumentation shall be located so that the inlet gas
temperature remains at 298K (25°C) ±5K.
BV Ball Valve (optional)
The ball valve shall have a diameter not less than the inside diameter of the sampling
tube and a switching time of less than 0.5s.
Note: If the ambient temperature in the vicinity of PSP, PTT, SDT, and FH is below
239K (20°C), precautions should be taken to avoid particle losses onto the
cool wall of these parts. Therefore, heating and/or insulating these parts
within the limits given in the respective descriptions is recommended. It is
also recommended that the filter face temperature during sampling be not
below 293K (20°C).
At high engine loads, the above parts may be cooled by a non-aggressive means
such as a circulating fan, as long as the temperature of the cooling medium is not
below 293K (20°C).

Symbol Unit Term
n
min
Engine rotational speed
n
min
High engine speed
n
min
Low engine speed
P
kW
Power
P
kW
Maximum observed or declared power at
the test speed under the test conditions
(specified by the manufacturer)
P
kW
Declared
total
power
absorbed
by
auxiliaries fitted for the test
p
kPa
Pressure
p
kPa
Dry atmospheric pressure
PF
percent
Penetration fraction
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet
basis
q
kg/s
Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Fuel mass flow rate
q
kg/s
Sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow
dilution system
q
m /s
Volume flow rate
RF

Response factor
r

Dilution ratio
r

Coefficient of determination
ρ
kg/m
Density
σ

Standard deviation
S
kW
Dynamometer setting
SEE

Standard error of estimate of y on x
T
°C
Temperature
T
K
Absolute temperature
T
N · m
Engine torque
T
N ··m
Demanded torque with "sp" set point
u

Ratio between densities of gas component
and exhaust gas
t
s
Time
∆t
s
Time interval
t
s
Time between step input and 10% of final
reading
t
s
Time between step input and 50% of final
reading
t
s
Time between step input and 90% of final
reading
V
m
Volume
W
kWh
Work
y
Generic variable
y
Arithmetic mean

5.
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1.
General Requirements
5.1.1.
Reserved
5.1.2.
Emissions of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants
The pollutants are represented by:
(a)
Oxides of nitrogen, NO ;
(b)
Hydrocarbons, which may be expressed in the following ways:
(i)
(ii)
Total hydrocarbons, HC or THC;
Non-methane hydrocarbons, NMHC.
(c)
(d)
Particulate matter, PM;
Carbon monoxide, CO.
5.1.3. Equivalency
5.2. Reserved
The measured values of gaseous and particulate pollutants exhausted by the engine refer
to the brake-specific emissions in grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kWh). Other system of units
may be used with appropriate conversion.
The emissions shall be determined on the duty cycles (steady-state and/or transient), as
described in Paragraph 7. The measurement systems shall meet the calibration and
performance checks of Paragraph 8. with measurement equipment of Paragraph 9.
Other systems or analysers may be approved by the Type Approval Authority if it is found
that they yield equivalent results in accordance with Paragraph 5.1.3.
The determination of system equivalency shall be based on a seven-sample pair (or
larger) correlation study between the system under consideration and one of the systems
of this Annex.
"Results" refer to the specific cycle weighted emissions value. The correlation testing is to
be performed at the same laboratory, test cell, and on the same engine, and is preferred to
be run concurrently. The equivalency of the sample pair averages shall be determined by
F-test and t-test statistics as described in Annex 4B, Appendix A.2. obtained under the
laboratory test cell and the engine conditions described above. Outliers shall be
determined in accordance with ISO 5725 and excluded from the database. The systems to
be used for correlation testing shall be subject to the approval by the Type Approval
Authority.

6.2. Engines with Charge Air Cooling
(a)
A charge-air cooling system with a total intake-air capacity that represents
production engines' in-use installation shall be used. Any laboratory charge-air
cooling system to minimize accumulation of condensate shall be designed. Any
accumulated condensate shall be drained and all drains shall be completely closed
before emission testing. The drains shall be kept closed during the emission test.
Coolant conditions shall be maintained as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A coolant temperature of at least 20°C shall be maintained at the inlet to the
charge-air cooler throughout testing;
At the engine conditions specified by the manufacturer, the coolant flow rate
shall be set to achieve an air temperature within ±5°C of the value designed
by the manufacturer after the charge-air cooler's outlet. The air-outlet
temperature shall be measured at the location specified by the manufacturer.
This coolant flow rate set point shall be used throughout testing. If the engine
manufacturer does not specify engine conditions or the corresponding
charge-air cooler air outlet temperature, the coolant flow rate shall be set at
maximum engine power to achieve a charge-air cooler air outlet temperature
that represents in-use operation;
If the engine manufacturer specifies pressure-drop limits across the
charge-air cooling system, it shall be ensured that the pressure drop across
the charge-air cooling system at engine conditions specified by the
manufacturer is within the manufacturer's specified limit(s). The pressure drop
shall be measured at the manufacturer's specified locations;
(b)
The objective is to produce emission results that are representative of in-use
operation. If good engineering judgment indicates that the specifications in this
section would result in unrepresentative testing (such as overcooling of the intake
air), more sophisticated set points and controls of charge-air pressure drop, coolant
temperature, and flow rate may be used to achieve more representative results.
6.3. Engine Power
6.3.1. Basis for Emission Measurement
The basis of specific emissions measurement is uncorrected power.
6.3.2. Auxiliaries to be Fitted
During the test, the auxiliaries necessary for the engine operation shall be installed on the
test bench according to the requirements of Annex 7.
6.3.3. Auxiliaries to be Removed
Certain auxiliaries whose definition is linked with the operation of the machine and which
may be mounted on the engine shall be removed for the test.
Where auxiliaries cannot be removed, the power they absorb in the unloaded condition
may be determined and added to the measured engine power (see Note g in the table of
Annex 7). If this value is greater than 3% of the maximum power at the test speed it may
be verified by the test authority. The power absorbed by auxiliaries shall be used to adjust
the set values and to calculate the work produced by the engine over the test cycle.

6.6. Engine with Exhaust After-treatment System
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust pipe shall
have the same diameter as found in-use for at least four pipe diameters upstream of the
expansion section containing the after-treatment device. The distance from the exhaust
manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust after-treatment system shall be the
same as in the vehicle configuration or within the distance specifications of the
manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as
above, and may be set with a valve. The after-treatment container may be removed during
dummy tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container
having an inactive catalyst support.
The emissions measured on the test cycle shall be representative of the emissions in the
field. In the case of an engine equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system that
requires the consumption of a reagent, the reagent used for all tests shall be declared by
the manufacturer.
For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on an
infrequent (periodic) basis, as described in Paragraph 6.6.2., emission results shall be
adjusted to account for regeneration events. In this case, the average emission depends
on the frequency of the regeneration event in terms of fraction of tests during which the
regeneration occurs. After-treatment systems with continuous regeneration according to
Paragraph 6.6.1. do not require a special test procedure.
6.6.1. Continuous Regeneration
For an exhaust after-treatment system based on a continuous regeneration process the
emissions shall be measured on an after-treatment system that has been stabilized so as
to result in repeatable emissions behaviour. The regeneration process shall occur at least
once during the NRTC hot start test or ramped-modal cycle (RMC) test and the
manufacturer shall declare the normal conditions under which regeneration occurs (soot
load, temperature, exhaust back-pressure, etc.). In order to demonstrate that the
regeneration process is continuous, at least three NRTC hot start tests or ramped-modal
cycle (RMC) tests shall be conducted. In case of NRTC hot start test, the engine shall be
warmed up in accordance with Paragraph 7.8.2.1., the engine be soaked according to
Paragraph 7.4.2. and the first NRTC hot start test be run. The subsequent NRTC hot start
tests shall be started after soaking according to Paragraph 7.4.2. During the tests, exhaust
temperatures and pressures shall be recorded (temperature before and after the aftertreatment
system, exhaust back pressure, etc.). The after-treatment system is considered
to be satisfactory if the conditions declared by the manufacturer occur during the test
during a sufficient time and the emission results do not scatter by more than ±25% or
0.005 g/kWh, whichever is greater. If the exhaust after-treatment has a security mode that
shifts to a periodic (infrequent) regeneration mode, it shall be checked according to
Paragraph 6.6.2. For that specific case, the applicable emission limits could be exceeded
and would not be weighted.

Figure 6.1
Scheme of Infrequent (Periodic) Regeneration with n Number of Measurements
and n Number of Measurements during Regeneration
The average specific emission rate related to hot start e [g/kWh] shall be weighted as
follows (see Figure 6.1):
e
n × e + n × e
= (6-3)
n + n
where:
n
n
e
= number of tests in which regeneration does not occur,
= number of tests in which regeneration occurs (minimum one test),
= average specific emission from a test in which the regeneration does not occur
[g/kWh]
e = average specific emission from a test in which the regeneration occurs [g/kWh]

The following options shall be considered:
(a)
(b)
A manufacturer may elect to omit adjustment factors for one or more of its engine
families (or configurations) because the effect of the regeneration is small, or
because it is not practical to identify when regenerations occur. In these cases, no
adjustment factor shall be used, and the manufacturer is liable for compliance with
the emission limits for all tests, without regard to whether a regeneration occurs;
Upon request by the manufacturer, the type approval or certification authority may
account for regeneration events differently than is provided in Sub-paragraph (a).
However, this option only applies for events that occur extremely infrequently, and
which cannot be practically addressed using the adjustment factors described in
Sub-paragraph (a).
6.7. Cooling System
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine, with its intake-air,
oil, coolant, block and head temperatures, at normal operating temperatures prescribed by
the manufacturer shall be used. Laboratory auxiliary coolers and fans may be used.
6.8. Lubricating Oil
The lubricating oil shall be specified by the manufacturer and be representative of
lubricating oil available in the market; the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the
test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test.
6.9. Specification of the Reference Fuel
The reference fuel is specified in Annex 6, Table 3.
The fuel temperature shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
The fuel temperature shall be measured at the inlet to the fuel injection pump or as
specified by the manufacturer, and the location of measurement recorded.

(e) The engine mapping (Paragraph 7.6.);
(f) The test cycle generation (Paragraph 7.7.);
(g) The specific test cycle running procedure (Paragraph 7.8.).
7.2. Principle of Emission Measurement
To measure the brake-specific emissions the engine shall be operated over the test cycles
defined in Paragraph 7.4., as applicable. The measurement of brake-specific emissions
requires the determination of the mass of pollutants in the exhaust (i.e. HC, NMHC, CO,
NO and PM) and the corresponding engine work.
7.2.1. Mass of Constituent
The total mass of each constituent shall be determined over the applicable test cycle by
using the following methods:
7.2.1.1. Continuous Sampling
In continuous sampling, the constituent's concentration is measured continuously from raw
or dilute exhaust. This concentration is multiplied by the continuous (raw or dilute) exhaust
flow rate at the emission sampling location to determine the constituent's flow rate. The
constituent's emission is continuously summed over the test interval. This sum is the total
mass of the emitted constituent.
7.2.1.2. Batch Sampling
In batch sampling, a sample of raw or dilute exhaust is continuously extracted and stored
for later measurement. The extracted sample shall be proportional to the raw or dilute
exhaust flow rate. Examples of batch sampling are collecting diluted gaseous emissions in
a bag and collecting PM on a filter. In principal the method of emission calculation is done
as follows: the batch sampled concentrations are multiplied by the total mass or mass flow
(raw or dilute) from which it was extracted during the test cycle. This product is the total
mass or mass flow of the emitted constituent. To calculate the PM concentration, the PM
deposited onto a filter from proportionally extracted exhaust shall be divided by the amount
of filtered exhaust.

7.3. Verification and Calibration
7.3.1. Pre-test Procedures
7.3.1.1. Preconditioning
To achieve stable conditions, the sampling system and the engine shall be preconditioned
before starting a test sequence as specified in Paragraphs 7.3. and 7.4. The
preconditioning for cooling down the engine in view of a cold start transient test is specially
indicated in Paragraph 7.4.2.
7.3.1.2. Verification of HC Contamination
If there is any presumption of an essential HC contamination of the exhaust gas
measuring system, the contamination with HC may be checked with zero gas and the
hang-up may then be corrected. If the amount of contamination of the measuring system
and the background HC system has to be checked, it shall be conducted within 8h of
starting each test-cycle. The values shall be recorded for later correction. Before this
check, the leak check has to be performed and the FID analyser has to be calibrated.
7.3.1.3. Preparation of Measurement Equipment for Sampling
The following steps shall be taken before emission sampling begins:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Leak checks shall be performed within 8h prior to emission sampling according to
Paragraph 8.1.8.7.;
For batch sampling, clean storage media shall be connected, such as evacuated
bags or tare-weighed filters;
All measurement instruments shall be started according to the instrument
manufacturer's instructions and good engineering judgment;
Dilution systems, sample pumps, cooling fans, and the data-collection system shall
be started;
The sample flow rates shall be adjusted to desired levels, using bypass flow, if
desired;
Heat exchangers in the sampling system shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled to within
their operating temperature ranges for a test;
Heated or cooled components such as sample lines, filters, chillers, and pumps
shall be allowed to stabilize at their operating temperatures;
Exhaust dilution system flow shall be switched on at least 10 minutes before a test
sequence;
Calibration of gas analysers and zeroing of continuous analysers shall be carried
out according to the procedure of the next Paragraph 7.3.1.4.;
Any electronic integrating devices shall be zeroed or re-zeroed, before the start of
any test interval.

7.3.2.4. Drift Verification
After quantifying exhaust gases, drift shall be verified as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For batch and continuous gas analysers, the mean analyser value shall be recorded
after stabilizing a zero gas to the analyser. Stabilization may include time to purge
the analyser of any sample gas, plus any additional time to account for analyser
response;
The mean analyser value shall be recorded after stabilizing the span gas to the
analyser. Stabilization may include time to purge the analyser of any sample gas,
plus any additional time to account for analyser response;
These data shall be used to validate and correct for drift as described in
Paragraph 8.2.2.
7.4. Test Cycles
The following duty cycles apply:
(a)
(b)
For variable-speed engines, the 8-mode test cycle or the corresponding ramped
modal cycle, and the transient cycle NRTC as specified in Annex 5;
For constant-speed engines, the 5-mode test cycle or the corresponding ramped
modal cycle as specified in Annex 5.
7.4.1. Steady-state Test Cycles
Steady-state test cycles are specified in Annex 5 as a list of discrete modes (operating
points), where each operating point has one value of speed and one value of torque. A
steady-state test cycle shall be measured with a warmed up and running engine according
to manufacturer's specification. A steady-state test cycle may be run as a discrete-mode
cycle or a ramped-modal cycle, as explained in the following Paragraphs.
7.4.1.1. Steady-state Discrete Mode Test Cycles
The steady-state discrete 8-mode test cycle consists of eight speed and load modes (with
the respective weighing factor for each mode) which cover the typical operating range of
variable speed engines. The cycle is shown in Annex 5.
The steady-state discrete 5-mode constant-speed test cycle consists of five load modes
(with the respective weighing factor for each mode) all at rated speed which cover the
typical operating range of constant speed engines. The cycle is shown in Annex 5.

7.5. General Test Sequence
To measure engine emissions the following steps have to be performed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The engine test speeds and test loads have to be defined for the engine to be
tested by measuring the max torque (for constant speed engines) or max torque
curve (for variable speed engines) as function of the engine speed;
Normalized test cycles have to be denormalized with the torque (for constant speed
engines) or speeds and torques (for variable speed engines) found in the previous
Sub-paragraph (a) of Paragraph 7.5.;
The engine, equipment, and measurement instruments shall be prepared for the
following emission test or test series (cold and hot cycle) in advance;
Pre-test procedures shall be performed to verify proper operation of certain
equipment and analysers. All analysers have to be calibrated. All pre-test data shall
be recorded;
The engine shall be started (NRTC) or kept running (steady-state cycles) at the
beginning of the test cycle and the sampling systems shall be started at the same
time;
Emissions and other required parameters shall be measured or recorded during
sampling time (for NRTC and steady-state ramped modal cycles throughout the
whole test cycle;
Post-test procedures shall be performed to verify proper operation of certain
equipment and analysers;
(h) PM filter(s) shall be pre-conditioned, weighed (empty weight), loaded,
re-conditioned, again weighed (loaded weight) and then samples shall be evaluated
according to pre- (Paragraph 7.3.1.5.) and post-test (Paragraph 7.3.2.2.)
procedures;
(i)
Emission test results shall be evaluated.
The following diagram gives an overview about the procedures needed to conduct NRMM
test cycles with measuring exhaust engine emissions.

7.5.1. Engine Starting, and Restarting
7.5.1.1. Engine Start
The engine shall be started:
(a)
(b)
As recommended in the owner's manual using a production starter motor or air-start
system and either an adequately charged battery, a suitable power supply or a
suitable compressed air source; or
By using the dynamometer to crank the engine until it starts. Typically motor the
engine within ±25% of its typical in-use cranking speed or start the engine by
linearly increasing the dynamometer speed from zero to 100min below low idle
speed but only until the engine starts.
Cranking shall be stopped within 1s of starting the engine. If the engine does not start after
15s of cranking, cranking shall be stopped and the reason for the failure to start
determined, unless the owner's manual or the service-repair manual describes a longer
cranking time as normal.
7.5.1.2. Engine Stalling
(a)
(b)
(c)
If the engine stalls anywhere during the cold start test of the NRTC, the test shall be
voided;
If the engine stalls anywhere during the hot start test of the NRTC, the test shall be
voided. The engine shall be soaked according to Paragraph 7.8.3., and the hot start
test repeated. In this case, the cold start test does not need to be repeated;
If the engine stalls anywhere during the steady-state cycle (discrete or ramped), the
test shall be voided and be repeated beginning with the engine warm-up procedure.
In the case of PM measurement utilizing the multi-filter method (one sampling filter
for each operating mode), the test shall be continued by stabilizing the engine at the
previous mode for engine temperature conditioning and then initiating measurement
with the mode where the engine stalled.

7.6.2. Engine Mapping for NRTC Cycle
The engine mapping shall be performed according to the following procedure:
(a)
The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
For engines with a low-speed governor, the operator demand shall be set to
the minimum, the dynamometer or another loading device shall be used to
target a torque of zero on the engine's primary output shaft and the engine
shall be allowed to govern the speed. This warm idle speed shall be
measured;
For engines without a low-speed governor, the dynamometer shall be set to
target a torque of zero on the engine's primary output shaft, and the operator
demand shall be set to control the speed to the manufacturer-declared lowest
engine speed possible with minimum load (also known as manufacturerdeclared
warm idle speed);
The manufacturer declared idle torque may be used for all variable-speed
engines (with or without a low-speed governor), if a nonzero idle torque is
representative of in-use operation.
(b)
(c)
(d)
Operator demand shall be set to maximum and engine speed shall be controlled to
between warm idle and 95% of its warm idle speed. For engines with reference duty
cycles, which lowest speed is greater than warm idle speed, the mapping may be
started at between the lowest reference speed and 95% of the lowest reference
speed;
The engine speed shall be increased at an average rate of 8 min /s ± 1min /s or
the engine shall be mapped by using a continuous sweep of speed at a constant
rate such that it takes 4 to 6min to sweep from minimum to maximum mapping
speed. The mapping speed range shall be started between warm idle and 95% of
warm idle and ended at the highest speed above maximum power at which less
than 70% of maximum power occurs. If this highest speed is unsafe or
unrepresentative (e.g., for ungoverned engines), good engineering judgment shall
be used to map up to the maximum safe speed or the maximum representative
speed. Engine speed and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of at
least 1Hz;
If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or
unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used.
These alternate techniques shall satisfy the intent of the specified mapping
procedures to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds
achieved during the test cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified
in this Paragraph for reasons of safety or representativeness shall be approved by
the Type Approval Authority along with the justification for their use. In no case,
however, the torque curve shall be run by descending engine speeds for governed
or turbocharged engines;

7.7. Test Cycle Generation
7.7.1. Generation of Steady-state Test Cycles
7.7.1.1. Rated Speed
For engines that are tested with the steady state and also the transient schedule, the
denormalization speed shall be calculated according to the transient procedure
(Paragraphs 7.6.2. and 7.7.2.1. and Figure 7.3.).
If the calculated denormalization speed (n ) is within ±2.5% of the denormalization
speed as declared by the manufacturer, the declared denormalization speed (n ) may
be used for the emission test. If the tolerance is exceeded, the calculated denormalization
speed (n ) shall be used for the emissions test. In case of the steady state cycle the
calculated denormalization speed (n ) is tabled as rated speed.
For engines that are not tested with the transient schedule, the rated speed of tables in
Annex 5 for the 8-mode discrete and the derived ramped mode cycle shall be calculated
according to the procedure (Paragraphs 7.6.1. and 7.7.2.1. and Figure 7.3.). The rated
speed is defined in Paragraph 3.1.53.
7.7.1.2. Generation of Steady-state 8-mode Test Cycle (Discrete and Ramp Modal)
The intermediate speed shall be determined from the calculations according to its
definition (see Paragraph 3.1.32.).
The engine setting for each test mode shall be calculated using the formula:
where:

L ⎞
S = ⎜( P + P ) × ⎟ − P
(7-1)

100 ⎠
S
= dynamometer setting in kW
P = maximum observed or declared power at the test speed under the test conditions
(specified by the manufacturer) in kW
P = declared total power absorbed by auxiliaries fitted for the test (see
Paragraph 6.3.) at the test speed in kW
L
= percent torque

7.7.2.1.
Denormalization Speed (n
)
The denormalization speed (n
) is selected to equal the 100% normalized speed
values specified in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex 5. The reference engine
cycle resulting from denormalization to the reference speed, depends on the selection of
the proper denormalization speed (n
). For the calculation of the denormalization
speed (n
), obtained from the measured mapping curve, either of the following
equivalent formulations can be used in agreement with the Type Approval Authorities:
(a)
n
= n + 0.95 × (n – n )
(7-2)
where:
n
= denormalization speed
n
= high speed (see Paragraph 3.1.30.)
n
= low speed (see Paragraph 3.1.34.)
(b)
n
corresponding to the longest vector defined as:
n
= n at the maximum of (n
+ P
)
(7-3)
where:
i
= an indexing variable that represents one recorded value of an engine
map
n = an engine speed normalized by dividing it by n .
P = an engine power normalized by dividing it by P .
Note that if multiple maximum values are found, the denormalization speed (n ) should
be taken as the lowest speed of all points with the same maximum sum of squares. A
higher declared speed may be used if the length of the vector at the declared speed is
within 2% of the length of the vector at the measured value.
If the falling part of the full load curve has a very steep edge, this may cause problems to
drive the 105% speeds of the NRTC test cycle correctly. In this case it is allowed with
previous agreement with type approval or certification authorities, to reduce the
denormalization speed (ndenorm) slightly (maximum 3%) in order to make correct driving
of the NRTC possible.
If the measured denormalization speed (n ) is within ±3% of the denormalization
speed as declared by the manufacturer, the declared denormalization speed (n ) may
be used for the emissions test. If the tolerance is exceeded, the measured denormalization
speed (n ) shall be used for the emissions test.

7.8. Specific Test Cycle Running Procedure
7.8.1. Emission Test Sequence for Discrete Steady-state Test Cycles
7.8.1.1. Engine warming-up for steady state discrete-mode test cycles
For preconditioning the engine shall be warmed up according to the recommendation of
the manufacturer and good engineering judgment. Before emission sampling can start, the
engine shall be running until engine temperatures (cooling water and lube oil) have been
stabilized (normally at least 10min) on mode 1 (100% torque and rated speed for the
8-mode test cycle and at rated or nominal constant engine speed and 100% torque for the
5-mode test cycle). Immediately from this engine conditioning point, the test cycle
measurement starts.
Pre-test procedure according to Paragraph 7.3.1. shall be performed, including analyser
calibration.
7.8.1.2. Performing Discrete-mode Test Cycle
(a)
(b)
The test shall be performed in ascending order of mode numbers as set out for the
test cycle (see Annex 5);
Each mode has a mode length of at least 10min. In each mode the engine shall be
stabilized for at least 5min and emissions shall be sampled for 1-3min for gaseous
emissions at the end of each mode. Extended time of sampling is permitted to
improve the accuracy of PM sampling;
The mode length shall be recorded and reported.
(c)
The particulate sampling may be done either with the single filter method or with the
multiple filter method. Since the results of the methods may differ slightly, the
method used shall be declared with the results;
For the single filter method the modal weighing factors specified in the test cycle
procedure and the actual exhaust flow shall be taken into account during sampling
by adjusting sample flow rate and/or sampling time, accordingly. It is required that
the effective weighing factor of the PM sampling is within ±0.003 of the weighing
factor of the given mode; Sampling shall be conducted as late as possible within
each mode. For the single filter method, the completion of particulate sampling shall
be coincident within ±5s with the completion of the gaseous emission measurement.
The sampling time per mode shall be at least 20s for the single filter method and at
least 60s for the multi-filter method. For systems without bypass capability, the
sampling time per mode shall be at least 60s for single and multiple filter methods;
(d)
The engine speed and load, intake air temperature, fuel flow and air or exhaust gas
flow shall be measured for each mode at the same time interval which is used for
the measurement of the gaseous concentrations;
Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded.

Over the whole RMC test cycle (during each mode and including the ramps between the
modes), the concentration of each gaseous pollutant shall be measured and the PM be
sampled. The gaseous pollutants may be measured raw or diluted and be recorded
continuously; if diluted, they can also be sampled into a sampling bag. The particulate
sample shall be diluted with conditioned and clean air. One sample over the complete test
procedure shall be taken, and collected on a single PM sampling filter.
For calculation of the brake specific emissions, the actual cycle work shall be calculated by
integrating actual engine power over the complete cycle.
7.8.2.3. Emission Test Sequence:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Execution of the RMC, sampling exhaust gases, recording data, and integrating
measured values shall be started simultaneously;
Speed and torque shall be controlled to the first mode in the test cycle;
If the engine stalls anywhere during the RMC execution, the test shall be voided.
The engine shall be pre-conditioned and the test repeated;
At the end of the RMC, sampling shall be continued, except for PM sampling,
operating all systems to allow system response time to elapse. Then all sampling
and recording shall be stopped, including the recording of background samples.
Finally, any integrating devices shall be stopped and the end of the test cycle shall
be indicated in the recorded data;
Post-test procedures according to Paragraph 7.4. shall be performed.

Under cold-start conditions engines may use an enhanced-idle device to quickly warm up
the engine and after-treatment devices. Under these conditions, very low normalized
speeds will generate reference speeds below this higher enhanced idle speed. In this case
it is recommended controlling the dynamometer so it gives priority to follow the reference
torque and let the engine govern the speed when the operator demand is at minimum.
During an emission test, reference speeds and torques and the feedback speeds and
torques shall be recorded with a minimum frequency of 1Hz, but preferably of 5Hz or even
10Hz. This larger recording frequency is important as it helps to minimize the biasing
effect of the time lag between the reference and the measured feedback speed and torque
values.
The reference and feedback speeds and torques may be recorded at lower frequencies
(as low as 1Hz), if the average values over the time interval between recorded values are
recorded. The average values shall be calculated based on feedback values updated at a
frequency of at least 5Hz. These recorded values shall be used to calculate
cycle-validation statistics and total work.
7.8.3.1. Engine Preconditioning
To meet stable conditions for the following Emission test, the sampling system and the
engine shall be preconditioned either by driving a full pre-NRTC cycle or driving the engine
and the measuring systems under similar conditions as in the test cycle itself. If the test
before was also a NRTC hot test, no additional conditioning is needed.
A natural or forced cool-down procedure may be applied. For forced cool-down, good
engineering judgment shall be used to set up systems to send cooling air across the
engine, to send cool oil through the engine lubrication system, to remove heat from the
coolant through the engine cooling system, and to remove heat from an exhaust
after-treatment system. In the case of a forced after-treatment cool down, cooling air shall
not be applied until the after-treatment system has cooled below its catalytic activation
temperature. Any cooling procedure that results in unrepresentative emissions is not
permitted.
Pre-test procedures according to Paragraph 7.3.1. have to be performed, including
analyser calibration.
7.8.3.2. Performing an NRTC Transient Cycle Test
Testing shall be started as follows:
The test sequence shall commence immediately after the engine has started from cooled
down condition in case of the cold NRTC test or from hot soak condition in case of the hot
NRTC test. The instructions (Annex 5) shall be followed.
Data logging, sampling of exhaust gases and integrating measured values shall be
initiated simultaneously at the start of the engine. The test cycle shall be initiated when the
engine starts and shall be executed according to the schedule of Annex 5.
At the end of the cycle, sampling shall be continued, operating all systems to allow system
response time to elapse. Then all sampling and recording shall be stopped, including the
recording of background samples. Finally, any integrating devices shall be stopped and
the end of the test cycle shall be indicated in the recorded data.
Post-test procedures according to Paragraph 7.3.2. have to be performed.

Table 7.2
Regression Line Tolerances
Standard error of
estimate (SEE) of y on x
Slope of the regression
line, α
Coefficient of
determination, r
y intercept of the
regression line, α
Speed Torque Power
≤5.0% of maximum
test speed
≤10.0% of maximum
mapped torque
≤10.0% of maximum
mapped power
0.95 to 1.03 0.83 to 1.03 0.89 to 1.03
minimum 0.970 minimum 0.850 minimum 0.910
≤10% of idle ±20Nm or ±2% of
maximum torque
whichever is greater
±4kW or ±2% of
maximum power
whichever is greater
For regression purposes only, point deletions are permitted where noted in Table 7.3 of
this Paragraph before doing the regression calculation. However, those points shall not be
deleted for the calculation of cycle work and emissions. An idle point is defined as a point
having a normalised reference torque of 0% and a normalized reference speed of 0%.
Point deletion may be applied to the whole or to any part of the cycle; points to which the
point deletion is applied have to be specified.
Table 7.3
Permitted Point Deletions from Regression Analysis
Event
Minimum operator demand
(idle point)
Conditions (n = engine speed, T =
torque)
n = n
and
T = 0
and
T > (T – 0.02 T )
and
T <(T + 0.02 T )
Minimum operator demand
n
≤1.02 n
and T
> T
or
n
> n
and T
≤T
or
n
> 1.02 n
and T

(T
+ 0.02 T
)
Maximum operator demand
n
and T
≥ T
or
n
≥ 0.98 n
and T
or
n
<0.98 n
and T
> T

(T
– 0.02 T
)
Permitted point
deletions
speed and power
power and either
torque or speed
power and either
torque or speed

Type of calibration or verification Minimum frequency
8.1.5. Continuous gas
analyser system
response and
updating-recording
verification – for gas
analysers not
continuously
compensated for other
gas species
Upon initial installation or after system modification that would effect response.
8.1.6.
Continuous gas
analyser system
response and
updating-recording
verification – for gas
analysers continuously
compensated for other
gas species
Upon initial installation or after system modification that would effect response.
8.1.7.1. Torque Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.7.2. Pressure,
temperature, dew
point
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.1. Fuel flow Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.2. Intake flow Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.3. Exhaust flow Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.4. Diluted exhaust flow
(CVS and PFD)
8.1.8.5. CVS/PFD and batch
sampler verification
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation, within 35 days before testing, and after major
maintenance. (Propane check)
8.1.8.8. Vacuum leak Before each laboratory test according to Paragraph 7.1.
8.1.9.1. CO NDIR H O
interference
8.1.9.2. CO NDIR CO and
H O interference
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.10.1. FID calibration, THC Calibrate, optimize, and determine CH response: upon initial installation and after
FID optimization and major maintenance.
THC FID verification Verify CH response: upon initial installation, within 185 days before testing, and
after major maintenance.
8.1.10.2. Raw exhaust FID O
interference
8.1.10.3. Non-methane cutter
penetration
8.1.11.1. CLD CO and H O
quench
For all FID analysers: upon initial installation, and after major maintenance.
For THC FID analysers: upon initial installation, after major maintenance, and after
FID optimization according to 8.1.10.1.
Upon initial installation, within 185 days before testing, and after major
maintenance.
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.

8.1.4.3. Procedure
The following linearity verification protocol shall be used:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
A measurement system shall be operated at its specified temperatures, pressures,
and flows;
The instrument shall be zeroed as it would before an emission test by introducing a
zero signal. For gas analysers, a zero gas shall be used that meets the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. and it shall be introduced directly at the analyser
port;
The instrument shall be spanned as it would before an emission test by introducing
a span signal. For gas analysers, a span gas shall be used that meets the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. and it shall be introduced directly at the analyser
port;
After spanning the instrument, zero shall be checked with the same signal which
has been used in Sub-paragraph (b) of this Paragraph. Based on the zero reading,
good engineering judgment shall be used to determine whether or not to re-zero
and or re-span the instrument before proceeding to the next step;
For all measured quantities manufacturer recommendations and good engineering
judgment shall be used to select the reference values, y , that cover the full range
of values that are expected during emission testing, thus avoiding the need of
extrapolation beyond these values. A zero reference signal shall be selected as one
of the reference values of the linearity verification. For stand-alone pressure and
temperature linearity verifications, at least three reference values shall be selected.
For all other linearity verifications, at least ten reference values shall be selected;
Instrument manufacturer recommendations and good engineering judgment shall be
used to select the order in which the series of reference values will be introduced;
Reference quantities shall be generated and introduced as described in
Paragraph 8.1.4.4. For gas analysers, gas concentrations known to be within the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. shall be used and they shall be introduced directly
at the analyser port;
Time for the instrument to stabilize while it measures the reference value shall be
allowed;
At a recording frequency of at least the minimum frequency, as specified in
Table 9.2, the reference value shall be measured for 30s and the arithmetic mean of
the recorded values, y recorded;
Steps in Sub-paragraphs (g) through (i) of this Paragraph shall be repeated until all
reference quantities are measured;
(k) The arithmetic means y, and reference values, y , shall be used to calculate leastsquares
linear regression parameters and statistical values to compare to the
minimum performance criteria specified in Table 8.2. The calculations described in
Annex 4B Appendix A.2 Paragraph A.2. shall be used.

(g)
Stand-alone temperatures include engine temperatures and ambient conditions
used to set or verify engine conditions; temperatures used to set or verify critical
conditions in the test system; and temperatures used in emissions calculations:
(i)
(ii)
These temperature linearity checks are required. Air intake; after-treatment
bed(s) (for engines tested with after-treatment devices on cycles with cold
start criteria); dilution air for PM sampling (CVS, double dilution, and partial
flow systems); PM sample; and chiller sample (for gaseous sampling systems
that use chillers to dry samples);
These temperature linearity checks are only required if specified by the
engine manufacturer. Fuel inlet; test cell charge air cooler air outlet (for
engines tested with a test cell heat exchanger simulating a vehicle/machine
charge air cooler); test cell charge air cooler coolant inlet (for engines tested
with a test cell heat exchanger simulating a vehicle/machine charge air
cooler); and oil in the sump/pan; coolant before the thermostat (for liquid
cooled engines);
(h)
Stand-alone pressures include engine pressures and ambient conditions used to set
or verify engine conditions; pressures used to set or verify critical conditions in the
test system; and pressures used in emissions calculations:
(i)
(ii)
Required pressure linearity checks are: air intake restriction; exhaust back
pressure; barometer; CVS inlet gauge pressure (if measurement using CVS);
chiller sample (for gaseous sampling systems that use chillers to dry
samples);
Pressure linearity checks that are required only if specified by the engine
manufacturer: test cell charge air cooler and interconnecting pipe pressure
drop (for turbo-charged engines tested with a test cell heat exchanger
simulating a vehicle/machine charge air cooler) fuel inlet; and fuel outlet.

8.1.5. Continuous Gas Analyser System-response and Updating-recording Verification
This section describes a general verification procedure for continuous gas analyser
system response and update recording. See Paragraph 8.1.6. for verification procedures
for compensation type analysers.
8.1.5.1. Scope and Frequency
This verification shall be performed after installing or replacing a gas analyser that is used
for continuous sampling. Also this verification shall be performed if the system is
reconfigured in a way that would change system response. This verification is needed for
continuous gas analysers used for transient or ramped-modal testing but is not needed for
batch gas analyser systems or for continuous gas analyser systems used only for
discrete-mode testing.
8.1.5.2. Measurement Principles
This test verifies that the updating and recording frequencies match the overall system
response to a rapid change in the value of concentrations at the sample probe. Gas
analyser systems shall be optimized such that their overall response to a rapid change in
concentration is updated and recorded at an appropriate frequency to prevent loss of
information. This test also verifies that continuous gas analyser systems meet a minimum
response time.
The system settings for the response time evaluation shall be exactly the same as during
measurement of the test run (i.e. pressure, flow rates, filter settings on the analysers and
all other response time influences). The response time determination shall be done with
gas switching directly at the inlet of the sample probe. The devices for gas switching shall
have a specification to perform the switching in less than 0.1s. The gases used for the test
shall cause a concentration change of at least 60% full scale (FS).
The concentration trace of each single gas component shall be recorded.
8.1.5.3. System Requirements
(a)
The system response time shall be ≤10s with a rise time of ≤2.5s or with a rise and
fall time of ≤5s each for all measured components (CO, NO , CO and HC) and all
ranges used. When using a NMC for the measurement of NMHC, the system
response time may exceed 10s.
All data (concentration, fuel and air flows) have to be shifted by their measured
response times before performing the emission calculations given in
Annexes A.7-A.8.
(b)
To demonstrate acceptable updating and recording with respect to the system's
overall response, the system shall meet one of the following criteria:
(i)
(ii)
The product of the mean rise time and the frequency at which the system
records an updated concentration shall be at least 5. In any case the mean
rise time shall be no more than 10s;
The frequency at which the system records the concentration shall be at least
2Hz (see also Table 9.2).

(c)
Data collection shall be done as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
The valve shall be switched to start the flow of zero gas;
Stabilization shall be allowed for, accounting for transport delays and the
slowest analyser's full response;
Data recording shall be started at the frequency used during emission testing.
Each recorded value shall be a unique updated concentration measured by
the analyser; interpolation or filtering may not be used to alter recorded
values;
The valve shall be switched to allow the blended span gases to flow to the
analysers. This time shall be recorded as t ;
Transport delays and the slowest analyser's full response shall be allowed
for;
The flow shall be switched to allow zero gas to flow to the analyser. This time
shall be recorded as t ;
Transport delays and the slowest analyser's full response shall be allowed
for;
(viii) The steps in Sub-paragraphs (c) (iv) through (vii) of this Paragraph shall be
repeated to record seven full cycles, ending with zero gas flowing to the
analysers;
(ix)
Recording shall be stopped.
8.1.5.5. Performance Evaluation
The data from Sub-paragraph (c) of Paragraph 8.1.5.4. of this section shall be used to
calculate the mean rise time, T for each of the analysers.
(a)
(b)
If it is chosen to demonstrate compliance with Sub-paragraphs (b) (i) of
Paragraph 8.1.5.3. of this section, the following procedure has to be applied: The
rise times (in s) shall be multiplied by their respective recording frequencies in Hertz
(1/s). The value for each result shall be at least 5. If the value is less than 5, the
recording frequency shall be increased or the flows adjusted or the design of the
sampling system shall be changed to increase the rise time as needed. Also digital
filters may be configured to increase rise time;
If it is choosen to demonstrate compliance with Sub-paragraphs (b) (ii) of
Paragraph 8.1.5.3. of this section, the demonstration of compliance with the
requirements of Sub-paragraphs (b) (ii) of Paragraph 8.1.5.3. is sufficient.

8.1.7. Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions
The engine manufacturer shall apply internal quality procedures traceable to recognised
national or international standards. Otherwise the following procedures apply.
8.1.7.1. Torque Calibration
8.1.7.1.1. Scope and Frequency
All torque-measurement systems including dynamometer torque measurement
transducers and systems shall be calibrated upon initial installation and after major
maintenance using, among others, reference force or lever-arm length coupled with dead
weight. Good engineering judgment shall be used to repeat the calibration. The torque
transducer manufacturer's instructions shall be followed for linearizing the torque sensor's
output. Other calibration methods are permitted.
8.1.7.1.2. Dead-weight Calibration
This technique applies a known force by hanging known weights at a known distance
along a lever arm. It shall be made sure that the weights' lever arm is perpendicular to
gravity (i.e., horizontal) and perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis. At least six
calibration-weight combinations shall be applied for each applicable torque-measuring
range, spacing the weight quantities about equally over the range. The dynamometer shall
be oscillated or rotated during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. Each
weight's force shall be determined by multiplying its internationally-traceable mass by the
local acceleration of Earth's gravity.
8.1.7.1.3. Strain Guage or Proving Ring Calibration
This technique applies force either by hanging weights on a lever arm (these weights and
their lever arm length are not used as part of the reference torque determination) or by
operating the dynamometer at different torques. At least six force combinations shall be
applied for each applicable torque-measuring range, spacing the force quantities about
equally over the range. The dynamometer shall be oscillated or rotated during calibration
to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque is determined by
multiplying the force output from the reference meter (such as a strain guage or proving
ring) by its effective lever-arm length, which is measured from the point where the force
measurement is made to the dynamometer's rotational axis. It shall be made sure that this
length is measured perpendicular to the reference meter's measurement axis and
perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis.
8.1.7.2. Pressure, Temperature, and Dew Point Calibration
Instruments shall be calibrated for measuring pressure, temperature, and dew point upon
initial installation. The instrument manufacturer's instructions shall be followed and good
engineering judgment shall be used to repeat the calibration.
For temperature measurement systems with thermocouple, RTD, or thermistor sensors,
the calibration of the system shall be performed as described in Paragraph 8.1.4.4. for
linearity verification.

8.1.8.4.2. PDP Calibration
A positive-displacement pump (PDP) shall be calibrated to determine a flow-versus-PDP
speed equation that accounts for flow leakage across sealing surfaces in the PDP as a
function of PDP inlet pressure. Unique equation coefficients shall be determined for each
speed at which the PDP is operated. A PDP flow-meter shall be calibrated as follows:
(a) The system shall be connected as shown in Figure 8.1;
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Leaks between the calibration flow-meter and the PDP shall be less than 0.3% of
the total flow at the lowest calibrated flow point; for example, at the highest
restriction and lowest PDP-speed point;
While the PDP operates, a constant temperature at the PDP inlet shall be
maintained within ±2% of the mean absolute inlet temperature, T ;
The PDP speed is set to the first speed point at which it is intended to calibrate;
The variable restrictor is set to its wide-open position;
The PDP is operated for at least 3min to stabilize the system. Then by continuously
operating the PDP, the mean values of at least 30s of sampled data of each of the
following quantities are recorded:
(i)
The mean flow rate of the reference flow-meter, q
;
(ii)
The mean temperature at the PDP inlet, T ;
(iii)
The mean static absolute pressure at the PDP inlet, p ;
(iv)
The mean static absolute pressure at the PDP outlet, p
;
(v)
The mean PDP speed, n
;
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
The restrictor valve shall be incrementally closed to decrease the absolute pressure
at the inlet to the PDP, p ;
The steps in Sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) of Paragraph 8.1.8.4.2. shall be repeated to
record data at a minimum of six restrictor positions reflecting the full range of
possible in-use pressures at the PDP inlet;
The PDP shall be calibrated by using the collected data and the equations in
Annexes A.7-A.8;
The steps in Sub-paragraphs (f) through (i) of this section shall be repeated for each
speed at which the PDP is operated;

(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
The steps in Sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) of this Paragraph shall be repeated to
record mean data at a minimum of ten restrictor positions, such that the fullest
practical range of ∆p expected during testing is tested. It is not required to
remove calibration components or CVS components to calibrate at the lowest
possible restrictions;
C and the lowest allowable pressure ratio r shall be determined as described in
Annexes A.7-A.8;
C shall be used to determine CFV flow during an emission test. The CFV shall not
be used below the lowest allowed r, as determined in Annexes A.7-A.8;
The calibration shall be verified by performing a CVS verification (ie, propane check)
as described in Paragraph 8.1.8.5.;
If the CVS is configured to operate more than one CFV at a time in parallel, the CVS
shall be calibrated by one of the following:
(i)
Every combination of CFVs shall be calibrated according to this Paragraph
and Annexes A.7-A.8. See Annexes A.7-A.8 for instructions on calculating
flow rates for this option;
8.1.8.4.4. SSV Calibration
(ii) Each CFV shall be calibrated according to this Paragraph and
Annexes A.7-A.8. See Annexes A.7-A.8 for instructions on calculating flow
rates for this option.
A subsonic venturi (SSV) shall be calibrated to determine its calibration coefficient, C , for
the expected range of inlet pressures. An SSV flow-meter shall be calibrated as follows:
(a) The system shall be connected as shown in Figure 8.1;
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The blower shall be started downstream of the SSV;
Leaks between the calibration flow-meter and the SSV shall be less than 0.3% of
the total flow at the highest restriction;
While the SSV operates, a constant temperature at the SSV inlet shall be
maintained within ±2% of the mean absolute inlet temperature, T ;
The variable restrictor or variable-speed blower shall be set to a flow rate greater
than the greatest flow rate expected during testing. Flow rates may not be
extrapolated beyond calibrated values, so it is recommended that it is made certain
that a Reynolds number, Re, at the SSV throat at the greatest calibrated flow rate is
greater than the maximum Re expected during testing;

8.1.8.4.5. Ultrasonic Calibration (Reserved)
Figure 8.1
Schematic Diagrams for Diluted Exhaust Flow CVS Calibration

8.1.8.5.2. Method of Introducing a Known Amount of Propane into the CVS System
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated
in the normal manner. The pollutant is analysed, and the mass calculated according to
Annexes A.7-A.8. Either of the following two techniques shall be used.
(a)
(b)
Metering by means of a gravimetric technique shall be done as follows: A mass of a
small cylinder filled with carbon monoxide or propane shall be determined with a
precision of ±0.01g. For about 5min to 10min, the CVS system shall be operated as
in a normal exhaust emission test, while carbon monoxide or propane is injected
into the system. The quantity of pure gas discharged shall be determined by means
of differential weighing. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment
(sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated;
Metering with a critical flow orifice shall be done as follows: A known quantity of
pure gas (carbon monoxide or propane) shall be fed into the CVS system through a
calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow rate, which is
adjusted by means of the critical flow orifice, is independent of the orifice outlet
pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as in a normal exhaust
emission test for about 5min to 10min. A gas sample shall be analysed with the
usual equipment (sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas
calculated.
8.1.8.5.3. Preparation of the Propane Check
The propane check shall be prepared as follows:
(a)
If a reference mass of C H is used instead of a reference flow rate, a cylinder
charged with C H shall be obtained. The reference cylinder's mass of C H shall be
determined within ±0.5% of the amount of C H that is expected to be used;
(b) Appropriate flow rates shall be selected for the CVS and C H ;
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
A C H injection port shall be selected in the CVS. The port location shall be
selected to be as close as practical to the location where engine exhaust is
introduced into the CVS. The C H cylinder shall be connected to the injection
system;
The CVS shall be operated and stabilized;
Any heat exchangers in the sampling system shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled;
Heated and cooled components such as sample lines, filters, chillers, and pumps
shall be allowed to stabilize at operating temperature;
If applicable, a vacuum side leak verification of the HC sampling system shall be
performed as described in 8.1.8.7.

(vi)
(vii)
C H shall be released at the rate selected. If a reference flow rate of C H is
used, the integration of this flow rate shall be started;
C H shall be continued to be released until at least enough C H has been
released to ensure accurate quantification of the reference C H and the
measured C H ;
(viii) The C H cylinder shall be shut off and sampling shall continue until it has
been accounted for time delays due to sample transport and analyser
response;
(ix)
Sampling shall be stopped and any integrators shall be stopped;
(b)
In case the metering with a critical flow orifice is used, the following procedure may
be used for the propane check as the alternative method of Sub-paragraph (a)
Paragraph 8.1.8.5.5.;
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
For batch HC sampling, clean storage media, such as evacuated bags shall
be connected;
HC measurement instruments shall be operated according to the instrument
manufacturer's instructions;
If correction for dilution air background concentrations of HC is foreseen,
background HC in the dilution air shall be measured and recorded;
Any integrating devices shall be zeroed;
The contents of the C H reference cylinder shall be released at the rate
selected;
Sampling shall begin, and any flow integrators started after confirming that
HC concentration is to be stable;
The cylinder's contents shall be continued to be released until at least enough
C H has been released to ensure accurate quantification of the reference
C H and the measured C H ;
(viii) Any integrators shall be stopped;
(ix)
The C H reference cylinder shall be shut off.

8.1.8.5.8. Sample Dryer Verification
If a humidity sensor for continuous monitoring of dew point at the sample dryer outlet is
used this check does not apply, as long as it is ensured that the dryer outlet humidity is
below the minimum values used for quench, interference, and compensation checks.
(a)
(b)
If a sample dryer is used as allowed in Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. to remove water from
the sample gas, the performance shall be verified upon installation, after major
maintenance, for thermal chiller. For osmotic membrane dryers, the performance
shall be verified upon installation, after major maintenance, and within 35 days of
testing;
Water can inhibit an analyser's ability to properly measure the exhaust component
of interest and thus is sometimes removed before the sample gas reaches the
analyser. For example water can negatively interfere with a CLD's NO response
through collisional quenching and can positively interfere with an NDIR analyser by
causing a response similar to CO;
(c) The sample dryer shall meet the specifications as determined in
Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. for dew point, T , and absolute pressure, p , downstream
of the osmotic-membrane dryer or thermal chiller;
(d)
The following sample dryer verification procedure method shall be used to
determine sample dryer performance, or good engineering judgment shall be used
to develop a different protocol:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
PTFE or stainless steel tubing shall be used to make necessary connections;
N or purified air shall be humidified by bubbling it through distilled water in a
sealed vessel that humidifies the gas to the highest sample dew point that is
estimated during emission sampling;
The humidified gas shall be introduced upstream of the sample dryer;
The humidified gas temperature downstream of the vessel shall be
maintained at least 5°C above its dew point;
(v) The humidified gas dew point, T , and pressure, p , shall be measured as
close as possible to the inlet of the sample dryer to verify that the dew point is
the highest that was estimated during emission sampling;
(vi) The humidified gas dew point, T , and pressure, p , shall be measured as
close as possible to the outlet of the sample dryer;
(vii)
The sample dryer meets the verification if the result of Sub-paragraphs (d) (vi)
of this Paragraph is less than the dew point corresponding to the sample
dryer specifications as determined in Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. plus 2°C or if the
mol fraction from Sub-paragraphs (d) (vi) is less than the corresponding
sample dryer specifications plus 0.002 mol/mol or 0.2 volume percent. Note
for this verification, sample dew point is expressed in absolute temperature,
Kelvin.

8.1.8.6.2. Calibration of Differential Flow Measurement
The partial flow dilution system to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample shall be
periodically calibrated with an accurate flow-meter traceable to international and/or
national standards. The flow-meter or the flow measurement instrumentation shall be
calibrated in one of the following procedures, such that the probe flow q into the tunnel
shall fulfil the accuracy requirements of Paragraph 8.1.8.6.1.
(a) The flow-meter for q shall be connected in series to the flow-meter for q , the
difference between the two flow-meters shall be calibrated for at least 5 set points
with flow values equally spaced between the lowest qmdw value used during the
test and the value of q used during the test. The dilution tunnel may be
bypassed;
(b) A calibrated flow device shall be connected in series to the flow-meter for q and
the accuracy shall be checked for the value used for the test. The calibrated flow
device shall be connected in series to the flowmeter for q , and the accuracy shall
be checked for at least 5 settings corresponding to dilution ratio between 3 and 15,
relative to q used during the test;
(c)
(d)
The transfer line TL (see Figure 9.2) shall be disconnected from the exhaust and a
calibrated flow measuring device with a suitable range to measure q shall be
connected to the transfer line. q shall be set to the value used during the test,
and q shall be sequentially set to at least 5 values corresponding to dilution
ratios between 3 and 15. Alternatively, a special calibration flow path may be
provided, in which the tunnel is bypassed, but the total and dilution air flow is
passed through the corresponding meters as in the actual test;
A tracer gas, shall be fed into the exhaust transfer line TL. This tracer gas may be a
component of the exhaust gas, like CO or NO . After dilution in the tunnel the tracer
gas component shall be measured. This shall be carried out for 5 dilution ratios
between 3 and 15. The accuracy of the sample flow shall be determined from the
dilution ratio r :
q = q / r (8-2)
The accuracies of the gas analysers shall be taken into account to guarantee the accuracy
of q .
8.1.8.6.3. Special Requirements for Differential Flow Measurement
A carbon flow check using actual exhaust is strongly recommended for detecting
measurement and control problems and verifying the proper operation of the partial flow
system. The carbon flow check should be run at least each time a new engine is installed,
or something significant is changed in the test cell configuration.
The engine shall be operated at peak torque load and speed or any other steady state
mode that produces 5% or more of CO . The partial flow sampling system shall be
operated with a dilution factor of about 15 to 1. If a carbon flow check is conducted, the
procedure given in Annex 4B Appendix A.4 shall be applied. The carbon flow rates shall
be calculated according to equations of Annex 4B Appendix A.4. All carbon flow rates shall
agree to within 5%.

8.1.8.7. Vacuum-side Leak Verification
8.1.8.7.1. Scope and Frequency
Upon initial sampling system installation, after major maintenance such as pre-filter
changes, and within 8h prior to each duty-cycle sequence, it shall be verified that there are
no significant vacuum-side leaks using one of the leak tests described in this section. This
verification does not apply to any full-flow portion of a CVS dilution system.
8.1.8.7.2. Measurement Principles
A leak may be detected either by measuring a small amount of flow when there shall be
zero flow, by detecting the dilution of a known concentration of span gas when it flows
through the vacuum side of a sampling system or by measuring the pressure increase of
an evacuated system.
8.1.8.7.3. Low-flow Leak Test
A sampling system shall be tested for low-flow leaks as follows:
(a)
The probe end of the system shall be sealed by taking one of the following steps:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The end of the sample probe shall be capped or plugged;
The transfer line shall be disconnected at the probe and the transfer line
capped or plugged;
A leak-tight valve in-line between a probe and transfer line shall be closed;
(b)
All vacuum pumps shall be operated. After stabilizing, it shall be verified that the
flow through the vacuum-side of the sampling system is less than 0.5% of the
system's normal in-use flow rate. Typical analyser and bypass flows may be
estimated as an approximation of the system's normal in-use flow rate.
8.1.8.7.4. Dilution-of-span-gas Leak Test
Any gas analyser may be used for this test. If a FID is used for this test, any HC
contamination in the sampling system shall be corrected according to Annexes A.7 and
A.8 on HC and NMHC determination. Misleading results shall be avoided by using only
analysers that have a repeatability of 0.5% or better at the span gas concentration used
for this test. The vacuum side leak check shall be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)
A gas analyser shall be prepared as it would be for emission testing;
Span gas shall be supplied to the analyser port and it shall be verified that the span
gas concentration is measured within its expected measurement accuracy and
repeatability;

(d)
The leak flow rate based on an assumed value of zero for pumped-down bag
volumes and based on known values for the sample system volume, the initial and
final pressures, optional temperatures, and elapsed time shall be calculated. It shall
be verified that the vacuum-decay leak flow rate is less than 0.5% of the system's
normal in-use flow rate as follows:
q
⎛ p p ⎞
⎜ ⎟
V

T T
=
⎝ ⎠
(8-3)
R
( t = t )
where:
q = vacuum-decay leak rate [mol/s]
V = geometric volume of the vacuum-side of the sampling system [m ]
R
p
T
p
T
t
t
= molar gas constant [J/(mol·K)]
= vacuum-side absolute pressure at time t [Pa]
= vacuum-side absolute temperature at time t [K]
= vacuum-side absolute pressure at time t [Pa]
= vacuum-side absolute temperature at time t [K]
= time at completion of vacuum-decay leak verification test [s]
= time at start of vacuum-decay leak verification test [s]
8.1.9. CO and CO Measurements
8.1.9.1. H O Interference Verification for CO NDIR Analysers
8.1.9.1.1. Scope and Frequency
If CO is measured using an NDIR analyser, the amount of H O interference shall be
verified after initial analyser installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.9.1.2. Measurement Principles
H O can interfere with an NDIR analyser's response to CO . If the NDIR analyser uses
compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this
interference verification, simultaneously these other measurements shall be conducted to
test the compensation algorithms during the analyser interference verification.
8.1.9.1.3. System Requirements
A CO NDIR analyser shall have an H O interference that is within (0.0 ± 0.4)mmol/mol (of
the expected mean CO concentration).

8.1.9.2.3. System Requirements
8.1.9.2.4. Procedure
A CO NDIR analyser shall have combined H O and CO interference that is within ±2% of
the expected mean concentration of CO.
The interference verification shall be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The CO NDIR analyser shall be started, operated, zeroed, and spanned as it would
be before an emission test;
A humidified CO test gas shall be created by bubbling a CO span gas through
distilled water in a sealed vessel. If the sample is not passed through a dryer, the
vessel temperature shall be controlled to generate an H O level at least as high as
the maximum expected during testing. If the sample is passed through a dryer
during testing, the vessel temperature shall be controlled to generate an H O level
at least as high as the level determined in Paragraph 8.1.8.5.8. A CO span gas
concentration shall be used at least as high as the maximum expected during
testing;
The humidified CO test gas shall be introduced into the sampling system. The
humidified CO test gas may be introduced downstream of any sample dryer, if one
is used during testing;
(d) The water mole fraction, x , of the humidified test gas shall be measured, as close
as possible to the inlet of the analyser. For example, dew point, T , and absolute
pressure p , shall be measured to calculate x ;
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Good engineering judgment shall be used to prevent condensation in the transfer
lines, fittings, or valves from the point where x is measured to the analyser;
Time shall be allowed for the analyser response to stabilize;
While the analyser measures the sample's concentration, its output shall be
recorded for 30s. The arithmetic mean of this data shall be calculated;
The analyser meets the interference verification if the result of Sub-paragraph (g) of
this section meets the tolerance in Paragraph 8.1.9.2.3.;
Interference procedures for CO and H O may be also run separately. If the CO
and H O levels used are higher than the maximum levels expected during testing,
each observed interference value shall be scaled down by multiplying the observed
interference by the ratio of the maximum expected concentration value to the actual
value used during this procedure. Separate interference procedures concentrations
of H O (down to 0.025mol/mol H O content) that are lower than the maximum levels
expected during testing may be run, but the observed H O interference shall be
scaled up by multiplying the observed interference by the ratio of the maximum
expected H O concentration value to the actual value used during this procedure.
The sum of the two scaled interference values shall meet the tolerance in
Paragraph 8.1.9.2.3.

(c)
The following step from (1) to (4) or the procedure instructed by the instrument
manufacturer shall be taken for optimization. The procedures outlined in
SAE paper No. 770141 may be optionally used for optimization;
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
The response at a given fuel flow shall be determined from the difference
between the span gas response and the zero gas response;
The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the
manufacturer's specification. The span and zero response at these fuel flows
shall be recorded;
The difference between the span and zero response shall be plotted and the
fuel flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve. This is the initial flow rate
setting which may need further optimization depending on the results of the
hydrocarbon response factors and the oxygen interference check according
to Sub-paragraph (a) of Paragraph 8.1.10.1.1. and Paragraph 8.1.10.2;
If the oxygen interference or the hydrocarbon response factors do not meet
the following specifications, the airflow shall be incrementally adjusted above
and below the manufacturer's specifications, repeating Sub-paragraph (a) of
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.1. and Paragraph 8.1.10.2 for each flow;
(d)
The optimum flow rates and/or pressures for FID fuel and burner air shall be
determined, and they shall be sampled and recorded for future reference.
8.1.10.1.4. HC FID CH Response Factor Determination
This procedure is only for FID analysers that measure HC. Since FID analysers generally
have a different response to CH versus C H , each THC FID analyser's CH response
factor, RF
shall be determined, after FID optimization. The most recent
RF
measured according to this Paragraph shall be used in the calculations for
HC determination described in Annex 4B Appendix A.7 (molar based approach) or
Annex 4B Appendix A.8 (mass based approach) to compensate for CH response.
RF
shall be determined as follows, noting that RF
is not determined for
FIDs that are calibrated and spanned using CH with a non-methane cutter:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A C H span gas concentration shall be selected to span the analyser before
emission testing. Only span gases that meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1.
shall be selected and the C H concentration of the gas shall be recorded;
A CH span gas that meets the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. shall be selected
and the CH concentration of the gas shall be recorded;
The FID analyser shall be operated according to the manufacturer's instructions;
(d) It shall be confirmed that the FID analyser has been calibrated using C H .
Calibration shall be performed on a carbon number basis of one (C );
(e)
(f)
The FID shall be zeroed with a zero gas used for emission testing;
The FID shall be spanned with the selected C H span gas;

8.1.10.2.3. System Requirements
8.1.10.2.4. Procedure
Any FID analyser used during testing shall meet the FID O interference verification
according to the procedure in this section.
FID O interference shall be determined as follows, noting that one or more gas dividers
may be used to create reference gas concentrations that are required to perform this
verification:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Three span reference gases shall be selected that meet the specifications in
Paragraph 9.5.1. and contain C H concentration used to span the analysers before
emissions testing. Only span gases that meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.5.1.
CH span reference gases may be used for FIDs calibrated on CH with a
non-methane cutter. The three balance gas concentrations shall be selected such
that the concentrations of O and N represent the minimum and maximum and
intermediate O concentrations expected during testing. The requirement for using
the average O concentration can be removed if the FID is calibrated with span gas
balanced with the average expected oxygen concentration;
It shall be confirmed that the FID analyser meets all the specifications of
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.;
The FID analyser shall be started and operated as it would be before an emission
test. Regardless of the FID burner's air source during testing, zero air shall be used
as the FID burner's air source for this verification;
The analyser shall be set at zero;
The analyser shall be spanned using a span gas that is used during emissions
testing;
The zero response shall be checked by using the zero gas used during emission
testing. It shall be proceeded to the next step if the mean zero response of 30s of
sampled data is within ±0.5% of the span reference value used in Sub-paragraph
(e) of this Paragraph, otherwise the procedure shall be restarted at Sub-paragraph
(d) of this Paragraph;
The analyser response shall be checked using the span gas that has the minimum
concentration of O expected during testing. The mean response of 30s of stabilized
sample data shall be recorded as x ;
The zero response of the FID analyser shall be checked using the zero gas used
during emission testing. The next step shall be performed if the mean zero response
of 30s of stabilized sample data is within ±0.5% of the span reference value used in
Sub-paragraph (e) of this Paragraph, otherwise the procedure shall be restarted at
Sub-paragraph (d) of this Paragraph;
The analyser response shall be checked using the span gas that has the average
concentration of O expected during testing. The mean response of 30s of stabilized
sample data shall be recorded as x ;

8.1.10.3. Non-methane Cutter Penetration Fractions
8.1.10.3.1. Scope and Frequency
If a FID analyser and a non-methane cutter (NMC) is used to measure methane (CH ), the
non-methane cutter's conversion efficiencies of methane, E , and ethane, E shall be
determined. As detailed in this Paragraph, these conversion efficiencies may be
determined as a combination of NMC conversion efficiencies and FID analyser response
factors, depending on the particular NMC and FID analyser configuration.
This verification shall be performed after installing the non-methane cutter. This verification
shall be repeated within 185 days of testing to verify that the catalytic activity of the cutter
has not deteriorated.
8.1.10.3.2. Measurement Principles
A non-methane cutter is a heated catalyst that removes non-methane hydrocarbons from
the exhaust stream before the FID analyser measures the remaining hydrocarbon
concentration. An ideal non-methane cutter would have a methane conversion efficiency
E
[-] of 0 (that is, a methane penetration fraction, PF
, of 1.000), and the conversion
efficiency for all other hydrocarbons would be 1.000, as represented by an ethane
conversion efficiency E
[-] of 1 (that is, an ethane penetration fraction PF
[-] of 0).
The emission calculations in Annex 4B, Appendix A.7 or Annex 4B, Appendix A.8 use this
Paragraph's measured values of conversion efficiencies E
and E
to account for less
than ideal NMC performance.
8.1.10.3.3. System Requirements
8.1.10.3.4. Procedure
NMC conversion efficiencies are not limited to a certain range. However, it is
recommended that a non-methane cutter is optimized by adjusting its temperature to
achieve a E <0.15 and a E > 0.98 (PF > 0.85 and PF <0.02) as determined
by Paragraph 8.1.10.3.4., as applicable. If adjusting NMC temperature does not result in
achieving these specifications, it is recommended that the catalyst material is replaced.
The most recently determined conversion values from this section shall be used to
calculate HC emissions according to Annexes A.7-A.8 as applicable.
Any one of the procedures specified in Paragraphs 8.1.10.3.4.1., 8.1.10.3.4.2. and
8.1.10.3.4.3. is recommended. An alternative method recommended by the instrument
manufacturer may be used.

8.1.10.3.4.2. Procedure for a FID Calibrated with Propane Bypassing the NMC
If a FID is used with an NMC that is calibrated with propane, C H , by bypassing the NMC,
penetrations fractions PF and PF shall be determined as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
A CH gas mixture and a C H analytical gas mixture shall be selected meeting the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. with the CH concentration typical of its peak
concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard and the C H concentration
typical of the peak total hydrocarbon (THC) concentration expected at the
hydrocarbon standard or the THC analyser span value;
The non-methane cutter shall be started and operated according to the
manufacturer's instructions, including any temperature optimization;
It shall be confirmed that the FID analyser meets all the specifications of
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.;
The FID analyser shall be operated according to the manufacturer's instructions;
The FID shall be zeroed and spanned as it would be during emission testing. The
FID shall be spanned by bypassing the cutter and by using C H span gas to span
the FID. The FID shall be spanned on a C basis;
The C H analytical gas mixture shall be introduced upstream of the non-methane
cutter at the same point the zero gas was introduced;
Time shall be allowed for the analyser response to stabilize. Stabilization time may
include time to purge the non-methane cutter and to account for the analyser's
response;
While the analyser measures a stable concentration, 30s of sampled data shall be
recorded and the arithmetic mean of these data points shall be calculated;
The flow path shall be rerouted to bypass the non-methane cutter, the C H
analytical gas mixture shall be introduced to the bypass, and the steps in
sub-paragraphs (g) through (h) of this Paragraph shall be repeated;
The mean C H concentration measured through the non-methane cutter shall be
divided by the mean concentration measured after bypassing the non-methane
cutter. The result is the C H penetration fraction, PF , that is equivalent to
(1- E [-]). This penetration fraction shall be used according to A.7 or A.8, as
applicable;
The steps in Sub-paragraphs (f) through (j) of this Paragraph shall be repeated, but
with the CH analytical gas mixture instead of C H . The result will be the CH
penetration fraction, PF (equivalent to (1- E [-])). This penetration
fraction shall be used according to Annexes A.7-A.8, as applicable.

8.1.11. NO Measurements
8.1.11.1. CLD CO and H O Quench Verification
8.1.11.1.1. Scope and Frequency
If a CLD analyser is used to measure NO , the amount of H O and CO quench shall be
verified after installing the CLD analyser and after major maintenance.
8.1.11.1.2. Measurement Principles
H O and CO can negatively interfere with a CLD's NO response by collisional quenching,
which inhibits the chemiluminescent reaction that a CLD utilizes to detect NO . This
procedure and the calculations in Paragraph 8.1.11.2.3. determine quench and scale the
quench results to the maximum mole fraction of H O and the maximum CO concentration
expected during emission testing. If the CLD analyser uses quench compensation
algorithms that utilize H O and/or CO measurement instruments, quench shall be
evaluated with these instruments active and with the compensation algorithms applied.
8.1.11.1.3. System Requirements
For dilute measurement a CLD analyser shall not exceed a combined H O and CO
quench of ±2%. For raw measurement a CLD analyser shall not exceed a combined H O
and CO quench of ±2%. Combined quench is the sum of the CO quench determined as
described in Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4. and the H O quench as determined in
Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5. If these requirements are not met, corrective action shall be taken
by repairing or replacing the analyser. Before running emission tests, it shall be verified
that the corrective action have successfully restored the analyser to proper functioning.
8.1.11.1.4. CO Quench Verification Procedure
The following method or the method prescribed by the instrument manufacturer may be
used to determine CO quench by using a gas divider that blends binary span gases with
zero gas as the diluent and meets the specifications in Paragraph 9.4.5.6., or good
engineering judgment shall be used to develop a different protocol:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
PTFE or stainless steel tubing shall be used to make necessary connections;
The gas divider shall be configured such that nearly equal amounts of the span and
diluent gases are blended with each other;
If the CLD analyser has an operating mode in which it detects NO-only, as opposed
to total NO , the CLD analyser shall be operated in the NO-only operating mode;
A CO span gas that meets the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. and a
concentration that is approximately twice the maximum CO concentration expected
during emission testing shall be used;

8.1.11.1.5. H O Quench Verification Procedure
The following method or the method prescribed by the instrument manufacturer may be
used to determine H O quench, or good engineering judgment shall be used to develop a
different protocol:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
PTFE or stainless steel tubing shall be used to make necessary connections;
If the CLD analyser has an operating mode in which it detects NO-only, as opposed
to total NO , the CLD analyser shall be operated in the NO-only operating mode;
A NO span gas shall be used that meets the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. and
a concentration that is near the maximum concentration expected during emission
testing. Higher concentration may be used according to the instrument
manufacturer's recommendation and good engineering judgement in order to obtain
accurate verification, if the expected NO concentration is lower than the minimum
range for the verification specified by the instrument manufacturer;
The CLD analyser shall be zeroed and spanned. The CLD analyser shall be
spanned with the NO span gas from Paragraph (c) of this Paragraph, the span gas
concentration shall be recorded as x , and it shall be used in the quench
verification calculations in Paragraph 8.1.11.2.3.;
The NO span gas shall be humidified by bubbling it through distilled water in a
sealed vessel. If the humidified NO span gas sample does not pass through a
sample dryer for this verification test, the vessel temperature shall be controlled to
generate an H O level approximately equal to the maximum mole fraction of H O
expected during emission testing. If the humidified NO span gas sample does not
pass through a sample dryer, the quench verification calculations in
Paragraph 8.1.11.2.3. scale the measured H O quench to the highest mole fraction
of H O expected during emission testing. If the humidified NO span gas sample
passes through a dryer for this verification test, the vessel temperature shall be
controlled to generate an H O level at least as high as the level determined in
Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. For this case, the quench verification calculations in Paragraph
8.1.11.2.3. do not scale the measured H O quench;
The humidified NO test gas shall be introduced into the sample system. It may be
introduced upstream or downstream of a sample dryer that is used during emission
testing. Depending on the point of introduction, the respective calculation method of
Sub-paragraph (e) shall be selected. Note that the sample dryer shall meet the
sample dryer verification check in Paragraph 8.1.8.5.8.;
The mole fraction of H O in the humidified NO span gas shall be measured. In case
a sample dryer is used, the mole fraction of H O in the humidified NO span gas shall
be measured downstream of the sample dryer, x . It is recommended to
measure x as close as possible to the CLD analyser inlet. x may be
calculated from measurements of dew point, T , and absolute pressure, p ;

8.1.11.2.3. Combined H O and CO Quench Calculations
Combined H O and CO quench shall be calculated as follows:
⎡⎛
x


⎢⎜

1 x
x
x
x

quench ⎢⎜



= 1


1⎟
× ⎥ × 100%
⎢⎜

x

× +
x

x
(8-4)

⎠ x ⎥
⎢⎜


⎣⎝


where:
quench = amount of CLD quench
x = measured concentration of NO upstream of a bubbler, according to
sub-paragraph (d) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5.
x = measured concentration of NO downstream of a bubbler, according to
sub-paragraph (i) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5.
x = maximum expected mole fraction of water during emission testing according
to Paragraph 8.1.11.2.1.
x = measured mole fraction of water during the quench verification according to
Sub-paragraph (g) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5.
x = measured concentration of NO when NO span gas is blended with CO span
gas, according to Sub-paragraph (j) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.
x = actual concentration of NO when NO span gas is blended with CO span gas,
according to Sub-paragraph (k) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4. and calculated
according to Equation (8-5)
x = maximum expected concentration of CO during emission testing, according
to Paragraph 8.1.11.2.2.
x = actual concentration of CO when NO span gas is blended with CO span
gas, according to Sub-paragraph (i) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.
⎛ x ⎞
x = ⎜1 − ⎟ × x
(8-5)
⎜ x ⎟


where:
x = the NO span gas concentration input to the gas divider, according to
sub-paragraph (e) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.
x = the CO span gas concentration input to the gas divider, according to
sub-paragraph (d) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.

(g)
This difference shall be multiplied by the ratio of the expected mean HC
concentration to the HC concentration measured during the verification. The
analyser meets the interference verification of this Paragraph if this result is within
±2% of the NO concentration expected at the standard:
⎛ x ⎞
x − x
× ⎜ ⎟ ≤ 2% × ( x ) (8-6)
⎜ x ⎟
⎝ ⎠
where:
x = the mean concentration of NO measured by CLD [μmol/mol] or [ppm]
x = the mean concentration of NO measured by NDUV [μmol/mol] or [ppm]
x = the mean concentration of HC measured [μmol/mol] or [ppm]
x = the mean concentration of HC expected at the standard [μmol/mol] or
[ppm]
x = the mean concentration of NO expected at the standard [μmol/mol] or
[ppm]
8.1.11.3.5. Cooling Bath (Chiller) Requirements
It shall be demonstrated that for the highest expected water vapour concentration H , the
water removal technique maintains CLD humidity at ≤5g water/kg dry air (or about
0.8 volume percent H O), which is 100% relative humidity at 3.9°C and 101.3kPa. This
humidity specification is also equivalent to about 25% relative humidity at 25°C and
101.3kPa. This may be demonstrated by measuring the temperature at the outlet of a
thermal dehumidifier, or by measuring humidity at a point just upstream of the CLD.
8.1.11.4. Cooling Bath (Chiller) NO Penetration
8.1.11.4.1. Scope and Frequency
If a cooling bath (chiller) is used to dry a sample upstream of a NO measurement
instrument, but no NO -to-NO converter is used upstream of the cooling bath, this
verification shall be performed for cooling bath NO penetration. This verification shall be
performed after initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.11.4.2. Measurement Principles
A cooling bath (chiller) removes water, which can otherwise interfere with a NO
measurement. However, liquid water remaining in an improperly designed cooling bath
can remove NO from the sample. If a cooling bath is used without an NO -to-NO
converter upstream, it could therefore remove NO from the sample prior NO
measurement.

8.1.11.5. NO -to-NO converter conversion verification
8.1.11.5.1. Scope and Frequency
If an analyser is used that measures only NO to determine NO , an NO -to-NO converter
shall be used upstream of the analyser. This verification shall be performed after installing
the converter, after major maintenance and within 35 days before an emission test. This
verification shall be repeated at this frequency to verify that the catalytic activity of the
NO -to-NO converter has not deteriorated.
8.1.11.5.2. Measurement Principles
An NO -to-NO converter allows an analyser that measures only NO to determine total NO
by converting the NO in exhaust to NO.
8.1.11.5.3. System Requirements
8.1.11.5.4. Procedure
An NO -to-NO converter shall allow for measuring at least 95% of the total NO at the
maximum expected concentration of NO .
The following procedure shall be used to verify the performance of a NO -to-NO converter:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For the instrument setup the analyser and NO -to-NO converter manufacturers'
start-up and operating instructions shall be followed. The analyser and converter
shall be adjusted as needed to optimize performance;
An ozonator's inlet shall be connected to a zero-air or oxygen source and its outlet
shall be connected to one port of a 3-way tee fitting. An NO span gas shall be
connected to another port and the NO -to-NO converter inlet shall be connected to
the last port;
The following steps shall be taken when performing this check:
(i)
(ii)
The ozonator air shall be set off and the ozonator power shall be turned off
and the NO -to-NO converter shall be set to the bypass mode (ie, NO mode).
Stabilization shall be allowed for, accounting only for transport delays and
instrument response;
The NO and zero-gas flows shall be adjusted so the NO concentration at the
analyser is near the peak total NO concentration expected during testing.
The NO content of the gas mixture shall be less than 5% of the NO
concentration. The concentration of NO shall be recorded by calculating the
mean of 30s of sampled data from the analyser and this value shall be
recorded as x . Higher concentration may be used according to the
instrument manufacturer's recommendation and good engineering judgement
in order to obtain accurate verification, if the expected NO concentration is
lower than the minimum range for the verification specified by the instrument
manufacturer;

8.1.12.1.2. Independent Verification
The balance manufacturer (or a representative approved by the balance manufacturer)
shall verify the balance performance within 370 days of testing in accordance with internal
audit procedures.
8.1.12.1.3. Zeroing and Spanning
Balance performance shall be verified by zeroing and spanning it with at least one
calibration weight, and any weights that are used shall meet the specifications in
Paragraph 9.5.2. to perform this verification. A manual or automated procedure shall be
used:
(a)
(b)
A manual procedure requires that the balance shall be used in which the balance
shall be zeroed and spanned with at least one calibration weight. If normally mean
values are obtained by repeating the weighing process to improve the accuracy and
precision of PM measurements, the same process shall be used to verify balance
performance;
An automated procedure is carried out with internal calibration weights that are used
automatically to verify balance performance. These internal calibration weights shall
meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.5.2. to perform this verification.
8.1.12.1.4. Reference Sample Weighing
All mass readings during a weighing session shall be verified by weighing reference PM
sample media (e.g. filters) before and after a weighing session. A weighing session may
be as short as desired, but no longer than 80h, and may include both pre- and
post-test mass readings. Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample
media shall return the same value within ±10μg or ±10% of the expected total PM mass,
whichever is higher. Should successive PM sample filter weighing events fail this criterion,
all individual test filter mass readings mass readings occurring between the successive
reference filter mass determinations shall be invalidated. These filters may be re-weighed
in another weighing session. Should a post-test filter be invalidated then the test interval is
void. This verification shall be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
At least two samples of unused PM sample media shall be kept in the
PM-stabilization environment. These shall be used as references. Unused filters of
the same material and size shall be selected for use as references;
References shall be stabilized in the PM stabilization environment. References shall
be considered stabilized if they have been in the PM-stabilization environment for a
minimum of 30min, and the PM-stabilization environment has been within the
specifications of Paragraph 9.3.4.4. for at least the preceding 60min;
The balance shall be exercised several times with a reference sample without
recording the values;
The balance shall be zeroed and spanned. A test mass shall be placed on the
balance (e.g. calibration weight) and then removed ensuring that the balance
returns to an acceptable zero reading within the normal stabilization time;

8.1.12.2.2. PM Sample Filter Density
Different PM sample filters have different densities. The known density of the sample
media shall be used, or one of the densities for some common sampling media shall be
used, as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For PTFE-coated borosilicate glass, a sample media density of 2,300kg/m shall be
used;
For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral support ring of polymethylpentene
that accounts for 95% of the media mass, a sample media density of 920kg/m shall
be used;
For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral support ring of PTFE, a sample
media density of 2,144kg/m shall be used.
8.1.12.2.3. Air Density
Because a PM balance environment shall be tightly controlled to an ambient temperature
of (22 ± 1)°C and a dew point of (9.5 ± 1)°C, air density is primarily function of atmospheric
pressure. Therefore a buoyancy correction is specified that is only a function of
atmospheric pressure.
8.1.12.2.4. Calibration Weight Density
The stated density of the material of the metal calibration weight shall be used.
8.1.12.2.5. Correction Calculation
The PM sample filter shall be corrected for buoyancy using the following equations:
where:
⎛ ρ ⎞
⎜ 1 − ⎟
⎜ ρ ⎟
m = m × ⎜

(8-8)
⎜ ρ
1 − ⎟



ρ

m = PM sample filter mass corrected for buoyancy
m = PM sample filter mass uncorrected for buoyancy
ρ
= density of air in balance environment
ρ = density of calibration weight used to span balance
ρ = density of PM sample filter

8.2.1.1.3. Demonstration of Proportional Sampling
For any proportional batch sample such as a bag or PM filter, it shall be demonstrated that
proportional sampling was maintained using one of the following, noting that up to 5% of
the total number of data points may be omitted as outliers.
Using good engineering judgment, it shall be demonstrated with an engineering analysis
that the proportional-flow control system inherently ensures proportional sampling under
all circumstances expected during testing. For example, CFVs may be used for both
sample flow and total flow if it is demonstrated that they always have the same inlet
pressures and temperatures and that they always operate under critical-flow conditions.
Measured or calculated flows and/or tracer gas concentrations (e.g. CO ) shall be used to
determine the minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling over the test interval.
8.2.1.2. Partial Flow Dilution System Validation
For the control of a partial flow dilution system to extract a proportional raw exhaust
sample, a fast system response is required; this is identified by the promptness of the
partial flow dilution system. The transformation time for the system shall be determined by
the procedure in Paragraph 8.1.8.6. and the related Figure 3.1. The actual control of the
partial flow dilution system shall be based on the current measured conditions. If the
combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement and the partial flow
system is ≤0.3 s, online control shall be used. If the transformation time exceeds 0.3 s,
look-ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run shall be used. In this case, the
combined rise time shall be ≤1s and the combined delay time ≤10s. The total system
response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the particulates, q
(sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system), proportional to the exhaust
mass flow. To determine the proportionality, a regression analysis of q versus q
(exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis) shall be conducted on a minimum 5Hz data
acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:
(a)
The correlation coefficient r of the linear regression between q
and q
shall
not be less than 0.95;
(b)
The standard error of estimate of q
on q
shall not exceed 5% of q
maximum;
(c) q intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ±2% of q maximum.
Look-ahead control is required if the combined transformation times of the particulate
system, t and of the exhaust mass flow signal, t are >0.3s. In this case, a pre-test
shall be run and the exhaust mass flow signal of the pre-test be used for controlling the
sample flow into the particulate system. A correct control of the partial dilution system is
obtained, if the time trace of q of the pre-test, which controls qmp, is shifted by a
"look-ahead" time of t + t .
For establishing the correlation between q and q the data taken during the actual
test shall be used, with q time aligned by t relative to q (no contribution from t
to the time alignment). The time shift between q and q is the difference between their
transformation times that were determined in Paragraph 8.1.8.6.3.2.

8.2.3.3. Grounding
Electrically grounded tweezers or a grounding strap shall be used to handle PM filters as
described in Paragraph 9.3.4.
8.2.3.4. Unused Sample Media
8.2.3.5. Stabilization
8.2.3.6. Weighing
Unused sample media shall be placed in one or more containers that are open to the
PM-stabilization environment. If filters are used, they may be placed in the bottom half of a
filter cassette.
Sample media shall be stabilized in the PM-stabilization environment. An unused sample
medium can be considered stabilized as long as it has been in the PM-stabilization
environment for a minimum of 30min, during which the PM-stabilization environment has
been within the specifications of Paragraph 9.3.4.
The sample media shall be weighed automatically or manually, as follows:
(a)
(b)
For automatic weighing, the automation system manufacturer's instructions shall be
followed to prepare samples for weighing;
For manual weighing, good engineering judgment shall be used;
(c) Optionally, substitution weighing is permitted (see Paragraph 8.2.3.10.);
(d)
Once a filter is weighed it shall be returned to the Petri dish and covered.
8.2.3.7. Buoyancy Correction
8.2.3.8. Repetition
The measured weight shall be corrected for buoyancy as described in Paragraph 8.1.12.2.
The filter mass measurements may be repeated to determine the average mass of the
filter using good engineering judgement and to exclude outliers from the calculation of the
average.
8.2.3.9. Tare-weighing
Unused filters that have been tare-weighed shall be loaded into clean filter cassettes and
the loaded cassettes shall be placed in a covered or sealed container before they are
taken to the test cell for sampling.

8.2.4. PM Sample Post-conditioning and Total Weighing
8.2.4.1. Periodic Verification
It shall be assured that the weighing and PM-stabilization environments have met the
periodic verifications in Paragraph 8.1.12.1. After testing is complete, the filters shall be
returned to the weighing and PM-stabilization environment. The weighing and
PM-stabilization environment shall meet the ambient conditions requirements in
Paragraph 9.3.4.4., otherwise the test filters shall be left covered until proper conditions
have been met.
8.2.4.2. Removal from Sealed Containers
In the PM-stabilization environment, the PM samples shall be removed from the sealed
containers. Filters may be removed from their cassettes before or after stabilization. When
a filter is removed from a cassette, the top half of the cassette shall be separated from the
bottom half using a cassette separator designed for this purpose.
8.2.4.3. Electrical Grounding
To handle PM samples, electrically grounded tweezers or a grounding strap shall be used,
as described in Paragraph 9.3.4.5.
8.2.4.4. Visual Inspection
The collected PM samples and the associated filter media shall be inspected visually. If
the conditions of either the filter or the collected PM sample appear to have been
compromised, or if the particulate matter contacts any surface other than the filter, the
sample may not be used to determine particulate emissions. In the case of contact with
another surface; the affected surface shall be cleaned before proceeding.
8.2.4.5. Stabilization of PM Samples
To stabilize PM samples, they shall be placed in one or more containers that are open to
the PM-stabilization environment, which is described in Paragraph 9.3.4.3. A PM sample is
stabilized as long as it has been in the PM-stabilization environment for one of the
following durations, during which the stabilization environment has been within the
specifications of Paragraph 9.3.4.3.:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If it is expected that a filter's total surface concentration of PM will be greater than
0.353μg/mm , assuming a 400μg loading on a 38mm diameter filter stain area, the
filter shall be exposed to the stabilization environment for at least 60min before
weighing;
If it is expected that a filter's total surface concentration of PM will be less than
0.353μg/mm , the filter shall be exposed to the stabilization environment for at least
30min before weighing;
If a filter's total surface concentration of PM to be expected during the test is
unknown, the filter shall be exposed to the stabilization environment for at least
60min before weighing.

9.2. Dilution Procedure (if applicable)
9.2.1. Diluent Conditions and Background Concentrations
Gaseous constituents may be measured raw or dilute whereas PM measurement
generally requires dilution. Dilution may be accomplished by a full flow or partial flow
dilution system. When dilution is applied then the exhaust may be diluted with ambient air,
synthetic air, or nitrogen. For gaseous emissions measurement the diluent shall be at least
15°C. For PM sampling the temperature of the diluent is specified in Paragraphs 9.2.2. for
CVS and 9.2.3. for PFD with varying dilution ratio. The flow capacity of the dilution system
shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and
sampling systems. De-humidifying the dilution air before entering the dilution system is
permitted, if the air humidity is high. The dilution tunnel walls may be heated or insulated
as well as the bulk stream tubing downstream of the tunnel to prevent aqueous
condensation.
Before a diluent is mixed with exhaust, it may be preconditioned by increasing or
decreasing its temperature or humidity. Constituents may be removed from the diluent to
reduce their background concentrations. The following provisions apply to removing
constituents or accounting for background concentrations:
(a)
(b)
Constituent concentrations in the diluent may be measured and compensated for
background effects on test results. See Annexes A.7-A.8 for calculations that
compensate for background concentrations;
To account for background PM the following options are available:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
For removing background PM, the diluent shall be filtered with high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) filters that have an initial minimum collection efficiency
specification of 99.97% (see Paragraph 3.1. for procedures related to
HEPA-filtration efficiencies);
For correcting for background PM without HEPA filtration, the background PM
shall not contribute more than 50% of the net PM collected on the sample
filter;
Background correction of net PM with HEPA filtration is permitted without
restriction.
9.2.2. Full Flow System
Full-flow dilution; constant-volume sampling (CVS). The full flow of raw exhaust is diluted
in a dilution tunnel. Constant flow may be maintained by maintaining the temperature and
pressure at the flow-meter within the limits. For non constant flow the flow shall be
measured directly to allow for proportional sampling. The system shall be designed as
follows (see Figure 9.1):
(a)
(b)
A tunnel with inside surfaces of stainless steel shall be used. The entire dilution
tunnel shall be electrically grounded;
The exhaust system backpressure shall not be artificially lowered by the dilution air
inlet system. The static pressure at the location where raw exhaust is introduced
into the tunnel shall be maintained within ±1.2kPa of atmospheric pressure;

(i)
(j)
The overall residence time in the system shall be between 0.5s and 5s, as
measured from the point of diluent introduction to the filter holder(s);
The residence time in the secondary dilution system, if present, shall be at least
0.5s, as measured from the point of secondary diluent introduction to the filter
holder(s).
To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, a particulate
sampling filter, a gravimetric balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing
chamber, are required.
Figure 9.1
Examples of Full-flow Dilution Sampling Configurations

Figure 9.2
Schematic of Partial Flow Dilution System (Total Sampling Type)
a = engine exhaust or primary diluted flow
b = optional c = PM sampling
Components of Figure 9.2:
DAF = Dilution air filter – The dilution air (ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen) shall be
filtered with a high-efficiency PM air (HEPA) filter.
DT
EP
= Dilution tunnel or secondary dilution system
= Exhaust pipe or primary dilution system
FC1 = Flow controller
FH
= Filter holder
FM1 = Flow measurement device measuring the dilution air flow rate
P
= Sampling pump
PSS = PM sampling system
PTL = PM transfer line
SP
TL
= Raw or dilute exhaust gas sampling probe
= Transfer line

9.3. Sampling Procedures
9.3.1. General Sampling Requirements
9.3.1.1. Probe Design and Construction
A probe is the first fitting in a sampling system. It protrudes into a raw or diluted exhaust
stream to extract a sample, such that it's inside and outside surfaces are in contact with
the exhaust. A sample is transported out of a probe into a transfer line.
Sample probes shall be made with inside surfaces of stainless steel or, for raw exhaust
sampling, with any non-reactive material capable of withstanding raw exhaust
temperatures. Sample probes shall be located where constituents are mixed to their mean
sample concentration and where interference with other probes is minimized. It is
recommended that all probes remain free from influences of boundary layers, wakes, and
eddies – especially near the outlet of a raw-exhaust tailpipe where unintended dilution
might occur. Purging or back-flushing of a probe shall not influence another probe during
testing. A single probe to extract a sample of more than one constituent may be used as
long as the probe meets all the specifications for each constituent.
9.3.1.2. Transfer Lines
Transfer lines that transport an extracted sample from a probe to an analyser, storage
medium, or dilution system shall be minimized in length by locating analysers, storage
media, and dilution systems as close to the probes as practical. The number of bends in
transfer lines shall be minimized and that the radius of any unavoidable bend shall be
maximized.
9.3.1.3. Sampling Methods
For continuous and batch sampling, introduced in Paragraph 7.2., the following conditions
apply:
(a)
(b)
When extracting from a constant flow rate, the sample shall also be carried out at a
constant flow rate;
When extracting from a varying flow rate, the sample flow rate shall be varied in
proportion to the varying flow rate;
(c) Proportional sampling shall be validated as described in Paragraph 8.2.1.

9.3.2.3.1.2. Type of Sample Dryers Allowed and Procedure to Estimate Moisture Content after the
Dryer
Either type of sample dryer described in this Paragraph to decrease the effects of water on
gaseous emission measurements may be used.
(a)
(b)
If an osmotic-membrane dryer upstream of any gaseous analyser or storage
medium is used, it shall meet the temperature specifications in Paragraph 9.3.2.2.
The dew point, T , and absolute pressure, p , downstream of an
osmotic-membrane dryer shall be monitored. The amount of water shall be
calculated as specified in Annexes A.7-A.8 by using continuously recorded values of
T and p or their peak values observed during a test or their alarm set points.
Lacking a direct measurement, the nominal p is given by the dryer's lowest
absolute pressure expected during testing;
A thermal chiller upstream of a THC measurement system for compression-ignition
engines may not be used. If a thermal chiller upstream of an NO -to-NO converter
or in a sampling system without an NO -to-NO converter is used, the chiller shall
meet the NO loss-performance check specified in Paragraph 8.1.11.4. The dew
point, T , and absolute pressure, p , downstream of a thermal chiller shall be
monitored. The amount of water shall be calculated as specified in
Annexes A.7-A.8 by using continuously recorded values of T and p or their
peak values observed during a test or their alarm set points. Lacking a direct
measurement, the nominal p is given by the thermal chiller's lowest absolute
pressure expected during testing. If it is valid to assume the degree of saturation in
the thermal chiller, T based on the known chiller efficiency and continuous
monitoring of chiller temperature, T may be calculated. If values of T are not
continuously recorded, its peak value observed during a test, or its alarm setpoint,
may be used as a constant value to determine a constant amount of water
according to Annexes A.7-A.8. If it is valid to assume that T is equal to T ,
T may be used in lieu of T according to Annexes A.7-A.8. If it is valid to
assume a constant temperature offset between T and T , due to a known and
fixed amount of sample reheat between the chiller outlet and the temperature
measurement location, this assumed temperature offset value may be factored in
into emission calculations. The validity of any assumptions allowed by this
Paragraph shall be shown by engineering analysis or by data.
9.3.2.3.2. Sample Pumps
Sample pumps upstream of an analyser or storage medium for any gas shall be used.
Sample pumps with inside surfaces of stainless steel, PTFE, or any other material having
better properties for emission sampling shall be used. For some sample pumps,
temperatures shall be controlled, as follows:
(a)
(b)
If a NO sample pump upstream of either an NO -to-NO converter that meets
Paragraph 8.1.11.5. or a chiller that meets Paragraph 8.1.11.4. is used, it shall be
heated to prevent aqueous condensation;
If a THC sample pump upstream of a THC analyser or storage medium is used, its
inner surfaces shall be heated to a tolerance of (191 ± 11)°C.

9.3.3.2. Transfer Lines
9.3.3.3. Pre-classifier
9.3.3.4. Sample Filter
Insulated or heated transfer lines or a heated enclosure are recommended to minimize
temperature differences between transfer lines and exhaust constituents. Transfer lines
that are inert with respect to PM and are electrically conductive on the inside surfaces
shall be used. It is recommended using PM transfer lines made of stainless steel; any
material other than stainless steel will be required to meet the same sampling performance
as stainless steel. The inside surface of PM transfer lines shall be electrically grounded.
The use of a PM pre-classifier to remove large-diameter particles is permitted that is
installed in the dilution system directly before the filter holder. Only one pre-classifier is
permitted. If a hat shaped probe is used (see Figure 9.3), the use of a pre-classifier is
prohibited.
The PM pre-classifier may be either an inertial impactor or a cyclonic separator. It shall be
constructed of stainless steel. The pre-classifier shall be rated to remove at least 50% of
PM at an aerodynamic diameter of 10μm and no more than 1% of PM at an aerodynamic
diameter of 1μm over the range of flow rates for which it is used. The pre-classifier outlet
shall be configured with a means of bypassing any PM sample filter so that the
pre-classifier flow can be stabilized before starting a test. PM sample filter shall be located
within 75cm downstream of the pre-classifier's exit.
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a filter that meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 9.3.3.4.1. to 9.3.3.4.4. during the test sequence.
9.3.3.4.1. Filter Specification
All filter types shall have a 0.3μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least
99.7%. The sample filter manufacturer's measurements reflected in their product ratings
may be used to show this requirement. The filter material shall be either:
(a)
(b)
Fluorocarbon (PTFE) coated glass fibre; or
Fluorocarbon (PTFE) membrane.
9.3.3.4.2. Filter Size
If the expected net PM mass on the filter exceeds 400μg, a filter with a minimum initial
collection efficiency of 98% may be used.
The nominal filter size shall be 46.50mm ± 0.6mm diameter.

9.3.4.4. Verification of Ambient Conditions
When using measurement instruments that meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.4 the
following ambient conditions shall be verified:
(a)
(b)
Dew point and ambient temperature shall be recorded. These values shall be used
to determine if the stabilization and weighing environments have remained within
the tolerances specified in Paragraph 9.3.4.3. of this section for at least 60min
before weighing filters;
Atmospheric pressure shall be continuously recorded within the weighing
environment. An acceptable alternative is to use a barometer that measures
atmospheric pressure outside the weighing environment, as long as it can be
ensured that the atmospheric pressure at the balance is always at the balance
within ±100Pa of the shared atmospheric pressure. A means to record the most
recent atmospheric pressure shall be provided when each PM sample is weighed.
This value shall be used to calculate the PM buoyancy correction in
Paragraph 8.1.12.2.
9.3.4.5. Installation of Balance
The balance shall be installed as follows:
(a)
(b)
Installed on a vibration-isolation platform to isolate it from external noise and
vibration;
Shielded from convective airflow with a static-dissipating draft shield that is
electrically grounded.
9.3.4.6. Static Electric Charge
Static electric charge shall be minimized in the balance environment, as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The balance is electrically grounded;
Stainless steel tweezers shall be used if PM samples shall be handled manually;
Tweezers shall be grounded with a grounding strap, or a grounding strap shall be
provided for the operator such that the grounding strap shares a common ground
with the balance;
A static-electricity neutralizer shall be provided that is electrically grounded in
common with the balance to remove static charge from PM samples.

Applicable
test protocol
section
Table 9.2
Data Recording and Control Minimum Frequencies
Measured values
Minimum
command and
control frequency
Minimum
recording
frequency
7.6.
Speed and torque during an engine step-map
1Hz
1 mean value per
step
7.6. Speed and torque during an engine sweep-map 5Hz 1Hz means
7.8.3. Transient duty cycle reference and feedback
speeds and torques
7.8.2. Steady-state and ramped-modal duty cycle
reference and feedback speeds and torques
7.3. Continuous concentrations of raw analysers N/A 1Hz
7.3. Continuous concentrations of dilute analysers N/A 1Hz
5Hz
1Hz
1Hz means
7.3.
Batch concentrations of raw or dilute analysers
N/A
1 mean value per
test interval
7.6.
8.2.1.
7.6.
8.2.1.
7.6.
8.2.1.
7.6.
8.2.1.
7.6.
8.2.1.
7.6.
8.2.1.
Diluted exhaust flow rate from a CVS with a heat
exchanger upstream of the flow measurement
Diluted exhaust flow rate from a CVS without a
heat exchanger upstream of the flow measurement
Intake-air or exhaust flow rate (for raw transient
measurement)
N/A
5Hz
N/A
1Hz
1Hz
1Hz means
1Hz means
Dilution air if actively controlled 5Hz 1Hz means
Sample flow from a CVS with a heat exchanger 1Hz 1Hz
Sample flow from a CVS without a heat exchanger 5Hz 1Hz mean
9.4.3. Performance Specifications for Measurement Instruments
9.4.3.1. Overview
The test system as a whole shall meet all the applicable calibrations, verifications, and
test-validation criteria specified in Paragraph 8.1., including the requirements of the
linearity check of Paragraphs 8.1.4. and 8.2. Instruments shall meet the specifications in
Table 9.2 for all ranges to be used for testing. Furthermore, any documentation received
from instrument manufacturers showing that instruments meet the specifications in
Table 9.2 shall be kept.

9.4.4. Measurement of Engine Parameters & Ambient Conditions
9.4.4.1. Speed and Torque Sensors
9.4.4.1.1. Application
9.4.4.1.2. Shaft Work
Measurement instruments for work inputs and outputs during engine operation shall meet
the specifications in this Paragraph. Sensors, transducers, and meters meeting the
specifications in Table 9.3 are recommended. Overall systems for measuring work inputs
and outputs shall meet the linearity verifications in Paragraph 8.1.4.
Work and power shall be calculated from outputs of speed and torque transducers
according to Paragraph 9.4.4.1. Overall systems for measuring speed and torque shall
meet the calibration and verifications in Paragraphs 8.1.7. and 8.1.4.
Torque induced by the inertia of accelerating and decelerating components connected to
the flywheel, such as the drive shaft and dynamometer rotor, shall be compensated for as
needed, based on good engineering judgment.
9.4.4.2. Pressure Transducers, Temperature Sensors, and Dew Point Sensors
Overall systems for measuring pressure, temperature, and dew point shall meet the
calibration in Paragraph 8.1.7.
Pressure transducers shall be located in a temperature-controlled environment, or they
shall compensate for temperature changes over their expected operating range.
Transducer materials shall be compatible with the fluid being measured.
9.4.5. Flow-related Measurements
For any type of flow-meter (of fuel, intake-air, raw exhaust, diluted exhaust, sample), the
flow shall be conditioned as needed to prevent wakes, eddies, circulating flows, or flow
pulsations from affecting the accuracy or repeatability of the meter. For some meters, this
may be accomplished by using a sufficient length of straight tubing (such as a length equal
to at least 10 pipe diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, straightening
fins, orifice plates (or pneumatic pulsation dampeners for the fuel flow-meter) to establish
a steady and predictable velocity profile upstream of the meter.
9.4.5.1. Fuel Flow-meter
Overall system for measuring fuel flow shall meet the calibration in Paragraph 8.1.8.1. In
any fuel flow measurement it shall be accounted for any fuel that bypasses the engine or
returns from the engine to the fuel storage tank.
9.4.5.2. Intake-air Flow-meter
Overall system for measuring intake-air flow shall meet the calibration in
Paragraph 8.1.8.2.

9.4.5.4.2. Component Requirements
The overall system for measuring diluted exhaust flow shall meet the calibration and
verifications in Paragraphs 8.1.8.4. and 8.1.8.5. The following meters may be used:
(a)
(b)
For constant-volume sampling (CVS) of the total flow of diluted exhaust, a
critical-flow venturi (CFV) or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a
positive-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic
flow-meter (UFM) may be used. Combined with an upstream heat exchanger, either
a CFV or a PDP will also function as a passive flow controller by keeping the diluted
exhaust temperature constant in a CVS system;
For the Partial Flow Dilution (PFD) system the combination of any flow-meter with
any active flow control system to maintain proportional sampling of exhaust
constituents may be used. The total flow of diluted exhaust, or one or more sample
flows, or a combination of these flow controls may be controlled to maintain
proportional sampling.
For any other dilution system, a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flowmeter, a subsonic
venturi, a critical-flow venturi or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a
positive-displacement meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire
anemometer may be used.
9.4.5.4.3. Exhaust Cooling
Diluted exhaust upstream of a dilute flow-meter may be cooled, as long as all the following
provisions are observed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
PM shall not be sampled downstream of the cooling;
If cooling causes exhaust temperatures above 202°C to decrease to below 180°C,
NMHC shall not be sampled downstream of the cooling;
If cooling causes aqueous condensation, NO shall not be sampled downstream of
the cooling unless the cooler meets the performance verification in
Paragraph 8.1.11.4.;
If cooling causes aqueous condensation before the flow reaches a flow meter, dew
point, T and pressure p shall be measured at the flow meter inlet. These
values shall be used in emission calculations according Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.5.5. Sample Flow-meter for Batch Sampling
A sample flow-meter shall be used to determine sample flow rates or total flow sampled
into a batch sampling system over a test interval. The difference between two flow-meters
may be used to calculate sample flow into a dilution tunnel eg for partial flow dilution PM
measurement and secondary dilution flow PM measurement. Specifications for
differential flow measurement to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample is given in
Paragraph 8.1.8.6.1. and the calibration of differential flow measurement is given in
Paragraph 8.1.8.6.2.
Overall system for the sample flow-meter shall meet the calibration in Paragraph 8.1.8.

9.4.7.1.4. Methane
FID analysers measure total hydrocarbons (THC). To determine non-methane
hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane, CH , shall be quantified either with a non-methane cutter
and a FID analyser as described in Paragraph 9.4.7.2., or with a gas chromatograph as
described in Paragraph 9.4.7.3. For a FID analyser used to determine NMHC, its response
factor to CH , RF , shall be determined as described in Paragraph 8.1.10.1. NMHCrelated
calculations are described in Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.7.1.5. Assumption on Methane
Instead of measuring methane, it is allowed to assume that 2% of measured total
hydrocarbons is methane, as described in Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.7.2. Non-methane Cutter
9.4.7.2.1. Application
A non-methane cutter may be used to measure CH with a FID analyser. A non-methane
cutter oxidizes all non-methane hydrocarbons to CO and H O. A non-methane cutter may
be used for raw or diluted exhaust for batch or continuous sampling.
9.4.7.2.2. System Performance
9.4.7.2.3. Configuration
9.4.7.2.4. Optimization
Non-methane-cutter performance shall be determined as described in Paragraph 8.1.10.3.
and the results shall be used to calculate NMHC emission in A.7 and A.8.
The non-methane cutter shall be configured with a bypass line for the verification
described in Paragraph 8.1.10.3.
A non-methane cutter may be optimised to maximize the penetration of CH and the
oxidation of all other hydrocarbons. A sample may be humidified and a sample may be
diluted with purified air or oxygen (O ) upstream of non-methane cutter to optimize its
performance. Any sample humidification and dilution shall be accounted for in emission
calculations.
9.4.7.3. Gas Chromatograph
Application: A gas chromatograph may be used to measure CH concentrations of diluted
exhaust for batch sampling. While also a non-methane cutter may be used to measure
CH , as described in Paragraph 9.4.7.2. a reference procedure based on a gas
chromatograph shall be used for comparison with any proposed alternate measurement
procedure under Paragraph 5.1.3.

9.4.8.2.3. NO -to-NO Converter
If the NDUV analyser measures only NO, an internal or external NO -to-NO converter that
meets the verification in Paragraph 8.1.11.5. shall be placed upstream of the NDUV
analyser. The converter shall be configured with a bypass to facilitate this verification.
9.4.8.2.4. Humidity Effects
The NDUV temperature shall be maintained to prevent aqueous condensation, unless one
of the following configurations is used:
(a)
(b)
An NDUV shall be connected downstream of any dryer or chiller that is downstream
of an NO -to-NO converter that meets the verification in Paragraph 8.1.11.5;
An NDUV shall be connected downstream of any dryer or thermal chiller that meets
the verification in Paragraph 8.1.11.4.
9.4.9. O Measurements
A paramagnetic detection (PMD) or magneto pneumatic detection (MPD) analyser shall be
used to measure O concentration in raw or diluted exhaust for batch or continuous
sampling.
9.4.10. Air-to-fuel Ratio Measurements
A Zirconia (ZrO ) analyser may be used to measure air-to-fuel ratio in raw exhaust for
continuous sampling. O measurements with intake air or fuel flow measurements may be
used to calculate exhaust flow rate according to Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.11. PM Measurements with Gravimetric Balance
A balance shall be used to weigh net PM collected on sample filter media.
The minimum requirement on the balance resolution shall be equal or lower than the
repeatability of 0.5 microgram recommended in Table 9.3. If the balance uses internal
calibration weights for routine spanning and linearity verifications, the calibration weights
shall meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.5.2.
The balance shall be configured for optimum settling time and stability at its location.

Table 9.5
Contamination Limits, Applicable for Raw
Measurements [μmol/mol = ppm (3.2.)]
Constituent Purified Synthetic Air Purified N
THC (C equivalent) ≤1μmol/mol ≤1μmol/mol
CO ≤1μmol/mol ≤1μmol/mol
CO ≤400μmol/mol ≤400μmol/mol
O 0.18 to 0.21 mol/mol –
NO ≤0.1μmol/mol ≤0.1μmol/mol
(b)
The following gases shall be used with a FID analyser:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
FID fuel shall be used with an H2 concentration of (0.39 to 0.41) mol/mol,
balance He. The mixture shall not contain more than 0.05μmol/mol THC;
FID burner air shall be used that meets the specifications of purified air in
Paragraph (a) of this Paragraph;
FID zero gas. Flame-ionization detectors shall be zeroed with purified gas
that meets the specifications in Paragraph (a) of this Paragraph, except that
the purified gas O concentration may be any value;
FID propane span gas. The THC FID shall be spanned and calibrated with
span concentrations of propane, C H . It shall be calibrated on a carbon
number basis of one (C );
FID methane span gas. If a CH FID is always spanned and calibrated with a
non-methane cutter, then the FID shall be spanned and calibrated with span
concentrations of methane, CH . It shall be calibrated on a carbon number
basis of one (C );

9.5.1.3. Gas Transfer
Gases shall be transferred from their source to analysers using components that are
dedicated to controlling and transferring only those gases.
The shelf life of all calibration gases shall be respected. The expiration date of the
calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.
9.5.2. Mass Standards
PM balance calibration weights that are certified as international and/or national
recognized standards-traceable within 0.1% uncertainty shall be used. Calibration weights
may be certified by any calibration lab that maintains international and/or national
recognized standards-traceability. It shall be made sure that the lowest calibration weight
has no greater than ten times the mass of an unused PM-sample medium. The calibration
report shall also state the density of the weights.

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.2
STATISTICS
A.2.1.
Arithmetic Mean
The arithmetic mean, y , shall be calculated as follows:

y
y = (A.2-1)
N
A.2.2.
Standard Deviation
The standard deviation for a non-biased (e.g., N–1) sample, σ, shall be calculated as follows:
σ
=

( y − y)
( N − 1)
(A.2-2)
A.2.3.
Root Mean Square
The root mean square, rms , shall be calculated as follows:
rms

=
1
y
(A.2-3)
N

(c) Table A.2.1 of this Paragraph shall be used to compare t to the t values tabulated
versus the number of degrees of freedom. If t is less than t , then t passes the t-test.
v
Table A.2.1
Critical t Values Versus Number of Degrees of Freedom, v
Confidence
90% 95%
1
6.314
12.706
2
2.920
4.303
3
2.353
3.182
4
2.132
2.776
5
2.015
2.571
6
1.943
2.447
7
1.895
2.365
8
1.860
2.306
9
1.833
2.262
10
1.812
2.228
11
1.796
2.201
12
1.782
2.179
13
1.771
2.160
14
1.761
2.145
15
1.753
2.131
16
1.746
2.120
18
1.734
2.101
20
1.725
2.086
22
1.717
2.074
24
1.711
2.064
26
1.706
2.056
28
1.701
2.048
30
1.697
2.042
35
1.690
2.030
40
1.684
2.021
50
1.676
2.009
70
1.667
1.994
100
1.660
1.984
1000+
1.645
1.960
Linear interpolation shall be used to establish values not shown here.

Table A.2.2
Critical F Values, F , versus N–1 and N –1 at 90% Confidence
N–1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
24
30
40
60
120 1000+
N
–1
1
39.86 49.50 53.59 55.83 57.24 58.20 58.90 59.43 59.85 60.19 60.70 61.22 61.74 62.00 62.26 62.52 62.79 63.06 63.32
2
8.526 9.000 9.162 9.243 9.293 9.326 9.349 9.367 9.381 9.392 9.408 9.425 9.441 9.450 9.458 9.466 9.475 9.483 9.491
3
5.538 5.462 5.391 5.343 5.309 5.285 5.266 5.252 5.240 5.230 5.216 5.200 5.184 5.176 5.168 5.160 5.151 5.143 5.134
4
4.545 4.325 4.191 4.107 4.051 4.010 3.979 3.955 3.936 3.920 3.896 3.870 3.844 3.831 3.817 3.804 3.790 3.775 3.761
5
4.060 3.780 3.619 3.520 3.453 3.405 3.368 3.339 3.316 3.297 3.268 3.238 3.207 3.191 3.174 3.157 3.140 3.123 3.105
6
3.776 3.463 3.289 3.181 3.108 3.055 3.014 2.983 2.958 2.937 2.905 2.871 2.836 2.818 2.800 2.781 2.762 2.742 2.722
7
3.589 3.257 3.074 2.961 2.883 2.827 2.785 2.752 2.725 2.703 2.668 2.632 2.595 2.575 2.555 2.535 2.514 2.493 2.471
8
3.458 3.113 2.924 2.806 2.726 2.668 2.624 2.589 2.561 2.538 2.502 2.464 2.425 2.404 2.383 2.361 2.339 2.316 2.293
9
3.360 3.006 2.813 2.693 2.611 2.551 2.505 2.469 2.440 2.416 2.379 2.340 2.298 2.277 2.255 2.232 2.208 2.184 2.159
10
3.285 2.924 2.728 2.605 2.522 2.461 2.414 2.377 2.347 2.323 2.284 2.244 2.201 2.178 2.155 2.132 2.107 2.082 2.055
11
3.225 2.860 2.660 2.536 2.451 2.389 2.342 2.304 2.274 2.248 2.209 2.167 2.123 2.100 2.076 2.052 2.026 2.000 1.972
12
3.177 2.807 2.606 2.480 2.394 2.331 2.283 2.245 2.214 2.188 2.147 2.105 2.060 2.036 2.011 1.986 1.960 1.932 1.904
13
3.136 2.763 2.560 2.434 2.347 2.283 2.234 2.195 2.164 2.138 2.097 2.053 2.007 1.983 1.958 1.931 1.904 1.876 1.846
14
3.102 2.726 2.522 2.395 2.307 2.243 2.193 2.154 2.122 2.095 2.054 2.010 1.962 1.938 1.912 1.885 1.857 1.828 1.797
15
3.073 2.695 2.490 2.361 2.273 2.208 2.158 2.119 2.086 2.059 2.017 1.972 1.924 1.899 1.873 1.845 1.817 1.787 1.755
16
3.048 2.668 2.462 2.333 2.244 2.178 2.128 2.088 2.055 2.028 1.985 1.940 1.891 1.866 1.839 1.811 1.782 1.751 1.718
17
3.026 2.645 2.437 2.308 2.218 2.152 2.102 2.061 2.028 2.001 1.958 1.912 1.862 1.836 1.809 1.781 1.751 1.719 1.686
18
3.007 2.624 2.416 2.286 2.196 2.130 2.079 2.038 2.005 1.977 1.933 1.887 1.837 1.810 1.783 1.754 1.723 1.691 1.657
19
2.990 2.606 2.397 2.266 2.176 2.109 2.058 2.017 1.984 1.956 1.912 1.865 1.814 1.787 1.759 1.730 1.699 1.666 1.631
20
2.975 2.589 2.380 2.249 2.158 2.091 2.040 1.999 1.965 1.937 1.892 1.845 1.794 1.767 1.738 1.708 1.677 1.643 1.607
21
2.961 2.575 2.365 2.233 2.142 2.075 2.023 1.982 1.948 1.920 1.875 1.827 1.776 1.748 1.719 1.689 1.657 1.623 1.586
22
2.949 2.561 2.351 2.219 2.128 2.061 2.008 1.967 1.933 1.904 1.859 1.811 1.759 1.731 1.702 1.671 1.639 1.604 1.567
23
2.937 2.549 2.339 2.207 2.115 2.047 1.995 1.953 1.919 1.890 1.845 1.796 1.744 1.716 1.686 1.655 1.622 1.587 1.549
24
2.927 2.538 2.327 2.195 2.103 2.035 1.983 1.941 1.906 1.877 1.832 1.783 1.730 1.702 1.672 1.641 1.607 1.571 1.533
25
2.918 2.528 2.317 2.184 2.092 2.024 1.971 1.929 1.895 1.866 1.820 1.771 1.718 1.689 1.659 1.627 1.593 1.557 1.518
26
2.909 2.519 2.307 2.174 2.082 2.014 1.961 1.919 1.884 1.855 1.809 1.760 1.706 1.677 1.647 1.615 1.581 1.544 1.504
27
2.901 2.511 2.299 2.165 2.073 2.005 1.952 1.909 1.874 1.845 1.799 1.749 1.695 1.666 1.636 1.603 1.569 1.531 1.491
28
2.894 2.503 2.291 2.157 2.064 1.996 1.943 1.900 1.865 1.836 1.790 1.740 1.685 1.656 1.625 1.593 1.558 1.520 1.478
29
2.887 2.495 2.283 2.149 2.057 1.988 1.935 1.892 1.857 1.827 1.781 1.731 1.676 1.647 1.616 1.583 1.547 1.509 1.467
30
2.881 2.489 2.276 2.142 2.049 1.980 1.927 1.884 1.849 1.819 1.773 1.722 1.667 1.638 1.606 1.573 1.538 1.499 1.456
40
2.835 2.440 2.226 2.091 1.997 1.927 1.873 1.829 1.793 1.763 1.715 1.662 1.605 1.574 1.541 1.506 1.467 1.425 1.377
60
2.791 2.393 2.177 2.041 1.946 1.875 1.819 1.775 1.738 1.707 1.657 1.603 1.543 1.511 1.476 1.437 1.395 1.348 1.291
120 2.748 2.347 2.130 1.992 1.896 1.824 1.767 1.722 1.684 1.652 1.601 1.545 1.482 1.447 1.409 1.368 1.320 1.265 1.193
1000+ 2.706 2.303 2.084 1.945 1.847 1.774 1.717 1.670 1.632 1.599 1.546 1.487 1.421 1.383 1.342 1.295 1.240 1.169 1.000

A.2.6.
Slope
The least-squares regression slope, α , shall be calculated as follows:
α
=

( y − y) × ( y − y )

( y − y )
(A.2-8)
A.2.7.
Intercept
The least-squares regression intercept, α , shall be calculated as follows:
( α )
α = y − × y
(A.2-9)
A.2.8.
Standard Estimate of Error
The standard estimate of error, SEE, shall be calculated as follows:
SEE
=

[ y − α − ( α × y )]
N − 2
(A.2-10)
A.2.9.
Coefficient of Determination
The coefficient of determination, r , shall be calculated as follows:
r
= 1


[ y − α − ( α × y )]
∑ [ y − y]
(A.2-11)

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.4
CARBON FLOW CHECK
A.4.1.
Introduction
All but a tiny part of the carbon in the exhaust comes from the fuel, and all but a minimal part of
this is manifest in the exhaust gas as CO . This is the basis for a system verification check
based on CO measurements.
The flow of carbon into the exhaust measurement systems is determined from the fuel flow
rate. The flow of carbon at various sampling points in the emissions and particulate sampling
systems is determined from the CO concentrations and gas flow rates at those points.
In this sense, the engine provides a known source of carbon flow, and observing the same
carbon flow in the exhaust pipe and at the outlet of the partial flow PM sampling system verifies
leak integrity and flow measurement accuracy. This check has the advantage that the
components are operating under actual engine test conditions of temperature and flow.
Figure A.4.1 shows the sampling points at which the carbon flows shall be checked. The
specific equations for the carbon flows at each of the sample points are given in the following
Paragraphs.
location 1 location 2
Air Fuel Raw exhaust CO
ENGINE
location 3
Diluted exhaust CO
Partial Flow System
Figure A.4.1
Measuring Points for Carbon Flow Check

A.4.4. Carbon Flow Rate in the Dilution System (Location 3)
For the partial flow dilution system, the splitting ratio also needs to be taken into account. The
carbon flow rate in an equivalent dilution system q [kg/s] (with equivalent meaning
equivalent to a full flow system where the total flow is diluted) shall be determined from the
dilute CO concentration, the exhaust gas mass flow rate and the sample flow rate; the new
equation is identical to Equation A.4-2, being only supplemented by the dilution factor
q / q
⎛ c − c ⎞ 12.011 q
q = ⎜

× q × ×
(A.4-3)
⎝ 100 ⎠
M q
where:
c = wet CO concentration in the dilute exhaust gas at the outlet of the dilution tunnel
[percent]
c = wet CO concentration in the ambient air [percent]
q = diluted sample flow in the partial flow dilution system [kg/s]
q = exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis [kg/s]
q = sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system [kg/s]
M
= molar mass of exhaust gas [g/mol]
If CO is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to wet basis according to
Paragraph A.7.3.2. or A.8.2.2.
A.4.5.
Calculation of the Molar Mass of the Exhaust Gas
The molar mass of the exhaust gas shall be calculated according to Equation (A.8-15) (see
Paragraph A.8.2.4.2.)
Alternatively, the following exhaust gas molar masses may be used:
M (diesel) = 28.9g/mol

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.7
MOLAR BASED EMISSION CALCULATIONS
A.7.0.
A.7.0.1.
Symbol Conversion
General Symbols
Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 Unit Quantity
A m Area
A m Venturi throat cross-sectional area
α
b, D
t.b.d.
y intercept of the regression line, PDP
calibration intercept
α m t.b.d. Slope of the regression line
β r m/m Ratio of diameters
C – Coefficient
C C – Discharge coefficient
C – Flow coefficient
d d m Diameter
DR r – Dilution ratio
e e g/kWh Brake specific basis
e
e
g/kWh
Specific emission of gaseous
components
e e g/kWh Specific emission of particulates
f Hz Frequency
f n min , s Rotational frequency (shaft)
γ – Ratio of specific heats
K
Correction factor
K X s/rev PDP slip correction factor
k k – Downward adjustment factor
k
Humidity correction factor for NO
k k – Multiplicative regeneration factor
k k – Upward adjustment factor
μ μ kg/(ms) Dynamic viscosity

Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 Unit Quantity
W W kWh Work
W W kWh Actual cycle work of the test cycle
WF WF – Weighing factor
w w g/g Mass fraction
X
c
mol/mol,
percent vol
Amount of substance mole fraction /
concentration (also in μmol/mol = ppm)
x mol/mol Flow-weighted mean concentration
y – Generic variable
y – Arithmetic mean
Z – Compressibility factor
m&
m&

Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 Quantity
raw
ref
rev
sat
slip
smpl
span
SSV
std
test
total
uncor
vac
weight
wet
zero
Raw exhaust
Reference quantity
Revolution
Saturated condition
PDP slip
Sampling
Span quantity
Subsonic venturi
Standard quantity
Test quantity
Total quantity
Uncorrected quantity
Vacuum quantity
Calibration weight
Wet quantity
Zero quantity

A.7.0.4.
Symbols and Abbreviations for the Fuel Composition
Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 I Quantity
w
w
Carbon content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
w
w
Hydrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
w
w
Nitrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
w
w
Oxygen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
w
w
Sulphur content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
α α Atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C)
β ε Atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C)
γ γ Atomic sulphur-to-carbon ratio (S/C)
δ δ Atomic nitrogen-to-carbon ratio (N/C)

A.7.1.
A.7.1.1.
Basic Parameters and Relationships
Dry Air and Chemical Species
This Annex uses the following values for dry air composition:
x 0.209445mol/mol
x 0.000375 mol/mol
This Annex uses the following molar masses or effective molar masses of chemical
species:
M = 28.96559g/mol (dry air)
M = 39.948g/mol (argon)
M = 12.0107g/mol (carbon)
M = 28.0101g/mol (carbon monoxide)
M = 44.0095g/mol (carbon dioxide)
M = 1.00794g/mol (atomic hydrogen)
M = 2.01588g/mol (molecular hydrogen)
M = 18.01528g/mol (water)
M = 4.002602g/mol (helium)
M = 14.0067g/mol (atomic nitrogen)
M = 28.0134g/mol (molecular nitrogen)
M = 13.875389g/mol (non-methane hydrocarbon )
M = 46.0055g/mol (oxides of nitrogen )
M = 15.9994g/mol (atomic oxygen)
M = 31.9988g/mol (molecular oxygen)
M = 44.09562g/mol (propane)
M = 32.065g/mol (sulphur)
M = 13.875389g/mol (total hydrocarbon )

A.7.1.2.2.
Dew Point
If humidity is measured as a dew point, the amount of water in an ideal gas x [mol/mol]
shall be obtained as follows:
x
=
ρ
(A.7-3)
ρ
where:
x
=
amount of water in an ideal gas [mol/mol]
p
=
vapour pressure of water at the measured dew point, T
=T
[kPa]
p
=
wet static absolute pressure at the location of dew point measurement [kPa]
A.7.1.2.3.
Relative Humidity
If humidity is measured as a relative humidity RH%, the amount of water of an ideal gas
x [mol/mol] is calculated as follows:
x
=
RH%
×
ρ
(A.7-4)
100
ρ
where:
RH% =
relative humidity [percent]
p = water vapour pressure at 100% relative humidity at the location of relative
humidity measurement, T =T [kPa]
p
=
wet static absolute pressure at the location of relative humidity measurement
[kPa]

A.7.1.4.2.
NMHC Determination
To determine NMHC concentration, x
, one of the following shall be used:
(a)
If CH is not measured, NMHC concentrations may be determined as follows:
The background corrected mass of NMHC shall be compared to background
corrected mass of THC. If the background corrected mass of NMHC is greater than
0.98 times the background corrected mass of THC, the background corrected mass
of NMHC shall be taken as 0.98 times the background corrected mass of THC. If
the NMHC calculations are omitted, the background corrected mass of NMHC shall
be taken as 0.98 times the background corrected mass of THC;
(b) For non-methane cutters, x shall be calculated using the non-methane cutter's
penetration fractions (PF) of CH and C H from Paragraph 8.1.10.3., and using the
HC contamination and dry-to-wet corrected THC concentration x as
determined in Sub-paragraph (a) of Paragraph of A.7.1.4.1.:
(i)
The following equation for penetration fractions determined using an NMC
configuration as outlined in Paragraph 8.1.10.3.4.1. shall be used:
x
x
− x
× RF
= (A.7-6)
1 − RFPF
× RF
where:
x = concentration of NMHC
x
=
concentration of THC, HC contamination and
dry-to-wet corrected, as measured by the THC FID
during sampling while bypassing the NMC
x
=
concentration of THC, HC contamination (optional)
and dry-to-wet corrected, as measured by the NMC
FID during sampling through the NMC
RF
=
response factor of THC FID to CH , according to
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.4.
RFPF = non-methane cutter combined ethane response
factor and penetration fraction, according to
Paragraph 8.1.10.3.4.1.

(c) For a gas chromatograph, x shall be calculated using the THC analyser's
response factor (RF) for CH , from Paragraph 8.1.10.1.4., and the HC
contamination and dry-to-wet corrected initial THC concentration x as
determined in Paragraph (a) above as follows:
x = x – RF × x (A.7-9)
where:
x = concentration of NMHC
x
=
concentration of THC, HC contamination and dry-to-wet
corrected, as measured by the THC FID
x = concentration of CH , HC contamination (optional) and
dry-to-wet corrected, as measured by the gas
chromatograph FID
RF = response factor of THC-FID to CH
A.7.1.4.3.
Approximation of NMHC from THC
NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon) emissions can be approximated as 98% of THC (total
hydrocarbon).
A.7.1.5.
Flow-weighted Mean Concentration
In some Paragraphs of this Annex, it may be necessary to calculate a flow-weighted mean
concentration to determine the applicability of certain provisions. A flow-weighted mean is
the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For
example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an
engine, its flow-weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded
concentration, times its respective exhaust molar flow rate, divided by the sum of the
recorded flow rate values. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system
is the same as the flow-weighted mean concentration because the CVS system itself
flow-weights the bag concentration. A certain flow-weighted mean concentration of an
emission at its standard might be already expected based on previous testing with similar
engines or testing with similar equipment and instruments.
A.7.2.
A.7.2.1.
Chemical Balances of Fuel, Intake Air, and Exhaust
General
Chemical balances of fuel, intake air and exhaust may be used to calculate flows, the
amount of water in their flows, and the wet concentration of constituents in their flows.
With one flow rate of either fuel, intake air or exhaust, chemical balances may be used to
determine the flows of the other two. For example, chemical balances along with either
intake air or fuel flow to determine raw exhaust flow may be used.

(b)
(c)
Equations (A.7-10 to A.7-26) in Paragraph (d) of this Paragraph A.7.2.3. have to be
entered into a computer program to iteratively solve for x , x and x .
Good engineering judgment shall be used to guess initial values for x , x ,
and x . Guessing an initial amount of water that is about twice the amount of
water in the intake or dilution air is recommended. Guessing an initial value of
x as the sum of the measured CO , CO, and THC values is recommended.
Guessing an initial xdil between 0.75 and 0.95 (0.75 recommended. Values in the system of equations shall be iterated until the most
recently updated guesses are all within ±1% of their respective most recently
calculated values;
The following symbols and subscripts are used in the equation system of
sub-paragraph (c) of this Paragraph where x unit is mol/mol:
Symbol
Description
x Amount of dilution gas or excess air per mole of exhaust
x Amount of H O in exhaust per mole of exhaust
x Amount of carbon from fuel in the exhaust per mole of dry exhaust
x Amount of water in exhaust per dry mole of dry exhaust
x Amount of dry stoichiometric products per dry mole of intake air
x Amount of dilution gas and/or excess air per mole of dry exhaust
x Amount of intake air required to produce actual combustion
products per mole of dry (raw or diluted) exhaust
x Amount of undiluted exhaust, without excess air, per mole of dry
(raw or diluted) exhaust
x
Amount of intake air O per mole of dry intake air; x
=
0.209445 mol/mol may be assumed
x Amount of intake air CO per mole of dry intake air. x =
375μmol/mol may be used, but measuring the actual concentration
in the intake air is recommended
x
x
x
x
x
x
Amount of the intake air H O per mole of dry intake air
Amount of intake air CO per mole of intake air
Amount of dilution gas CO per mole of dilution gas
Amount of dilution gas CO per mole of dry dilution gas. If air is
used as diluent, x = 375μmol/mol may be used, but
measuring the actual concentration in the intake air is
recommended
Amount of dilution gas H O per mole of dry dilution gas
Amount of dilution gas H O per mole of dilution gas

x
=
x
(A.7-18)
1 + x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
=
x
(A.7-19)
1 + x
x
=
1 + x
(A.7-20)
x
=
1 − x
(A.7-21)
x
=
1 − x
(A.7-22)
x
=
1 − x
(A.7-23)
x
=
1 − x
(A.7-24)
x
=
1 − x
(A.7-25)
x
=
1 − x
(A.7-26)
At the end of the chemical balance, the molar flow rate n&
in Paragraphs A.7.3.3. and A.7.4.3.
is calculated as specified
A.7.2.4.
NO Correction for Humidity
All the NO concentrations, including dilution air background concentrations, shall be
corrected for intake-air humidity using the following equation:
( 9.953 × x 0.832)
x = x ×
+
(A.7-27)
where:
x = uncorrected NO molar concentration in the exhaust gas [μmol/mol]
x = amount of water in the intake air [mol/mol]

(a)
For continuous sampling, in the general case of varying flow rate, the mass of the
gaseous emission m [g/test] shall be calculated by means of the following
equation:
m
=
1
× M
f
× ∑ n × x
(A.7-30)
where:
M
= generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n&
= instantaneous exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
x
= instantaneous gaseous emission molar fraction on a wet basis [mol/mol]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
(b)
Still for continuous sampling but in the particular case of constant flow rate the mass
of the gaseous emission m [g/test] shall be calculated by means of the following
equation:
m
= M × n& × x × Δt
(A.7-31)
where:
M = generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n& = exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
x = mean gaseous emission molar fraction on a wet basis [mol/mol]
∆t
= time duration of test interval

For gaseous emissions a removed water correction shall be performed for the generic
concentration x [mol/mol] as follows:
( )


[ ] ⎢
1 − x
x = x

(A.7-35)



1 − x [ ] ⎦
where:
x = molar fraction of emission in the measured flow at measurement
location [mol/mol]
x = amount of water in the measured flow at the concentration
measurement [mol/mol]
x = amount of water at the flow-meter [mol/mol]
A.7.3.3.
Exhaust Gas Molar Flow Rate
The flow rate of the raw exhaust gases can be directly measured or can be calculated
based on the chemical balance of Paragraph A.7.2.3. Calculation of raw exhaust molar
flow rate is performed from measured intake air molar flow rate or fuel mass flow rate. The
raw exhaust molar flow rate can be calculated from the sampled emissions,
n& , based on the measured intake air molar flow rate, n& , or the measured fuel mass flow
rate, m& , and the values calculated using the chemical balance in Paragraph A.7.2.3. It
shall be solved for the chemical balance in Paragraph A.7.2.3. at the same frequency that
n& or m& is updated and recorded.
(a) Crankcase flow rate. The raw exhaust flow can be calculated based on n& or
m& only if at least one of the following is true about crankcase emission flow rate:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
The test engine has a production emission-control system with a closed
crankcase that routes crankcase flow back to the intake air, downstream of
intake air flow-meter;
During emission testing open crankcase flow is routed to the exhaust
according to Paragraph 6.10;
Open crankcase emissions and flow are measured and added to brakespecific
emission calculations;
Using emission data or an engineering analysis, it can be demonstrated that
neglecting the flow rate of open crankcase emissions does not adversely
affect compliance with the applicable standards;

A.7.4.
A.7.4.1.
Diluted Gaseous Emissions
Emission Mass Calculation and Background Correction
Equations for the calculation of gaseous emissions mass m [g/test] as a function of
molar emissions flow rates are as follows:
(a)
Continuous sampling, varying flow rate
m
=
1
× M
f
× ∑ n& × x
(see A.7-29)
where:
M
= generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n&
= instantaneous exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
m
= instantaneous generic gas molar concentration on a wet basis [mol/mol]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
Continuous sampling, constant flow rate
m
= M × n& × x × Δt
(see A.7-31)
where:
M = generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n& = exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
x = mean gaseous emission molar fraction on a wet basis [mol/mol]
∆t
= time duration of test interval

Considering the two cases (v) and (vi), the following equations shall be used:
m = M × x × n or m = M × x × x × n (A.7-38)
m
= m − m
(A.7-39)
where:
m = total mass of the gaseous emission [g]
m = total background masses [g]
m = mass of gas corrected for background emissions [g]
M = molecular mass of generic gaseous emission [g/mol]
x = gaseous emission concentration in dilution air [mol/mol]
n = dilution air molar flow [mol]
x = flow-weighted mean fraction of dilution air in diluted exhaust [mol/mol]
x = gas fraction of background [mol/mol]
n = total flow of diluted exhaust [mol]
A.7.4.2.
Dry-to wet Concentration Conversion
The same relations for raw gases (Paragraph A.7.3.2.) shall be used for dry-to-wet
conversion on diluted samples. For dilution air a humidity measurement shall be
performed with the aim to calculate its water vapour fraction x [mol/mol]:
x
=
x
(see A.7-21)
1 − x
where:
x = water molar fraction in the dilution air flow [mol/mol]

(b)
Measurement
The exhaust gas molar flow rate may be measured by means of three systems:
(i)
PDP molar flow rate. Based upon the speed at which the Positive
Displacement Pump (PDP) operates for a test interval, the corresponding
slope a , and intercept, a [-], as calculated with the calibration procedure of
Appendix 1 to this Annex, shall be used to calculate molar flow rate n& [mol/s]
as follows:
n& = f
×
p
× V
(A.7-40)
R × T
where:
a p − p
V = ×
+ a (A.7-41)
f
p
where:
a
a
= calibration coefficient [m /s]
= calibration coefficient [m /rev]
p , p = inlet/outlet pressure [Pa]
R
T
= molar gas constant [J/(mol K)]
= inlet temperature [K]
V = PDP pumped volume [m /rev]
f = PDP speed [rev/s]

A.7.4.4.
A.7.4.4.1.
Determination of Particulates
Sampling
(a)
Sampling from a varying flow rate:
If a batch sample from a changing exhaust flow rate is collected, a sample
proportional to the changing exhaust flow rate shall be extracted. The flow rate shall
be integrated over a test interval to determine the total flow. The mean PM
concentration M (which is already in units of mass per mole of sample) shall be
multiplied by the total flow to obtain the total mass of PM m [g]:
m
( n × Δt
)
= M × ∑ & (A.7-44)
where:
n&
= instantaneous exhaust molar flow rate [mol/s]
M = mean PM concentration [g/mol]
∆t
= sampling interval [s]
(b)
Sampling from a constant flow rate
If a batch sample from a constant exhaust flow rate is collected, the mean molar
flow rate from which the sample is extracted shall be determined. The mean PM
concentration shall be multiplied by the total flow to obtain the total mass of PM
m [g]:
m
= M × n& × Δt
(A.7-45)
where:
n&
= exhaust molar flow rate [mol/s]
M = mean PM concentration [g/mol]
∆t
= time duration of test interval [s]

A.7.5.
A.7.5.1.
A.7.5.1.1.
Cycle Work and Specific Emissions
Gaseous Emissions
Transient and Ramped Modal Cycle
Reference is made to Paragraphs A.7.3.1. and A.7.4.1. for raw and diluted exhaust
respectively. The resulting values for power P [kW] shall be integrated over a test interval.
The total work W [kWh] is calculated as follows:
1 1 1 2 × π
∑ p × Δt
= × ×
( n T ) (A.7-49)
W = ∑ ×
f 3600 10 60
where:
P
= instantaneous engine power [kW]
n = instantaneous engine speed [min ]
T
= instantaneous engine torque [N·m]
W = actual cycle work [kWh]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
The specific emissions e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following ways depending on
the type of test cycle.
e
=
m
(A.7-50)
W
where:
m
= total mass of emission [g/test]
W = cycle work [kWh]
In case of the transient cycle, the final test result e [g/kWh] shall be a weighted average
from cold start test and hot start test by using:
e
( 0.1×
m ) + ( 0.9 × m )
( 0.1×
W ) + ( 0.9 × W )
= (A.7-51)
In case of an infrequent (periodic) exhaust regeneration (Paragraph 6.6.2.), the specific
emissions shall be corrected with the multiplicative adjustment factor k (Equation (6-4)) or
with the two separate pairs of adjustment additive factors k (upward factor of
Equation (6-5)) and k (downward factor of Equation (6-6)).

A.7.5.2.2.
Steady State Discrete-mode Cycle
The particulate specific emission e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following way:
A.7.5.2.2.1.
For the Single-filter Method
e
=

m&
( p × WF )
(A.7-54)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3. and 7.7.1.2.)
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
m& = particulate mass flow rate [g/h]
A.7.5.2.2.2.
For the Multiple-filter Method
e
=
∑ &

( m × WF )
( p × WF )
(A.7-55)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3. and 7.7.1.2.)
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
m& = particulate mass flow rate at mode i [g/h]

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.7.1
DILUTED EXHAUST FLOW (CVS) CALIBRATION
This Appendix 1 describes the calculations for calibrating various flow-meters. Paragraph A.7.6.1. of this
Appendix 1 first describes how to convert reference flow-meter outputs for use in the calibration
equations, which are presented on a molar basis. The remaining Paragraphs describe the calibration
calculations that are specific to certain types of flow-meters.
A.7.6.1.
Reference Meter Conversions
The calibration equations in this section use molar flow rate, n& , as a reference quantity. If
the adopted reference meter outputs a flow rate in a different quantity, such as standard
volume rate, V& , actual volume rate V& , ,or mass rate, m& , the reference meter output
shall be converted to a molar flow rate using the following equations, noting that while
values for volume rate, mass rate, pressure, temperature, and molar mass may change
during an emission test, they should be kept as constant as practical for each individual set
point during a flow-meter calibration:
V
&
p V
&
p m&
n& ×
×
= =
=
(A.7-57)
T × R T × R M
where:
n& = reference molar flow rate [mol/s]
V & = reference volume flow rate, corrected to a standard pressure and a standard
temperature [m /s]
V & = reference volume flow rate, at the actual pressure and temperature [m /s]
m& = reference mass flow [g/s]
p = standard pressure [Pa]
p = actual pressure of the gas [Pa]
T = standard temperature [K]
T = actual temperature of the gas [K]
R
= molar gas constant [J/(mol·K)]
M = molar mass of the gas [g/mol]

Table A.7.2
Example of PDP Calibration Data
f
f
a [m /min]
a [m /s]
a [m /rev]
755.0
12.58
50.43
0.8405
0.056
987.6
16.46
49.86
0.831
-0.013
1254.5
20.9
48.54
0.809
0.028
1401.3
23.355
47.30
0.7883
-0.061
(f)
For each speed at which the PDP is operated, the corresponding slope, a , and
intercept, a , shall be used to calculate flow rate during emission testing as described
in Paragraph A.7.4.3.(b)
A.7.6.3.
Venturi Governing Equations and Permissible Assumptions
This Section describes the governing equations and permissible assumptions for calibrating
a venturi and calculating flow using a venturi. Because a subsonic venturi (SSV) and a
critical-flow venturi (CFV) both operate similarly, their governing equations are nearly the
same, except for the equation describing their pressure ratio, r (i.e., r versus r ). These
governing equations assume one-dimensional isentropic inviscid compressible flow of an
ideal gas. In Paragraph A.7.6.3.(d), other assumptions that may be made are described. If
the assumption of an ideal gas for the measured flow is not allowed, the governing
equations include a first-order correction for the behaviour of a real gas; namely, the
compressibility factor, Z. If good engineering judgement dictates using a value other than
Z = 1, an appropriate equation of state to determine values of Z as a function of measured
pressures and temperatures may be used, or specific calibration equations may be
developed based on good engineering judgement. It shall be noted that the equation for the
flow coefficient, C , is based on the ideal gas assumption that the isentropic exponent, γ, is
equal to the ratio of specific heats, c /c . If good engineering judgment dictates using a real
gas isentropic exponent, an appropriate equation of state to determine values of γ as a
function of measured pressures and temperatures may be used, or specific calibration
equations may be developed. Molar flow rate, n& [mol/s], shall be calculated as follows:

Table A.7.3
C Versus β and γ for CFV Flow-meters
C
β
γ
= 1.385
γ
= γ = 1.399
0.000
0.6822
0.6846
0.400
0.6857
0.6881
0.500
0.6910
0.6934
0.550
0.6953
0.6977
0.600
0.7011
0.7036
0.625
0.7047
0.7072
0.650
0.7089
0.7114
0.675
0.7137
0.7163
0.700
0.7193
0.7219
0.720
0.7245
0.7271
0.740
0.7303
0.7329
0.760
0.7368
0.7395
0.770
0.7404
0.7431
0.780
0.7442
0.7470
0.790
0.7483
0.7511
0.800
0.7527
0.7555
0.810
0.7573
0.7602
0.820
0.7624
0.7652
0.830
0.7677
0.7707
0.840
0.7735
0.7765
0.850
0.7798
0.7828

(d)
Any of the following simplifying assumptions of the governing equations may be
made, or good engineering judgment may be used to develop more appropriate
values for testing:
(i)
For emission testing over the full ranges of raw exhaust, diluted exhaust and
dilution air, the gas mixture may be assumed to behave as an ideal gas: Z = 1;
(ii) For the full range of raw exhaust a constant ratio of specific heats of γ = 1.385
may be assumed;
(iii)
For the full range of diluted exhaust and air (e.g., calibration air or dilution air),
a constant ratio of specific heats of γ =1.399 may be assumed;
(iv) For the full range of diluted exhaust and air, the molar mass of the mixture, M
[g/mol], may be considered as a function only of the amount of water in the
dilution air or calibration air, x , determined as described in
Paragraph A.7.1.2., as follows:
( 1 − x ) + M ( x )
M = M ×
×
(A.7-65)
where:
M
= 28.96559g/mol
M = 18.01528g/mol
x = amount of water in the dilution or calibration air [mol/mol]
(v)
For the full range of diluted exhaust and air, a constant molar mass of the
mixture, M , may be assumed for all calibration and all testing as long as
assumed molar mass differs no more than ±1% from the estimated minimum
and maximum molar mass during calibration and testing. This assumption may
be made if sufficient control of the amount of water in calibration air and in
dilution air is ensured, or if sufficient water is removed from both calibration air
and dilution air. The following table gives examples of permissible ranges of
dilution air dew point versus calibration air dew point.

A.7.6.4.
SSV Calibration
(a)
Molar based approach. To calibrate an SSV flow-meter the following steps shall be
performed:
(i)
The Reynolds number, Re , for each reference molar flow rate, shall be
calculated using the throat diameter of the venturi, d . Because the dynamic
viscosity, μ, is needed to compute Re , a specific viscosity model may be used
to determine μ for calibration gas (usually air), using good engineering
judgment. Alternatively, the Sutherland three-coefficient viscosity model may
be used to approximate μ:
Re
=
4 × M
π × d
× n&
× μ
(A.7-66)
where:
d
= diameter of the SSV throat [m]
M = mixture molar mass [kg/mol]
n& = reference molar flow rate [mol/s]
and, using the Sutherland three-coefficient viscosity model:
μ = μ

⎜ T

⎝ T





⎜ T
×

⎝ T
+ S ⎞

+ S


(A.7-67)
where:
μ
μ
S
T
= Dynamic viscosity of calibration gas [kg/(m·s)]
= Sutherland reference viscosity [kg/(m·s)]
= Sutherland constant [K]
= Sutherland reference temperature [K]
T = Absolute temperature at the venturi inlet [K]

A.7.6.5.
CFV Calibration
(a)
Molar based approach. Some CFV flow-meters consist of a single venturi and some
consist of multiple venturis, where different combinations of venturis are used to
meter different flow rates. For CFV flow-meters that consist of multiple venturis, either
calibration of each venturi independently to determine a separate discharge
coefficient, C , for each venturi, or calibration of each combination of venturis as one
venture may be performed. In the case where a combination of venturis is calibrated,
the sum of the active venturi throat areas is used as A , the square root of the sum of
the squares of the active venturi throat diameters as d , and the ratio of the venturi
throat to inlet diameters as the ratio of the venturi throat to inlet diameters as the ratio
of the square root of the sum of the active venture throat diameters (d ) to the
diameter of the common entrance to all of the venturis (D). To determine the C for a
single venturi or a single combination of venturis, the following steps shall be
performed:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
With the data collected at each calibration set point to an individual C for each
point shall be calculated using Equation (A.7-60);
The mean and standard deviation of all the C values shall be calculated
according to Equations (A.2-1) and (A.2-2);
If the standard deviation of all the C values is less than or equal to 0.3% of the
mean C , then the mean C shall be used in Equation (A.7-43), and the CFV
shall be used only down to the lowest r measured during calibration;
r = 1 – (∆p/p )
(A.7-69)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
If the standard deviation of all the C values exceeds 0.3% of the mean C , the
C values corresponding to the data point collected at the lowest r measured
during calibration shall be omitted;
If the number of remaining data points is less than seven, corrective action
shall be taken by checking calibration data or repeating the calibration process.
If the calibration process is repeated, checking for leaks, applying tighter
tolerances to measurements and allowing more time for flows to stabilize, is
recommended;
If the number of remaining C values is seven or greater, the mean and
standard deviation of the remaining C values shall be recalculated;
If the standard deviation of the remaining C values is less than or equal to
0.3% of the mean of the remaining C , that mean C shall be used in
Equation (A.7-43) and the CFV values only down to the lowest r associated
with the remaining C shall be used;
(viii) If the standard deviation of the remaining C still exceeds 0.3% of the mean of
the remaining C values, the steps in Sub-paragraph (e) (4) through (8) of this
Section shall be repeated.

A.7.7.4.
Drift Correction
All gas analyser signals shall be corrected as follows:
(a)
(b)
x
Each recorded concentration, x , shall be corrected for continuous sampling or
for batch sampling, x ;
Correction for drift shall be done using the following equation:
2x −
( )
( x + x )
x − x
( x + x ) − ( x + x )
= x +
(A.7-70)
where:
x = concentration corrected for drift [μmol/mol]
x = reference concentration of the zero gas, which is usually zero
unless known to be otherwise [μmol/mol]
x = reference concentration of the span gas [μmol/mol]
x = pre-test interval gas analyser response to the span gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
x = post-test interval gas analyser response to the span gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
x or x = concentration recorded, i.e. measured, during test, before drift
correction [μmol/mol]
x = pre-test interval gas analyser response to the zero gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
x = post-test interval gas analyser response to the zero gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
(c)
(d)
For any pre-test interval concentrations, concentrations determined most
recently before the test interval shall be used. For some test intervals, the most
recent pre-zero or pre-span might have occurred before one or more previous
test intervals;
For any post-test interval concentrations, concentrations determined most
recently after the test interval shall be used. For some test intervals, the most
recent post-zero or post-span might have occurred after one or more
subsequent test intervals;
(e) If any pre-test interval analyser response to the span gas concentration, x ,
is not recorded, x shall be set equal to the reference concentration of the
span gas: x = x ;

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.8
MASS BASED EMISSION CALCULATIONS
A.8.0.
A.8.0.1.
Symbol Conversion
General Symbols
Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Unit Quantity
b, D α t.b.d. y intercept of the regression line
m α t.b.d. Slope of the regression line
A/F – Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio
C C – Discharge coefficient
c x ppm, % vol Concentration (μmol/mol = ppm)
c ppm, % vol Concentration on dry basis
c ppm, % vol Concentration on wet basis
c ppm, % vol Background concentration
D x – Dilution factor
D m /rev PDP calibration intercept
d d m Diameter
d m Throat diameter of venturi
e e g/kWh Brake specific basis
e
e
g/kWh
Specific emission of gaseous
components
e e g/kWh Specific emission of particulates
E
1 – PF
percent
Conversion efficiency (PF =
Penetration fraction)
F – Stoichiometric factor
f – Carbon factor
H g/kg Absolute humidity
K
⎡⎛
⎢⎜
⎣⎝
⎞ ⎤ CFV calibration function
K × m × s ⎟ / kg⎥
⎠ ⎦
k m /kg fuel Fuel specific factor
k

Humidity correction factor for NO ,
diesel engines

Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Unit Quantity
m
m
g
Mass of particulate emissions
over the test cycle
m
kg
Exhaust sample mass over the
test cycle
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas
passing the dilution tunnel
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas
passing the particulate collection
filters
m kg Mass of secondary dilution air
n f min Engine rotational speed
n r/s PDP pump speed
P P kW Power
p p kPa Pressure
p kPa Dry atmospheric pressure
p kPa Total atmospheric pressure
p
kPa
Saturation vapour pressure of the
dilution air
p p kPa Absolute pressure
p p kPa Water vapour pressure
p kPa Dry atmospheric pressure
1 – E PF percent Penetration fraction
q
m&
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on dry
basis
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on wet
basis
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the raw
exhaust gas
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate into the
engine
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the
partial flow dilution system
q
kg/s
Diluted exhaust gas mass flow
rate on wet basis

Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Unit Quantity
q V & m /s Volume rate
V
m /r
PDP gas volume pumped per
revolution
W W kWh Work
W W kWh Actual cycle work of the test cycle
WF WF – Weighing factor
w w g/g Mass fraction
X K s/rev PDP calibration function
y y Arithmetic mean
A.8.0.2.
Subscripts
Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Quantity
act act Actual quantity
i
i
Instantaneous measurement (e.g.: 1Hz)
An individual of a series

A.8.0.4.
Symbols and Abbreviations for the Fuel Composition
Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Quantity
w w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
Carbon content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
Hydrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g]
or [percent mass]
Nitrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
Oxygen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
Sulphur content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[percent mass]
α α Atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C)
ε β Atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C)
γ γ Atomic sulphur-to-carbon ratio (S/C)
δ δ Atomic nitrogen-to-carbon ratio (N/C)

A.8.2.
A.8.2.1.
A.8.2.1.1.
Raw Gaseous Emissions
Gaseous Emissions
Steady State Tests
The emission rate of a gaseous emission q for each mode i of the steady state test
shall be calculated. The concentration of the gaseous emission shall be multiplied by its
respective flow:
q = k × k × u × q × c × 3600
(A.8-3)
q = emission rate in mode i of the steady state test [g/h]
k = 1 for c in [ppm] and k = 10,000 for c in [percent vol]
k
= NO correction factor [-], only to be applied for the NO emission
calculation (see Paragraph A.8.2.2.)
u = component specific factor or ratio between densities of gas component
and exhaust gas [-]; to be calculated with Equations (A.8-12) or (A.8-13)
q = exhaust gas mass flow rate in mode i on a wet basis [kg/s]
c = emission concentration in the raw exhaust gas in mode i, on a wet basis
[ppm] or [percent vol]

A.8.2.2.
Dry-to wet Concentration Conversion
If the emissions are measured on a dry basis, the measured concentration c on dry
basis shall be converted to the concentration c on a wet basis according to the
following general equation:
c = k × c
(A.8-5)
where:
k = dry-to-wet conversion factor [-]
c
= emission concentration on a dry basis [ppm] or [percent vol]
For complete combustion, the dry-to-wet conversion factor for raw exhaust gas is
written as k [-] and shall be calculated as follows:

q ⎞
⎜ 1.2442 × H + 111.19 × w ×

q
⎜1


q
773.4 + 1.2442 × H + × k × 1000

⎟ ⎟⎟⎟⎟
=

q
k
⎠ (A.8-6)
⎛ ⎞
⎜ p
1 − ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ p ⎠
where:
H
= intake air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
q = instantaneous fuel flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous dry intake air flow rate [kg/s]
p
p
w
k
= water pressure after cooler [kPa]
= total barometric pressure [kPa]
= hydrogen content of the fuel [percent mass]
= combustion additional volume [m /kg fuel]

A.8.2.3.
NO Correction for Humidity and Temperature
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall
be corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity with the factors k [-] given in the
following equation. This factor is valid for a humidity range between 0 and 25g H O/kg
dry air.
k
=
15.698 × H
+ 0.832
(A.8-11)
1 000
where:
H
= humidity of the intake air [g H O/kg dry air]
A.8.2.4.
A.8.2.4.1.
Component Specific Factor u
Tabulated Values
Applying some simplifications (assumption on the λ value and on intake air conditions
as shown in the following table) to the equations of Paragraph A.8.2.4.2. figures for
u , can be calculated (see Paragraph A.8.2.1.). The u values are given in
Table A.8.1.
Table A.8.1
Raw Exhaust Gas u and Component Densities
(the u Figures are Calculated for Emission Concentration Expressed in ppm)
Gas NO CO HC CO O CH
ρ [kg/m ] 2.053 1.250 0.621 1.9636 1.4277 0.716
Fuel ρ [kg/m ] Coefficient u at λ = 2, dry air, 273 K, 101.3kPa
Diesel 1.2939 0.001587 0.000966 0.000479 0.001518 0.001103 0.000553

The instantaneous raw exhaust density ρ [kg/m ] shall be derived as follows:
( q / q )
× ( q / q )
1000 + H + 1000 ×
ρ =
(A.8-15)
773.4 + 1.2434 × H + k × 1000
where:
q = instantaneous fuel mass flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous dry intake air mass flow rate [kg/s]
H
k
= intake air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
= combustion additional volume [m /kg fuel] (see Equation A.8-7)
A.8.2.5.
A.8.2.5.1.
Mass Flow Rate of the Exhaust Gas
Air and Fuel Measurement Method
The method involves measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow with suitable
flow-meters. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas flow q [kg/s] shall be
as follows:
q = q + q
(A.8-16)
where:
q = instantaneous intake air mass flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous fuel mass flow rate [kg/s]

A.8.2.5.3.
Air Flow and Air to Fuel Ratio Measurement Method
This involves exhaust mass calculation from the air flow and the air to fuel ratio. The
calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass flow q [kg/s] is as follows:


⎜ 1
q = q × 1 +

(A.8-18)


⎝ A / F × λ ⎠
with:
⎛ α ε ⎞
138.0 × ⎜

1 + − + γ
A / F =
⎝ 4 2 ⎠
(A.8-19)
12.011 + 1.00794 × α + 15.9994 × ε + 14.0067 × δ + 32.065 × γ
λ


c
100 −

=


2 × c × 10
1−
× 10
⎞ ⎜ α 3.5 × c
− c × 10 ⎟ + ⎜ ×
2
⎠ ⎜ 4 c × 10

1 +
⎝ 3.5 × c
⎛ α ε ⎞
4.764 × ⎜1
+ − + γ⎟
×
⎝ 4 2 ⎠
where:
q = wet intake air mass flow rate [kg/s]
A/F = stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio [-]
λ = instantaneous excess air ratio [-]


ε δ ⎟
− − ⎟ ×
2 2 ⎟


( c + c × 10 + c × 10 )
(A.8-20)
( c + c × 10 )
c = concentration of CO in the raw exhaust gas on a dry basis [ppm]
c = concentration of CO in the raw exhaust gas on a dry basis [percent]
c = concentration of HC in the raw exhaust gas on a wet basis [ppm C1]
α = molar hydrogen-to-carbon ratio [-]
δ = molar nitrogen-to-carbon ratio [-]
ε = molar oxygen-to-carbon ratio [-]
γ = atomic sulphur-to-carbon ratio [-]

A.8.3.
A.8.3.1.
A.8.3.1.1.
Diluted Gaseous Emissions
Mass of the Gaseous Emissions
Full flow dilution measurement (CVS)
The exhaust mass flow rate shall be measured with a constant volume sampling (CVS)
system, which may use a positive displacement pump (PDP), a critical flow venturi
(CFV) or a subsonic venturi (SSV).
For systems with constant mass flow (i.e. with heat exchanger), the mass of the
pollutants m [g/test] shall be determined from the following equation:
m = k × k × u × c × m (A.8-24)
where:
u = ratio between density of exhaust component and density of air, as given in
Table A.8.2 or calculated with Equation (A.8-35) [-]
c = mean background corrected concentration of the component on a wet basis
[ppm] or [percent vol] respectively
k
= NO correction factor [-], only to be applied for the NO emission calculation
k = 1 for c in [ppm], k = 10,000 for c in [percent vol]
m
= total diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle [kg/test]

A.8.3.2.1.
Diluted Exhaust Gas
All concentrations measured dry shall be converted to wet concentrations by one of the
following two equations applied to equation:
⎡⎛ α × c ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢⎜1


− k ⎥ × 1.008
(A.8-26)
⎢⎣
⎝ 200 ⎠ ⎥⎦
or




( 1 k )
k
⎜ −
=


× 1.008
c ⎟
(A.8-27)
α ×
⎜ 1 +

⎝ 200 ⎠
where:
k = dry-to-wet conversion factor for the diluted exhaust gas [-]
α = molar hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel [-]
c = concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas on a wet basis [percent vol]
c = concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas on a dry basis [percent vol]
The dry to wet correction factor k takes into consideration the water content of both
intake air and dilution air:
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
⎥ ⎥ ⎤
1.608 × ⎢H
× ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
1 −
+ H ×
⎢⎣
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠
k =

(A.8-28)
⎪⎧
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤⎪⎫
1000 + ⎨1.608
× ⎢H
× ⎜ ⎟ + × ⎜ ⎟
1 −
H
⎥⎬
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠⎥⎦
⎪⎭
where:
H
H
= intake air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
= dilution air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
D = dilution factor (see Equation (A.8-29) of Paragraph A.8.3.2.2.) [-]

A.8.3.2.3.
Dilution Air
k = (1 – k ) × 1.008 (A.8-32)
with
k
=
1.608 × H
(A.8-33)
1000 + 1.608 × H
where:
H
= dilution air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
A.8.3.2.4.
Determination of the Background Corrected Concentration
The average background concentration of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall
be subtracted from measured concentrations to get the net concentrations of the
pollutants. The average values of the background concentrations can be determined by
the sample bag method or by continuous measurement with integration. The following
equation shall be used:
⎛ 1 ⎞
c = c − c × ⎜ ⎟
1 −
(A.8-34)
⎝ D ⎠
where:
c = net concentration of the gaseous pollutant [ppm] or [percent vol]
c = emission concentration in the diluted exhaust gas, on a wet basis [ppm] or
[percent vol]
c
= emission concentration in the dilution air, on a wet basis [ppm] or [percent
vol]
D = dilution factor (see Equation (A.8-29) of Paragraph A.8.3.2.2.) [-]

A.8.3.4.
A.8.3.4.1.
Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Calculation
PDP-CVS System
The calculation of the mass of the diluted exhaust [kg/test] over the cycle is as follows,
if the temperature of the diluted exhaust med is kept within ±6K over the cycle by using
a heat exchanger:
m
= 1.293 × V
× n
×
p
×
273.15
(A.8-36)
101.325
T
where:
V
n
p
T
= volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions [m /rev]
= total revolutions of pump per test [rev/test]
= absolute pressure at pump inlet [kPa]
= average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet [K]
1.293kg/m
= air density at 273.15K and 101.325kPa
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the mass of
the diluted exhaust gas m [kg] during the time interval shall be calculated as follows:
m
= 1.293 × V
× n
×
p
×
273.15
(A.8-37)
101.325
T
where:
V
p
= volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions [m /rev]
= absolute pressure at pump inlet [kPa]
n = total revolutions of pump per time interval i [rev/∆t]
T
= average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet [K]
1.293kg/m
= air density at 273.15K and 101.325kPa

A.8.3.4.3.
SSV-CVS System
The calculation of the diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle m [kg/test] shall be as
follows, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust is kept within ±11K over the cycle by
using a heat exchanger:
m = 1.293 × q × ∆t (A.8-40)
where:
1.293kg/m
= air density at 273.15K and 101.325kPa
∆t
= cycle time [s]
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15 K) [m /s]
with
( r − r )


A
⎢ 1


⎜ 1
q

= d C p
×




(A.8-41)
60

T


1 − r r


where:
A = collection of constants and units conversions = 0.0056940


⎢ m K 1 ⎥
⎢ × × ⎥
⎢ min kPa mm ⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
d
= diameter of the SSV throat [mm]
C = discharge coefficient of the SSV [-]
p
T
r
r
= absolute pressure at venturi inlet [kPa]
= temperature at the venturi inlet [K]
= ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute static pressure,
⎛ ⎞
⎜ Δp
1 − ⎟ [-]
⎜ ⎟
⎝ p ⎠
= ratio of the SSV throat diameter to the inlet pipe inner
d
diameter [-]
D

A.8.3.5.1.1.2.
Calculation Based on Dilution Ratio
The particulate emission over the cycle m [g] shall be calculated with the following
equation:
m
=
m
×
m
(A.8-45)
m
1000
where:
m
= particulate mass sampled over the cycle [mg]
m = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters [kg]
m = mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle [kg]
The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle m [kg] shall be
determined as follows:
m
= 1
q
f
× ∑
(A.8-46)
q = q × r
(A.8-47)
r
q
= (A.8-48)
q − q
where:
q = instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
r = instantaneous dilution ratio [-]
q = instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
q = instantaneous dilution air mass flow rate [kg/s]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]

A.8.3.5.2.
A.8.3.5.2.1.
Calculation for Steady-state Discrete-mode Cycles
Dilution System
All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes i during
the sampling period.
(a)
For partial-flow dilution, the equivalent mass flow of diluted exhaust gas shall be
determined by means of the system with flow measurement shown in Figure 9.2:
q = q × r
(A.8-52)
r
q
= (A.8-53)
q − q
where:
q
= equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate [kg/s]
q
= exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
r
= dilution ratio [-]
q
= diluted exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
q
= dilution air mass flow rate [kg/s]
(b)
For full-flow dilution systems q
is used as q
.

(b)
For the multiple-filter method
q
=
m
× q
×
3600
(A.8-57)
m
1000
where:
q = particulate mass flow rate for the mode i [g/h]
m
= particulate sample mass collected at mode i [mg]
q = equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis at mode i
[kg/s]
m = mass of diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate
sampling filter at mode i [kg]
The PM mass is determined over the test cycle by summation of the average
values of the individual modes i during the sampling period.
The particulate mass flow rate q
[g/h] or q
[g/h] may be background
corrected as follows:
(a)
For the single-filter method

m
⎡ m


⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎤
⎪ 3600
q = ⎨ − ⎢ × ⎜1
⎟ WF ⎥⎬
× q
⎪ m ⎢ ∑ − ×
(A.8-58)
m

D
⎟ ⎥⎪
1000
⎩ ⎣
⎝ ⎠ ⎦⎭
where:
q = particulate mass flow rate [g/h]
m
= particulate sample mass collected [mg]
m = mass of diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate
sampling filter [kg]
m
m
= particulate sample mass of the dilution air collected [mg]
= mass of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate
sampling filters [kg]
D = dilution factor at mode i (see Equation (A.8-29) of
Paragraph A.8.3.2.2.) [-]
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
q = average equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
[kg/s]

A.8.4.
A.8.4.1.
A.8.4.1.1.
Cycle Work and Specific Emissions
Gaseous Emissions
Transient and Ramped Modal Cycles
Reference is made to Paragraphs A.8.2.1. and A.8.3.1. for raw and diluted exhaust
respectively. The resulting values for power P [kW] shall be integrated over a test
interval. The total work W [kWh] is calculated as follows:
1 1 1 2 × π
W = ×
f 3600 10 60

where:
∑ P × Δt
= × ×
( n T ) (A.8-60)
P
= instantaneous engine power [kW]
n = instantaneous engine speed [min ]
T
= instantaneous engine torque [Nm]
W = actual cycle work [kWh]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
The specific emissions e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following ways depending
on the type of test cycle.
e
=
m
(A.8-61)
W
where:
m = total mass of emission [g/test]
W = cycle work [kWh]
In case of the transient cycle, the final test result e [g/kWh] shall be a weighted
average from cold start test and hot start test by using:
e
( 0.1×
m ) + ( 0.9 × m )
( 0.1×
W ) + ( 0.9 × W )
= (A.8-62)
In case of an infrequent (periodic) exhaust regeneration (Paragraph 6.6.2.), the specific
emissions shall be corrected with the multiplicative adjustment factor k (Equation (6-4))
or with the two separate pairs of adjustment additive factors k (upward factor of
Equation (6-5)) and k (downward factor of Equation (6-6)).

A.8.4.2.2.
Steady State Discrete-mode Cycle
The particulate specific emission e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following way:
(a)
For the single-filter method
e
=

q
( P × WF )
(A.8-65)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3.
and 7.7.1.2.)
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
q = particulate mass flow rate [g/h]
(b)
For the multiple-filter method
e
=


( q × WF )
( P × WF )
(A.8-66)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3.
and 7.7.1.2.)
W = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
q = particulate mass flow rate at mode i [g/h]

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.8.1
DILUTED EXHAUST FLOW (CVS) CALIBRATION
A.8.5.
Calibration of CVS System
The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow-meter and a restricting
device. The flow through the system shall be measured at different restriction settings, and
the control parameters of the system shall be measured and related to the flow.
Various types of flow-meters may be used, eg calibrated venturi, calibrated laminar
flow-meter, calibrated turbine meter.
A.8.5.1.
Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
All the parameters related to the pump shall be simultaneously measured along with the
parameters related to a calibration venturi which is connected in series with the pump. The
calculated flow rate (in m /s at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) shall be
plotted versus a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump
parameters. The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function
shall be determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, the calibration shall be performed
for each range used.
Temperature stability shall be maintained during calibration.
Leaks in all the connections and ducting between the calibration venturi and the CVS pump
shall be maintained lower than 0.3% of the lowest flow point (highest restriction and lowest
PDP speed point).
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /s from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
airflow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
q
T 101.325
V = × ×
(A.8-68)
n 273.15 p
where:
q = airflow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
T
p
n
= temperature at pump inlet [K]
= absolute pressure at pump inlet [kPa]
= pump speed [rev/s]
To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the
correlation function (X ) [s/rev] between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet
to pump outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:

A.8.5.2.
Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi. Gas flow is a
function of venturi inlet pressure and temperature.
To determine the range of critical flow, K shall be plotted as a function of venturi inlet
pressure. For critical (choked) flow, K will have a relatively constant value. As pressure
decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and K decreases, which
indicates that the CFV is operated outside the permissible range.
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 8 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /s from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
calibration coefficient K ⎡⎛
⎞ ⎤ shall be calculated from the calibration data for
⎢⎜
K × m × s ⎟ / kg⎥
⎣⎝
⎠ ⎦
each setting as follows:
K
q × T
= (A.8-71)
p
where:
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
T = temperature at the venturi inlet [K]
p = absolute pressure at venturi inlet [kPa]
The average K and the standard deviation shall be calculated. The standard deviation shall
not exceed ±0.3% of the average K .

with
μ =
b × T
(A.8-74)
S + T
where:
A = collection of constants and units conversions = 27.43831
⎡ kg min mm ⎤
⎢ × × ⎥
⎣ m s m ⎦
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
d
μ
= diameter of the SSV throat [mm]
= absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas [kg/(m·s)]
b = 1.458 × 10 (empirical constant) [kg/(m·s·K )]
S
= 110.4 (empirical constant) [K]
Because q is an input to the Re equation, the calculations shall be started with an initial
guess for q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to 0.1% of point or better.
For a minimum of sixteen points in the region of subsonic flow, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured C for
each calibration point.

ANNEX 5
TEST CYCLES
1. TEST CYCLES
1.1. Steady-state discrete-mode testing
(a)
For variable-speed engines, the following 8-mode cycle
shall be followed in
dynamometer operation on the test engine:
Mode Number
Engine Speed
Torque [per cent]
Weighing Factor
1
Rated
100
0.15
2
Rated
75
0.15
3
Rated
50
0.15
4
Rated
10
0.10
5
Intermediate
100
0.10
6
Intermediate
75
0.10
7
Intermediate
50
0.10
8
Idle

0.15
(b)
For constant-speed engines, the following 5-mode cycle
shall be followed in
dynamometer operation on the test engine:
Mode Number
Engine Speed
Torque [per cent]
Weighing Factor
1
Rated
100
0.05
2
Rated
75
0.25
3
Rated
50
0.30
4
Rated
25
0.30
5
Rated
10
0.10
The load figures are percentage values of the torque corresponding to the prime power rating
defined as the maximum power available during a variable power sequence, which may be run
for an unlimited number of hours per year, between stated maintenance intervals and under the
stated ambient conditions, the maintenance being carried out as prescribed by the
manufacturer.

(b)
For constant-speed engines, the following 5-mode duty cycle applies in case of
ramped-modal testing:
RMC mode Time in mode [s] Engine speed Torque (per cent)
1a Steady-state
1b Transition
2a Steady-state
2b Transition
3a Steady-state
3b Transition
4a Steady-state
4b Transition
5a Steady-state
53
20
101
20
277
20
339
20
350
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
100
Linear transition
10
Linear transition
75
Linear transition
25
Linear transition
50

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
34
14
8
15
39
39
35
27
43
14
10
15
35
60
55
47
16

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
83
77
74
76
46
78
79
82
81
79
78
78
78
75
73
79
79
83
53
40
51
75
89
93
89
86
81
78
78
76
79
82
86
88
92
97
73
36
63
78
69
67
72
71
78
81
75
60
50
66
73
73
73
72
77
62
35
38
41
37
35
38
46
49
50
58
71
44
48
48
75
72
67
60
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
72
71
54
43
64
31
1
27
28
9
9
36
56
53
45
37
41
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
51
68
29
24
64
90
100
94
84
79
75
78
80
81
81
83
85
84
85
86
85
85
85
85
83
79
78
81
82
94
66
35
51
60
64
63
70
76
78
76
75
81
76
76
80
71
71
71
65
31
61
47
42
73
71
71
61
73
73
73
72
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
72
73
73
73
73
73
72
56
48
71
44
23
10
14
37
45
18
51
33
17
45
30
14
18
14
11
2
26
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
24
64
77
80
83
83
83
85
86
89
82
87
85
89
87
91
72
43
30
40
37
37
43
70
77
79
85
83
86
85
70
50
38
30
75
84
85
86
86
89
99
77
81
89
49
79
104
103
102
102
72
70
62
68
53
50
50
43
45
35
61
50
55
49
70
39
3
25
60
45
32
32
70
54
47
66
53
57
52
51
39
5
36
71
53
40
42
49
57
68
61
29
72
69
56
70
59
54
56
56

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
103
102
104
103
102
103
103
103
102
103
102
103
102
102
103
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
103
102
102
102
102
103
102
102
103
102
102
103
84
48
48
48
48
48
48
67
105
105
105
105
105
105
89
39
46
46
49
45
42
46
38
48
35
48
49
48
46
47
49
42
52
57
55
61
61
58
58
59
54
63
61
55
60
72
56
55
67
56
42
7
6
6
7
6
7
21
59
96
74
66
62
66
41
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
52
48
48
48
48
48
52
51
51
51
52
52
57
98
105
105
105
105
105
105
104
100
94
87
81
81
80
80
81
80
80
80
80
81
80
81
80
81
81
80
80
80
80
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
5
5
7
5
6
4
6
5
6
6
5
5
44
90
94
100
98
95
96
92
97
85
74
62
50
46
39
32
28
26
23
23
20
19
18
17
20
24
21
26
24
23
22
21
24
24
22
22
21
31
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
81
80
80
81
80
81
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
76
49
51
51
78
80
81
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
59
50
51
51
51
50
50
50
50
50
51
51
51
63
27
26
26
25
21
20
21
15
12
9
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
5
8
7
20
52
38
33
29
22
16
12
9
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
50

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
1,039
1,040
1,041
1,042
1,043
1,044
1,045
1,046
1,047
1,048
1,049
1,050
1,051
1,052
1,053
1,054
1,055
1,056
1,057
1,058
1,059
1,060
1,061
1,062
1,063
1,064
1,065
1,066
1,067
1,068
1,069
1,070
1,071
1,072
1,073
1,074
1,075
1,076
1,077
1,078
1,079
1,080
1,081
1,082
1,083
1,084
1,085
1,086
1,087
76
78
75
86
83
81
81
79
80
84
79
87
82
84
82
81
85
86
79
78
74
78
80
80
82
83
79
83
86
64
24
49
77
103
98
101
99
103
103
103
103
103
102
101
102
102
96
99
102
70
81
71
47
35
43
41
46
44
20
31
29
49
21
56
30
21
16
52
60
55
84
54
35
24
43
49
50
12
14
14
21
48
11
48
34
39
11
19
7
13
10
13
29
25
20
60
38
24
1,088
1,089
1,090
1,091
1,092
1,093
1,094
1,095
1,096
1,097
1,098
1,099
1,100
1,101
1,102
1,103
1,104
1,105
1,106
1,107
1,108
1,109
1,110
1,111
1,112
1,113
1,114
1,115
1,116
1,117
1,118
1,119
1,120
1,121
1,122
1,123
1,124
1,125
1,126
1,127
1,128
1,129
1,130
1,131
1,132
1,133
1,134
1,135
1,136
100
100
98
102
95
102
102
98
93
101
95
101
94
97
97
93
98
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
102
102
101
102
103
102
99
96
74
66
74
64
69
76
72
66
54
69
69
73
63
61
72
31
28
3
26
64
23
25
42
68
25
64
35
59
37
60
98
53
13
11
11
13
10
10
11
10
10
18
31
24
19
10
12
56
59
28
62
29
74
40
2
29
65
69
56
40
54
92
67
42
1,137
1,138
1,139
1,140
1,141
1,142
1,143
1,144
1,145
1,146
1,147
1,148
1,149
1,150
1,151
1,152
1,153
1,154
1,155
1,156
1,157
1,158
1,159
1,160
1,161
1,162
1,163
1,164
1,165
1,166
1,167
1,168
1,169
1,170
1,171
1,172
1,173
1,174
1,175
1,176
1,177
1,178
1,179
1,180
1,181
1,182
1,183
1,184
1,185
78
76
67
70
53
72
60
74
69
76
74
72
62
54
72
72
64
74
76
69
66
64
51
70
72
71
70
67
74
75
74
75
76
75
75
75
75
76
76
67
75
75
73
68
74
76
76
74
74
2
34
80
67
70
65
57
29
31
1
22
52
96
72
28
35
68
27
14
38
59
99
86
53
36
47
42
34
2
21
15
13
10
13
10
7
13
8
7
45
13
12
21
46
8
11
14
11
18

A graphical display of the NRTC dynamometer schedule is shown below

SFC =

G

P
× WF
× WF

Parameter
Table 3
For Power Bands L to P and Q and R
Unit
minimum
Limits
maximum
Test Method
Cetane number 54.0 EN-ISO 5165
Density at 15°C kg/m 833 865 EN-ISO 3675
Distillation:
50% point
95% point
– Final boiling point
°C
°C
°C
245
345


350
370
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
EN-ISO 3405
Flash point °C 55 – EN 22719
CFPP °C – –5 EN 116
Viscosity at 40°C mm /s 2.3 3.3 EN-ISO 3104
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons %m/m 3.0 6.0 IP 391
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10 ASTM D 5453
Copper corrosion – Class 1 EN-ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue
(10% DR)
%m/m – 0.2 EN-ISO 10370
Ash content %m/m – 0.01 EN-ISO 6245
Water content %m/m – 0.02 EN-ISO 12937
Neutralization (strong acid) number mg KOH/g – 0.02 ASTM D 974
Oxidation stability mg/ml – 0.025 EN-ISO 12205
Lubricity (HFRR wear scar diameter at 60°C) μm – 400 CEC F-06-A-96
FAME
prohibited

No. Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for emission test
8 Pressure charging equipment
Compressor driven either directly by the engine
and/or by the exhaust gases
Charge air cooler
Coolant pump or fan (engine-driven)
Coolant flow control device
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
9 Auxiliary test-bed fan Yes, if necessary
10 Anti-pollution device Yes
11 Starting equipment Yes or test bed equipment
12 Lubricating oil pump Yes
13 Certain auxiliaries whose definition is linked No
with the operation of the machine and which
may be mounted on the engine shall be
removed for the test.
The following non-exhaustive list is given as an
example:
(i) air compressor for brakes
(ii) power steering compressor
(iii) suspension compressor
(iv) air-conditioning system.

1.1.1.2. The service accumulation tests or the emissions tests performed to determine deterioration
shall not be witnessed by the approval authority.
1.1.1.3. Determination of DF Values from Durability Tests
An additive DF is defined as the value obtained by subtraction of the emission value
determine at the beginning of the EDP, from the emissions value determined to represent
the emission performance at the end of the EDP.
A multiplicative DF is defined as the emission level determined for the end of the EDP
divided by the emission value recorded at the beginning of the EDP.
Separate DF values shall be established for each of the pollutants covered by the
legislation. In the case of establishing a DF value relative to the NO + HC standard, for an
additive DF, this is determined based on the sum of the pollutants notwithstanding that a
negative deterioration for one pollutant may not offset deterioration for the other. For a
multiplicative NO + HC DF, separate HC and NO DFs shall be determined and applied
separately when calculating the deteriorated emission levels from an emissions test result
before combining the resultant deteriorated NO and HC values to establish compliance with
the standard.
In cases where the testing is not conducted for the full EDP, the emission values at the end
of the EDP is determined by extrapolation of the emission deterioration trend established for
the test period, to the full EDP.
When emissions test results have been recorded periodically during the service
accumulation durability testing, standard statistical processing techniques based on good
practice shall be applied to determine the emission levels at the end of the EDP; statistical
significance testing can be applied in the determination of the final emissions values.
If the calculation results in a value of less than 1.00 for a multiplicative DF, or less than
0.00 for an additive DF, then the DF shall be 1.0 or 0.00, respectively.
1.1.1.4. A manufacturer may, with the approval of the Type Approval Authority, use DF values
established from results of durability tests conducted to obtain DF values for certification of
on-road HD CI engines. This will be allowed if there is technological equivalency between
the test on-road engine and the non-road engine families applying the DF values for
certification. The DF values derived from on-road engine emission durability test results
shall be calculated on the basis of EDP values defined in Paragraph 2.
1.1.1.5. In the case where an engine family uses established technology, an analysis based on good
engineering practices may be used in lieu of testing to determine a deterioration factor for
that engine family subject to approval of the Type Approval Authority.

Emissions - Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and Non-road Mobile Machinery Engines.