Regulation No. 96-04

Name:Regulation No. 96-04
Description:Emissions - Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and Non-road Mobile Machinery Engines.
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Compression Ignition (CI) Engines to be Installed in Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and in Non-road Mobile Machinery with Regard to the Emissions of Pollutants by the Engine.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2014-03-11
Amendment Level:04 Series, Supplement 1
Number of Pages:484
Vehicle Types:Agricultural Tractor, Component
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

flow, gas, exhaust, engine, system, paragraph, test, air, dilution, mass, speed, sampling, concentration, cycle, sample, emission, rate, annex, measurement, analyser, measured, temperature, pressure, calibration, time, manufacturer, emissions, particulate, diluted, values, torque, appendix, reference, filter, calculated, mol, type, determined, fuel, response, power, approval, regulation, total, maximum, ratio, engines, control, verification, recorded

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.95/Rev.3/Amend.1
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
June 22, 2015
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 96-04
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.) ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED
IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTORS AND IN
NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY WITH REGARD TO THE
EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.12.95
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 30.06.95
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.03.97
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.02.00
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 16.09.01
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 31.01.03
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.04
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.02.08
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 26.07.12
Supplement 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.07.13
04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.02.14
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.06.15

REGULATION NO. 96-04
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.)
ENGINES TO BE INSTALLED IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRACTORS AND IN
NON-ROAD MOBILE MACHINERY WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSIONS OF
POLLUTANTS BY THE ENGINE
REGULATION
1. Scope
2. Definitions and abbreviations
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications and tests
6. Installation on the vehicle
7. Conformity of production
8. Penalties for non-conformity of production
CONTENTS
9. Modification and extension of approval of the approved type
10. Production definitively discontinued
11. Transitional provisions
12. Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities

Annex 4B – Test procedure for compression-ignition engines to be installed in agricultural and
forestry tractors and in non-road mobile machinery with regard to the emissions of
pollutants by the engine
Appendix A.1
Appendix A.2
Appendix A.3
Appendix A.4
Appendix A.5
Appendix A.6
Appendix A.7
– (Reserved)
– Statistics
– 1980 international gravity formula
– Carbon flow check
– (Reserved)
– (Reserved)
– Molar based emission calculations
Appendix A.7.1 – Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration
Appendix A.7.2 – Drift correction
Appendix A.8
– Mass based emission calculations
Appendix A.8.1 – Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration
Appendix A.8.2 – Drift correction
Annex 5
Annex 6
Annex 7
Annex 8
Annex 9
– Test cycles
− Technical characteristics of reference fuel prescribed for approval tests and to verify
conformity of production
– Installation requirements for equipment and auxiliaries
– Durability requirements
– Requirements to ensure the correct operation of NO control measures
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
– Demonstration requirements
– Description of the operator warning and inducement activation and
deactivation mechanisms
– Demonstration of the minimum acceptable reagent concentration
CDmin
Annex 10
– Appendix 1
– Determination of CO emissions for engines of Power Bands up to
P
Appendix 2
– Determination of CO emissions for Power Bands Q and R

2.1.8. "Calibration gas" means a purified gas mixture used to calibrate gas analysers.
Calibration gases shall meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. Note that calibration
gases and span gases are qualitatively the same, but differ in terms of their primary
function. Various performance verification checks for gas analysers and sample handling
components might refer to either calibration gases or span gases;
2.1.9. "Compression ignition (C.I.) engine" means an engine which works on the
compression-ignition principle (e.g. diesel engine);
2.1.10. "Confirmed and active DTC" means a DTC that is stored during the time the NCD system
concludes that a malfunction exists;
2.1.11. "Constant-speed engine" means an engine whose type approval or certification is limited
to constant-speed operation. Engines whose constant-speed governor function is removed
or disabled are no longer constant-speed engines;
2.1.12. "Constant-speed operation" means engine operation with a governor that automatically
controls the operator's demand to maintain engine speed, even under changing load.
Governors do not always maintain exactly constant speed. Typically, speed can decrease
(0.1 to 10)% below the speed at zero load, such that the minimum speed occurs near the
engine's point of maximum power;
2.1.13. "Continuous regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust after-treatment
system that occurs either in a sustained manner or at least once over the applicable
transient test cycle or ramped-modal cycle; in contrast to periodic (infrequent) regeneration;
2.1.14. "Conversion efficiency of non-methane cutter (NMC) E" means the efficiency of the
conversion of a NMC that is used for removing the non-methane hydrocarbons from the
sample gas by oxidizing all hydrocarbons except methane. Ideally, the conversion for
methane is 0% (E = 0) and for the other hydrocarbons represented by ethane is 100%
(E = 100%). For the accurate measurement of NMHC, the two efficiencies shall be
determined and used for the calculation of the NMHC emission mass flow rate for methane
and ethane. Contrast with "penetration fraction";
2.1.15. "Critical emission-related components" means the components which are designed
primarily for emission control, that is, any exhaust after-treatment system, the electronic
engine control unit and its associated sensors and actuators, and the EGR system including
all related filters, coolers, control valves and tubing;
2.1.16. "Critical emission-related maintenance" means the maintenance to be performed on
critical emission-related components;
2.1.17. "Delay time" means the difference in time between the change of the component to be
measured at the reference point and a system response of 10% of the final reading (t ) with
the sampling probe being defined as the reference point. For the gaseous components, this
is the transport time of the measured component from the sampling probe to the detector
(see Figure 3.1);
2.1.18. "DeNO system" means an exhaust after-treatment system designed to reduce emissions
of oxides of nitrogen (NO ) (e.g. passive and active lean NO catalysts, NO adsorbers and
selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems);

2.1.33. "Exhaust after-treatment system" means a catalyst, particulate filter, deNO system,
combined deNO particulate filter or any other emission-reducing device that is installed
downstream of the engine. This definition excludes exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and
turbochargers, which are considered an integral part of the engine;
2.1.34. "Exhaust-gas recirculation" means a technology that reduces emissions by routing
exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the
engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing
to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed
with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation
for the purposes of this Regulation;
2.1.35. "Full flow dilution method" means the process of mixing the total exhaust flow with
dilution air prior to separating a fraction of the diluted exhaust stream for analysis;
2.1.36. "Gaseous pollutants" means carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of C H )
and oxides of nitrogen, the last named being expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO )
equivalent;
2.1.37. "Good engineering judgment" means judgments made consistent with generally accepted
scientific and engineering principles and available relevant information;
2.1.38. "HEPA filter" means high-efficiency particulate air filters that are rated to achieve a
minimum initial particle-removal efficiency of 99.97% using ASTM F 1471–93 or equivalent
standard;
2.1.39. "Hydrocarbon (HC)" means THC, NMHC as applicable. Hydrocarbon generally means the
hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each type of fuel and
engine;
2.1.40. "High speed (n )" means the highest engine speed where 70% of the rated power
(Annex 4A) or the maximum power (Annex 4B) occurs;
2.1.41. "Idle speed" means the lowest engine speed with minimum load (greater than or equal to
zero load), where an engine governor function controls engine speed. For engines without a
governor function that controls idle speed, idle speed means the manufacturer-declared
value for lowest engine speed possible with minimum load. Note that warm idle speed is the
idle speed of a warmed-up engine;
2.1.42. "Intermediate speed" means that engine speed which meets one of the following
requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For engines which are designed to operate over a speed range on a full load torque
curve, the intermediate speed shall be the declared maximum torque speed if it
occurs between 60% and 75% of the rated speed;
If the declared maximum torque speed is less than 60% of the rated speed, then the
intermediate speed shall be 60% of the rated speed;
If the declared maximum torque speed is greater than 75% of the rated speed then
the intermediate speed shall be 75% of the rated speed.

2.1.56. "Oxides of nitrogen" means compounds containing only nitrogen and oxygen as
measured by the procedures specified in this Regulation. Oxides of nitrogen are expressed
quantitatively as if the NO is in the form of NO , such that an effective molar mass is used
for all oxides of nitrogen equivalent to that of NO ;
2.1.57. "Parent engine" means an engine selected from an engine family in such a way that its
emissions characteristics are representative for that engine family and that it complies with
the requirements set out in Annex 1B to this Regulation;
2.1.58. "Partial pressure" means the pressure, p, attributable to a single gas in a gas mixture. For
an ideal gas, the partial pressure divided by the total pressure is equal to the constituent's
molar concentration, x;
2.1.59. "Particulate after-treatment device" means an exhaust after-treatment system designed
to reduce emissions of particulate pollutants (PM) through a mechanical, aerodynamic,
diffusional or inertial separation;
2.1.60. "Partial flow dilution method" means the process of separating a part from the total
exhaust flow, then mixing it with an appropriate amount of dilution air prior to the particulate
sampling filter;
2.1.61. "Particulate matter (PM)" means any material collected on a specified filter medium after
diluting C.I. engine exhaust gas with clean filtered air so that the temperature does not
exceed 325K (52°C);
2.1.62. "Penetration fraction PF" means the deviation from ideal functioning of a non-methane
cutter (see Conversion efficiency of non-methane cutter (NMC) E). An ideal non-methane
cutter would have a methane penetration factor, PF , of 1.000 (that is, a methane
conversion efficiency E of 0), and the penetration fraction for all other hydrocarbons
would be 0.000, as represented by PF (that is, an ethane conversion efficiency E
of 1). The relationship is:
PF = 1 – E and PF = 1 – E ;
2.1.63. "Per cent load" means the fraction of the maximum available torque at an engine speed;
2.1.64. "Periodic (or infrequent) regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust
after-treatment system that occurs periodically in typically less than 100h of normal engine
operation. During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards may be exceeded;
2.1.65. "Placing on the market" means the action of making available a product covered by this
Regulation on the market of a country applying this Regulation, for payment or free of
charge, with a view to distribution and/or use in the country;
2.1.66. "Probe" means the first section of the transfer line which transfers the sample to next
component in the sampling system;
2.1.67. "PTFE" means polytetrafluoroethylene, commonly known as Teflon ;

2.1.82. "Steady-state" means relating to emission tests in which engine speed and load are held at
a finite set of nominally constant values. Discrete-mode tests or ramped-modal tests are
steady-state tests;
2.1.83. "Stoichiometric" means relating to the particular ratio of air and fuel such that if the fuel
were fully oxidized, there would be no remaining fuel or oxygen;
2.1.84. "Storage medium" means a particulate filter, sample bag, or any other storage device used
for batch sampling;
2.1.85. "Test (or duty) cycle" means a sequence of test points each with a defined speed and
torque to be followed by the engine under steady state or transient operating conditions.
Duty cycles are specified in the Annex 5. A single duty cycle may consist of one or more test
intervals;
2.1.86. "Test interval" means a duration of time over which brake-specific emissions are
determined. In cases where multiple test intervals occur over a duty cycle, the Regulation
may specify additional calculations that weigh and combine results to arrive at composite
values for comparison against the applicable emission limits;
2.1.87. "Tolerance" means the interval in which 95% of a set of recorded values of a certain
quantity shall lie, with the remaining 5% of the recorded values deviating from the tolerance
interval. The specified recording frequencies and time intervals shall be used to determine if
a quantity is within the applicable tolerance;
2.1.88. "Total hydrocarbon (THC)" means the combined mass of organic compounds measured
by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as a hydrocarbon
with a hydrogen-to-carbon mass ratio of 1.85:1;
2.1.89. "Transformation time" means the difference in time between the change of the component
to be measured at the reference point and a system response of 50% of the final reading
(t ) with the sampling probe being defined as the reference point. The transformation time
is used for the signal alignment of different measurement instruments. See Figure 3.1;
2.1.90. "Transient test cycle" means a test cycle with a sequence of normalized speed and torque
values that vary relatively quickly with time (NRTC);
2.1.91. "Type approval" means the approval of an engine type with regard to its emissions
measured in accordance with the procedures specified in this Regulation;
2.1.92. "Updating-recording" means the frequency at which the analyser provides new, current,
values;
2.1.93. "Useful life" means the relevant period of distance and/or time over which compliance with
the relevant gaseous and particulate emission limits has to be assured;
2.1.94. "Variable-speed engine" means an engine that is not a constant-speed engine;
2.1.95. "Verification" means to evaluate whether or not a measurement system's outputs agree
with a range of applied reference signals to within one or more predetermined thresholds for
acceptance. Contrast with "calibration";

CO
CO
DOP
H
H
HC
H O
He
N
NMHC
NO
NO
NO
O
PM
PTFE
S
THC
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Di-octylphthalate
Atomic hydrogen
Molecular hydrogen
Hydrocarbon
Water
Helium
Molecular nitrogen
Non-methane hydrocarbon
Oxides of nitrogen
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Oxygen
Particulate matter
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Sulphur
Total hydrocarbon
2.2.3. Abbreviations
ASTM
BMD
BSFC
CFV
CI
CLD
CVS
DeNO
American Society for Testing and Materials
Bag mini-diluter
Brake-specific fuel consumption
Critical Flow Venturi
Compression-ignition
Chemiluminescent Detector
Constant Volume Sampler
NO after-treatment system

3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. Application for Approval of an Engine as a Separate Technical Unit
3.1.1. The application for approval of an engine or an engine family with regard to the level of the
emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants shall be submitted by the engine
manufacturer or by a duly accredited representative.
3.1.2. It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following
particulars:
A description of the engine type comprising the particulars referred to in Annex 1A of this
Regulation and if applicable the particulars of the engine family as referred to in Annex 1B to
this Regulation.
3.1.3. An engine conforming to the engine type characteristics described in Annex 1A shall be
submitted to the Technical Service responsible for conducting the approval tests defined in
Paragraph 5. If the Technical Service determines that the submitted engine does not fully
represent the engine family described in Annex 1A, Appendix 2, an alternative and, if
necessary, an additional engine shall be submitted for test according to Paragraph 5. below.
4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the engine submitted for approval pursuant to Paragraph 3.1. of this Regulation meets the
requirements of Paragraph 5.2. below, approval of that type of engine or family of engines
shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type or family approved. Its first two digits
shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical
amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same
Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another engine type or family.
4.3. Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval of an engine type or family pursuant
to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply
this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2, as applicable, to
this Regulation. Values measured during the type test shall also be shown.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place to every engine
conforming to an engine type or family approved under this Regulation, an international
approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval ;
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.

5.1.3. Systematic replacement of emission related components, after a certain running time of the
engine, is permissible. Any adjustment, repair, disassembly, cleaning or replacement of
engine components or systems which is performed on a periodic basis to prevent
malfunction of the engine, shall only be done to the extent that is technologically necessary
to ensure proper functioning of the emission control system. Accordingly, scheduled
maintenance requirements shall be included in the customer's manual and be approved
before an approval is granted. For engines of Power Bands L and upwards, further
information shall be included according to the requirements of Paragraph 5.3.3. below.
5.1.4. The corresponding extract from the manual with respect to maintenance/replacements of
the after-treatment device(s) shall be included in the information document as set out in the
appendices of Annex 1A to this Regulation.
5.2. Specifications Concerning the Emissions of Pollutants
The gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall
be measured by the methods described in Annex 4A for the Power Bands up to P, and in
Annex 4B for Power Bands Q and R. At the request of the manufacturer and with the
agreement of the Type Approval Authority the methods described in Annex 4B may be used
for Power Bands up to P.

5.2.2. Where, as defined, according to Annex 1B, one engine family covers more than one power
band, the emission values of the parent engine (type approval) and of all engine types within
the same family (COP) shall meet the more stringent requirements of the higher power
band.
5.2.3. In addition, the following requirements shall apply:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Durability requirements as set out in Annex 8 to this Regulation;
Engine control area provisions as set out in Paragraph 5.3.5. of this Regulation for
tests of engines of Power Bands Q and R only;
CO reporting requirements as set out in Appendix 1 of Annex 10 for tests according
to Annex 4A or Appendix 2 of Annex 10 to this Regulation for tests according to
Annex 4B to this Regulation;
The requirements set out in Paragraph 5.3. below for electronically controlled engines
of Power Bands L to R.
5.3. Type Approval Requirements for Power Bands L to R
5.3.1. This Paragraph shall apply to the type approval of electronically controlled engines, which
use electronic control to determine both the quantity and timing of injecting fuel (hereafter
'engine'). This Paragraph shall apply irrespective of the technology applied to such engines
so as to comply with the emission limit values set out in Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.
5.3.2. General Requirements
5.3.2.1. Requirements for base emission control strategy
5.3.2.1.1. The base emission control strategy, activated throughout the speed and torque operating
range of the engine, shall be designed as to enable the engine to comply with the provisions
of this Regulation.
5.3.2.1.2. Any base emission control strategy that can distinguish engine operation between a
standardized type approval test and other operating conditions and subsequently reduce the
level of emission control when not operating under conditions substantially included in the
type approval procedure is prohibited.
5.3.2.2. Requirements for auxiliary emission control strategy
5.3.2.2.1. An auxiliary emission control strategy may be used by an engine or a non-road mobile
machine, provided that the auxiliary emission control strategy, when activated, modifies the
base emission control strategy in response to a specific set of ambient and/or operating
conditions but does not permanently reduce the effectiveness of the emission control
system.
(a)
(b)
Where the auxiliary emission control strategy is activated during the type approval
test, Paragraphs 5.3.2.2.2. and 5.3.2.2.3. below shall not apply.
Where the auxiliary emission control strategy is not activated during the type approval
test, it shall be demonstrated that the auxiliary emission control strategy is active only
for as long as required for the purposes identified in Paragraph 5.3.2.2.3. below.

Where:
ECTc is the calculated engine coolant temperature, K and PIM is the absolute
intake manifold pressure, kPa.
5.3.2.2.3. An auxiliary emission control strategy may be activated in particular for the following
purposes:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
By on-board signals, for protecting the engine (including air-handling device
protection) and/or non-road mobile machine into which the engine is installed from
damage;
For operational safety reasons;
For prevention of excessive emissions, during cold start or warming-up, during shutdown;
If used to trade-off the control of one regulated pollutant under specific ambient or
operating conditions, for maintaining control of all other regulated pollutants, within
the emission limit values that are appropriate for the engine concerned. The purpose
is to compensate for naturally occurring phenomena in a manner that provides
acceptable control of all emission constituents.
5.3.2.2.4. The manufacturer shall demonstrate to the technical service at the time of the type approval
test that the operation of any auxiliary emission strategy complies with the provisions of
Paragraph 5.3.2.2. The demonstration shall consist of an evaluation of the documentation
referred to in Paragraph 5.3.2.3.
5.3.2.2.5. Any operation of an auxiliary emission control strategy not compliant with Paragraph 5.3.2.2.
is prohibited.
5.3.2.3. Documentation Requirements
5.3.2.3.1. The manufacturer shall provide an information folder accompanying the application for type
approval at the time of submission to the technical service, which ensures access to any
element of design and emission control strategy and the means by which the auxiliary
strategy directly or indirectly controls the output variables. The information folder shall be
made available in two parts:
(a)
(b)
The documentation package, annexed to the application for type approval, shall
include a full overview of the emission control strategy.Evidence shall be provided
that all outputs permitted by a matrix, obtained from the range of control of the
individual unit inputs, have been identified. This evidence shall be attached to the
information folder as referred to in Annex 1 A.
The additional material, presented to the technical service but not annexed to the
application for type approval, shall include all the modified parameters by any
auxiliary emission control strategy and the boundary conditions under which this
strategy operates and in particular:

5.3.3.6.1. The type approval shall be made conditional, in accordance with Paragraph 5.1.3. above,
upon providing to each operator of non-road mobile machinery written instructions
comprising the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Detailed warnings, explaining possible malfunctions generated by incorrect operation,
use or maintenance of the installed engine, accompanied by respective rectification
measures;
Detailed warnings on the incorrect use of the machine resulting in possible
malfunctions of the engine, accompanied by respective rectification measures;
Information on the correct use of the reagent, accompanied by an instruction on
refilling the reagent between normal maintenance intervals;
A clear warning, that the type approval certificate, issued for the type of engine
concerned, is valid only when all of the following conditions are met:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The engine is operated, used and maintained in accordance with the
instructions provided;
Prompt action has been taken for rectifying incorrect operation, use or
maintenance in accordance with the rectification measures indicated by the
warnings referred to in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) above;
No deliberate misuse of the engine has taken place, in particular de-activating
or not maintaining an EGR or reagent dosing system.
The instructions shall be written in a clear and non-technical manner using the same
language as is used in the operator's manual on non-road mobile machinery or engine.
5.3.3.7. Reagent Control (where applicable)
5.3.3.7.1. The type approval shall be made conditional, in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph 6.1., upon providing indicators or other appropriate means, according to the
configuration of the non-road mobile machinery, informing the operator on:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The amount of reagent remaining in the reagent storage container and by an
additional specific signal, when the remaining reagent is less than 10% of the full
container's capacity;
When the reagent container becomes empty, or almost empty;
When the reagent in the storage tank does not comply with the characteristics
declared and recorded in Paragraph 2.2.1.13. of Appendix 1 and Paragraph 2.2.1.13.
of Appendix 3 to Annex 1A, according to the installed means of assessment;
When the dosing activity of the reagent is interrupted, in cases other than those
executed by the engine ECU or the dosing controller, reacting to engine operating
conditions where the dosing is not required, provided that these operating conditions
are made available to the Type Approval Authority.

5.3.5.1 Demonstration requirements
The Technical Service shall select up to three random load and speed points within the
control area for testing. The technical service shall also determine a random running order
of the test points. The test shall be run in accordance with the principal requirements of the
NRSC, but each test point shall be evaluated separately. Each test point shall meet the limit
values defined in Paragraph 5.3.5.
5.3.5.2 Test requirements
The test shall be carried out as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
The test shall be carried out immediately after the discrete mode test cycles as
described in points (a) to (e) of Paragraph 7.8.1.2. of Annex 4B to this Regulation but
before the post test procedures of point (f) or alternatively after the Ramped Modal
Cycle (RMC) test in points (a) to (d) of Paragraph 7.8.2.2. of Annex 4B to this
Regulation but before the post test procedures of point (e) as relevant;
The tests shall be carried out as required in points (b) to (e) of Paragraph 7.8.1.2. of
Annex 4B to this Regulation using the multiple filter method (one filter for each test
point) for each of the three chosen test points;
A specific emission value shall be calculated (in g/kWh) for each test point;
Emissions values may be calculated on a molar basis using Appendix A.7 or on a
mass basis using Appendix A.8 of Annex 4B to this Regulation, but should be
consistent with the method used for the discrete mode or RMC test;
For gaseous summation calculations the Nmode shall be set to 1 and a weighting
factor of 1 shall be used;
For particulate calculations use the multiple filter method and for summation
calculations the Nmode shall be set to 1 and a weighting factor of 1 shall be used.
5.3.5.3. Control area requirements
5.3.5.3.1. Engine control area
The control area (see Figure 2) is defined as follows:
Speed range: speed A to high speed;
Where:
Speed A = low speed + 15% (high speed - low speed);
High speed and low speed as defined in Annex 4B to this Regulation shall be used.
If the measured engine speed A is within ±3% of the engine speed declared by the
manufacturer, the declared engine speeds shall be used. If the tolerance is exceeded for
any of the test speeds, the measured engine speeds shall be used.

5.4. Selection of Engine Power Category
5.4.1. For the purposes of establishing the conformity of variable speed engines defined by
Paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2. of this Regulation with the emission limits given in
Paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation, they shall be allocated to Power Bands on the basis of
the highest value of the net power measured in accordance with Paragraph 2.1.49. of this
Regulation.
5.4.2. For other engine types rated net power shall be used.
6. INSTALLATION ON THE VEHICLE
6.1. The engine installation on the vehicle shall comply with the following characteristics in
respect to the approval of the engine.
6.1.1. Intake depression shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex 1A,
Appendix 1 or 3 to this Regulation as applicable.
6.1.2. Exhaust back pressure shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex 1A,
Appendix 1 or 3 to this Regulation as applicable.
6.1.3. The operator shall be informed on the reagent control as defined in Paragraph 5.3.3.7.1.
above or Annex 9 to this Regulation, if applicable.
6.1.4. The OEM shall be provided with the installation documents and instructions as defined in
Paragraph 5.3.4.5. above, if applicable.
7. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
7.1. The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) with the following requirements:
7.2. The Type Approval Authority which has granted approval may at any time verify the
conformity control methods applicable to each production unit.
7.2.1. In every inspection, the test books and production survey record shall be presented to the
visiting inspector.
7.2.2. When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the
validity of the data presented in application of Paragraph 5.2. above, the following procedure
is adopted:
7.2.2.1. An engine is taken from the series and subjected to the test described in Annex 4A or
Annex 4B according to Paragraph 5.2. above. The emissions of the carbon monoxide, the
emissions of the hydrocarbons, the emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of
particulate obtained shall not exceed the amounts shown in the table in Paragraph 5.2.1.,
subject to the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.2. above.

7.2.3. The Technical Service responsible for verifying the conformity of production shall carry out
tests on engines which have been run-in partially or completely, according to the
manufacturer's specifications.
7.2.4. The normal frequency of inspections authorized by the Type Approval Authority shall be one
per year. If the requirements of Paragraph 7.2.2.1. above are not met, the Type Approval
Authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the conformity of
production as rapidly as possible.
8. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
8.1. The approval granted in respect of an engine type or family pursuant to this Regulation may
be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 7.2. above are not complied with or
if the engine or engines taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in Paragraph 7.2.2.1.
8.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this
Regulation.
9. MODIFICATIONS AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE APPROVED TYPE
9.1. Every modification of the approved type or family shall be notified to the Type Approval
Authority which approved the type. The Type Approval Authority may then either:
9.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the modified type still complies with the requirement; or
9.1.2. Require a further test report from the Technical Service conducting the tests.
9.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the
procedure specified to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation.
9.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number
for such an extension and inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the 1958
Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the
model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture the type or family approved
in accordance with this Regulation he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the
other Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a communication
form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.

11.12. As from January 1, 2013, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse to grant
approvals to variable speed engines, or engine families, of the Power Band Q which do not
meet the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.13. As from October 1, 2013, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse to grant
approvals to variable speed engines, or engine families, of the Power Band R which do not
meet the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.14. As from the date of entry into force of the 03 series of amendments, Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation may refuse the placing on the market of variable speed engines, or
engine families, included in the Power Bands L, M, N and P not approved under this
Regulation as amended by the series 03 of amendments.
11.15. As from January 1, 2014, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of variable speed engines, or engine families, included in the Power
Band Q not approved under this Regulation as amended by the series 03 of amendments.
11.16. As from October 1, 2014, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of variable speed engines, or engine families, included in the Power
Band R not approved under this Regulation as amended by the series 03 of amendments.
11.17. By derogation to the provisions stipulated in Paragraphs 11.14. to 11.16. Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation shall postpone each date mentioned in the above Paragraphs for
two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to the said dates.
11.18. By derogation to the provisions stipulated in Paragraphs 11.14., 11.15. and 11.16.,
Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may continue to permit the placing on the
market of engines approved on the basis of a previous technical standard, provided that the
engines are intended as replacement for fitting in vehicles in use, and that it is not
technically feasible for the engines in question to satisfy the new requirements of the
03 series of amendments.

11.26. As from January 1, 2015, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of variable speed engines, or engine families, included in the Power
Bands M and N, intended for installation on the vehicles defined in Paragraph 11.19., not
approved under this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.27. As from January 1, 2016, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of variable speed engines, or engine families, included in the Power
Band P, intended for installation on the vehicles defined in Paragraph 11.19., not approved
under this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.28. As from January 1, 2017, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of variable speed engines, or engine families, included in the Power
Band Q, intended for installation on the vehicles defined in Paragraph 11.19., not approved
under this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.29. As from October 1, 2017, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may refuse the
placing on the market of variable speed engines, or engine families, included in the Power
Band R, intended for installation on the vehicles defined in Paragraph 11.19., not approved
under this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.
11.30. By derogation to the provisions stipulated in Paragraphs 11.25. to 11.29. Contracting Parties
applying this Regulation shall postpone each date mentioned in the above Paragraphs for
two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to the said dates.
11.31. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may continue to grant approvals to those
engines which comply with any previous sets of requirements, or to any level of this
Regulation provided that the engines or the vehicles are intended for export to countries that
apply the relating requirements in their national legislations.
12. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate
to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services
responsible for conducting approval tests and the Type Approval Authorities which grant
approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of
approval, issued in other countries are to be sent.

ANNEX 1A – APPENDIX 1
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE (PARENT) ENGINE
1.
Description of engine
1.1.
Manufacturer: ............................................................................................................................
1.2.
Manufacturer's engine code: .....................................................................................................
1.3.
Cycle: four stroke/two stroke
1.4.
Bore: ................................................................................................................................... mm
1.5.
Stroke: ................................................................................................................................ mm
1.6.
Number and layout of cylinders: ...............................................................................................
1.7.
Engine capacity: ................................................................................................................. cm
1.8.
Rated speed: .............................................................................................................................
1.9.
Maximum torque speed: ...........................................................................................................
1.10.
Volumetric compression ratio
: ...............................................................................................
1.11.
Combustion system description: ...............................................................................................
1.12.
Drawing(s) of combustion chamber and piston crown: .............................................................
1.13.
Minimum cross sectional area of inlet and outlet ports: ............................................................
1.14.
Cooling system
1.14.1.
Liquid
1.14.1.1.
Nature of liquid: .........................................................................................................................
1.14.1.2.
Circulating pump(s): yes/no
1.14.1.3.
Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.14.1.4.
Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................
1.14.2.
Air
1.14.2.1.
Blower: yes/no
1.14.2.2.
Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): .............................................................
1.14.2.3.
Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): ......................................................................................................

2.2.1.5. Type of catalytic action: ............................................................................................................
2.2.1.6. Total charge of precious metals: ...............................................................................................
2.2.1.7. Relative concentration: .............................................................................................................
2.2.1.8. Substrate (structure and material): ...........................................................................................
2.2.1.9. Cell density: ...............................................................................................................................
2.2.1.10. Type of casing for the catalytic converter(s): ............................................................................
2.2.1.11. Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place(s) and maximum/minimum distance(s) from
engine): .....................................................................................................................................
2.2.1.12. Normal operating range (K): .....................................................................................................
2.2.1.13. Consumable reagent (where appropriate): ...............................................................................
2.2.1.13.1. Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action: ...............................................
2.2.1.13.2. Normal operational temperature range of reagent: ...................................................................
2.2.1.13.3. International standard (where appropriate): ..............................................................................
2.2.1.14. NO sensor: yes/no
2.2.2. Oxygen sensor: yes/no
2.2.2.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
2.2.2.3. Location: ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.3. Air injection: yes/no
2.2.3.1. Type (pulse air, air pump, etc.): ................................................................................................
2.2.4. EGR: yes/no
2.2.4.1. Characteristics (cooled/uncooled, high pressure/low pressure, etc.): ......................................
2.2.5. Particulate trap: yes/no
2.2.5.1. Dimensions and capacity of the particulate trap: ......................................................................
2.2.5.2. Type and design of the particulate trap: ...................................................................................
2.2.5.3. Location (place(s) and maximum/minimum distance(s) from engine): .....................................

3.2.4. Governor
3.2.4.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.4.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.4.3. Speed at which cut-off starts under full load : ............................................................... min
3.2.4.4. Maximum no-load speed : ............................................................................................. min
3.2.4.5. Idling speed : ................................................................................................................. min
3.3. Cold Start System
3.3.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.3.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.3.3. Description: ...............................................................................................................................
4. Reserved
5. Valve timing
5.1. Maximum lift and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres or equivalent
data: ..........................................................................................................................................
5.2. Reference and/or setting ranges
5.3. Variable valve timing system (if applicable and where intake and/or exhaust)
5.3.1. Type: continuous or on/off
5.3.2. Cam phase shift angle: .............................................................................................................
6. Reserved
7. Reserved

2. Engine family listing
2.1. Engine family name: .......................................................................................................................
2.2. Specification of engines within this family:
Parent
Engine
Engines within family
Engine type
No. of cylinders
Rated speed (min )
Fuel delivery per stroke (mm ) at
rated net power
Rated net power (kW)
Maximum power speed (min )
Maximum net power (kW)
Maximum torque speed (min )
Fuel delivery per stroke (mm ) at
maximum torque
Maximum torque (Nm)
Low idle speed (min )
Cylinder displacement in % of
parent engine
100
2.3. In addition, for each engine type within the family, the information required in Annex 1B –
Appendix 3 shall be submitted to the Type Approval Authority.

1.15. Temperature permitted by the manufacturer
1.15.1. Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: .................................................................... K
1.15.2. Air cooling: Reference point: .....................................................................................................
Maximum temperature at reference point: ............................................................................. K
1.15.3. Maximum charge air outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler (if applicable): ..................... K
1.15.4. Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer
flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s): ...................................................................................... K
1.15.5. Fuel temperature: ........................................................................................................... min: K
....................................................................................................................................... max: K
1.15.6. Lubricant temperature: ................................................................................................... min: K
....................................................................................................................................... max: K
1.16. Pressure charger: yes/no
1.16.1. Make: ........................................................................................................................................
1.16.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
1.16.3. Description of the system (e.g. max. charge pressure, waste-gate, if applicable):
1.16.4. Intercooler: yes/no
1.17. Intake system: Maximum allowable intake depression at rated engine speed and at 100%
load: ................................................................................................................................... kPa
1.18. Exhaust system: Maximum allowable exhaust backpressure at rated engine speed and at
100% load: ......................................................................................................................... kPa
2. Measures taken against air pollution
2.1. Device for recycling crankcase gases: yes/no
2.2. Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)
2.2.1. Catalytic converter: yes/no
2.2.1.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
2.2.1.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
2.2.1.3. Number of catalytic converters and elements: ..........................................................................
2.2.1.4. Dimensions and volume of the catalytic converter(s): ..............................................................

2.2.5.4.
Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing: ...............................................
2.2.5.5.
Normal operating temperature (K) and pressure (kPa) range: .................................................
2.2.6.
Other systems: yes/no
2.2.6.1.
Description and operation: ........................................................................................................
3.
Fuel feed
3.1.
Feed pump
Pressure
or characteristic diagram: .............................................................................. . kPa
3.2. Injection system
3.2.1. Pump
3.2.1.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.1.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.1.3. Delivery: .................... mm per stroke or cycle at pump speed of .............................. min
at full injection, or characteristic diagram.
Mention the method used: On engine/on pump bench
3.2.1.4. Injection advance
3.2.1.4.1. Injection advance curve : .......................................................................................................
3.2.1.4.2. Timing : ...................................................................................................................................
3.2.2. Injection piping
3.2.2.1. Length: ............................................................................................................................... mm
3.2.2.2. Internal diameter: ............................................................................................................... mm
3.2.3. Injector(s)
3.2.3.1. Make(s): ....................................................................................................................................
3.2.3.2. Type(s): .....................................................................................................................................
3.2.3.3. Opening pressure or characteristic diagram: ................................................................. kPa

ANNEX 1B
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE FAMILY AND
CHOICE OF THE PARENT ENGINE
1. PARAMETERS DEFINING THE ENGINE FAMILY
1.1. General
An engine family is characterized by design parameters. These shall be common to all
engines within the family. The engine manufacturer may decide which engines belong to an
engine family, as long as the membership criteria listed in Paragraph 1.3. below are
respected. The engine family shall be approved by the Type Approval Authority. The
manufacturer shall provide to the Type Approval Authority the appropriate information relating
to the emission levels of the members of the engine family.
1.2. Special Cases
1.2.1. Interactions Between Parameters
In some cases there may be interaction between parameters, which may cause emissions to
change. This shall be taken into consideration to ensure that only engines with similar
exhaust emission characteristics are included within the same engine family. These cases
shall be identified by the manufacturer and notified to the Type Approval Authority. It shall
then be taken into account as a criterion for creating a new engine family.
1.2.2. Devices or Features Having a Strong Influence on Emissions
In case of devices or features, which are not listed in Paragraph 1.3. below and which have a
strong influence on the level of emissions, this equipment shall be identified by the
manufacturer using good engineering judgment, and shall be notified to the Type Approval
Authority. It shall then be taken into account as a criterion for creating a new engine family.
1.2.3. Additional Criteria
In addition to the parameters listed in Paragraph 1.3. below, the manufacturer may introduce
additional criteria allowing the definition of families of a more restricted size. These
parameters are not necessarily parameters that have an influence on the level of emissions.
1.3. Parameters Defining the Engine Family
1.3.1. Combustion Cycle:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2-stroke cycle;
4-stroke cycle;
Rotary engine;
Others.

1.3.7. Valves and Porting:
(a)
(b)
Configuration;
Number of valves per cylinder.
1.3.8. Fuel Supply Type:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Pump, (high pressure) line and injector;
In-line pump or distributor pump;
Unit injector;
Common rail.
1.3.9. Miscellaneous Devices:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR);
Water injection;
Air injection;
Others.
1.3.10. Electronic Control Strategy
The presence or absence of an electronic control unit (ECU) on the engine is regarded as a
basic parameter of the family.
In the case of electronically controlled engines, the manufacturer shall present the technical
elements explaining the grouping of these engines in the same family, i.e. the reasons why
these engines can be expected to satisfy the same emission requirements.
The electronic governing of speed does not need to be in a different family from those with
mechanical governing. The need to separate electronic engines from mechanical engines
should only apply to the fuel injection characteristics, such as timing, pressure, rate shape,
etc.

ANNEX 2
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a compression-ignition engine type or family of engine types as separate technical units with regard to
the emission of pollutants pursuant to Regulation No. 96
Approval No: .................................................. Extension No: ................................
1. Trade name or mark of the engine: ............................................................................................
2. Engine type(s) : ..........................................................................................................................
2.1. Engine family: .............................................................................................................................
2.2. Power band of engine family: ....................................................................................................
2.3. Variable speed/constant speed
2.4. Types included in the engine family: ..........................................................................................
2.5. Tested type of engine or the representative of the engine family: .............................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: ...........................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ..........................................
5. Maximum allowable intake depression: ............................................................................... kPa
6. Maximum allowable back pressure: ..................................................................................... kPa
7. Restriction of use (if any): ..........................................................................................................

ANNEX 2 – APPENDIX 1
TEST REPORT FOR COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES
Test results
Information concerning the test engine
Engine type: .................................................................................................................................
Engine identification number: ......................................................................................................
1. Information Concerning the Conduct of the Test:
1.1. Reference fuel used for test
1.1.1. Cetane number: ...........................................................................................................................
1.1.2. Sulphur content: ...........................................................................................................................
1.1.3. Density: ........................................................................................................................................
1.2. Lubricant
1.2.1. Make(s): .......................................................................................................................................
1.2.2. Type(s): ........................................................................................................................................
(State percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel are mixed)
1.3. Engine driven equipment (if applicable)
1.3.1. Enumeration and identifying details: ............................................................................................

Power setting (kW) at various engine speeds
Condition
Intermediate
speed
(if applicable)
Maximum power
speed
(if different from
rated)
Rated speed
Maximum power measured on test
(kW) (a)
Total power absorbed by engine
driven equipment as per Paragraph
1.3.2. of this Appendix or Annex 7
(kW) (b)
Net engine power as specified in
Paragraph 2.1.49. (kW) (c)
c = a + b
2.
Information Concerning the Conduct of the NRSC Test:
2.1.
Dynamometer setting (kW)
Dynamometer setting (kW) at various engine speeds
Per cent Load
Intermediate (if applicable)
Rated speed
10 (if applicable)
25 (if applicable)
50
75
100

3.
Information Concerning the Conduct of the NRTC Test
:
3.1.
Emission results of the engine/parent engine
Deterioration Factor (DF): calculated/fixed
Specify the DF values and the emission results in the following table
:
Regeneration related data shall be reported for engines of power bands Q and R.
NRTC Test
DF
mult/add
CO HC NO PM
Emissions
CO (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh)
NO
(g/kWh)
HC+NOx
(g/kWh)
PM (g/kWh)
Cold start
Emissions
CO (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh)
NO
(g/kWh)
HC+NOx
(g/kWh)
PM (g/kWh)
CO
(g/kWh)
Hot start without
regeneration
Hot start with
regeneration
k (mult/add)
k (mult/add)
Weighted test result
Final test result with
DF
Cycle work for hot start without regeneration
kWh
3.2. Sampling system used for the NRTC test:
Gaseous emissions : .................................................................................................................
Particulates : ..............................................................................................................................
Method
: single/multiple filter

ANNEX 4A
METHOD OF DETERMINING EMISSIONS OF GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex describes the method of determining emissions of gaseous and particulate
pollutants from the engine to be tested.
The following test cycles shall apply:
The NRSC (non-road steady cycle) appropriate for the equipment specification which shall be
used for the measurement of the emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of
nitrogen and particulates for all Power Bands of engines described in Paragraphs 1.1., 1.2.
and 1.3. of this Regulation, and the NRTC (non-road transient cycle) which shall be used for
the measurement of the emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and
particulates for Power Bands L and upwards of engines described in Paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2.
of this Regulation.
The gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be
measured by the methods described in Annex 4A, Appendix 4.
Other systems or analysers may be accepted if they yield equivalent results to the following
reference systems:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For gaseous emissions measured in the raw exhaust, the system shown in Figure 2 of
Annex 4A, Appendix 4;
For gaseous emissions measured in the dilute exhaust of a full flow dilution system, the
system shown in Figure 3 of Appendix 4 of Annex 4A;
For particulate emissions, the full flow dilution system, operating with a separate filter
for each mode, shown in Figure 13 of Appendix 4 of Annex 4A.
The determination of system equivalency shall be based upon a seven test cycle (or larger)
correlation study between the system under consideration and one or more of the above
reference systems.
The equivalency criterion is defined as a ±5% agreement of the averages of the weighted
cycle emissions values. The cycle to be used shall be that given in Annex 4A,
Paragraph 3.6.1.
For introduction of a new system into the Regulation the determination of equivalency shall be
based upon the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility, as described in ISO 5725.
1.2. The test shall be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a
dynamometer.

1.3.2. NRTC Test:
The prescribed transient test cycle, based closely on the operating conditions of diesel
engines installed in non-road machinery, is run twice:
(a)
(b)
The first time (cold start) after the engine has soaked to room temperature and the
engine coolant and oil temperatures, after treatment systems and all auxiliary engine
control devices are stabilized between 20 and 30°C.
The second time (hot start) after a 20min hot soak that commences immediately after
the completion of the cold start cycle.
During this test sequence the above pollutants shall be examined. The test sequence consists
of a cold start cycle following natural or forced cool-down of the engine, a hot soak period and
a hot start cycle, resulting in a composite emissions calculation. Using the engine torque and
speed feedback signals of the engine dynamometer, the power shall be integrated with
respect to the time of the cycle, resulting in the work produced by the engine over the cycle.
The concentrations of the gaseous components shall be determined over the cycle, either in
the raw exhaust gas by integration of the analyser signal in accordance with Appendix 3 to
this Annex, or in the diluted exhaust gas of a CVS full-flow dilution system by integration or by
bag sampling in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex. For particulates, a proportional
sample shall be collected from the diluted exhaust gas on a specified filter by either partial
flow dilution or full-flow dilution. Depending on the method used, the diluted or undiluted
exhaust gas flow rate shall be determined over the cycle to calculate the mass emission
values of the pollutants. The mass emission values shall be related to the engine work to give
the grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt-hour.
Emissions (g/kWh) shall be measured during both the cold and hot start cycles. Composite
weighted emissions shall be computed by weighing the cold start results 10% and the hot
start results 90%. Weighted composite results shall meet the limits.

Symbol Unit Term
H g/kg Absolute humidity of the intake air.
H g/kg Absolute humidity of the dilution air.
i − Subscript denoting an individual mode.
K − Humidity correction factor for NO .
K − Humidity correction factor for particulate.
K − Dry to wet correction factor for the intake air.
K − Dry to wet correction factor for the dilution air.
K − Dry to wet correction factor for the diluted exhaust gas.
K − Dry to wet correction factor for the raw exhaust gas.
L % Percent torque related to the maximum torque for the test speed.
mass g/h Subscript denoting emissions mass flow rate.
M
kg
Mass of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate
sampling filters.
M
kg
Mass of the diluted exhaust sample passed through the
particulate sampling filters.
M mg Particulate sample mass of the dilution air collected.
M mg Particulate sample mass collected.
p
kPa
Saturation vapour pressure of the engine intake air
(ISO 3046 P = PSY test ambient).
p
kPa
Total barometric pressure (ISO 3046: P = PX Site ambient total
pressure; P = PY Test ambient total pressure).
p kPa Saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air.
p kPa Dry atmospheric pressure.
P kW Power, brake uncorrected.
P
kW
Declared total power absorbed by auxiliaries fitted for the test
which are not required by Paragraph 2.1.49. of this Regulation.
P
kW
Maximum measured power at the test speed under test
conditions (see Annex 1A)

2. TEST CONDITIONS
2.1. General Requirements
All volumes and volumetric flow rates shall be related to 273K (0°C) and 101.3 kPa.
2.2. Engine Test Conditions
2.2.1. The absolute temperature T of the engine intake air expressed in Kelvin, and the dry
atmospheric pressure p , expressed in kPa, shall be measured, and the parameter f shall be
determined according to the following provisions:
Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines:
f
⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛
= ⎜ ⎟
× ⎜
p
⎝ ⎠ ⎝
T
298



Turbocharged engine with or without cooling of the intake air:
f
⎛ 99 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
p
⎝ ⎠

× ⎜

T
298



2.2.2. Test Validity
For a test to be recognized as valid, the parameter f shall be such that:
0.96 ≤ f ≤ 1.06
2.2.3. Engines with Charge Air Cooling
The charge air temperature shall be recorded and, at the declared rated speed and full load,
shall be within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer.
The temperature of the cooling medium shall be at least 293K (20°C).
If a test shop system or external blower is used, the charge air temperature shall be set to
within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer at the
speed of the declared maximum power and full load. Coolant temperature and coolant flow
rate of the charge air cooler at the above set point shall not be changed for the whole test
cycle. The charge air cooler volume shall be based upon good engineering practice and
typical vehicle/machinery applications.
Optionally, the setting of the charge air cooler may be done in accordance with SAE J 1937
as published in January 1995.

3. TEST RUN (NRSC TEST)
3.1. Determination of Dynamometer Settings
The basis of specific emissions measurement is uncorrected brake power according to
Regulation No. 120.
During the test, the auxiliaries necessary for the engine operation shall be installed according
to the requirements of Annex 7 of this Regulation.
Where auxiliaries have not been removed, the power absorbed by them at the test speeds
shall be determined in order to calculate the dynamometer settings, except for engines where
such auxiliaries form an integral part of the engine (e.g. cooling fans for air cool engines).
The settings of inlet restriction and exhaust pipe backpressure shall be adjusted to the
manufacturer's upper limits, in accordance with Paragraphs 2.3. and 2.4. above.
The maximum torque values at the specified test speeds shall be determined by
experimentation in order to calculate the torque values for the specified test modes. For
engines which are not designed to operate over a range on a full load torque curve, the
maximum torque at the test speeds shall be declared by the manufacturer.
The engine setting for each test mode shall be calculated using the formula:
S =
L
100
( P + P ) × − P
If the ratio,
P
P
≥ 0.03
the value of P may be verified by the Type Approval Authority granting type approval.
3.2. Preparation of the Sampling Filters
At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) shall be placed in a closed, but unsealed,
petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilization. At the end of the stabilization
period, each filter (pair) shall be weighed and the tare weight shall be recorded. The filter
(pair) shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or filter holder until needed for testing. If the
filter (pair) is not used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber, it shall be
reweighed before use.
3.3. Installation of the Measuring Equipment
The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. When using a full flow
dilution system for exhaust gas dilution, the tailpipe shall be connected to the system.

3.7. Test Cycle
3.7.1. Machinery specification according to Paragraphs 1.1. to 1.3. of this Regulation:
3.7.1.1. Specification A
For engines covered by Paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2. of this Regulation, the discrete 8-mode
cycle of Annex 5, sub-paragraph (a) of Paragraph 1.1. shall be followed in dynamometer
operation on the test engine.
As an option, the corresponding ramped modal 9-mode cycle of Annex 5, sub-paragraph (a)
of Paragraph 1.2. may be used. In this case, the cycle shall be run in accordance with
Annex 4B, Paragraph 7.8.2. instead of following the procedures in Paragraphs 3.7.2. to 3.7.6.
below.
3.7.1.2. Specification B
For engines covered by Paragraph 1.3. of this Regulation, the discrete 5-mode cycle of
Annex 5, sub-paragraph (b) of Paragraph 1.1. shall be followed in dynamometer operation on
the test engine.
As an option, the ramped modal 5-mode cycle of Annex 5, sub-paragraph (b) of
Paragraph 1.2. may be used. In this case, the cycle shall be run in accordance with
Annex 4B, Paragraph 7.8.2. instead of following the procedures in Paragraphs 3.7.2. to 3.7.6.
The load figures are percentage values of the torque corresponding to the prime power rating
defined as the maximum power available during a variable power sequence, which may be
run for an unlimited number of hours per year, between stated maintenance intervals and
under the stated ambient conditions, the maintenance being carried out as prescribed by the
manufacturer.
3.7.2. Conditioning of the Engine
Warming up of the engine and the system shall be at maximum speed and torque in order to
stabilize the engine parameters according to the recommendations of the manufacturer.
Note: The conditioning period should also prevent the influence of deposits from a former test
in the exhaust system. There is also a required period of stabilization between test points
which has been included to minimize point to point influences.

3.7.6. Engine Conditions
The engine speed and load, intake air temperature, fuel flow and air or exhaust gas flow shall
be measured for each mode once the engine has been stabilized.
If the measurement of the exhaust gas flow or the measurement of combustion air and fuel
consumption is not possible, it can be calculated using the carbon and oxygen balance
method (see Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.2.3.).
Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded (see Annex 4A, Appendix 3,
Paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2.).
3.8. Re-checking the Analysers
After the emission test a zero gas and the same span gas will be used for re-checking. The
test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the two measuring results is less
than 2%.
4. TEST RUN (NRTC TEST)
4.1. Introduction
The non-road transient cycle (NRTC) is listed in Annex 5 as a second-by-second sequence of
normalized speed and torque values applicable to all diesel engines covered by this
Regulation. In order to perform the test on an engine test cell, the normalized values shall be
converted to the actual values for the individual engine under test, based on the engine
mapping curve. This conversion is referred to as denormalization, and the test cycle
developed is referred to as the reference cycle of the engine to be tested. With these
reference speed and torque values, the cycle shall be run on the test cell, and the feedback
speed and torque values recorded. In order to validate the test run, a regression analysis
between reference and feedback speed and torque values shall be conducted upon
completion of the test.
4.1.1. The use of defeat devices or irrational control or irrational emission control strategies shall be
prohibited
4.2. Engine Mapping Procedure
When generating the NRTC on the test cell, the engine shall be mapped before running the
test cycle to determine the speed vs. torque curve.
4.2.1. Determination of the Mapping Speed Range
The minimum and maximum mapping speeds are defined as follows:
Minimum mapping speed = idle speed
Maximum mapping speed
=
n × 1.02 or speed where full load torque drops off to zero,
whichever is lower (where n is the high speed, defined as
the highest engine speed where 70% of the rated power is
delivered).

4.2.5. Replicate Tests
An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine shall be
remapped prior to a test cycle if:
(a)
(b)
An unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by
engineering judgement, or,
Physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine, which may
potentially affect engine performance.
4.3. Generation of the Reference Test Cycle
4.3.1. Reference Speed
The reference speed (n ) corresponds to the 100% normalized speed values specified in the
engine dynamometer schedule of Annex 5. The actual engine cycle resulting from
denormalization to the reference speed depends largely on selection of the proper reference
speed. The reference speed shall be determined by the following formula:
n = low speed + 0.95 (high speed – low speed)
(The high speed is the highest engine speed where 70% of the rated power is delivered, while
the low speed is the lowest engine speed where 50% of the rated power is delivered).
If the measured reference speed is within ±3% of the reference speed as declared by the
manufacturer, the declared reference speed may be used for the emissions test. If the
tolerance is exceeded, the measured reference speed shall be used for the emissions test.
(This is consistent with the ISO 8178-11:2006 Standard.)
4.3.2. Denormalization of Engine Speed
The speed shall be denormalized using the following equation:
ActualSpeed =
%speed
100
4.3.3. Denormalization of Engine Torque
× (referencespeed – idlespeed) + idlespeed
The torque values in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex 5 are normalized to the
maximum torque at the respective speed. The torque values of the reference cycle shall be
denormalized, using the mapping curve determined according to Paragraph 4.2.2.above, as
follows:
Actualtorque =
%torque
100
× max.torque
for the respective actual speed as determined in Paragraph 4.3.2. above.

4.5. Emissions Test Run
The following flow chart outlines the test sequence:
One or more practice cycles may be run as necessary to check engine, test cell and
emissions systems before the measurement cycle.
4.5.1. Preparation of the Sampling Filters
At least one hour before the test, each filter shall be placed in a petri dish, which is protected
against dust contamination and allows air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilization. At the end of the stabilization period, each filter shall be weighed and the weight
shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter holder
until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within eight hours of its removal from the
weighing chamber. The tare weight shall be recorded.

4.5.7. Cycle Run
4.5.7.1. Cold Start Cycle
The test sequence shall commence with the cold start cycle at the completion of the
cool-down when all the requirements specified in Paragraph 4.5.6. above are met.
The engine shall be started according to the starting procedure recommended by the
manufacturer in the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the
dynamometer.
As soon as it is determined that the engine is started, start a "free idle" timer. Allow the engine
to idle freely with no-load for 23 ± 1 s. Begin the transient engine cycle such that the first nonidle
record of the cycle occurs at 23 ± 1 s. The free idle time is included in the 23 ± 1 s.
The test shall be performed according to the reference cycle as set out in Annex 5. Engine
speed and torque command set points shall be issued at 5Hz (10Hz recommended) or
greater. The set points shall be calculated by linear interpolation between the 1Hz set points
of the reference cycle. Feedback engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least once
every second during the test cycle, and the signals may be electronically filtered.
4.5.7.2. Analyser Response
At the start of the engine the measuring equipment shall be started, simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Start collecting or analysing dilution air, if a full flow dilution system is used;
Start collecting or analysing raw or diluted exhaust gas, depending on the method
used;
Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the required temperatures and
pressures;
Start recording the exhaust gas mass flow rate, if raw exhaust gas analysis is used;
Start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.
If raw exhaust measurement is used, the emission concentrations (HC, CO and NO ) and the
exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be measured continuously and stored with at least 2Hz on a
computer system. All other data may be recorded with a sample rate of at least 1Hz. For
analogue analysers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration data may be applied
online or offline during the data evaluation.
If a full flow dilution system is used, HC and NO shall be measured continuously in the
dilution tunnel with a frequency of at least 2Hz. The average concentrations shall be
determined by integrating the analyser signals over the test cycle. The system response time
shall be no greater than 20s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and
sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO and CO shall be determined by integration
or by analysing the concentrations in the sample bag collected over the cycle. The
concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall be determined by integration
or by collection in the background bag. All other parameters that need to be measured shall
be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second (1Hz).

4.5.7.6. Hot Soak
Immediately after the engine is turned off, the engine cooling fan(s) shall be turned off if used,
as well as the CVS blower (or disconnect the exhaust system from the CVS), if used.
Allow the engine to soak for 20 ± 1min. Prepare the engine and dynamometer for the hot start
test. Connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air sample
collection systems. Start the CVS (if used or not already on) or connect the exhaust system to
the CVS (if disconnected). Start the sample pumps (except the particulate sample pump(s),
the engine cooling fan(s) and the data collection system.
The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler (if used) and the heated components of
any continuous sampling system(s) (if applicable) shall be preheated to their designated
operating temperatures before the test begins.
Adjust the sample flow rates to the desired flow rate and set the CVS gas flow measuring
devices to zero. Carefully install a clean particulate filter in each of the filter holders and install
assembled filter holders in the sample flow line.
4.5.7.7. Hot Start Cycle
As soon as it is determined that the engine is started, start a "free idle" timer. Allow the engine
to idle freely with no-load for 23 ± 1s. Begin the transient engine cycle such that the first nonidle
record of the cycle occurs at 23 ± 1s. The free idle time is included in the 23 ± 1s.
The test shall be performed according to the reference cycle as set out in Annex 5. Engine
speed and torque command set points shall be issued at 5Hz (10Hz recommended) or
greater. The set points shall be calculated by linear interpolation between the 1Hz set points
of the reference cycle. Feedback engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least once
every second during the test cycle, and the signals may be electronically filtered.
The procedure described in previous Paragraphs 4.5.7.2. and 4.5.7.3. above shall then be
repeated.
4.5.7.8. Engine Stalling During the Hot Start Cycle
If the engine stalls anywhere during the hot start cycle, the engine may be shut off and
re-soaked for 20min. The hot start cycle may then be rerun. Only one hot re-soak and hot
start cycle restart is permitted.

4.6.3. Validation Statistics of the Test Cycle
Linear regressions of the feedback values on the reference values shall be performed for
speed, torque and power. This shall be done after any feedback data shift has occurred, if this
option is selected. The method of least squares shall be used, with the best fit equation
having the form:
y = mx + b
where:
y =
m =
x =
b =
feedback (actual) value of speed (min ), torque (N·m), or power (kW)
slope of the regression line
reference value of speed (min ), torque (N·m), or power (kW)
y intercept of the regression line
The standard error of estimate (SE) of y on x and the coefficient of determination (r ) shall be
calculated for each regression line.
It is recommended that this analysis be performed at 1Hz. For a test to be considered valid,
the criteria of Table 1 shall be met.
Standard error of estimate (SEE) of
y on x
Table 1
Regression Line Tolerances
Speed Torque Power
max 100min
max 13% of power map
maximum engine torque
Slope of the regression line, m 0.95 to 1.03 0.83 – 1.03 0.89 – 1.03
Coefficient of determination, r min 0.9700 min 0.8800 min 0.9100
y intercept of the regression line, b
±50min
±20Nm or ±2 % of max
torque,
whichever
is
greater
max 8% of power map
maximum engine power
±4kW or ±2% of max
power,
whichever
is
greater
For regression purposes only, point deletions are permitted where noted in Table 2 before
doing the regression calculation. However, those points shall not be deleted for the
calculation of cycle work and emissions. An idle point is defined as a point having a
normalized reference torque of 0% and a normalized reference speed of 0%. Point deletion
may be applied to the whole or to any part of the cycle.

ANNEX 4A – APPENDIX 1
MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES (NRSC, NRTC)
1. MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES (NRSC TEST)
Gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be
measured by the methods described in Annex 4A, Appendix 4. The methods of Annex 4A,
Appendix 4 describe the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous emissions
(Paragraph 1.1.) and the recommended particulate dilution and sampling systems
(Paragraph 1.2. below).
At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the approval authority the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraph 9. may be used as an alternative to those in
Paragraph 1. of this Appendix.
1.1. Dynamometer Specification
An engine dynamometer with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle described in
Annex 4A, Paragraph 3.7.1. shall be used. The instrumentation for torque and speed
measurement shall allow the measurement of the power within the given limits. Additional
calculations may be necessary. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be such that
the maximum tolerances of the figures given in Paragraph 1.3. below are not exceeded.
1.2. Exhaust Gas Flow
The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods mentioned in
Paragraphs 1.2.1. to 1.2.4. below
1.2.1. Direct Measurement Method
Direct measurement of the exhaust flow by flow nozzle or equivalent metering system (for
detail see ISO 5167:2000).
Note: Direct gaseous flow measurement is a difficult task. Precautions shall be taken to
avoid measurement errors that will impact emission value errors.
1.2.2. Air and Fuel Measurement Method
Measurement of the airflow and the fuel flow.
Air flow-meters and fuel flow-meters with the accuracy defined in Paragraph 1.3. shall be
used.
The calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:
G = G + G (for wet exhaust mass)
1.2.3. Carbon Balance Method
Exhaust mass calculation from fuel consumption and exhaust gas concentrations using the
carbon balance method (Annex 4A, Appendix 3).

1.2.5. Air Flow and Air to Fuel Ratio Measurement Method
This method involves exhaust mass calculation from the air flow and the air to fuel ratio. The
calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass flow is as follows:
G
= G

× ⎜
1 +

1
A / F


× λ

with A/F = 14.5


conc
100 −


λ =
× 10
2
conc
× 10
6.9078 ×


2 × conc × 10
1 −
⎞ ⎜
3.5 × conc
⎟ + ⎜0.45
×

⎠ ⎜
conc × 10
⎜ 1 +

3.5 × conc






( conc + conc × 10 + conc × 10 )

×
( conc + conc × 10 )
where:
A/F = stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (kg/kg)
λ = relative air/fuel ratio
conc = dry CO concentration (%)
conc = dry CO concentration (ppm)
conc = HC concentration (ppm)
Note: The calculation refers to a diesel fuel with a H/C ratio equal to Paragraph 1.8.
The air flow-meter shall meet the accuracy specifications in Table 3, the CO analyser used
shall meet the specifications of Paragraph 1.4.1. below, and the total system shall meet the
accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow.
Optionally, air to fuel ratio measurement equipment, such as a zirconia type sensor, may be
used for the measurement of the relative air to fuel ratio in accordance with the specifications
of Paragraph 1.4.4. below.
1.2.6. Total Dilute Exhaust Gas Flow
When using a full flow dilution system, the total flow of the dilute exhaust (G ) shall be
measured with a PDP or CFV or SSV (Annex 4A, Appendix 4, Paragraph 1.2.1.2.). The
accuracy shall conform to the provisions of Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 2.2.

1.4. Determination of the Gaseous Components
1.4.1. General Analyser Specifications
The analysers shall have a measuring range appropriate for the accuracy required to
measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components (Paragraph 1.4.1.1. below). It is
recommended that the analysers be operated in such a way that the measured concentration
falls between 15% and 100% of full scale.
If the full scale value is 155ppm (or ppm C) or less or if read-out systems (computers, data
loggers) that provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15% of full scale are used,
concentrations below 15% of full scale are also acceptable. In this case, additional
calibrations are to be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves – Annex 4A,
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.5.5.2.
The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be on a level as to minimize
additional errors.
1.4.1.1. Measurement Error
The analyser shall not deviate from the nominal calibration point by more than ±2% of the
reading or ±0.3% of full scale, whichever is larger.
Note: For the purpose of this standard, accuracy is defined as the deviation of the analyser
reading from the nominal calibration values using a calibration gas (≡ true value)
1.4.1.2. Repeatability
1.4.1.3. Noise
1.4.1.4. Zero Drift
1.4.1.5. Span Drift
The repeatability, defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation of ten repetitive responses to a
given calibration or span gas, shall be no greater than ±1% of full scale concentration for each
range used above 155ppm (or ppm C) or ±2% of each range used below 155ppm (or ppm C).
The analyser peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any ten
second period shall not exceed 2% of full scale on all ranges used.
The zero drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2% of full scale on the lowest range
used. The zero response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a zero gas
during a 30s time interval.
The span drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2% of full scale on the lowest range
used. Span is defined as the difference between the span response and the zero response.
The span response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a span gas during a
30s time interval.

1.4.4. Air to Fuel Measurement
The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified
in Paragraph 1.2.5. shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of Zirconia
type.
The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust gas temperature
is high enough to eliminate water condensation.
The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:
±3% of reading λ < 2
±5% of reading 2 ≤ λ < 5
±10% of reading 5 ≤ λ
To fulfil the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the
instrument manufacturer.
1.4.5. Sampling for Gaseous Emissions
The gaseous emissions sampling probes shall be fitted at least 0.5m or three times the
diameter of the exhaust pipe (whichever is the larger) upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas
system as far as applicable and sufficiently close to the engine as to ensure an exhaust gas
temperature of at least 343K (70°C) at the probe.
In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe
shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative
of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder engines having distinct
groups of manifolds, such as in a 'V'-engine configuration, it is permissible to acquire a
sample from each group individually and calculate an average exhaust emission. Other
methods which have been shown to correlate with the above methods may be used. For
exhaust emissions calculation the total exhaust mass flow of the engine shall be used.
When a full flow dilution system is used for the determination of the particulates, the gaseous
emissions may also be determined in the diluted exhaust gas. The sampling probes shall be
close to the particulate sampling probe in the dilution tunnel (Annex 4A, Appendix 4,
Paragraph 1.2.1.2., DT and Paragraph 1.2.2., PSP). CO and CO may optionally be
determined by sampling into a bag and subsequent measurement of the concentration in the
sampling bag.

1.5.1.2. Filter Size
Particulate filters shall have a minimum diameter of 47mm (37mm stain diameter). Larger
diameter filters are acceptable (Paragraph 1.5.1.5.).
1.5.1.3. Primary and Back-up Filters
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a pair of filters placed in series (one primary and one
back-up filter) during the test sequence. The back-up filter shall be located no more than
100mm downstream of, and shall not be in contact with, the primary filter. The filters may be
weighed separately or as a pair with the filters placed stain side to stain side.
1.5.1.4. Filter Face Velocity
A gas face velocity through the filter of 35 to 100 cm/s shall be achieved. The pressure drop
increase between the beginning and the end of the test shall be no more than 25 kPa.
1.5.1.5. Filter Loading
The recommended minimum filter loadings for the most common filter sizes are shown in the
following table. For larger filter sizes, the minimum filter loading shall be 0.065 mg/1000mm
filter area.
Filter diameter
(mm)
Recommended stain
diameter
(mm)
Recommended minimum loading
(mg)
47 37 0.11
70 60 0.25
90 80 0.41
110 100 0.62
For the multiple filter method, the recommended minimum filter loading for the sum of all
filters shall be the product of the appropriate value above and the square root of the total
number of modes.
1.5.2. Weighing Chamber and Analytical Balance Specifications
1.5.2.1. Weighing Chamber Conditions
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned and
weighed shall be maintained to within 295K (22°C) ± 3K during all filter conditioning and
weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dew point of 282.5 (9.5°C) ± 3K and a
relative humidity of 45 ± 8%.

2. MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES (NRTC TEST)
2.1. Introduction
Gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be
measured by the methods of Annex 4A, Appendix 4. The methods of Annex 4A, Appendix 4
describe the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous emissions (Paragraph 1.1.)
and the recommended particulate dilution and sampling systems (Paragraph 1.2.).
2.2. Dynamometer and Test Cell Equipment
The following equipment shall be used for emission tests of engines on engine
dynamometers:
2.2.1. Engine Dynamometer
An engine dynamometer shall be used with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle
described in Appendix 4 to this Annex. The instrumentation for torque and speed
measurement shall allow the measurement of the power within the given limits. Additional
calculations may be necessary. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be such that
the maximum tolerances of the figures given in Table 4 are not exceeded.

2.2.3. Raw Exhaust Gas Flow
For calculating the emissions in the raw exhaust gas and for controlling a partial flow dilution
system, it is necessary to know the exhaust gas mass flow rate. For determining the exhaust
mass flow rate, either of the methods described below may be used.
For the purpose of emissions calculation, the response time of either method described below
shall be equal to or less than the requirement for the analyser response time, as defined in
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.11.1.
For the purpose of controlling a partial flow dilution system, a faster response is required. For
partial flow dilution systems with online control, a response time of ≤ 0.3s is required. For
partial flow dilution systems with look ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run, a
response time of the exhaust flow measurement system of ≤ 5s with a rise time of ≤ 1s is
required. The system response time shall be specified by the instrument manufacturer. The
combined response time requirements for exhaust gas flow and partial flow dilution system
are indicated in Paragraph 2.4. below.
Direct measurement method
Direct measurement of the instantaneous exhaust flow may be done by systems, such as:
(a) Pressure differential devices, like flow nozzle, (for details see ISO 5167: 2000);
(b)
(c)
Ultrasonic flow-meter;
Vortex flow-meter.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors, which will impact emission value
errors. Such precautions include the careful installation of the device in the engine exhaust
system according to the instrument manufacturers' recommendations and to good
engineering practice. Especially, engine performance and emissions shall not be affected by
the installation of the device.
The flow-meters shall meet the accuracy specifications of Table 3.
Air and fuel measurement method
This involves measurement of the airflow and the fuel flow with suitable flowmeters. The
calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas flow is as follows:
G = G + G (for wet exhaust mass)
The flow-meters shall meet the accuracy specifications of Table 3, but shall also be accurate
enough to also meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow.
Tracer measurement method
This involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust.

2.2.4. Diluted Exhaust Gas Flow
For calculation of the emissions in the diluted exhaust gas, it is necessary to know the diluted
exhaust gas mass flow rate. The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle (kg/test) shall
be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the corresponding calibration
data of the flow measurement device (V for PDP, K for CFV, C for SSV): the corresponding
methods described in Appendix 3, Paragraph 2.2.1. shall be used. If the total sample mass of
particulates and gaseous pollutants exceeds 0.5% of the total CVS flow, the CVS flow shall
be corrected or the particulate sample flow shall be returned to the CVS prior to the flow
measuring device.
2.3. Determination of the Gaseous Components
2.3.1. General Analyser Specifications
The analysers shall have a measuring range appropriate for the accuracy required to
measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components (Paragraph 1.4.1.1. above). It is
recommended that the analysers be operated in such a way that the measured concentration
falls between 15 and 100% of full scale.
If the full scale value is 155ppm (or ppm C) or less, or if read-out systems (computers, data
loggers) that provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15% of full scale are used,
concentrations below 15% of full scale are also acceptable. In this case, additional
calibrations are to be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves – Annex 4A,
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.5.5.2.
The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be of a level such as to
minimize additional errors.
2.3.1.1. Measurement Error
The analyser shall not deviate from the nominal calibration point by more than ±2% of the
reading or ±0.3% of full scale, whichever is larger.
Note: For the purpose of this standard, accuracy is defined as the deviation of the analyser
reading from the nominal calibration values using a calibration gas (≡ true value).
2.3.1.2. Repeatability
2.3.1.3. Noise
The repeatability, defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation of 10 repetitive responses to a
given calibration or span gas, shall be no greater than ±1% of full scale concentration for each
range used above 155ppm (or ppm C) or ±2% for each range used below 155ppm (or
ppm C).
The analyser peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10s
periods shall not exceed 2% of full scale on all ranges used.

2.3.3.3. Hydrocarbon (HC) Analysis
The hydrocarbon analyser shall be of the heated flame ionization detector (HFID) type with
detector, valves, pipework etc., heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of 463K (190°C)
±10 K.
2.3.3.4. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO ) Analysis
The oxides of nitrogen analyser shall be of the chemiluminescent detector (CLD) or heated
chemiluminescent detector (HCLD) type with a NO /NO converter, if measured on a dry
basis. If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 328K (55°C)
shall be used, provided the water quench check (Annex 4A, Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.9.2.2.)
is satisfied.
For both CLD and HCLD, the sampling path shall be maintained at a wall temperature of
328K to 473K (55 to 200°C) up to the converter for dry measurement, and up to the analyser
for wet measurement.
2.3.4. Air to Fuel Measurement
The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified
in Paragraph 2.2.3. above shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of
Zirconia type.
The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust gas temperature
is high enough to eliminate water condensation.
The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:
±3% of reading λ < 2
±5% of reading 2 ≤ λ < 5
±10% of reading 5 ≤ λ
To fulfil the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the
instrument manufacturer.

2.4. Determination of the Particulates
Determination of the particulates requires a dilution system. Dilution may be accomplished by
a partial flow dilution system or a full flow dilution system. The flow capacity of the dilution
system shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and
sampling systems, and maintain the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas between 315K
(42°C) and 325K (52°C) immediately upstream of the filter holders. De-humidifying the
dilution air before entering the dilution system is permitted, if the air humidity is high. Dilution
air pre-heating above the temperature limit of 303K (30°C) is recommended if the ambient
temperature is below 293K (20°C). However, the diluted air temperature shall not exceed
325K (52°C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel.
The particulate sampling probe shall be installed in close proximity to the gaseous emissions
sampling probe, and the installation shall comply with the provisions of Paragraph 2.3.5.
above.
To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, particulate
sampling filters, microgram balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing
chamber, are required.
Partial flow dilution system specifications
The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to split the exhaust stream into two
fractions, the smaller one being diluted with air and subsequently used for particulate
measurement. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio be determined very accurately.
Different splitting methods can be applied, whereby the type of splitting used dictates to a
significant degree the sampling hardware and procedures to be used (Annex 4A, Appendix 4,
Paragraph 1.2.1.1.).
For the control of a partial flow dilution system, a fast system response is required. The
transformation time for the system shall be determined by the procedure described in
Appendix 2, Paragraph 1.11.1.
If the combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement (see previous
Paragraph) and the partial flow system is less than 0.3s, online control may be used. If the
transformation time exceeds 0.3s, look ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run shall
be used. In this case, the rise time shall be ≤ 1s and the delay time of the combination ≤ 10s.
The total system response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the
particulates, G , proportional to the exhaust mass flow. To determine the proportionality, a
regression analysis of G versus G shall be conducted on a minimum 5Hz data
acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:
(a)
The correlation coefficient r of the linear regression between G
and G
shall be
not less than 0.95;
(b) The standard error of estimate of G on G shall not exceed 5% of G maximum;
(c) G intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ±2% of G maximum.

2.4.1. Particulate Sampling Filters
2.4.1.1. Filter Specification
2.4.1.2. Filter Size
Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon based membrane filters are required for
certification tests. For special applications different filter materials may be used. All filter types
shall have a 0.3 μm DOP (dioctylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least 99% at a gas face
velocity between 35 and 100 cm/s. When performing correlation tests between laboratories or
between a manufacturer and an approval authority, filters of identical quality shall be used.
Particulate filters shall have a minimum diameter of 47mm (37mm stain diameter). Larger
diameter filters are acceptable (Paragraph 2.4.1.5. below).
2.4.1.3. Primary and Back-up Filters
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a pair of filters placed in series (one primary and one
back-up filter) during the test sequence. The back-up filter shall be located no more than
100mm downstream of, and shall not be in contact with, the primary filter. The filters may be
weighed separately or as a pair with the filters placed stain side to stain side.
2.4.1.4. Filter Face Velocity
A gas face velocity through the filter of 35 to 100cm/s shall be achieved. The pressure drop
increase between the beginning and the end of the test shall be no more than 25 kPa.
2.4.1.5. Filter Loading
The recommended minimum filter loadings for the most common filter sizes are shown in the
following table. For larger filter sizes, the minimum filter loading shall be 0.065 mg/1000mm
filter area.
Filter diameter
(mm)
Recommended stain
diameter
(mm)
Recommended minimum loading
(mg)
47 37 0.11
70 60 0.25
90 80 0.41
110 100 0.62

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 2
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE (NRSC, NRTC )
1. CALIBRATION OF THE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS
1.1. Introduction
Each analyser shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements
of this Regulation. The calibration method that shall be used is described in this Paragraph
for the analysers indicated in Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.4.3.
At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the approval authority the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraphs 8.1. and 8.2. may be used as an alternative to
those in Paragraph 1. of this Appendix.
1.2. Calibration Gases
1.2.1. Pure Gases
The shelf life of all calibration gases shall be respected.
The expiry date of the calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.
The required purity of the gases is defined by the contamination limits given below. The
following gases shall be available for operation:
(a)
Purified Nitrogen
(Contamination ≤ 1ppm C, ≤ 1ppm CO, ≤ 400ppm CO , ≤ 0.1ppm NO)
(b)
Purified Oxygen
(Purity > 99.5% vol O )
(c)
Hydrogen-Helium Mixture
(40 ± 2% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤ 1ppm C, ≤ 400ppm CO )
(d)
Purified Synthetic Air
(Contamination ≤ 1ppm C, ≤ 1ppm CO, ≤ 400ppm CO , ≤ 0.1ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 18-21% vol)

1.3. Operating Procedure for Analysers and Sampling System
The operating procedure for analysers shall follow the start-up and operating instructions of
the instrument manufacturer. The minimum requirements given in Paragraphs 1.4. to 1.9.
below shall be included.
1.4. Leakage Test
A system leakage test shall be performed. The probe shall be disconnected from the
exhaust system and the end plugged. The analyser pump shall be switched on. After an
initial stabilisation period all flow meters should read zero. If not, the sampling lines shall be
checked and the fault corrected. The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side
shall be 0.5% of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being checked. The
analyser flows and bypass flows may be used to estimate the in-use flow rates.
Another method is the introduction of a concentration step change at the beginning of the
sampling line by switching from zero to span gas.
If after an adequate period of time the reading shows a lower concentration compared to the
introduced concentration, this points to calibration or leakage problems.
1.5. Calibration Procedure
1.5.1. Instrument Assembly
The instrument assembly shall be calibrated and calibration curves checked against
standard gases. The same gas flow rates shall be used as when sampling exhaust.
1.5.2. Warming-up Time
The warming-up time should be according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. If
not specified, a minimum of two hours is recommended for warming-up the analysers.
1.5.3. NDIR and HFID Analyser
1.5.4. Calibration
The NDIR analyser shall be tuned, as necessary, and the combustion flame of the HFID
analyser shall be optimised (Paragraph 1.8.1. below).
Each normally used operating range shall be calibrated.
Using purified synthetic air (or nitrogen), the CO, CO , NO , HC and O analysers shall be
set at zero.
The appropriate calibration gases shall be introduced to the analysers, the values recorded,
and the calibration curve established according to Paragraph 1.5.6. below.
The zero setting shall be re-checked and the calibration procedure repeated, if necessary.

1.7. Efficiency Test of the NO Converter
1.7.1. Test Set-up
The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO into NO is tested as given in
Paragraphs 1.7.1. to 1.7.8. below (Figure 1).
Using the test set-up as shown in Figure 1 (see also Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.4.3.5.) and
the procedure below, the efficiency of converters can be tested by means of an ozonator.
1.7.2. Calibration
Figure 1
Schematic of NO Converter Efficiency Device
The CLD and the HCLD shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following
the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which must
amount to about 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas mixture
to less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyser shall be in the NO mode so that
the span gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated concentration has to be
recorded.

1.7.9. Test Interval
The efficiency of the converter shall be tested prior to each calibration of the NO analyser.
1.7.10. Efficiency Requirement
The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 90%, but a higher efficiency of 95% is
strongly recommended.
Note: If, with the analyser in the most common range, the ozonator cannot give a
reduction from 80% to 20% according to Paragraph 1.7.5. above, then the highest
range which will give the reduction shall be used.
1.8. Adjustment of the FID
1.8.1. Optimisation of the Detector Response
The HFID shall be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. A propane in air
span gas should be used to optimise the response on the most common operating range.
With the fuel and air flow rates set at the manufacturer's recommendations, a
350 ± 75ppm C span gas shall be introduced to the analyser. The response at a given fuel
flow shall be determined from the difference between the span gas response and the zero
gas response. The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the
manufacturer's specification. The span and zero response at these fuel flows shall be
recorded. The difference between the span and zero response shall be plotted and the fuel
flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve.
1.8.2. Hydrocarbon Response Factors
The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air, according to
Paragraph 1.5. above.
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and after
major service intervals. The response factor (R ) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the
ratio of the FID C1 reading to the gas concentration in the cylinder expressed by ppm C1.
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of approximately
80% of full scale. The concentration shall be known to an accuracy of ±2% in reference to a
gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall be
pre-conditioned for 24h at a temperature of 298 (25°C) ± 5K.
The test gases to be used and the recommended relative response factor ranges are as follows:
Methane and purified synthetic air: 1.00 ≤ R ≤ 1.15
Propylene and purified synthetic air: 0.90 ≤ R ≤ 1.1
Toluene and purified synthetic air: 0.90 ≤ R ≤ 1.10
These values are relative to the response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified
synthetic air.

(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
The percent of oxygen interference (%O I) shall be less than ±3.0%for all required
oxygen interference check gases prior to testing.
If the oxygen interference is greater than ±3.0%, the air flow above and below the
manufacturer's specifications shall be incrementally adjusted, repeating
Paragraph 1.8.1. for each flow.
If the oxygen interference is greater than ±3.0% after adjusting the air flow, the fuel
flow and thereafter the sample flow shall be varied, repeating Paragraph 1.8.1. for
each new setting.
If the oxygen interference is still greater than ±3.0%, the analyser, FID fuel, or burner
air shall be repaired or replaced prior to testing. This Paragraph shall then be
repeated with the repaired or replaced equipment or gases.
1.9. Interference Effects with NDIR and CLD Analysers
Gases present in the exhaust other than the one being analysed can interfere with the
reading in several ways. Positive interference occurs in NDIR instruments where the
interfering gas gives the same effect as the gas being measured, but to a lesser degree.
Negative interference occurs in NDIR instruments by the interfering gas broadening the
absorption band of the measured gas, and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas
quenching the radiation. The interference checks in Paragraphs 1.9.1. and 1.9.2. below
shall be performed prior to an analyser's initial use and after major service intervals.
1.9.1. CO Analyser Interference Check
Water and CO can interfere with the CO analyser performance. Therefore a CO span gas
having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the maximum operating range used
during testing shall be bubbled through water at room temperature and the analyser
response recorded. The analyser response shall not be more than 1% of full scale for
ranges equal to or above 300ppm or more than 3ppm for ranges below 300ppm.

1.9.2.2. Water Quench Check
This check applies to wet gas concentration measurements only. Calculation of water
quench shall consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapour and scaling of water
vapour concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing. A NO span gas having a
concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale to the normal operating range shall be passed
through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded as D. The NO gas shall be bubbled through
water at room temperature and passed through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded
as C. The water temperature shall be determined and recorded as F. The mixture's
saturation vapour pressure that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature (F) shall be
determined and recorded as G. The water vapour concentration (in %) of the mixture shall
be calculated as follows:
G
H = 100 × ( )
p
and recorded as H. The expected diluted NO span gas (in water vapour) concentration shall
be calculated as follows:
⎛ H ⎞
De = D × ⎜1
− ⎟
⎝ 100 ⎠
and recorded as De. For diesel exhaust, the maximum exhaust water vapour concentration
(in %) expected during testing shall be estimated, under the assumption of a fuel atom H/C
ratio of 1.8 to 1.0, from the maximum CO concentration in the exhaust gas or from the
undiluted CO span gas concentration (A, as measured in Paragraph 1.9.2.1.) as follows:
and recorded as Hm.
Hm = 0.9 × A
The water quench shall be calculated as follows:
% H
⎛ De − C ⎞ ⎛ Hm ⎞
O Quench = 100 × ⎜ ⎟ × ⎜ ⎟
⎝ De ⎠ ⎝ H ⎠
and must not be greater than 3%
De = Expected diluted NO concentration (ppm)
C = Diluted NO concentration (ppm)
Hm = Maximum water vapour concentration (%)
H = Actual water vapour concentration (%)
Note: It is important that the NO span gas contains minimal NO concentration for this
check, since absorption of NO in water has not been accounted for in the quench
calculations.

2. CALIBRATION OF THE PARTICULATE MEASURING SYSTEM
2.1. Introduction
Each component shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy
requirements of this Regulation. The calibration method to be used is described in this
Paragraph for the components indicated in Annex 4, Appendix 1, Paragraph 1.5. and
Appendix 4.
At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the approval authority the
methods described in Annex 4B, Paragraphs 8.1. and 8.2. may be used as an alternative to
those in Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
2.2. Flow Measurement
The calibration of gas flowmeters or flow measurement instrumentation shall be traceable to
national and/or international standards.
The maximum error of the measured value shall be within ± 2% of reading.
For partial flow dilution systems, the accuracy of the sample flow G is of special concern,
if not measured directly, but determined by differential flow measurement:
G = G – G
In this case an accuracy of ±2% for G and G is not sufficient to guarantee
acceptable accuracies of G . If the gas flow is determined by differential flow
measurement, the maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of G is
within ±5% when the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking
root-mean-square of the errors of each instrument.
2.3. Checking the Dilution Ratio
When using particulate sampling systems without EGA (Annex 4A, Appendix 4,
Paragraph 1.2.1.1.), the dilution ratio shall be checked for each new engine installation with
the engine running and the use of either the CO or NO concentration measurements in the
raw and dilute exhaust.
The measured dilution ratio shall be within ± 10% of the calculated dilution ratio from CO or
NO concentration measurement.
2.4. Checking the Partial Flow Conditions
The range of the exhaust gas velocity and the pressure oscillations shall be checked and
adjusted according to the requirements of Annex 4A, Appendix 4, Paragraph 1.2.1.1., EP, if
applicable.
2.5. Calibration Intervals
The flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated at least every three months, or
whenever a system change is made that could influence calibration.

2.6.3. Pre-test Check
A pre-test check shall be performed within two hours before the test run in the following
way:
The accuracy of the flow-meters shall be checked by the same method as used for
calibration for at least two points, including flow values of G that correspond to dilution
ratios between five and 15 for the G value used during the test.
If it can be demonstrated by records of the calibration procedure described above that the
flow-meter calibration is stable over a longer period of time, the pre-test check may be
omitted.
2.6.4. Determination of the Transformation Time
The system settings for the transformation time evaluation shall be exactly the same as
during measurement of the test run. The transformation time shall be determined by the
following method:
An independent reference flow-meter with a measurement range appropriate for the probe
flow shall be put in series with and closely coupled to the probe. This flow-meter shall have
a transformation time of less than 100ms for the flow step size used in the response time
measurement, with flow restriction sufficiently low not to affect the dynamic performance of
the partial flow dilution system, and consistent with good engineering practice.
A step change shall be introduced to the exhaust flow (or air flow if exhaust flow is
calculated) input of the partial flow dilution system, from a low flow to at least 90% of full
scale. The trigger for the step change should be the same one as that used to start the lookahead
control in actual testing. The exhaust flow step stimulus and the flow-meter response
shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least 10Hz.
From this data, the transformation time shall be determined for the partial flow dilution
system, which is the time from the initiation of the step stimulus to the 50% point of the
flow-meter response. In a similar manner, the transformation times of the G signal of the
partial flow dilution system and of the G signal of the exhaust flow-meter shall be
determined. These signals are used in the regression checks performed after each test
(Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.4.).
The calculation shall be repeated for at least five rise-and-fall stimuli, and the results shall
be averaged. The internal transformation time (<100ms) of the reference flow-meter shall be
subtracted from this value. This is the 'look-ahead' value of the partial flow dilution system,
which shall be applied in accordance with Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.4.

3.2.1. Data Analysis
The air flowrate (Q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /min. from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
air flow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
where:
Q T
V = × ×
n 273
101.3
p
Q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K) (m /s)
T
p
n
= temperature at pump inlet (K)
= absolute pressure at pump inlet (p – p ) (kPa)
= pump speed (rev/s)
To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the
correlation function (X ) between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet to pump
outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:
X
=
1
n
×
Δp
p
where,
∆p = pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet (kPa)
p
= absolute outlet pressure at pump outlet (kPa)
A linear least-square fit shall be performed to generate the calibration equation as follows:
V = D – m × (X )
D and m are the intercept and slope constants, respectively, describing the regression
lines.
For a CVS system with multiple speeds, the calibration curves generated for the different
pump flow ranges shall be approximately parallel, and the intercept values (D ) shall
increase as the pump flow range decreases.
The values calculated by the equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured value of V .
Values of m will vary from one pump to another. Particulate influx over time will cause the
pump slip to decrease, as reflected by lower values for m. Therefore, calibration shall be
performed at pump start-up, after major maintenance, and if the total system verification
(Paragraph 3.5.) indicates a change in the slip rate.

3.4. Calibration of the Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is a
function of inlet pressure and temperature, pressure drop between the SSV inlet and throat,
as shown below:
Q
= A
d
C
P
⎡ 1

⎢⎣
T
( r − r )


⎝1
− β
1
r
⎞⎤
⎟⎥
⎠⎥⎦
where:
A = collection of constants and units conversions =
0 .006111in SI units



m
min

⎞ ⎜
⎟ ⎜
⎠ ⎜

K
kPa


⎛ 1
⎟ ⎜

⎝ mm




d
C
p
T
= diameter of the SSV throat (m)
= discharge coefficient of the SSV
= absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)
= temperature at the venturi inlet (K)
ΔP
r = ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute, static pressure = 1 −
p
β
= ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d, to the inlet pipe inner diameter = D
d

To determine the range of subsonic flow, C shall be plotted as a function of Reynolds
number, at the SSV throat. The Re at the SSV throat is calculated with the following
formula:
Re = A
Q

where:
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ min ⎞ ⎛ mm ⎞
A = a collection of constants and units conversions = 25 .55152 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠
Q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K) (m /s)
d
μ
= diameter of the SSV throat (m)
= absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas, calculated with the following formula:
μ =
bT
S
bT
=
+ T
1+
S
T
kg / m ⋅ s
where:
b = empirical constant = 1 .458 × 10
kg
msK
S = empirical constant = 104.4 K
Because Q is an input to the Re formula, the calculations shall be started with an initial
guess for Q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until Q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to 0.1% or better.
For a minimum of sixteen points in the subsonic flow region, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured C for
each calibration point.
3.5. Total System Verification
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated in
the normal manner. The pollutant is analysed, and the mass calculated according to
Annex 4A, Appendix 3, Paragraph 2.4.1. except in the case of propane where a factor of
0.000472 is used in place of 0.000479 for HC. Either of the following two techniques shall
be used.

ANNEX 4A – APPENDIX 3
DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS
1. Data Evaluation and Calculations – NRSC Test
1.1. Gaseous Emissions Data Evaluation
For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 60s of each mode
shall be averaged, and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO, NO and CO if the
carbon balance method is used, during each mode shall be determined from the average
chart readings and the corresponding calibration data. A different type of recording can be
used if it ensures an equivalent data acquisition.
The average background concentrations (conc ) may be determined from the bag readings
of the dilution air or from the continuous (non-bag) background reading and the
corresponding calibration data.
If the ramped modal cycles of Annex 5, sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) of Paragraph 1.2.,
respectively, are used, the data evaluation and calculation procedures of Annex 4B,
Paragraph 7.8.2.2., and the applicable sections of Paragraphs A.8.2., A.8.3. and A.8.4. shall
apply. The final test results shall be calculated according to Equations A.8-60 and A.8-61 or
A.7-49 and A.7-50, respectively.
1.2. Particulate Emissions
For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (M
) through filters shall
be recorded for each mode. The filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber and
conditioned for at least one hour, but not more than 80h, and then weighed. The gross
weight of the filters shall be recorded and the tare weight (see Paragraph 3.1., Annex 4A)
subtracted. The particulate mass (M for the single filter method; M for the multiple filter
method) is the sum of the particulate masses collected on the primary and back-up filters. If
background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (M
) through the filters and the
particulate mass (M ) shall be recorded. If more than one measurement was made, the
quotient M /M
or M /V
shall be calculated for each single measurement and the values
averaged.
If the ramped modal cycles of Annex 5, sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) of Paragraph 1.2.,
respectively, are used, the data evaluation and calculation procedures of Annex 4B,
Paragraph 7.8.2.2., and the applicable sections of Paragraphs A.8.2., A.8.3. and A.8.4. shall
apply. The final test results shall be calculated according to Equation A.8-64 or A.7-53,
respectively.

For the dilution air:
K = 1 – K
K
1.608 × H
=
1000 +
( 1.608 × H )
H
=
p
6.22 × R
− p × R
× P
× 10
For the intake air (if different from the dilution air):
K = 1 – K
K
1.608 × H
=
1000 + (1.608 × H
)
H
=
p
6.22 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
H = absolute humidity of the intake air (g, water per kg dry air)
H = absolute humidity of the dilution air (g, water per kg dry air)
R = relative humidity of the dilution air, (%)
R = relative humidity of the intake air, (%)
p = saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air, (kPa)
p = saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, (kPa)
p = total barometric pressure, (kPa)
Note: H and H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above,
or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb
measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

1.3.4.
Calculation of Emission Mass Flow Rates
The emission mass flow rates for each mode shall be calculated as follows:
(a)
For the raw exhaust gas
:
Gas
= u × conc × G
(b)
For the dilute exhaust gas
:
Gas
= u × conc × G
where:
conc is the background corrected concentration
conc = conc-conc × (1 – (1/DF))
DF = 13.4/ (conc
+ (conc
+ conc
) × 10
or:
DF
=
13.4/ conc
The coefficients u - wet, shall be used according to Table 5:
Table 5
Values of the Coefficient u – Wet for Various Exhaust Components
Gas
u
conc
NO
0.001587
ppm
CO
0.000966
ppm
HC
0.000479
ppm
CO
15.19
percent
The density of HC is based upon an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.85.

1.4.2. Partial Flow Dilution System
The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be derived through the
following steps. Since various types of dilution rate control may be used, different calculation
methods for equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate G apply. All calculations shall
be based upon the average values of the individual modes (i) during the sampling period.
1.4.2.1. Isokinetic Systems
G = G × q
q
=
G
(G
+ (G
× r)
× r)
where r corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the isokinetic probe A and
the exhaust pipe A :
A
r =
A
1.4.2.2. Systems with Measurement of CO or NO Concentration
G = G × q
q
Conc
=
Conc
− Conc
− Conc
where:
Conc
Conc
Conc
= wet concentration of the tracer gas in raw exhaust
= wet concentration of the tracer gas in the diluted exhaust
= wet concentration of the tracer gas in the dilution air
Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis according to
Paragraph 1.3.2.

1.4.4. Calculation of the Particulate Mass Flow Rate
The particulate mass flow rate shall be calculated as follows:
For the Single Filter Method:
PT
M × (G )
=
M × 1000
where:
(G ) over the test cycle shall be determined by summation of the average values of
the individual modes during the sampling period:
( G
)
= ∑ G × WF
M
= ∑ M
where i = 1, ... n
For the Multiple Filter Method:
PT
M
=
× (G
M
)
× 1000
where i = 1, ... n
The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:
For Single Filter Method:

M

M ⎛
1
⎞⎞⎤
PT ⎢ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎞
= −
1 WF
⎟⎥
×
⎢M
⎜ ×

M ⎜∑
⎜ − ×
DF

⎟⎟⎥
⎣ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎠⎦
( G )
1000
If more than one measurement is made, (M /M ) shall be replaced with (M /M ) .
DF =
conc
13.4
+ (conc + conc
) × 10
or:
DF = 13.4/conc

1.4.6. Effective Weighting Factor
For the single filter method, the effective weighting factor WF for each mode shall be
calculated in the following way:
WF
M
=
M
× (G
× (G
)
)
where i = 1, ... n
The value of the effective weighting factors shall be within ± 0.005 (absolute value) of the
weighting factors listed in Annex 4A, Paragraph 3.7.1.
2. DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS (NRTC TEST)
The two following measurement principles that can be used for the evaluation of pollutant
emissions over the NRTC cycle are described in this Paragraph:
(a)
(b)
The gaseous components are measured in the raw exhaust gas on a real-time basis,
and the particulates are determined using a partial flow dilution system;
The gaseous components and the particulates are determined using a full flow
dilution system (CVS system).
2.1. Calculation of gaseous emissions in the raw exhaust gas and of the particulate emissions
with a partial flow dilution system
2.1.1. Introduction
The instantaneous concentration signals of the gaseous components are used for the
calculation of the mass emissions by multiplication with the instantaneous exhaust mass
flow rate. The exhaust mass flow rate may be measured directly, or calculated using the
methods described in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.2.3. (intake air and fuel flow
measurement, tracer method, intake air and air/fuel ratio measurement). Special attention
shall be paid to the response times of the different instruments. These differences shall be
accounted for by time aligning the signals.
For particulates, the exhaust mass flow rate signals are used for controlling the partial flow
dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The quality of
proportionality is checked by applying a regression analysis between sample and exhaust
flow as described in Annex 4A, Appendix 1, Paragraph 2.4.

2.1.2.2. Dry/wet Correction
If the instantaneously measured concentration is measured on a dry basis, it shall be
converted to a wet basis according to the following formulae:
where:
conc = K × conc
K

1
= ⎜
⎝1
+ 1.88 × 0.005 ×
( conc + conc )


− K

with:
K
⎛ 1.608 × H
= ⎜
⎝1000
+

( 1.608 × H ) ⎟⎟ ⎠
where:
conc
conc
H
= dry CO concentration (per cent)
= dry CO concentration (per cent)
= intake air humidity, (g water per kg dry air)
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (per cent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from
dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using
the generally accepted formulae.

2.1.3. Particulate Determination
2.1.3.1. Calculation of Mass Emission
The particulate masses M
and M
(g/test) shall be calculated by either of the
following methods:
(a)
M M
M = ×
M 1000
where:
M = M for the cold start cycle
M = M for the hot start cycle
M
= particulate mass sampled over the cycle (mg)
M = mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (kg)
M = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters (kg)
The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle shall be
determined as follows:
1
M = ∑ G ×
f
G = G × q
q
=
G
( G − G )
where:
G = instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate (kg/s)
G = instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate (kg/s)
q
= instantaneous dilution ratio
G = instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate through dilution tunnel (kg/s)
G = instantaneous dilution air mass flow rate (kg/s)
f
n
= data sampling rate (Hz)
= number of measurements

2.1.3.2. Particulate Correction Factor for Humidity
As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the
particulate concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k given
in the following formulae.
k
=
1
( 1 + 0.0133 × ( H − 10.71)
)
where:
H
= humidity of the intake air in g water per kg dry air
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (per cent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above,
or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb
measurement using the generally accepted formulae.
2.1.3.3. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The specific emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for in the following way:
P
=
( 1/10) K
× M
+ ( 9 /10)
( 1/10) W
+ ( 9 /10)W
K
× M
where:
M
= particulate mass over the cold start cycle (g/test)
M = particulate mass over the hot start cycle (g/test)
K = humidity correction factor for particulate over the cold start cycle
K = humidity correction factor for particulate over the hot start cycle
W = actual cycle work over the cold start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A, (kWh)
W = actual cycle work over the hot start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A, (kWh)

The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas
is kept within ±11K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger, is as follows:
where:
M = 1.293 × t × K × p / T
M = mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle
t
K
p
T
= cycle time (s)
= calibration coefficient of the critical flow venturi for standard conditions,
= absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)
= absolute temperature at venturi inlet (K)
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous
mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the
instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
where:
∆t = time interval(s)
SSV-CVS system
M = 1.293 × ∆t × K × p / T
The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle is as follows if the temperature of the diluted
exhaust is kept within ±11K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:
where:
M = 1.293 × Q × ∆t
Q
= A
d
C
P
⎡ 1

⎢⎣
T
( r − r )

× ⎜
⎝1
− β
1
r
⎞⎤
⎟⎥
⎠⎥⎦
A
= collection of constants and units conversions

2.2.2. NO Correction for Humidity
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air humidity with the factors given in the following formulae.
where:
k
=
1 − 0.0182 ×
1
( H − 10.71) + 0.0045 × ( T − 298)
T
H
= temperature of the air (K)
= humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air)
6.220 × R × p
H =
p − p × R × 10
where:
R
p
p
= relative humidity of the intake air (per cent)
= saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
= total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from
dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using
the generally accepted formulae.
2.2.3. Calculation of the Emission Mass Flow
2.2.3.1. Systems with Constant Mass Flow
For systems with heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants M (g/test) shall be
determined from the following equation:
where:
M = u × conc × M
u
conc
= ratio between density of the exhaust component and density of diluted exhaust
gas, as reported in Table 6, Paragraph 2.1.2.1.
= average background corrected concentrations over the cycle from integration
(mandatory for NO and HC) or bag measurement (ppm)
M = total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in
Paragraph 2.2.1. (kg)
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k , as described in Paragraph 2.2.2.
above.
Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis in accordance
with Paragraph 1.3.2. above.

2.2.3.2. Systems with Flow Compensation
For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants M (g/test) shall be
determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the
instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied
directly to the instantaneous concentration value. The following formulae shall be applied:
M


= ∑ u
⎛ 1 ⎞
(( M × conc × u
) −
⎜M
× conc × ⎜1
− ⎟ × ⎟ ⎝
⎝ DF ⎠ ⎠
where:
conc
conc
u
= instantaneous concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted
exhaust gas (ppm)
= concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air (ppm)
= ratio between density of the exhaust component and density of diluted exhaust
gas, as reported in Table 6, Paragraph 2.1.2.1.
M = instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas (Paragraph 2.2.1.) (kg)
M = total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (Paragraph 2.2.1.) (kg)
DF = dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 2.2.3.1.1.
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall be
corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k , as described in Paragraph 2.2.2.
above.
2.2.4. Calculation of the Specific Emissions
The specific emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual component in the
following way:
Individual Gas =
( 1/10) M
+ ( 9 /10)
M
( 1/10) W
+ ( 9 /10)W
where:
M = total mass of gaseous pollutant over the cold start cycle (g)
M = total mass of gaseous pollutant over the hot start cycle (g)
W = actual cycle work over the cold start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A (kWh)
W = actual cycle work over the hot start cycle as determined in Paragraph 4.6.2. of
Annex 4A. (kWh)

If the particulate background level of the dilution air is determined in accordance with
Paragraph 4.4.4. of Annex 4A, the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this
case, the particulate masses M and M (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:
where:
⎛ M ⎛ M 1 ⎞ M
M ⎜
⎛ ⎞⎞
= − 1 ⎟ ×
M
⎜ × ⎜ − ⎟
M DF

⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠⎠
1000
M = M for the cold start cycle
M = M for the hot start cycle
M, M , M = see above
M = mass of primary dilution air sampled by background particulate
sampler (kg)
M
(mg)
DF
= mass of the collected background particulates of the primary dilution air
= dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 2.2.3.1.1. above
2.2.5.2. Particulate Correction Factor for Humidity
As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the
particulate concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k given
in the following formula.
k
=
1
( 1 + 0.0133 × ( H − 10.71)
)
where:
H
= humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air)
H
=
p
6.220 × R
− p × R
× p
× 10
where:
R = relative humidity of the intake air (per cent)
p = saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)
p = total barometric pressure (kPa).
Note: H may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from
dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using
the generally accepted formulae.

ANNEX 4A – APPENDIX 4
ANALYTICAL AND SAMPLING SYSTEM
1. GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Figure Number
1 Reserved
Description
2 Exhaust gas analysis system for raw exhaust;
3 Exhaust gas analysis system for dilute exhaust;
4 Partial flow, isokinetic flow, suction blower control, fractional sampling;
5 Partial flow, isokinetic flow, pressure blower control, fractional sampling;
6 Partial flow, CO or NO measurement, fractional sampling;
7 Partial flow, CO and carbon balance, total sampling;
8 Partial flow, single venturi and concentration measurement, fractional
sampling;
9 Partial flow, twin venturi or orifice and concentration measurement,
fractional sampling;
10 Partial flow, multiple tube splitting and concentration measurement,
fractional sampling;
11 Partial flow, flow control, total sampling;
12 Partial flow, flow control, fractional sampling;
13 Full flow, positive displacement pump or critical flow venturi, fractional
sampling;
14 Particulate sampling system;
15 Dilution system for full flow system.

Figure 2
Flow Diagram of Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, NO and HC

SP2 Dilute Exhaust Gas HC Sampling Probe (Figure 3 only)
The probe shall:
Be defined as the first 254mm to 762mm of the hydrocarbon sampling line (HSL3);
Have a 5mm minimum inside diameter;
Be installed in the dilution tunnel DT (Paragraph 1.2.1.2.) at a point where the dilution air
and exhaust gas are well mixed (i.e. approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the
point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel);
Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from
the influence of any wakes or eddies;
Be heated so as to increase the gas stream temperature to 463K (190°C) ± 10K at the exit
of the probe.
SP3 Dilute Exhaust Gas CO, CO , NO Sampling Probe (Figure 3 only)
The probe shall:
Be in the same plane as SP2;
Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from
the influence of any wakes or eddies;
Be heated and insulated over its entire length to a minimum temperature of 328K (55°C) to
prevent water condensation.
HSL1 Heated Sampling Line
The sampling line provides gas sampling from a single probe to the split point(s) and the
HC analyser.
The sampling line shall:
Have a 5mm minimum and a 13.5mm maximum inside diameter;
Be made of stainless steel or PTFE;
Maintain a wall temperature of 463 (190°C) ± 10K as measured at every separately
controlled heated section, if the temperature of the exhaust gas at the sampling probe is
equal or below 463K (190°C)
Maintain a wall temperature greater than 453K (180°C) if the temperature of the exhaust
gas at the sampling probe is above 463K (190°C)
Maintain a gas temperature of 463K (190°C) ± 10K immediately before the heated filter (F2)
and the HFID.

C Converter
A converter shall be used for the catalytic reduction of NO to NO prior to analysis in the
CLD or HCLD.
B Cooling Bath
To cool and condense water from the exhaust sample. The bath shall be maintained at a
temperature of 273 to 277K (0 to 4°C) by ice or refrigeration. It is optional if the analyser is
free from water vapour interference as determined in Annex 4A, Appendix 2,
Paragraphs 1.9.1. and 1.9.2.
Chemical dryers are not allowed for removing water from the sample.
T1, T2. T3 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the gas stream.
T4 Temperature Sensor
Temperature of the NO - NO converter.
T5 Temperature Sensor
To monitor the temperature of the cooling bath.
G1, G2, G3 Pressure Gauge
To measure the pressure in the sampling lines.
R1, R2 Pressure Regulator
To control the pressure of the air and the fuel, respectively, for the HFID.
R3. R4, R5 Pressure Regulator
To control the pressure in the sampling lines and the flow to the analysers.
FL1, FL2. FL3 Flowmeter
To monitor the sample bypass flow.
FL4 to FL7 Flowmeter (optional)
To monitor the flow rate through the analysers.
V1 to V6 Selector Valve
Suitable valving for selecting sample, span gas or air gas flow to the analyser.
V7, V8 Solenoid Valve
To bypass the NO - NO converter.

Isokinetic Systems (Figures 4 and 5)
With these systems, the flow into the transfer tube is matched to the bulk exhaust flow in
terms of gas velocity and/or pressure, thus requiring an undisturbed and uniform exhaust
flow at the sampling probe. This is usually achieved by using a resonator and a straight
approach tube upstream of the sampling point. The split ratio is then calculated from easily
measurable values like tube diameters. It should be noted that isokinesis is only used for
matching the flow conditions and not for matching the size distribution. The latter is typically
not necessary, as the particles are sufficiently small as to follow the fluid streamlines.
Flow Controlled Systems with Concentration Measurement (Figures 6 to 10)
With these systems, a sample is taken from the bulk exhaust stream by adjusting the
dilution air flow and the total dilution exhaust flow. The dilution ratio is determined from the
concentrations of tracer gases, such as CO or NO , naturally occurring in the engine
exhaust. The concentrations in the dilution exhaust gas and in the dilution air are measured,
whereas the concentration in the raw exhaust gas can be either measured directly or
determined from fuel flow and the carbon balance equation, if the fuel composition is known.
The systems may be controlled by the calculated dilution ratio (Figures 6 and 7) or by the
flow into the transfer tube (Figures 8, 9 and 10).
Flow Controlled Systems with Flow Measurement (Figures 11 and 12)
With these systems, a sample is taken from the bulk exhaust stream by setting the dilution
air flow and the total dilution exhaust flow. The dilution ratio is determined from the
difference of the two flow rates. Accurate calibration of the flow meters relative to one
another is required, since the relative magnitude of the two flow rates can lead to significant
errors at higher dilution ratios. Flow control is very straightforward by keeping the dilute
exhaust flow rate constant and varying the dilution air flow rate, if needed.
In order to realise the advantages of the partial flow dilution systems, attention shall be paid
to avoiding the potential problems of loss of particulates in the transfer tube, ensuring that a
representative sample is taken from the engine exhaust, and determination of the split ratio.
The systems described pay attention to these critical areas.

Figure 5
Partial Flow Dilution System with Isokinetic Probe and
Fractional Sampling (PB Control)
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the transfer tube TT by the isokinetic sampling probe ISP. The differential pressure of the
exhaust gas between exhaust pipe and inlet to the probe is measured with the pressure
transducer DPT. This signal is transmitted to the flow controller FC1 that controls the
pressure blower PB to maintain a differential pressure of zero at the tip of the probe. This is
done by taking a small fraction of the dilution air whose flow rate has already been
measured with the flow measurement device FM1, and feeding it to TT by means of a
pneumatic orifice. Under these conditions, exhaust gas velocities in EP and ISP are
identical, and the flow through ISP and TT is a constant fraction (split) of the exhaust gas
flow. The split ratio is determined from the cross-sectional areas of EP and ISP. The dilution
air is sucked through DT by the suction blower SB, and the flow rate is measured with FM1
at the inlet to DT. The dilution ratio is calculated from the dilution air flow rate and the split
ratio.

Figure 7
Partial Flow Dilution System with CO Concentration
Measurement, Carbon Balance and Total Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The CO concentrations are measured in
the diluted exhaust gas and in the dilution air with the exhaust gas analyser(s) EGA. The
CO and fuel flow G signals are transmitted either to the flow controller FC2, or to the
flow controller FC3 of the particulate sampling system (see Figure 14). FC2 controls the
pressure blower PB, while FC3 controls the particulate sampling system (see Figure 14),
thereby adjusting the flows into and out of the system so as to maintain the desired exhaust
split and dilution ratio in DT. The dilution ratio is calculated from the CO concentrations and
G using the carbon balance assumption.

Figure 9
Partial Flow Dilution System Twin Venturi or Twin Orifice,
Concentration Measurement and Fractional Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT by a flow divider that contains a set of
orifices or venturis. The first one (FD1) is located in EP, the second one (FD2) in TT.
Additionally, two pressure control valves (PCV1 and PCV2) are necessary to maintain a
constant exhaust split by controlling the backpressure in EP and the pressure in DT. PCV1
is located downstream of SP in EP, PCV2 between the pressure blower PB and DT. The
tracer gas concentrations (CO or NO ) are measured in the raw exhaust gas, the diluted
exhaust gas, and the dilution air with the exhaust gas analyser(s) EGA. They are necessary
for checking the exhaust split, and may be used to adjust PCV1 and PCV2 for precise split
control. The dilution ratio is calculated from the tracer gas concentrations.

Figure 11
Partial Flow Dilution System with Flow Control and Total Sampling
Raw exhaust gas is transferred from the exhaust pipe EP to the dilution tunnel DT through
the sampling probe SP and the transfer tube TT. The total flow through the tunnel is
adjusted with the flow controller FC3 and the sampling pump P of the particulate sampling
system (see Figure 16).
The dilution air flow is controlled by the flow controller FC2, which may use G , G , or
G as command signals, for the desired exhaust split. The sample flow into DT is the
difference of the total flow and the dilution air flow. The dilution air flow rate is measured
with flow measurement device FM1, the total flow rate with the flow measurement device
FM3 of the particulate sampling system (see Figure 14). The dilution ratio is calculated from
these two flow rates.

SP Sampling Probe (Figures 6 to 12)
The minimum inside diameter shall be 4mm. The minimum diameter ratio between exhaust
pipe and probe shall be four. The probe shall be an open tube facing upstream on the
exhaust pipe centreline, or a multiple hole probe as described under SP1 in
Paragraph 1.1.1.
ISP Isokinetic Sampling Probe (Figures 4 and 5)
The isokinetic sampling probe shall be installed facing upstream on the exhaust pipe
centre-line where the flow conditions in section EP are met, and designed to provide a
proportional sample of the raw exhaust gas. The minimum inside diameter shall be 12mm.
A control system is necessary for isokinetic exhaust splitting by maintaining a differential
pressure of zero between EP and ISP. Under these conditions exhaust gas velocities in EP
and ISP are identical and the mass flow through ISP is a constant fraction of the exhaust
gas flow. The ISP has to be connected to a differential pressure transducer. The control to
provide a differential pressure of zero between EP and ISP is done with blower speed or
flow controller.
FD1, FD2 Flow Divider (Figure 9)
A set of Venturis or orifices is installed in the exhaust pipe EP and in the transfer tube TT,
respectively, to provide a proportional sample of the raw exhaust gas. A control system
consisting of two pressure control valves PCV1 and PCV2 is necessary for proportional
splitting by controlling the pressures in EP and DT.
FD3 Flow Divider (Figure 10)
A set of tubes (multiple tube unit) is installed in the exhaust pipe EP to provide a
proportional sample of the raw exhaust gas. One of the tubes feeds exhaust gas to the
dilution tunnel DT, whereas the other tubes exit exhaust gas to a damping chamber DC. The
tubes must have the same dimensions (same diameter, length, bend radius), so that the
exhaust split depends on the total number of tubes. A control system is necessary for
proportional splitting by maintaining a differential pressure of zero between the exit of the
multiple tube unit into DC and the exit of TT. Under these conditions, exhaust gas velocities
in EP and FD3 are proportional, and the flow TT is a constant fraction of the exhaust gas
flow. The two points have to be connected to a differential pressure transducer DPT. The
control to provide a differential pressure of zero is done with the flow controller FC1.
EGA Exhaust Gas Analyser (Figures 6 to 10)
CO or NO analysers may be used (with carbon balance method CO only). The analysers
shall be calibrated like the analysers for the measurement of the gaseous emissions. One or
several analysers may be used to determine the concentration differences.
The accuracy of the measuring systems has to be such that the accuracy of G or
V is within ± 4%.

DC Damping Chamber (Figure 10)
A damping chamber shall be installed at the exit of the multiple tube unit to minimise the
pressure oscillations in the exhaust pipe EP.
VN Venturi (Figure 8)
A venturi is installed in the dilution tunnel DT to create a negative pressure in the region of
the exit of the transfer tube TT. The gas flow rate through TT is determined by the
momentum exchange at the venturi zone, and is basically proportional to the flow rate of the
pressure blower PB leading to a constant dilution ratio. Since the momentum exchange is
affected by the temperature at the exit of TT and the pressure difference between EP and
DT, the actual dilution ratio is slightly lower at low load than at high load.
FC2 Flow Controller (Figures 6, 7, 11 and 12; optional)
A flow controller may be used to control the flow of the pressure blower PB and/or the
suction blower SB. It may be connected to the exhaust flow or fuel flow signal and/or to the
CO or NO differential signal.
When using a pressurised air supply (Figure 11) FC2 directly controls the air flow.
FM1 Flow Measurement Device (Figures 6, 7, 11 and 12)
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the dilution air flow. FM1 is optional if
PB is calibrated to measure the flow.
FM2 Flow Measurement Device (Figure 12)
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluted exhaust gas flow. FM2 is
optional if the suction blower SB is calibrated to measure the flow.
PB Pressure Blower (Figures 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12)
To control the dilution air flow rate, PB may be connected to the flow controllers FC1 or
FC2. PB is not required when using a butterfly valve. PB may be used to measure the
dilution air flow, if calibrated.
SB Suction Blower (Figures 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 12)
For fractional sampling systems only. SB may be used to measure the dilute exhaust gas
flow, if calibrated.
DAF Dilution Air Filter (Figures 4 to 12)
It is recommended that the dilution air be filtered and charcoal scrubbed to eliminate
background hydrocarbons. The dilution air shall have a temperature of 298K (25° C) ± 5K.
At the manufacturers' request the dilution air shall be sampled according to good
engineering practice to determine the background particulate levels, which can then be
subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust.

Note: If the ambient temperature in the vicinity of the dilution tunnel (DT) is below 293K
(20°C), precautions should be taken to avoid particle losses onto the cool walls of the
dilution tunnel. Therefore, heating and/or insulating the tunnel within the limits given above
is recommended.
At high engine loads, the tunnel may be cooled by a non-aggressive means such as a
circulating fan, as long as the temperature of the cooling medium is not below 293K (20°C).
HE Heat Exchanger (Figures 9 and 10)
The heat exchanger shall be of sufficient capacity to maintain the temperature at the inlet to
the suction blower SB within ± 11K of the average operating temperature observed during
the test.
1.2.1.2. Full Flow Dilution System (Figure 13)
A dilution system is described based upon the dilution of the total exhaust using the
Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) concept. The total volume of the mixture of exhaust and
dilution air shall be measured. Either a PDP or a CFV or a SSV system may be used.
For subsequent collection of the particulates, a sample of the dilute exhaust gas is passed
to the particulate sampling system (Paragraph 1.2.2. below, Figures 14 and 15). If this is
done directly, it is referred to as single dilution. If the sample is diluted once more in the
secondary dilution tunnel, it is referred to as double dilution. This is useful, if the filter face
temperature requirement cannot be met with single dilution. Although partly a dilution
system, the double dilution system is described as a modification of a particulate sampling
system in Paragraph 1.2.2. below, (Figure 15), since it shares most of the parts with a
typical particulate sampling system.
The gaseous emissions may also be determined in the dilution tunnel of a full flow dilution
system. Therefore, the sampling probes for the gaseous components are shown in
Figure 13 but do not appear in the description list. The respective requirements are
described in Paragraph 1.1.1. above.
Descriptions - Figure 13
EP Exhaust Pipe
The exhaust pipe length from the exit of the engine exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet or
after treatment device to the dilution tunnel is required to be not more than 10m. If the
system exceeds 4m in length, then all tubing in excess of 4m shall be insulated, except for
an in-line smoke meter, if used. The radial thickness of the insulation shall be at least
25mm. The thermal conductivity of the insulating material must have a value no greater than
0.1W/(m × K) measured at 673K (400°C). To reduce the thermal inertia of the exhaust pipe
a thickness to diameter ratio of 0.015 or less is recommended. The use of flexible sections
shall be limited to a length to diameter ratio of 12 or less.

CFV Critical Flow Venturi
CFV measures total diluted exhaust flow by maintaining the flow at choked conditions
(critical flow). Static exhaust backpressure measured with the CFV system operating shall
remain within ±1.5kPa of the static pressure measured without connection to the CFV at
identical engine speed and load. The gas mixture temperature immediately ahead of the
CFV shall be within ±11K of the average operating temperature observed during the test,
when no flow compensation is used.
SSV Subsonic Venturi
SSV measures total diluted exhaust flow as a function of inlet pressure, inlet temperature,
pressure drop between the SSV inlet and throat. Static exhaust backpressure measured
with the SSV system operating shall remain within ±1.5kPa of the static pressure measured
without connection to the SSV at identical engine speed and load. The gas mixture
temperature immediately ahead of the SSV shall be within ±11K of the average operating
temperature observed during the test, when no flow compensation is used.
HE Heat Exchanger (optional if EFC is used)
The heat exchanger shall be of sufficient capacity to maintain the temperature within the
limits required above.
EFC Electronic Flow Computation (optional if HE is used)
If the temperature at the inlet to either the PDP or CFV or SSV is not kept within the limits
stated above, a flow computation system is required for continuous measurement of the flow
rate and control of the proportional sampling in the particulate system. To that purpose, the
continuously measured flow rate signals are used to correct the sample flow rate through
the particulate filters of the particulate sampling system (see Figures 14 and 15),
accordingly.
DT Dilution Tunnel
The dilution tunnel:
– Shall be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds number greater
than 4,000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and
dilution air. A mixing orifice may be used;
– Shall be at least 75mm in diameter;
– May be insulated.
The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the
dilution tunnel, and thoroughly mixed.
When using single dilution, a sample from the dilution tunnel is transferred to the particulate
sampling system (Paragraph 1.2.2. below, Figure 14). The flow capacity of the PDP or CFV
or SSV shall be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust at a temperature of less than or
equal to 325K (52°C) immediately before the primary particulate filter.

In order to avoid any impact on the control loops, it is recommended that the sample pump
be running throughout the complete test procedure. For the single filter method, a bypass
system shall be used for passing the sample through the sampling filters at the desired
times. Interference of the switching procedure on the control loops shall be minimised.
Descriptions - Figure 14 and 15
PSP Particulate Sampling Probe (Figures 14 and 15)
The particulate sampling probe shown in the figures is the leading section of the particulate
transfer tube PTT. The probe:
– Shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the dilution air and exhaust gas
are well mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centre-line of the dilution systems (see
Paragraph 1.2.1.), approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where
the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel)
– Shall be 12mm in minimum inside diameter.
– May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct heating or
by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52°C)
prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel.
– May be insulated.

Figure 15
Dilution System (Full Flow System Only)
A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is transferred from the dilution tunnel DT of a full flow
dilution system through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer tube
PTT to the secondary dilution tunnel SDT, where it is diluted once more. The sample is then
passed through the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate sampling filters. The
dilution air flow rate is usually constant whereas the sample flow rate is controlled by the
flow controller FC3. If electronic flow compensation EFC (see Figure 13) is used, the total
diluted exhaust gas flow is used as command signal for FC3.
PTT Particulate Transfer Tube (Figures 14 and 15)
The particulate transfer tube must not exceed 1,020mm in length, and shall be minimised in
length whenever possible.
The dimensions are valid for:
– The partial flow dilution fractional sampling type and the full flow single dilution
system from the probe tip to the filter holder.
– The partial flow dilution total sampling type from the end of the dilution tunnel to the
filter holder.
– The full flow double dilution system from the probe tip to the secondary dilution
tunnel.
The transfer tube:
– May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct heating or
by dilution air pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52°C)
prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
– May be insulated.

FM4 Flow Measurement Device (Figure 15) (dilution air, full flow double dilution only)
The gas meter or flow instrumentation shall be located so that the inlet gas temperature
remains at 298K (25°C) ± 5K.
BV Ball Valve (optional)
The ball valve shall have a diameter not less than the inside diameter of the sampling tube
and a switching time of less than 0.5s.
Note: If the ambient temperature in the vicinity of PSP, PTT, SDT, and FH is below 239K
(20°C), precautions should be taken to avoid particle losses onto the cool wall of these
parts. Therefore, heating and/or insulating these parts within the limits given in the
respective descriptions is recommended. It is also recommended that the filter face
temperature during sampling be not below 293K (20°C).
At high engine loads, the above parts may be cooled by a non-aggressive means such as a
circulating fan, as long as the temperature of the cooling medium is not below 293K (20°C).

Symbol Unit Term
n
min
Engine rotational speed
n
min
High engine speed
n
min
Low engine speed
P
kW
Power
P
kW
Maximum observed or declared power at
the test speed under the test conditions
(specified by the manufacturer)
P
kW
Declared
total
power
absorbed
by
auxiliaries fitted for the test
p
kPa
Pressure
p
kPa
Dry atmospheric pressure
PF
per cent
Penetration fraction
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet
basis
q
kg/s
Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Fuel mass flow rate
q
kg/s
Sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow
dilution system
q
m /s
Volume flow rate
RF

Response factor
r

Dilution ratio
r

Coefficient of determination
ρ
kg/m
Density
σ

Standard deviation
S
kW
Dynamometer setting
SEE

Standard error of estimate of y on x
T
°C
Temperature
T
K
Absolute temperature
T
N · m
Engine torque
T
N ··m
Demanded torque with "sp" set point
u

Ratio between densities of gas component
and exhaust gas
t
s
Time
∆t
s
Time interval
t
s
Time between step input and 10% of final
reading
t
s
Time between step input and 50% of final
reading
t
s
Time between step input and 90% of final
reading
V
m
Volume
W
kWh
Work
y
Generic variable
y
Arithmetic mean

5.
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1.
General Requirements
5.1.1.
Reserved
5.1.2.
Emissions of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants
The pollutants are represented by:
(a)
Oxides of nitrogen, NO ;
(b)
Hydrocarbons, which may be expressed in the following ways:
(i)
(ii)
Total hydrocarbons, HC or THC;
Non-methane hydrocarbons, NMHC.
(c)
(d)
Particulate matter, PM;
Carbon monoxide, CO.
5.1.3. Equivalency
5.2. Reserved
The measured values of gaseous and particulate pollutants exhausted by the engine refer
to the brake-specific emissions in grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kWh). Other system of units
may be used with appropriate conversion.
The emissions shall be determined on the duty cycles (steady-state and/or transient), as
described in Paragraph 7. The measurement systems shall meet the calibration and
performance checks of Paragraph 8. with measurement equipment of Paragraph 9.
Other systems or analysers may be approved by the Type Approval Authority if it is found
that they yield equivalent results in accordance with Paragraph 5.1.3.
The determination of system equivalency shall be based on a seven-sample pair (or
larger) correlation study between the system under consideration and one of the systems
of this Annex.
"Results" refer to the specific cycle weighted emissions value. The correlation testing is to
be performed at the same laboratory, test cell, and on the same engine, and is preferred to
be run concurrently. The equivalency of the sample pair averages shall be determined by
F-test and t-test statistics as described in Annex 4B, Appendix A.2. obtained under the
laboratory test cell and the engine conditions described above. Outliers shall be
determined in accordance with ISO 5725 and excluded from the database. The systems to
be used for correlation testing shall be subject to the approval by the Type Approval
Authority.

6.2. Engines with Charge Air Cooling
(a)
A charge-air cooling system with a total intake-air capacity that represents
production engines' in-use installation shall be used. Any laboratory charge-air
cooling system to minimize accumulation of condensate shall be designed. Any
accumulated condensate shall be drained and all drains shall be completely closed
before emission testing. The drains shall be kept closed during the emission test.
Coolant conditions shall be maintained as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A coolant temperature of at least 20°C shall be maintained at the inlet to the
charge-air cooler throughout testing;
At the engine conditions specified by the manufacturer, the coolant flow rate
shall be set to achieve an air temperature within ± 5°C of the value designed
by the manufacturer after the charge-air cooler's outlet. The air-outlet
temperature shall be measured at the location specified by the manufacturer.
This coolant flow rate set point shall be used throughout testing. If the engine
manufacturer does not specify engine conditions or the corresponding
charge-air cooler air outlet temperature, the coolant flow rate shall be set at
maximum engine power to achieve a charge-air cooler air outlet temperature
that represents in-use operation;
If the engine manufacturer specifies pressure-drop limits across the
charge-air cooling system, it shall be ensured that the pressure drop across
the charge-air cooling system at engine conditions specified by the
manufacturer is within the manufacturer's specified limit(s). The pressure drop
shall be measured at the manufacturer's specified locations;
(b)
The objective is to produce emission results that are representative of in-use
operation. If good engineering judgment indicates that the specifications in this
section would result in unrepresentative testing (such as overcooling of the intake
air), more sophisticated set points and controls of charge-air pressure drop, coolant
temperature, and flow rate may be used to achieve more representative results.
6.3. Engine Power
6.3.1. Basis for Emission Measurement
The basis of specific emissions measurement is uncorrected power.
6.3.2. Auxiliaries to be Fitted
During the test, the auxiliaries necessary for the engine operation shall be installed on the
test bench according to the requirements of Annex 7.
6.3.3. Auxiliaries to be Removed
Certain auxiliaries whose definition is linked with the operation of the machine and which
may be mounted on the engine shall be removed for the test.
Where auxiliaries cannot be removed, the power they absorb in the unloaded condition
may be determined and added to the measured engine power (see Note g in the table of
Annex 7). If this value is greater than 3% of the maximum power at the test speed it may
be verified by the test authority. The power absorbed by auxiliaries shall be used to adjust
the set values and to calculate the work produced by the engine over the test cycle.

6.6. Engine with Exhaust After-treatment System
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust pipe shall
have the same diameter as found in-use for at least four pipe diameters upstream of the
expansion section containing the after-treatment device. The distance from the exhaust
manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust after-treatment system shall be the
same as in the vehicle configuration or within the distance specifications of the
manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as
above, and may be set with a valve. The after-treatment container may be removed during
dummy tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container
having an inactive catalyst support.
The emissions measured on the test cycle shall be representative of the emissions in the
field. In the case of an engine equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system that
requires the consumption of a reagent, the reagent used for all tests shall be declared by
the manufacturer.
For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on an
infrequent (periodic) basis, as described in Paragraph 6.6.2., emission results shall be
adjusted to account for regeneration events. In this case, the average emission depends
on the frequency of the regeneration event in terms of fraction of tests during which the
regeneration occurs. After-treatment systems with continuous regeneration according to
Paragraph 6.6.1. do not require a special test procedure.
6.6.1. Continuous Regeneration
For an exhaust aftertreatment system based on a continuous regeneration process the
emissions shall be measured on an aftertreatment system that has been stabilized so as
to result in repeatable emissions behaviour. The regeneration process shall occur at least
once during the NRTC hot start test or ramped-modal cycle (RMC) test and the
manufacturer shall declare the normal conditions under which regeneration occurs (soot
load, temperature, exhaust back-pressure, etc.). In order to demonstrate that the
regeneration process is continuous, at least three NRTC hot start tests or ramped-modal
cycle (RMC) tests shall be conducted. In case of NRTC hot start test, the engine shall be
warmed up in accordance with Paragraph 7.8.2.1., the engine be soaked according to
Paragraph 7.4.2. and the first NRTC hot start test be run. The subsequent NRTC hot start
tests shall be started after soaking according to Paragraph 7.4.2. During the tests, exhaust
temperatures and pressures shall be recorded (temperature before and after the aftertreatment
system, exhaust back pressure, etc.). The aftertreatment system is considered
to be satisfactory if the conditions declared by the manufacturer occur during the test
during a sufficient time and the emission results do not scatter by more than ± 25% or
0.005 g/kWh, whichever is greater. If the exhaust aftertreatment has a security mode that
shifts to a periodic (infrequent) regeneration mode, it shall be checked according to
Paragraph 6.6.2. For that specific case, the applicable emission limits could be exceeded
and would not be weighted.

Figure 6.1
Scheme of Infrequent (Periodic) Regeneration with n Number of Measurementss
and n Number of Measurementss during Regeneration
The average specific emission
follows (see Figure 6.1):
rate related to hot start
e [g/kWh]] shall be weighted as
n × e + n × e
e =
n + n
(6-3)
where:
n =
n =
e =
number of tests in whichh regeneration does not occur, o
number of tests in whichh regeneration occurs (minimum one test),
average specific emission from a test in whichh the regeneration does
[g/kWh]
not occur
e =
average specific emission from a test in which the regeneration occurs [g/kWh]

6.7. Cooling System
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine, with its intake-air,
oil, coolant, block and head temperatures, at normal operating temperatures prescribed by
the manufacturer shall be used. Laboratory auxiliary coolers and fans may be used.
6.8. Lubricating Oil
The lubricating oil shall be specified by the manufacturer and be representative of
lubricating oil available in the market; the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the
test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test.
6.9. Specification of the Reference Fuel
The reference fuel is specified in Annex 6, Table 3.
The fuel temperature shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
The fuel temperature shall be measured at the inlet to the fuel injection pump or as
specified by the manufacturer, and the location of measurement recorded.
6.10. Crankcase Emissions
No crankcase emissions shall be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere, with
the following exception: engines equipped with turbochargers, pumps, blowers, or
superchargers for air induction may discharge crankcase emissions to the ambient
atmosphere if the emissions are added to the exhaust emissions (either physically or
mathematically) during all emission testing. Manufacturers taking advantage of this
exception shall install the engines so that all crankcase emission can be routed into the
emissions sampling system. For the purpose of this Paragraph, crankcase emissions that
are routed into the exhaust upstream of exhaust aftertreatment during all operation are not
considered to be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere.
Open crankcase emissions shall be routed into the exhaust system for emission
measurement, as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The tubing materials shall be smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not
reactive with crankcase emissions. Tube lengths shall be minimized as far as
possible;
The number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing shall be minimized, and the
radius of any unavoidable bend shall be maximized;
The laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing shall meet the engine manufacturer's
specifications for crankcase back pressure;
The crankcase exhaust tubing shall connect into the raw exhaust downstream of
any aftertreatment system, downstream of any installed exhaust restriction, and
sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing with the
engine's exhaust before sampling. The crankcase exhaust tube shall extend into the
free stream of exhaust to avoid boundary-layer effects and to promote mixing. The
crankcase exhaust tube's outlet may orient in any direction relative to the raw
exhaust flow.

7.2.1.2.
Batch Sampling
In batch
sampling, a sample of raw or dilute
exhaust is continuouslyy extracted and stored
for later measurement. The extracted sample shall bee proportional to the raw
or dilute
exhaust flow rate. Examples of batch sampling are collecting dilutedd gaseous emissions in
a bag and collecting
PM on a filter. In principal the method of emission calculation is done
as follows: the batch sampled concentrations are multiplied by the total mass or mass flow
(raw or
dilute) from
which it was extracted during the test cycle. This product is i the total
mass or mass flow of the emitted constituent. To calculate the PM concentration, the PM
deposited onto a filter from proportionally extracted exhaust shall be divided by the amount
of filtered exhaust.
7.2.1.3.
Combined Sampling
Any combination of continuouss and batch
sampling is permittedd (e.g. PM with batch
sampling and gaseous emissions with continuous sampling).
The following Figure 7.1 illustrates the two aspects of the test procedures for measuring
emissions: the equipments with the sampling lines in raww and diluted exhaust gas and the
operations requested to calculate the pollutant emissions in steady-state and transient test
cycles (Figure 7.1).
Figure 7.1
Test Proceduress for Emission Measurement
Note on Figure 7.1: The
term "Partial flow PM sampling" includes the
extract only raw
exhaust with constant or varying dilution ratio.
partial flow dilution to

7.3.1.3. Preparation of Measurement Equipment for Sampling
The following steps shall be taken before emission sampling begins:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Leak checks shall be performed within 8h prior to emission sampling according to
Paragraph 8.1.8.7. below;
For batch sampling, clean storage media shall be connected, such as evacuated
bags or tare-weighed filters;
All measurement instruments shall be started according to the instrument
manufacturer's instructions and good engineering judgment;
Dilution systems, sample pumps, cooling fans, and the data-collection system shall
be started;
The sample flow rates shall be adjusted to desired levels, using bypass flow, if
desired;
Heat exchangers in the sampling system shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled to within
their operating temperature ranges for a test;
Heated or cooled components such as sample lines, filters, chillers, and pumps
shall be allowed to stabilize at their operating temperatures;
Exhaust dilution system flow shall be switched on at least 10min before a test
sequence;
Calibration of gas analysers and zeroing of continuous analysers shall be carried
out according to the procedure of the next Paragraph 7.3.1.4. below;
Any electronic integrating devices shall be zeroed or re-zeroed, before the start of
any test interval.
7.3.1.4. Calibration of Gas Analysers
Appropriate gas analyser ranges shall be selected. Emission analysers with automatic or
manual range switching are allowed. During a ramped modal or a NRTC test and during a
sampling period of a gaseous emission at the end of each mode for discrete mode testing,
the range of the emission analysers may not be switched. Also the gains of an analyser's
analogue operational amplifier(s) may not be switched during a test cycle.
All continuous analysers shall be zeroed and spanned using internationally-traceable
gases that meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. of this Annex. FID analysers shall
be spanned on a carbon number basis of one (C1).
7.3.1.5. PM Filter Preconditioning and Tare Weighing
The procedures for PM filter preconditioning and tare weighing shall be followed according
to Paragraph 8.2.3. of this Annex.

7.4. Test Cycles
The following duty cycles apply:
(a)
(b)
For variable-speed engines, the 8-mode test cycle or the corresponding ramped
modal cycle, and the transient cycle NRTC as specified in Annex 5;
For constant-speed engines, the 5-mode test cycle or the corresponding ramped
modal cycle as specified in Annex 5.
7.4.1. Steady-state Test Cycles
Steady-state test cycles are specified in Annex 5 as a list of discrete modes (operating
points), where each operating point has one value of speed and one value of torque. A
steady-state test cycle shall be measured with a warmed up and running engine according
to manufacturer's specification. A steady-state test cycle may be run as a discrete-mode
cycle or a ramped-modal cycle, as explained in the following Paragraphs.
7.4.1.1. Steady-state Discrete Mode Test Cycles
The steady-state discrete 8-mode test cycle consists of eight speed and load modes (with
the respective weighing factor for each mode) which cover the typical operating range of
variable speed engines. The cycle is shown in Annex 5.
The steady-state discrete 5-mode constant-speed test cycle consists of five load modes
(with the respective weighing factor for each mode) all at rated speed which cover the
typical operating range of constant speed engines. The cycle is shown in Annex 5.
7.4.1.2. Steady-state Ramped Test Cycle
The ramped modal test cycles (RMC) are hot running cycles where emissions shall be
started to be measured after the engine is started, warmed up and running as specified in
Paragraph 7.8.2.1. below. The engine shall be continuously controlled by the test bed
control unit during the RMC test cycle. The gaseous and particulate emissions shall be
measured and sampled continuously during the RMC test cycle in the same way as in a
transient cycle.
In case of the 5-mode test cycle the RMC consists of the same modes in the same order
as the corresponding discrete steady-state test cycle. For the 8-mode test cycle the RMC
has one mode more (split idle mode) and the mode sequence is not the same as the
corresponding steady-state discrete mode cycle, in order to avoid extreme changes in the
after-treatment temperature. The length of the modes shall be selected to be equivalent to
the weighing factors of the corresponding discrete steady-state test cycle. The change in
engine speed and load from one mode to the next one has to be linearly controlled in a
time of 20 ± 1 s. The mode change time is part of the new mode (including the first mode).

7.5. General Test Sequence
To measure engine emissions the following steps have to be performed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The engine test speeds and test loads have to be defined for the engine to be
tested by measuring the max torque (for constant speed engines) or max torque
curve (for variable speed engines) as function of the engine speed;
Normalized test cycles have to be denormalized with the torque (for constant speed
engines) or speeds and torques (for variable speed engines) found in the previous
sub-paragraph (a) of this Paragraph;
The engine, equipment, and measurement instruments shall be prepared for the
following emission test or test series (cold and hot cycle) in advance;
Pre-test procedures shall be performed to verify proper operation of certain
equipment and analysers. All analysers have to be calibrated. All pre-test data shall
be recorded;
The engine shall be started (NRTC) or kept running (steady-state cycles) at the
beginning of the test cycle and the sampling systems shall be started at the same
time;
Emissions and other required parameters shall be measured or recorded during
sampling time (for NRTC and steady-state ramped modal cycles throughout the
whole test cycle;
Post-test procedures shall be performed to verify proper operation of certain
equipment and analysers;
(h) PM filter(s) shall be pre-conditioned, weighed (empty weight), loaded,
re-conditioned, again weighed (loaded weight) and then samples shall be evaluated
according to pre- (Paragraph 7.3.1.5.) and post-test (Paragraph 7.3.2.2.)
procedures;
(i)
Emission test results shall be evaluated.
The following diagram gives an overview about the procedures needed to conduct NRMM
test cycles with measuring exhaust engine emissions.

7.5.1. Engine Starting, and Restarting
7.5.1.1. Engine Start
The engine shall be started:
(a)
(b)
As recommended in the owner's manual using a production starter motor or air-start
system and either an adequately charged battery, a suitable power supply or a
suitable compressed air source; or
By using the dynamometer to crank the engine until it starts. Typically motor the
engine within ± 25% of its typical in-use cranking speed or start the engine by
linearly increasing the dynamometer speed from zero to 100min below low idle
speed but only until the engine starts.
Cranking shall be stopped within 1s of starting the engine. If the engine does not start after
15s of cranking, cranking shall be stopped and the reason for the failure to start
determined, unless the owner's manual or the service-repair manual describes a longer
cranking time as normal.
7.5.1.2. Engine Stalling
(a)
(b)
(c)
If the engine stalls anywhere during the cold start test of the NRTC, the test shall be
voided;
If the engine stalls anywhere during the hot start test of the NRTC, the test shall be
voided. The engine shall be soaked according to Paragraph 7.8.3., and the hot start
test repeated. In this case, the cold start test does not need to be repeated;
If the engine stalls anywhere during the steady-state cycle (discrete or ramped), the
test shall be voided and be repeated beginning with the engine warm-up procedure.
In the case of PM measurement utilizing the multifilter method (one sampling filter
for each operating mode), the test shall be continued by stabilizing the engine at the
previous mode for engine temperature conditioning and then initiating measurement
with the mode where the engine stalled.

7.6.2. Engine Mapping for NRTC Cycle
The engine mapping shall be performed according to the following procedure:
(a)
The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
For engines with a low-speed governor, the operator demand shall be set to
the minimum, the dynamometer or another loading device shall be used to
target a torque of zero on the engine's primary output shaft and the engine
shall be allowed to govern the speed. This warm idle speed shall be
measured;
For engines without a low-speed governor, the dynamometer shall be set to
target a torque of zero on the engine's primary output shaft, and the operator
demand shall be set to control the speed to the manufacturer-declared lowest
engine speed possible with minimum load (also known as manufacturerdeclared
warm idle speed);
The manufacturer declared idle torque may be used for all variable-speed
engines (with or without a low-speed governor), if a nonzero idle torque is
representative of in-use operation.
(b)
(c)
(d)
Operator demand shall be set to maximum and engine speed shall be controlled to
between warm idle and 95% of its warm idle speed. For engines with reference duty
cycles, which lowest speed is greater than warm idle speed, the mapping may be
started at between the lowest reference speed and 95% of the lowest reference
speed;
The engine speed shall be increased at an average rate of 8 ± 1min /s or the
engine shall be mapped by using a continuous sweep of speed at a constant rate
such that it takes 4 to 6min to sweep from minimum to maximum mapping speed.
The mapping speed range shall be started between warm idle and 95% of warm idle
and ended at the highest speed above maximum power at which less than 70% of
maximum power occurs. If this highest speed is unsafe or unrepresentative
(e.g., for ungoverned engines), good engineering judgment shall be used to map up
to the maximum safe speed or the maximum representative speed. Engine speed
and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least 1Hz;
If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or
unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used.
These alternate techniques shall satisfy the intent of the specified mapping
procedures to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds
achieved during the test cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified
in this Paragraph for reasons of safety or representativeness shall be approved by
the Type Approval Authority along with the justification for their use. In no case,
however, the torque curve shall be run by descending engine speeds for governed
or turbocharged engines;

For variable speed engines that are not tested with the NRTC, the rated speed of tables in
Annex 5 to this Regulation for the 8-mode discrete and the derived ramped mode cycle
shall be calculated according to the steady state procedure (Paragraphs 7.6.1. and
Figure 7.3. of this Annex). The rated speed is defined in Paragraph 2.1.69. of this
Regulation.
For constant speed engines, the rated speed and engine governed speed of tables in
Annex 5 to this Regulation for the 5-mode discrete and the derived ramped mode cycle
shall be that defined in Paragraphs 2.1.30. and 2.1.69.
7.7.1.2. Generation of Steady-state 8-mode Test Cycle (Discrete and Ramp Modal)
The intermediate speed shall be determined from the calculations according to its
definition (see Paragraph 2.1.42. of this Regulation). Consistent with Paragraph 7.7.1.1.
above, for engines that are tested with the NRSC and also the NRTC the denormalization
speed (n ) shall be used in place of rated speed when determining the intermediate
speed
The engine setting for each test mode shall be calculated using the formula:
where:

L ⎞
S = ⎜( P + P ) × ⎟ − P
(7-1)

100 ⎠
S
= dynamometer setting in kW
P = maximum observed or declared power at the test speed under the test conditions
(specified by the manufacturer) in kW
P = declared total power absorbed by auxiliaries fitted for the test (see
Paragraph 6.3.) at the test speed in kW
L
= per cent torque
During the test cycle, the engine shall be operated at the engine speeds and torques that
are defined in Annex 5.
The maximum mapping torque values at the specified test speeds shall be derived from
the mapping curve (see Paragraph 7.6.1. or 7.6.2. above). "Measured" values are either
directly measured during the engine mapping process or they are determined from the
engine map. "Declared" values are specified by the manufacturer. When both measured
and declared values are available, declared values may be used instead of torques if they
don't deviate more than ± 2.5%. Otherwise, measured torques derived from the engine
mapping shall be used.

7.7.2.1.
Denormalization Speed (n
)
The denormalization speed (n
) is selected to equal the 100% normalized speed
values specified in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex 5. The reference engine
cycle resulting from denormalization to the reference speed, depends on the selection of
the proper denormalization speed (n
). For the calculation of the denormalization
speed (n
), obtained from the measured mapping curve, either of the following
equivalent formulations can be used in agreement with the Type Approval Authorities:
(a)
n
= n + 0.95 × (n – n )
(7-2)
where:
n
= denormalization speed
n
= high speed (see Paragraph 2.1.40.)
n
= low speed (see Paragraph 2.1.44.)
(b)
n
corresponding to the longest vector defined as:
n
= n at the maximum of (n
+ P
)
(7-3)
where:
i
= an indexing variable that represents one recorded value of an engine
map
n = an engine speed normalized by dividing it by n .
P = an engine power normalized by dividing it by P .
Note that if multiple maximum values are found, the denormalization speed (n ) should
be taken as the lowest speed of all points with the same maximum sum of squares. A
higher declared speed may be used if the length of the vector at the declared speed is
within 2% of the length of the vector at the measured value.
If the falling part of the full load curve has a very steep edge, this may cause problems to
drive the 105% speeds of the NRTC test cycle correctly. In this case it is allowed with
previous agreement with type approval or certification authorities, to reduce the
denormalization speed (n ) slightly (maximum 3%) in order to make correct driving of
the NRTC possible.
If the measured denormalization speed (n ) is within ± 3% of the denormalization
speed as declared by the manufacturer, the declared denormalization speed (n ) may
be used for the emissions test. If the tolerance is exceeded, the measured denormalization
speed (n ) shall be used for the emissions test.

7.8. Specific Test Cycle Running Procedure
7.8.1. Emission Test Sequence for Discrete Steady-state Test Cycles
7.8.1.1. Engine warming-up for steady state discrete-mode test cycles
For preconditioning the engine shall be warmed up according to the recommendation of
the manufacturer and good engineering judgment. Before emission sampling can start, the
engine shall be running until engine temperatures (cooling water and lube oil) have been
stabilized (normally at least 10min) on mode 1 (100% torque and rated speed for the 8-
mode test cycle and at rated or nominal constant engine speed and 100% torque for the 5-
mode test cycle). Immediately from this engine conditioning point, the test cycle
measurement starts.
Pre-test procedure according to Paragraph 7.3.1. shall be performed, including analyser
calibration.
7.8.1.2. Performing Discrete-mode Test Cycle
(a)
(b)
The test shall be performed in ascending order of mode numbers as set out for the
test cycle (see Annex 5);
Each mode has a mode length of at least 10min. In each mode the engine shall be
stabilized for at least 5min and emissions shall be sampled for 1-3min for gaseous
emissions at the end of each mode. Extended time of sampling is permitted to
improve the accuracy of PM sampling;
The mode length shall be recorded and reported.
(c)
The particulate sampling may be done either with the single filter method or with the
multiple filter method. Since the results of the methods may differ slightly, the
method used shall be declared with the results;
For the single filter method the modal weighing factors specified in the test cycle
procedure and the actual exhaust flow shall be taken into account during sampling
by adjusting sample flow rate and/or sampling time, accordingly. It is required that
the effective weighing factor of the PM sampling is within ±0.003 of the weighing
factor of the given mode;
Sampling shall be conducted as late as possible within each mode. For the single
filter method, the completion of particulate sampling shall be coincident within ±5s
with the completion of the gaseous emission measurement. The sampling time per
mode shall be at least 20s for the single filter method and at least 60s for the
multifilter method. For systems without bypass capability, the sampling time per
mode shall be at least 60s for single and multiple filter methods;
(d)
The engine speed and load, intake air temperature, fuel flow and air or exhaust gas
flow shall be measured for each mode at the same time interval which is used for
the measurement of the gaseous concentrations;
Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded.

Over the whole RMC test cycle (during each mode and including the ramps between the
modes), the concentration of each gaseous pollutant shall be measured and the PM be
sampled. The gaseous pollutants may be measured raw or diluted and be recorded
continuously; if diluted, they can also be sampled into a sampling bag. The particulate
sample shall be diluted with conditioned and clean air. One sample over the complete test
procedure shall be taken, and collected on a single PM sampling filter.
For calculation of the brake specific emissions, the actual cycle work shall be calculated by
integrating actual engine power over the complete cycle.
7.8.2.3. Emission Test Sequence:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Execution of the RMC, sampling exhaust gases, recording data, and integrating
measured values shall be started simultaneously;
Speed and torque shall be controlled to the first mode in the test cycle;
If the engine stalls anywhere during the RMC execution, the test shall be voided.
The engine shall be pre-conditioned and the test repeated;
At the end of the RMC, sampling shall be continued, except for PM sampling,
operating all systems to allow system response time to elapse. Then all sampling
and recording shall be stopped, including the recording of background samples.
Finally, any integrating devices shall be stopped and the end of the test cycle shall
be indicated in the recorded data;
Post-test procedures according to Paragraph 7.4. shall be performed.

7.8.3. Transient Test Cycle (NRTC)
Reference speeds and torques commands shall be sequentially executed to perform the
transient test cycle. Speed and torque commands shall be issued at a frequency of at least
5Hz. Because the reference test cycle is specified at 1Hz, the in between speed and
torque commands shall be linearly interpolated from the reference torque values
generated from cycle generation.
Small denormalized speed values near warm idle speed may cause low-speed idle
governors to activate and the engine torque to exceed the reference torque even though
the operator demand is at a minimum. In such cases, it is recommended to control the
dynamometer so it gives priority to follow the reference torque instead of the reference
speed and let the engine govern the speed.
Under cold-start conditions engines may use an enhanced-idle device to quickly warm up
the engine and aftertreatment devices. Under these conditions, very low normalized
speeds will generate reference speeds below this higher enhanced idle speed. In this case
it is recommended controlling the dynamometer so it gives priority to follow the reference
torque and let the engine govern the speed when the operator demand is at minimum.
During an emission test, reference speeds and torques and the feedback speeds and
torques shall be recorded with a minimum frequency of 1Hz, but preferably of 5Hz or even
10Hz. This larger recording frequency is important as it helps to minimize the biasing
effect of the time lag between the reference and the measured feedback speed and torque
values.
The reference and feedback speeds and torques maybe recorded at lower frequencies
(as low as 1Hz), if the average values over the time interval between recorded values are
recorded. The average values shall be calculated based on feedback values updated at a
frequency of at least 5Hz. These recorded values shall be used to calculate
cycle-validation statistics and total work.
7.8.3.1. Engine Preconditioning
To meet stable conditions for the following Emission test, the sampling system and the
engine shall be preconditioned either by driving a full pre-NRTC cycle or driving the engine
and the measuring systems under similar conditions as in the test cycle itself. If the test
before was also a NRTC hot test, no additional conditioning is needed.
A natural or forced cool-down procedure may be applied. For forced cool-down, good
engineering judgment shall be used to set up systems to send cooling air across the
engine, to send cool oil through the engine lubrication system, to remove heat from the
coolant through the engine cooling system, and to remove heat from an exhaust
after-treatment system. In the case of a forced after-treatment cool down, cooling air shall
not be applied until the after-treatment system has cooled below its catalytic activation
temperature. Any cooling procedure that results in unrepresentative emissions is not
permitted.
Pre-test procedures according to Paragraph 7.3.1. have to be performed, including
analyser calibration.

7.8.3.5. Validation Statistics (see Annex 4B Appendix A.2.)
Linear regression between the reference and the feedback values shall be calculated for
speed, torque and power.
To minimize the biasing effect of the time lag between the reference and feedback cycle
values, the entire engine speed and torque feedback signal sequence may be advanced
or delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the
feedback signals are shifted, both speed and torque shall be shifted by the same amount
in the same direction.
The method of least squares shall be used, with the best-fit equation having the form:
where:
y = α x + α (7-6)
y
α
x
α
= feedback value of speed (min ), torque (Nm), or power (kW)
= slope of the regression line
= reference value of speed (min ), torque (Nm), or power (kW)
= y intercept of the regression line
The standard error of estimate (SEE) of y on x and the coefficient of determination (r )
shall be calculated for each regression line (Annex 4B Appendix A.2.).
It is recommended that this analysis be performed at 1Hz. For a test to be considered
valid, the criteria of Table 7.2 below shall be met.

8. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES
8.1. Calibration and Performance Checks
8.1.1. Introduction
This Paragraph describes required calibrations and verifications of measurement systems.
See Paragraph 9.4. for specifications that apply to individual instruments.
Calibrations or verifications shall be generally performed over the complete measurement
chain.
If a calibration or verification for a portion of a measurement system is not specified, that
portion of the system shall be calibrated and its performance verified at a frequency
consistent with any recommendations from the measurement system manufacturer and
consistent with good engineering judgment.
Internationally recognized-traceable standards shall be used to meet the tolerances
specified for calibrations and verifications.
8.1.2. Summary of Calibration and Verification
The Table 8.1 summarizes the calibrations and verifications described in this Section. and
indicates when these have to be performed.

Type of calibration or
verification
Minimum frequency
8.1.8.1. Fuel flow Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.2. Intake flow Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.3. Exhaust flow Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.8.4. Diluted exhaust flow
(CVS and PFD)
8.1.8.5. CVS/PFD and batch
sampler verification
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation, within 35 days before testing, and after major
maintenance.
(Propane check)
8.1.8.8. Vacuum leak Before each laboratory test according to Paragraph 7.1.
8.1.9.1. CO NDIR H O
interference
8.1.9.2. CO NDIR CO and
H O interference
8.1.10.1. FID calibration
THC FID optimization
and THC FID
verification
8.1.10.2. Raw exhaust FID O
interference
8.1.10.3. Non-methane cutter
penetration
8.1.11.1. CLD CO and H O
quench
8.1.11.3. NDUV HC and H O
interference
8.1.11.4. Cooling bath NO
penetration (chiller)
8.1.11.5. NO -to-NO converter
conversion
8.1.12.1. PM balance and
weighing
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Calibrate, optimize, and determine CH response: upon initial
installation and after major maintenance.
Verify CH response: upon initial installation, within 185 days before
testing, and after major maintenance.
For all FID analysers: upon initial installation, and after major
maintenance.
For THC FID analysers: upon initial installation, after major
maintenance, and after FID optimization according to 8.1.10.1.
Upon initial installation, within 185 days before testing, and after major
maintenance.
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
Upon initial installation, within 35 days before testing, and after major
maintenance.
Independent verification: upon initial installation, within 370 days
before testing, and after major maintenance.
Zero, span, and reference sample verifications: within 12h of weighing,
and after major maintenance.

8.1.4.3. Procedure
The following linearity verification protocol shall be used:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
A measurement system shall be operated at its specified temperatures, pressures,
and flows;
The instrument shall be zeroed as it would before an emission test by introducing a
zero signal. For gas analysers, a zero gas shall be used that meets the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1.of this Annex and it shall be introduced directly at
the analyser port;
The instrument shall be spanned as it would before an emission test by introducing
a span signal. For gas analysers, a span gas shall be used that meets the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. of this Annex and it shall be introduced directly at
the analyser port;
After spanning the instrument, zero shall be checked with the same signal which
has been used in sub-paragraph (b) of this Paragraph. Based on the zero reading,
good engineering judgment shall be used to determine whether or not to re-zero
and or re-span the instrument before proceeding to the next step;
For all measured quantities manufacturer recommendations and good engineering
judgment shall be used to select the reference values, y , that cover the full range
of values that are expected during emission testing, thus avoiding the need of
extrapolation beyond these values. A zero reference signal shall be selected as one
of the reference values of the linearity verification. For stand-alone pressure and
temperature linearity verifications, at least three reference values shall be selected.
For all other linearity verifications, at least ten reference values shall be selected;
Instrument manufacturer recommendations and good engineering judgment shall be
used to select the order in which the series of reference values will be introduced;
Reference quantities shall be generated and introduced as described in
Paragraph 8.1.4.4. of this Annex. For gas analysers, gas concentrations known to
be within the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. of this Annex shall be used and they
shall be introduced directly at the analyser port;
Time for the instrument to stabilize while it measures the reference value shall be
allowed;
At a recording frequency of at least the minimum frequency, as specified in
Table 9.2, the reference value shall be measured for 30s and the arithmetic mean of
the recorded values, y recorded;
Steps in sub-paragraphs (g) through (i) of this Paragraph shall be repeated until all
reference quantities are measured;
(k) The arithmetic means y , and reference values, y , shall be used to calculate leastsquares
linear regression parameters and statistical values to compare to the
minimum performance criteria specified in Table 8.2. The calculations described in
Annex 4B Appendix A.2 Paragraph A.2. shall be used.

(g)
Stand-alone temperatures include engine temperatures and ambient conditions
used to set or verify engine conditions; temperatures used to set or verify critical
conditions in the test system; and temperatures used in emissions calculations:
(i)
(ii)
These temperature linearity checks are required. Air intake; aftertreatment
bed(s) (for engines tested with aftertreatment devices on cycles with cold
start criteria); dilution air for PM sampling (CVS, double dilution, and partial
flow systems); PM sample; and chiller sample (for gaseous sampling systems
that use chillers to dry samples);
These temperature linearity checks are only required if specified by the
engine manufacturer. Fuel inlet; test cell charge air cooler air outlet (for
engines tested with a test cell heat exchanger simulating a vehicle/machine
charge air cooler); test cell charge air cooler coolant inlet (for engines tested
with a test cell heat exchanger simulating a vehicle/machine charge air
cooler); and oil in the sump/pan; coolant before the thermostat (for liquid
cooled engines);
(h)
Stand-alone pressures include engine pressures and ambient conditions used to set
or verify engine conditions; pressures used to set or verify critical conditions in the
test system; and pressures used in emissions calculations:
(i)
(ii)
Required pressure linearity checks are: air intake restriction; exhaust back
pressure; barometer; CVS inlet gage pressure (if measurement using CVS);
chiller sample (for gaseous sampling systems that use chillers to dry
samples);
Pressure linearity checks that are required only if specified by the engine
manufacturer: test cell charge air cooler and interconnecting pipe pressure
drop (for turbo-charged engines tested with a test cell heat exchanger
simulating a vehicle/machine charge air cooler) fuel inlet; and fuel outlet.

8.1.5. Continuous Gas Analyser System-response and Updating-recording Verification
This Section describes a general verification procedure for continuous gas analyser
system response and update recording. See Paragraph 8.1.6. below for verification
procedures for compensation type analysers.
8.1.5.1. Scope and Frequency
This verification shall be performed after installing or replacing a gas analyser that is used
for continuous sampling. Also this verification shall be performed if the system is
reconfigured in a way that would change system response. This verification is needed for
continuous gas analysers used for transient or ramped-modal testing but is not needed for
batch gas analyser systems or for continuous gas analyser systems used only for
discrete-mode testing.
8.1.5.2. Measurement Principles
This test verifies that the updating and recording frequencies match the overall system
response to a rapid change in the value of concentrations at the sample probe. Gas
analyser systems shall be optimized such that their overall response to a rapid change in
concentration is updated and recorded at an appropriate frequency to prevent loss of
information. This test also verifies that continuous gas analyser systems meet a minimum
response time.
The system settings for the response time evaluation shall be exactly the same as during
measurement of the test run (i.e. pressure, flow rates, filter settings on the analysers and
all other response time influences). The response time determination shall be done with
gas switching directly at the inlet of the sample probe. The devices for gas switching shall
have a specification to perform the switching in less than 0.1s. The gases used for the test
shall cause a concentration change of at least 60% full scale (FS).
The concentration trace of each single gas component shall be recorded.
8.1.5.3. System Requirements
(a)
The system response time shall be ≤ 10s with a rise time of ≤ 2.5s or with a rise and
fall time of ≤ 5s each for all measured components (CO, NO , CO and HC) and all
ranges used. When using a NMC for the measurement of NMHC, the system
response time may exceed 10s.
All data (concentration, fuel and air flows) have to be shifted by their measured
response times before performing the emission calculations given in
Annexes A.7-A.8.
(b)
To demonstrate acceptable updating and recording with respect to the system's
overall response, the system shall meet one of the following criteria:
(i)
(ii)
The product of the mean rise time and the frequency at which the system
records an updated concentration shall be at least 5. In any case the mean
rise time shall be no more than 10s;
The frequency at which the system records the concentration shall be at least
2Hz (see also Table 9.2).

(c)
Data collection shall be done as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
The valve shall be switched to start the flow of zero gas;
Stabilization shall be allowed for, accounting for transport delays and the
slowest analyser's full response;
Data recording shall be started at the frequency used during emission testing.
Each recorded value shall be a unique updated concentration measured by
the analyser; interpolation or filtering may not be used to alter recorded
values;
The valve shall be switched to allow the blended span gases to flow to the
analysers. This time shall be recorded as t ;
Transport delays and the slowest analyser's full response shall be allowed
for;
The flow shall be switched to allow zero gas to flow to the analyser. This time
shall be recorded as t ;
Transport delays and the slowest analyser's full response shall be allowed
for;
(viii) The steps in sub-paragraphs (c) (iv) through (vii) of this Paragraph shall be
repeated to record seven full cycles, ending with zero gas flowing to the
analysers;
(ix)
Recording shall be stopped.
8.1.5.5. Performance Evaluation
The data from sub-paragraph (c) of Paragraph 8.1.5.4. above of this Section shall be used
to calculate the mean rise time, T for each of the analysers.
(a)
(b)
If it is chosen to demonstrate compliance with sub-paragraphs (b) (i) of
Paragraph 8.1.5.3. above, the following procedure has to be applied: The rise times
(in s) shall be multiplied by their respective recording frequencies in Hertz (1/s). The
value for each result shall be at least 5. If the value is less than 5, the recording
frequency shall be increased or the flows adjusted or the design of the sampling
system shall be changed to increase the rise time as needed. Also digital filters may
be configured to increase rise time;
If it is choosen to demonstrate compliance with sub-paragraphs (b) (ii) of
Paragraph 8.1.5.3. above, the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of
sub-paragraphs (b) (ii) of Paragraph 8.1.5.3. is sufficient.

8.1.7. Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions
The engine manufacturer shall apply internal quality procedures traceable to recognised
national or international standards. Otherwise the following procedures apply.
8.1.7.1. Torque Calibration
8.1.7.1.1. Scope and Frequency
All torque-measurement systems including dynamometer torque measurement
transducers and systems shall be calibrated upon initial installation and after major
maintenance using, among others, reference force or lever-arm length coupled with dead
weight. Good engineering judgment shall be used to repeat the calibration. The torque
transducer manufacturer's instructions shall be followed for linearizing the torque sensor's
output. Other calibration methods are permitted.
8.1.7.1.2. Dead-weight Calibration
This technique applies a known force by hanging known weights at a known distance
along a lever arm. It shall be made sure that the weights' lever arm is perpendicular to
gravity (i.e., horizontal) and perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis. At least six
calibration-weight combinations shall be applied for each applicable torque-measuring
range, spacing the weight quantities about equally over the range. The dynamometer shall
be oscillated or rotated during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. Each
weight's force shall be determined by multiplying its internationally-traceable mass by the
local acceleration of Earth's gravity.
8.1.7.1.3. Strain Gage or Proving Ring Calibration
This technique applies force either by hanging weights on a lever arm (these weights and
their lever arm length are not used as part of the reference torque determination) or by
operating the dynamometer at different torques. At least six force combinations shall be
applied for each applicable torque-measuring range, spacing the force quantities about
equally over the range. The dynamometer shall be oscillated or rotated during calibration
to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque is determined by
multiplying the force output from the reference meter (such as a strain gage or proving
ring) by its effective lever-arm length, which is measured from the point where the force
measurement is made to the dynamometer's rotational axis. It shall be made sure that this
length is measured perpendicular to the reference meter's measurement axis and
perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis.
8.1.7.2. Pressure, Temperature, and Dew Point Calibration
Instruments shall be calibrated for measuring pressure, temperature, and dew point upon
initial installation. The instrument manufacturer's instructions shall be followed and good
engineering judgment shall be used to repeat the calibration.
For temperature measurement systems with thermocouple, RTD, or thermistor sensors,
the calibration of the system shall be performed as described in Paragraph 8.1.4.4. for
linearity verification.

8.1.8.4.2. PDP Calibration
A positive-displacement pump (PDP) shall be calibrated to determine a flow-versus-PDP
speed equation that accounts for flow leakage across sealing surfaces in the PDP as a
function of PDP inlet pressure. Unique equation coefficients shall be determined for each
speed at which the PDP is operated. A PDP flow-meter shall be calibrated as follows:
(a) The system shall be connected as shown in Figure 8.1;
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Leaks between the calibration flow-meter and the PDP shall be less than 0.3% of
the total flow at the lowest calibrated flow point; for example, at the highest
restriction and lowest PDP-speed point;
While the PDP operates, a constant temperature at the PDP inlet shall be
maintained within ±2% of the mean absolute inlet temperature, T ;
The PDP speed is set to the first speed point at which it is intended to calibrate;
The variable restrictor is set to its wide-open position;
The PDP is operated for at least 3min to stabilize the system. Then by continuously
operating the PDP, the mean values of at least 30s of sampled data of each of the
following quantities are recorded:
(i)
The mean flow rate of the reference flow-meter, q
;
(ii)
The mean temperature at the PDP inlet, T ;
(iii)
The mean static absolute pressure at the PDP inlet, p ;
(iv)
The mean static absolute pressure at the PDP outlet, p
;
(v)
The mean PDP speed, n
;
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
The restrictor valve shall be incrementally closed to decrease the absolute pressure
at the inlet to the PDP, p ;
The steps in sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) of this paragraph shall be repeated to
record data at a minimum of six restrictor positions reflecting the full range of
possible in-use pressures at the PDP inlet;
The PDP shall be calibrated by using the collected data and the equations in
Annexes A.7-A.8;
The steps in sub-paragraphs (f) through (i) of this Section shall be repeated for each
speed at which the PDP is operated;

(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
The steps in sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) of this Paragraph shall be repeated to
record mean data at a minimum of ten restrictor positions, such that the fullest
practical range of ∆p expected during testing is tested. It is not required to
remove calibration components or CVS components to calibrate at the lowest
possible restrictions;
C and the lowest allowable pressure ratio r shall be determined as described in
Annexes A.7-A.8;
C shall be used to determine CFV flow during an emission test. The CFV shall not
be used below the lowest allowed r, as determined in Annexes A.7-A.8;
The calibration shall be verified by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane
check) as described in Paragraph 8.1.8.5.;
If the CVS is configured to operate more than one CFV at a time in parallel, the CVS
shall be calibrated by one of the following:
(i)
Every combination of CFVs shall be calibrated according to this Paragraph
and Annexes A.7-A.8. See Annexes A.7-A.8 for instructions on calculating
flow rates for this option;
(ii) Each CFV shall be calibrated according to this Paragraph and
Annexes A.7-A.8. See Annexes A.7-A.8 for instructions on calculating flow
rates for this option.

(l)
The equations in Annex 4B Appendix A.7 (molar based approach) or Annex 4B
Appendix A.8
(mass based approach) shall be used to determine SSV flow
during a
test.
8.1.8.4.5.
Ultrasonic Calibration (Reserved)
Figure 8.1
Schematic Diagrams for Diluted Exhaust Flow CVS C Calibration

8.1.8.5.2. Method of Introducing a Known Amount of Propane into the CVS System
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated
in the normal manner. The pollutant is analysed, and the mass calculated according to
Annexes A.7-A.8. Either of the following two techniques shall be used.
(a)
(b)
Metering by means of a gravimetric technique shall be done as follows: A mass of a
small cylinder filled with carbon monoxide or propane shall be determined with a
precision of ±0.01g. For about 5 to 10min, the CVS system shall be operated as in a
normal exhaust emission test, while carbon monoxide or propane is injected into the
system. The quantity of pure gas discharged shall be determined by means of
differential weighing. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment
(sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated;
Metering with a critical flow orifice shall be done as follows: A known quantity of
pure gas (carbon monoxide or propane) shall be fed into the CVS system through a
calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow rate, which is
adjusted by means of the critical flow orifice, is independent of the orifice outlet
pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as in a normal exhaust
emission test for about 5 to 10min. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual
equipment (sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas
calculated.
8.1.8.5.3. Preparation of the Propane Check
The propane check shall be prepared as follows:
(a)
If a reference mass of C H is used instead of a reference flow rate, a cylinder
charged with C H shall be obtained. The reference cylinder's mass of C H shall be
determined within ±0.5% of the amount of C H that is expected to be used;
(b) Appropriate flow rates shall be selected for the CVS and C H ;
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
A C H injection port shall be selected in the CVS. The port location shall be
selected to be as close as practical to the location where engine exhaust is
introduced into the CVS. The C H cylinder shall be connected to the injection
system;
The CVS shall be operated and stabilized;
Any heat exchangers in the sampling system shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled;
Heated and cooled components such as sample lines, filters, chillers, and pumps
shall be allowed to stabilize at operating temperature;
If applicable, a vacuum side leak verification of the HC sampling system shall be
performed as described in 8.1.8.7.

8.1.8.5.5. Propane Check Performance
(a)
The propane check shall be performed as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
For batch HC sampling, clean storage media, such as evacuated bags shall
be connected;
HC measurement instruments shall be operated according to the instrument
manufacturer's instructions;
If correction for dilution air background concentrations of HC is foreseen,
background HC in the dilution air shall be measured and recorded;
Any integrating devices shall be zeroed;
Sampling shall begin and any flow integrators shall be started;
C H shall be released at the rate selected. If a reference flow rate of C H is
used, the integration of this flow rate shall be started;
C H shall be continued to be released until at least enough C H has been
released to ensure accurate quantification of the reference C H and the
measured C H ;
(viii) The C H cylinder shall be shut off and sampling shall continue until it has
been accounted for time delays due to sample transport and analyser
response;
(ix)
Sampling shall be stopped and any integrators shall be stopped;

8.1.8.5.7. PM Secondary Dilution System Verification
When the propane check is to be repeated to verify the PM secondary dilution system, the
following procedure from sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) shall be used for this verification:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The HC sampling system shall be configured to extract a sample near the location
of the batch sampler's storage media (such as a PM filter). If the absolute pressure
at this location is too low to extract an HC sample, HC may be sampled from the
batch sampler pump's exhaust. Caution shall be used when sampling from pump
exhaust because an otherwise acceptable pump leak downstream of a batch
sampler flow-meter will cause a false failure of the propane check;
The propane check shall be repeated as described in this Paragraph, but HC shall
be sampled from the batch sampler;
C H mass shall be calculated, taking into account any secondary dilution from the
batch sampler;
The reference C H mass shall be subtracted from the calculated mass. If this
difference is within ±5% of the reference mass, the batch sampler passes this
verification. If not, corrective action shall be taken.
8.1.8.5.8. Sample Dryer Verification
If a humidity sensor for continuous monitoring of dew point at the sample dryer outlet is
used this check does not apply, as long as it is ensured that the dryer outlet humidity is
below the minimum values used for quench, interference, and compensation checks.
(a)
(b)
If a sample dryer is used as allowed in Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. to remove water from
the sample gas, the performance shall be verified upon installation, after major
maintenance, for thermal chiller. For osmotic membrane dryers, the performance
shall be verified upon installation, after major maintenance, and within 35 days of
testing;
Water can inhibit an analyser's ability to properly measure the exhaust component
of interest and thus is sometimes removed before the sample gas reaches the
analyser. For example water can negatively interfere with a CLD's NO response
through collisional quenching and can positively interfere with an NDIR analyser by
causing a response similar to CO;
(c) The sample dryer shall meet the specifications as determined in
Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. for dew point, T , and absolute pressure, p , downstream
of the osmotic-membrane dryer or thermal chiller;

8.1.8.6. Periodic calibration of the partial flow PM and associated raw exhaust gas measurement
systems
8.1.8.6.1. Specifications for Differential Flow Measurement
For partial flow dilution systems to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample, the
accuracy of the sample flow q is of special concern, if not measured directly, but
determined by differential flow measurement:
where:
q = q – q (8-1)
q = sample mass flow rate of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system
q = dilution air mass flow rate (on wet basis)
q = diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
In this case, the maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of q is
within ±5% when the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking
root-mean-square of the errors of each instrument.
Acceptable accuracies of q can be obtained by either of the following methods:
(a)
The absolute accuracies of qmdew and qmdw are ±0.2% which guarantees an
accuracy of qmp of ≤ 5% at a dilution ratio of 15. However, greater errors will occur
at higher dilution ratios;
(b) Calibration of q relative to q is carried out such that the same accuracies for
q as in (a) are obtained. For details see Paragraph 8.1.8.6.2;
(c) The accuracy of q is determined indirectly from the accuracy of the dilution ratio
as determined by a tracer gas, e.g. CO . Accuracies equivalent to method (a) for
q are required;
(d) The absolute accuracy of q and q is within ±2% of full scale, the maximum
error of the difference between q and q is within 0.2% and the linearity error
is within ±0.2% of the highest qmdew observed during the test.

8.1.8.6.3.1. Pre-test Check
A pre-test check shall be performed within 2h before the test run in the following way.
The accuracy of the flow-meters shall be checked by the same method as used for
calibration (see Paragraph 8.1.8.6.2.) for at least two points, including flow values of q
that correspond to dilution ratios between 5 and 15 for the q value used during the
test.
If it can be demonstrated by records of the calibration procedure under
Paragraph 8.1.8.6.2. that the flow-meter calibration is stable over a longer period of time,
the pre-test check may be omitted.
8.1.8.6.3.2. Determination of the Transformation Time
The system settings for the transformation time evaluation shall be the same as during
measurement of the test run. The transformation time, defined in Figure 1, shall be
determined by the following method:
An independent reference flow-meter with a measurement range appropriate for the probe
flow shall be put in series with and closely coupled to the probe. This flow-meter shall have
a transformation time of less than 100ms for the flow step size used in the response time
measurement, with flow restriction sufficiently low as to not affect the dynamic
performance of the partial flow dilution system according to good engineering judgment. A
step change shall be introduced to the exhaust flow (or air flow if exhaust flow is
calculated) input of the partial flow dilution system, from a low flow to at least 90% of full
scale. The trigger for the step change shall be the same one used to start the look-ahead
control in actual testing. The exhaust flow step stimulus and the flow-meter response shall
be recorded at a sample rate of at least 10Hz.
From this data, the transformation time shall be determined for the partial flow dilution
system, which is the time from the initiation of the step stimulus to the 50% point of the
flow-meter response. In a similar manner, the transformation times of the q signal
(i.e. sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system) and of the q signal
(i.e. the exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis supplied by the exhaust flow-meter) shall
be determined. These signals are used in the regression checks performed after each test
(see Paragraph 8.2.1.2.).
The calculation shall be repeated for at least 5 rise and fall stimuli, and the results shall be
averaged. The internal transformation time (<100ms) of the reference flow-meter shall be
subtracted from this value. In the case that the system in accordance with
Paragraph 8.2.1.2. requires the "look-ahead" method, this is the "look-ahead" value of the
partial flow dilution system to be applied in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.1.2.

8.1.8.7.4. Dilution-of-span-gas Leak Test
Any gas analyser may be used for this test. If a FID is used for this test, any HC
contamination in the sampling system shall be corrected according to Annexes A.7 and
A.8 on HC and NMHC determination. Misleading results shall be avoided by using only
analysers that have a repeatability of 0.5% or better at the span gas concentration used
for this test. The vacuum side leak check shall be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A gas analyser shall be prepared as it would be for emission testing;
Span gas shall be supplied to the analyser port and it shall be verified that the span
gas concentration is measured within its expected measurement accuracy and
repeatability;
Overflow span gas shall be routed to one of the following locations in the sampling
system:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The end of the sample probe;
The transfer line shall be disconnected at the probe connection, and the span
gas overflown at the open end of the transfer line;
A three-way valve installed in-line between a probe and its transfer line;
(d)
It shall be verified that the measured overflow span gas concentration is within
±0.5% of the span gas concentration. A measured value lower than expected
indicates a leak, but a value higher than expected may indicate a problem with the
span gas or the analyser itself. A measured value higher than expected does not
indicate a leak.
8.1.8.7.5. Vacuum-decay Leak Test
To perform this test a vacuum shall be applied to the vacuum-side volume of the sampling
system and the leak rate of the system shall be observed as a decay in the applied
vacuum. To perform this test the vacuum-side volume of the sampling system shall be
known to within ±10% of its true volume. For this test measurement instruments that
meet the specifications of Paragraphs 8.1. and 9.4. shall also be used.
A vacuum-decay leak test shall be performed as follows:
(a)
The probe end of the system shall be sealed as close to the probe opening as
possible by taking one of the following steps:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The end of the sample probe shall be capped or plugged;
The transfer line at the probe shall be disconnected and the transfer line
capped or plugged;
A leak-tight valve in-line between a probe and transfer line shall be closed;

8.1.9.1.2. Measurement Principles
H O can interfere with an NDIR analyser's response to CO . If the NDIR analyser uses
compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this
interference verification, simultaneously these other measurements shall be conducted to
test the compensation algorithms during the analyser interference verification.
8.1.9.1.3. System Requirements
8.1.9.1.4. Procedure
A CO NDIR analyser shall have an H O interference that is within (0.0 ± 0.4)mmol/mol (of
the expected mean CO concentration).
The interference verification shall be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The CO NDIR analyser shall be started, operated, zeroed, and spanned as it would
be before an emission test;
A humidified test gas shall be created by bubbling zero air that meets the
specifications in Paragraph 9.5.1. through distilled water in a sealed vessel. If the
sample is not passed through a dryer, control the vessel temperature to generate an
H O level at least as high as the maximum expected during testing. If the sample is
passed through a dryer during testing, control the vessel temperature to generate
an H O level at least as high as the level determined in Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1.;
The humidified test gas temperature shall be maintained at least 5°C above its dew
point downstream of the vessel;
The humidified test gas shall be introduced into the sampling system. The
humidified test gas may be introduced downstream of any sample dryer, if one is
used during testing;
(e) The water mole fraction, x , of the humidified test gas shall be measured, as close
as possible to the inlet of the analyser. For example, dew point, T , and absolute
pressure p , shall be measured to calculate x ;
(f)
(g)
(h)
Good engineering judgment shall be used to prevent condensation in the transfer
lines, fittings, or valves from the point where x is measured to the analyser;
Time shall be allowed for the analyser response to stabilize. Stabilization time shall
include time to purge the transfer line and to account for analyser response;
While the analyser measures the sample's concentration, 30s of sampled data shall
be recorded. The arithmetic mean of this data shall be calculated. The analyser
meets the interference verification if this value is within (0.0 ± 0.4)mmol/mol

(h)
(i)
The analyser meets the interference verification if the result of sub-paragraph (g) of
this Section meets the tolerance in Paragraph 8.1.9.2.3.;
Interference procedures for CO and H O may be also run separately. If the CO
and H O levels used are higher than the maximum levels expected during testing,
each observed interference value shall be scaled down by multiplying the observed
interference by the ratio of the maximum expected concentration value to the actual
value used during this procedure. Separate interference procedures concentrations
of H O (down to 0.025 mol/mol H O content) that are lower than the maximum
levels expected during testing may be run, but the observed H O interference shall
be scaled up by multiplying the observed interference by the ratio of the maximum
expected H O concentration value to the actual value used during this procedure.
The sum of the two scaled interference values shall meet the tolerance in
Paragraph 8.1.9.2.3.
8.1.10. Hydrocarbon Measurements
8.1.10.1. FID Optimization and Verification
8.1.10.1.1. Scope and Frequency
For all FID analysers, the FID shall be calibrated upon initial installation. The calibration
shall be repeated as needed using good engineering judgment. The following steps shall
be performed for a FID that measures HC:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A FID's response to various hydrocarbons shall be optimized after initial analyser
installation and after major maintenance. FID response to propylene and toluene
shall be between 0.9 and 1.1 relative to propane;
A FID's methane (CH ) response factor shall be determined after initial analyser
installation and after major maintenance as described in Paragraph 8.1.10.1.4. of
this section;
Methane (CH ) response shall be verified within 185 days before testing.
8.1.10.1.2. Calibration
Good engineering judgment shall be used to develop a calibration procedure, such as one
based on the FID-analyser manufacturer's instructions and recommended frequency for
calibrating the FID. For a FID that measures HC, it shall be calibrated using C H
calibration gases that meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. For a FID that measures
CH , it shall be calibrated using CH calibration gases that meet the specifications of
Paragraph 9.5.1. Regardless of the calibration gas composition, it shall be calibrated on a
carbon number basis of one (C ).

8.1.10.1.4. HC FID CH Response Factor Determination
This procedure is only for FID analysers that measure HC. Since FID analysers generally
have a different response to CH versus C H , each THC FID analyser's CH response
factor, RF
shall be determined, after FID optimization. The most recent
RF
measured according to this Paragraph shall be used in the calculations for
HC determination described in Annex 4B Appendix A.7 (molar based approach) or
Annex 4B Appendix A.8 (mass based approach) to compensate for CH response.
RF
shall be determined as follows, noting that RF
is not determined for
FIDs that are calibrated and spanned using CH with a non-methane cutter:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A C H span gas concentration shall be selected to span the analyser before
emission testing. Only span gases that meet the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1.
shall be selected and the C H concentration of the gas shall be recorded;
A CH span gas that meets the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. shall be selected
and the CH concentration of the gas shall be recorded;
The FID analyser shall be operated according to the manufacturer's instructions;
(d) It shall be confirmed that the FID analyser has been calibrated using C H .
Calibration shall be performed on a carbon number basis of one (C );
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
The FID shall be zeroed with a zero gas used for emission testing;
The FID shall be spanned with the selected C H span gas;
The selected CH span gas shall be introduced at the sample port of the FID
analyser, the CH span gas that has been selected under sub-paragraph (b) of this
Paragraph;
The analyser response shall be stabilized. Stabilization time may include time to
purge the analyser and to account for its response;
While the analyser measures the CH concentration, 30s of sampled data shall be
recorded and the arithmetic mean of these values shall be calculated;
The mean measured concentration shall be divided by the recorded span
concentration of the CH calibration gas. The result is the FID analyser's response
factor for CH , RF .

8.1.10.2.4. Procedure
FID O interference shall be determined as follows, noting that one or more gas dividers
may be used to create reference gas concentrations that are required to perform this
verification:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Three span reference gases shall be selected that meet the specifications in
Paragraph 9.5.1. and contain C H concentration used to span the analysers before
emissions testing. Only span gases that meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.5.1.
CH span reference gases may be used for FIDs calibrated on CH with a
non-methane cutter. The three balance gas concentrations shall be selected such
that the concentrations of O and N represent the minimum and maximum and
intermediate O concentrations expected during testing. The requirement for using
the average O concentration can be removed if the FID is calibrated with span gas
balanced with the average expected oxygen concentration;
It shall be confirmed that the FID analyser meets all the specifications of
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.;
The FID analyser shall be started and operated as it would be before an emission
test. Regardless of the FID burner's air source during testing, zero air shall be used
as the FID burner's air source for this verification;
The analyser shall be set at zero;
The analyser shall be spanned using a span gas that is used during emissions
testing;
The zero response shall be checked by using the zero gas used during emission
testing. It shall be proceeded to the next step if the mean zero response of 30s of
sampled data is within ±0.5% of the span reference value used in sub-paragraph (e)
of this Paragraph, otherwise the procedure shall be restarted at sub-paragraph (d)
of this Paragraph;
The analyser response shall be checked using the span gas that has the minimum
concentration of O expected during testing. The mean response of 30s of stabilized
sample data shall be recorded as x ;
The zero response of the FID analyser shall be checked using the zero gas used
during emission testing. The next step shall be performed if the mean zero response
of 30s of stabilized sample data is within ±0.5% of the span reference value used in
sub-paragraph (e) of this Paragraph, otherwise the procedure shall be restarted at
sub-paragraph (d) of this Paragraph;
The analyser response shall be checked using the span gas that has the average
concentration of O expected during testing. The mean response of 30s of stabilized
sample data shall be recorded as x ;
The zero response of the FID analyser shall be checked using the zero gas used
during emission testing. The next step shall be performed if the mean zero response
of 30s of stabilized sample data is within ±0.5% of the span reference value used in
Paragraph (e) of this Paragraph, otherwise the procedure shall be restarted at
Paragraph (d) of this Paragraph;

8.1.10.3.2. Measurement Principles
A non-methane cutter is a heated catalyst that removes non-methane hydrocarbons from
the exhaust stream before the FID analyser measures the remaining hydrocarbon
concentration. An ideal non-methane cutter would have a methane conversion efficiency
E
[-] of 0 (that is, a methane penetration fraction, PF
, of 1.000), and the conversion
efficiency for all other hydrocarbons would be 1.000, as represented by an ethane
conversion efficiency E
[-] of 1 (that is, an ethane penetration fraction PF
[-] of 0).
The emission calculations in Annex 4B, Appendix A.7 or Annex 4B, Appendix A.8 use this
Paragraph's measured values of conversion efficiencies E
and E
to account for less
than ideal NMC performance.
8.1.10.3.3. System Requirements
8.1.10.3.4. Procedure
NMC conversion efficiencies are not limited to a certain range. However, it is
recommended that a non-methane cutter is optimized by adjusting its temperature to
achieve a E < 0.15 and a E > 0.98 (PF > 0.85 and PF < 0.02) as determined
by Paragraph 8.1.10.3.4., as applicable. If adjusting NMC temperature does not result in
achieving these specifications, it is recommended that the catalyst material is replaced.
The most recently determined conversion values from this Section shall be used to
calculate HC emissions according to Annexes A.7-A.8 as applicable.
Any one of the procedures specified in Paragraphs 8.1.10.3.4.1., 8.1.10.3.4.2. and
8.1.10.3.4.3. is recommended. An alternative method recommended by the instrument
manufacturer may be used.

8.1.10.3.4.2. Procedure for a FID Calibrated with Propane Bypassing the NMC
If a FID is used with an NMC that is calibrated with propane, C H , by bypassing the NMC,
penetrations fractions PF and PF shall be determined as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
A CH gas mixture and a C H analytical gas mixture shall be selected meeting the
specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. with the CH concentration typical of its peak
concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard and the C H concentration
typical of the peak total hydrocarbon (THC) concentration expected at the
hydrocarbon standard or the THC analyser span value;
The non-methane cutter shall be started and operated according to the
manufacturer's instructions, including any temperature optimization;
It shall be confirmed that the FID analyser meets all the specifications of
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.;
The FID analyser shall be operated according to the manufacturer's instructions;
The FID shall be zeroed and spanned as it would be during emission testing. The
FID shall be spanned by bypassing the cutter and by using C H span gas to span
the FID. The FID shall be spanned on a C basis;
The C H analytical gas mixture shall be introduced upstream of the non-methane
cutter at the same point the zero gas was introduced;
Time shall be allowed for the analyser response to stabilize. Stabilization time may
include time to purge the non-methane cutter and to account for the analyser's
response;
While the analyser measures a stable concentration, 30s of sampled data shall be
recorded and the arithmetic mean of these data points shall be calculated;
The flow path shall be rerouted to bypass the non-methane cutter, the C H
analytical gas mixture shall be introduced to the bypass, and the steps in
sub-paragraphs (g) through (h) of this Paragraph shall be repeated;
The mean C H concentration measured through the non-methane cutter shall be
divided by the mean concentration measured after bypassing the non-methane
cutter. The result is the C H penetration fraction, PF , that is equivalent to
(1- E [-]). This penetration fraction shall be used according to A.7 or A.8, as
applicable;
The steps in sub-paragraphs (f) through (j) of this Paragraph shall be repeated, but
with the CH analytical gas mixture instead of C H . The result will be the CH
penetration fraction, PF (equivalent to (1- E [-])). This penetration
fraction shall be used according to Annexes A.7-A.8, as applicable.

8.1.11. NO Measurements
8.1.11.1. CLD CO and H O Quench Verification
8.1.11.1.1. Scope and Frequency
If a CLD analyser is used to measure NO , the amount of H O and CO quench shall be
verified after installing the CLD analyser and after major maintenance.
8.1.11.1.2. Measurement Principles
H O and CO can negatively interfere with a CLD's NO response by collisional quenching,
which inhibits the chemiluminescent reaction that a CLD utilizes to detect NO . This
procedure and the calculations in Paragraph 8.1.11.2.3. determine quench and scale the
quench results to the maximum mole fraction of H O and the maximum CO concentration
expected during emission testing. If the CLD analyser uses quench compensation
algorithms that utilize H O and/or CO measurement instruments, quench shall be
evaluated with these instruments active and with the compensation algorithms applied.
8.1.11.1.3. System Requirements
For dilute measurement a CLD analyser shall not exceed a combined H O and CO
quench of ±2%. For raw measurement a CLD analyser shall not exceed a combined H O
and CO quench of ±2%. Combined quench is the sum of the CO quench determined as
described in Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4. and the H O quench as determined in
Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5. If these requirements are not met, corrective action shall be taken
by repairing or replacing the analyser. Before running emission tests, it shall be verified
that the corrective action have successfully restored the analyser to proper functioning.
8.1.11.1.4. CO Quench Verification Procedure
The following method or the method prescribed by the instrument manufacturer may be
used to determine CO quench by using a gas divider that blends binary span gases with
zero gas as the diluent and meets the specifications in Paragraph 9.4.5.6., or good
engineering judgment shall be used to develop a different protocol:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
PTFE or stainless steel tubing shall be used to make necessary connections;
The gas divider shall be configured such that nearly equal amounts of the span and
diluent gases are blended with each other;
If the CLD analyser has an operating mode in which it detects NO-only, as opposed
to total NO , the CLD analyser shall be operated in the NO-only operating mode;
A CO span gas that meets the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. and a
concentration that is approximately twice the maximum CO concentration expected
during emission testing shall be used;

8.1.11.1.5. H O Quench Verification Procedure
The following method or the method prescribed by the instrument manufacturer may be
used to determine H O quench, or good engineering judgment shall be used to develop a
different protocol:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
PTFE or stainless steel tubing shall be used to make necessary connections;
If the CLD analyser has an operating mode in which it detects NO-only, as opposed
to total NO , the CLD analyser shall be operated in the NO-only operating mode;
A NO span gas shall be used that meets the specifications of Paragraph 9.5.1. and
a concentration that is near the maximum concentration expected during emission
testing. Higher concentration may be used according to the instrument
manufacturer's recommendation and good engineering judgement in order to obtain
accurate verification, if the expected NO concentration is lower than the minimum
range for the verification specified by the instrument manufacturer;
The CLD analyser shall be zeroed and spanned. The CLD analyser shall be
spanned with the NO span gas from Paragraph (c) of this Paragraph, the span gas
concentration shall be recorded as x , and it shall be used in the quench
verification calculations in Paragraph 8.1.11.2.3.;
The NO span gas shall be humidified by bubbling it through distilled water in a
sealed vessel. If the humidified NO span gas sample does not pass through a
sample dryer for this verification test, the vessel temperature shall be controlled to
generate an H O level approximately equal to the maximum mole fraction of H O
expected during emission testing. If the humidified NO span gas sample does not
pass through a sample dryer, the quench verification calculations in
Paragraph 8.1.11.2.3. scale the measured H O quench to the highest mole fraction
of H O expected during emission testing. If the humidified NO span gas sample
passes through a dryer for this verification test, the vessel temperature shall be
controlled to generate an H O level at least as high as the level determined in
Paragraph 9.3.2.3.1. For this case, the quench verification calculations in Paragraph
8.1.11.2.3. do not scale the measured H O quench;
The humidified NO test gas shall be introduced into the sample system. It may be
introduced upstream or downstream of a sample dryer that is used during emission
testing. Depending on the point of introduction, the respective calculation method of
sub-paragraph (e) shall be selected. Note that the sample dryer shall meet the
sample dryer verification check in Paragraph 8.1.8.5.8.;
The mole fraction of H O in the humidified NO span gas shall be measured. In case
a sample dryer is used, the mole fraction of H O in the humidified NO span gas shall
be measured downstream of the sample dryer, x . It is recommended to
measure x as close as possible to the CLD analyser inlet. x may be
calculated from measurements of dew point, T , and absolute pressure, p ;

8.1.11.2.3. Combined H O and CO Quench Calculations
Combined H O and CO quench shall be calculated as follows:
⎡⎛
x


⎢⎜

1 x
x
x
x

quench ⎢⎜




=
1
⎜ 1⎟
× ⎥ × 100%
⎢⎜

x

× +
x

x

⎠ x ⎥




⎣⎝


where:
quench = amount of CLD quench
x = measured concentration of NO upstream of a bubbler, according to
sub-paragraph (d) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5.
x = measured concentration of NO downstream of a bubbler, according to
sub-paragraph (i) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5.
x = maximum expected mole fraction of water during emission testing according
to Paragraph 8.1.11.2.1.
x = measured mole fraction of water during the quench verification according to
sub-paragraph (g) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.5.
x = measured concentration of NO when NO span gas is blended with CO span
gas, according to sub-paragraph (j) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.
x = actual concentration of NO when NO span gas is blended with CO span gas,
according to sub-paragraph (k) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4. and calculated
according to Equation (8-5)
x = maximum expected concentration of CO during emission testing, according
to Paragraph 8.1.11.2.2.
x = actual concentration of CO when NO span gas is blended with CO span
gas, according to sub-paragraph (i) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.
⎛ x ⎞
x = ⎜1 − ⎟ × x
(8-5)
⎜ x ⎟


where:
x = the NO span gas concentration input to the gas divider, according to
sub-paragraph (e) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.
x = the CO span gas concentration input to the gas divider, according to
sub-paragraph (d) of Paragraph 8.1.11.1.4.

(g)
This difference shall be multiplied by the ratio of the expected mean HC
concentration to the HC concentration measured during the verification. The
analyser meets the interference verification of this Paragraph if this result is within
±2% of the NO concentration expected at the standard:
⎛ x ⎞
x − x
× ⎜ ⎟ ≤ 2% × ( x ) (8-6)

x

⎝ ⎠
where:
x = the mean concentration of NO measured by CLD [μmol/mol] or [ppm]
x = the mean concentration of NO measured by NDUV [μmol/mol] or [ppm]
x = the mean concentration of HC measured [μmol/mol] or [ppm]
x = the mean concentration of HC expected at the standard [μmol/mol] or
[ppm]
x = the mean concentration of NO expected at the standard [μmol/mol] or
[ppm]
8.1.11.3.5. Cooling Bath (Chiller) Requirements
It shall be demonstrated that for the highest expected water vapour concentration H , the
water removal technique maintains CLD humidity at ≤5g water/kg dry air (or about 0.8%vol
H O), which is 100% relative humidity at 3.9°C and 101.3kPa. This humidity specification
is also equivalent to about 25% relative humidity at 25°C and 101.3kPa. This may be
demonstrated by measuring the temperature at the outlet of a thermal dehumidifier, or by
measuring humidity at a point just upstream of the CLD.
8.1.11.4. Cooling Bath (Chiller) NO Penetration
8.1.11.4.1. Scope and Frequency
If a cooling bath (chiller) is used to dry a sample upstream of a NO measurement
instrument, but no NO -to-NO converter is used upstream of the cooling bath, this
verification shall be performed for cooling bath NO penetration. This verification shall be
performed after initial installation and after major maintenance.
8.1.11.4.2. Measurement Principles
A cooling bath (chiller) removes water, which can otherwise interfere with a NO
measurement. However, liquid water remaining in an improperly designed cooling bath
can remove NO from the sample. If a cooling bath is used without an NO -to-NO
converter upstream, it could therefore remove NO from the sample prior NO
measurement.

8.1.11.5. NO -to-NO converter conversion verification
8.1.11.5.1. Scope and Frequency
If an analyser is used that measures only NO to determine NO , an NO -to-NO converter
shall be used upstream of the analyser. This verification shall be performed after installing
the converter, after major maintenance and within 35 days before an emission test. This
verification shall be repeated at this frequency to verify that the catalytic activity of the
NO -to-NO converter has not deteriorated.
8.1.11.5.2. Measurement Principles
An NO -to-NO converter allows an analyser that measures only NO to determine total NO
by converting the NO in exhaust to NO.
8.1.11.5.3. System Requirements
8.1.11.5.4. Procedure
An NO -to-NO converter shall allow for measuring at least 95% of the total NO at the
maximum expected concentration of NO .
The following procedure shall be used to verify the performance of a NO -to-NO converter:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For the instrument setup the analyser and NO -to-NO converter manufacturers'
start-up and operating instructions shall be followed. The analyser and converter
shall be adjusted as needed to optimize performance;
An ozonator's inlet shall be connected to a zero-air or oxygen source and its outlet
shall be connected to one port of a 3-way tee fitting. An NO span gas shall be
connected to another port and the NO -to-NO converter inlet shall be connected to
the last port;
The following steps shall be taken when performing this check:
(i)
(ii)
The ozonator air shall be set off and the ozonator power shall be turned off
and the NO -to-NO converter shall be set to the bypass mode (i.e., NO
mode). Stabilization shall be allowed for, accounting only for transport delays
and instrument response;
The NO and zero-gas flows shall be adjusted so the NO concentration at the
analyser is near the peak total NO concentration expected during testing.
The NO content of the gas mixture shall be less than 5% of the NO
concentration. The concentration of NO shall be recorded by calculating the
mean of 30s of sampled data from the analyser and this value shall be
recorded as x . Higher concentration may be used according to the
instrument manufacturer's recommendation and good engineering judgement
in order to obtain accurate verification, if the expected NO concentration is
lower than the minimum range for the verification specified by the instrument
manufacturer;

8.1.12.1.2. Independent Verification
The balance manufacturer (or a representative approved by the balance manufacturer)
shall verify the balance performance within 370 days of testing in accordance with internal
audit procedures.
8.1.12.1.3. Zeroing and Spanning
Balance performance shall be verified by zeroing and spanning it with at least one
calibration weight, and any weights that are used shall meet the specifications in
Paragraph 9.5.2. to perform this verification. A manual or automated procedure shall be
used:
(a)
(b)
A manual procedure requires that the balance shall be used in which the balance
shall be zeroed and spanned with at least one calibration weight. If normally mean
values are obtained by repeating the weighing process to improve the accuracy and
precision of PM measurements, the same process shall be used to verify balance
performance;
An automated procedure is carried out with internal calibration weights that are used
automatically to verify balance performance. These internal calibration weights shall
meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.5.2. to perform this verification.
8.1.12.1.4. Reference Sample Weighing
All mass readings during a weighing session shall be verified by weighing reference PM
sample media (e.g. filters) before and after a weighing session. A weighing session may
be as short as desired, but no longer than 80h, and may include both pre- and
post-test mass readings. Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample
media shall return the same value within ±10μg or ±10% of the expected total PM mass,
whichever is higher. Should successive PM sample filter weighing events fail this criterion,
all individual test filter mass readings mass readings occurring between the successive
reference filter mass determinations shall be invalidated. These filters may be re-weighed
in another weighing session. Should a post-test filter be invalidated then the test interval is
void. This verification shall be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
At least two samples of unused PM sample media shall be kept in the
PM-stabilization environment. These shall be used as references. Unused filters of
the same material and size shall be selected for use as references;
References shall be stabilized in the PM stabilization environment. References shall
be considered stabilized if they have been in the PM-stabilization environment for a
minimum of 30min, and the PM-stabilization environment has been within the
specifications of Paragraph 9.3.4.4. for at least the preceding 60 min;
The balance shall be exercised several times with a reference sample without
recording the values;
The balance shall be zeroed and spanned. A test mass shall be placed on the
balance (e.g. calibration weight) and then removed ensuring that the balance
returns to an acceptable zero reading within the normal stabilization time;

8.1.12.2.2. PM Sample Filter Density
Different PM sample filter have different densities. The known density of the sample media
shall be used, or one of the densities for some common sampling media shall be used, as
follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For PTFE-coated borosilicate glass, a sample media density of 2,300kg/m shall be
used;
For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral support ring of polymethylpentene
that accounts for 95% of the media mass, a sample media density of 920kg/m shall
be used;
For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral support ring of PTFE, a sample
media density of 2,144kg/m shall be used.
8.1.12.2.3. Air Density
Because a PM balance environment shall be tightly controlled to an ambient temperature
of (22 ± 1)°C and a dew point of (9.5 ± 1)°C, air density is primarily function of atmospheric
pressure. Therefore a buoyancy correction is specified that is only a function of
atmospheric pressure.
8.1.12.2.4. Calibration Weight Density
The stated density of the material of the metal calibration weight shall be used.
8.1.12.2.5. Correction Calculation
The PM sample filter shall be corrected for buoyancy using the following equations:
where:
⎛ ρ ⎞
⎜ 1 − ⎟
⎜ ρ ⎟
m = m × ⎜

(8-8)
⎜ ρ
1 − ⎟



ρ

m = PM sample filter mass corrected for buoyancy
m = PM sample filter mass uncorrected for buoyancy
ρ
= density of air in balance environment
ρ = density of calibration weight used to span balance
ρ = density of PM sample filter

8.2.1.1.3. Demonstration of Proportional Sampling
For any proportional batch sample such as a bag or PM filter, it shall be demonstrated that
proportional sampling was maintained using one of the following, noting that up to 5% of
the total number of data points may be omitted as outliers.
Using good engineering judgment, it shall be demonstrated with an engineering analysis
that the proportional-flow control system inherently ensures proportional sampling under
all circumstances expected during testing. For example, CFVs may be used for both
sample flow and total flow if it is demonstrated that they always have the same inlet
pressures and temperatures and that they always operate under critical-flow conditions.
Measured or calculated flows and/or tracer gas concentrations (e.g. CO ) shall be used to
determine the minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling over the test interval.
8.2.1.2. Partial Flow Dilution System Validation
For the control of a partial flow dilution system to extract a proportional raw exhaust
sample, a fast system response is required; this is identified by the promptness of the
partial flow dilution system. The transformation time for the system shall be determined by
the procedure in Paragraph 8.1.8.6. and the related Figure 1. The actual control of the
partial flow dilution system shall be based on the current measured conditions. If the
combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement and the partial flow
system is ≤ 0.3s, online control shall be used. If the transformation time exceeds 0.3s,
look-ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run shall be used. In this case, the
combined rise time shall be ≤ 1s and the combined delay time ≤ 10s. The total system
response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the particulates, q
(sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system), proportional to the exhaust
mass flow. To determine the proportionality, a regression analysis of q versus q
(exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis) shall be conducted on a minimum 5Hz data
acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:
(a)
The correlation coefficient r of the linear regression between q
and q
shall
not be less than 0.95;
(b)
The standard error of estimate of q
on q
shall not exceed 5% of q
maximum;
(c) q intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ±2% of q maximum.
Look-ahead control is required if the combined transformation times of the particulate
system, t and of the exhaust mass flow signal, t are > 0.3s. In this case, a pre-test
shall be run and the exhaust mass flow signal of the pre-test be used for controlling the
sample flow into the particulate system. A correct control of the partial dilution system is
obtained, if the time trace of q of the pre-test, which controls qmp, is shifted by a
"look-ahead" time of t + t .
For establishing the correlation between q and q the data taken during the actual
test shall be used, with q time aligned by t relative to q (no contribution from t
to the time alignment). The time shift between q and q is the difference between their
transformation times that were determined in Paragraph 8.1.8.6.3.2.

8.2.3.3. Grounding
Electrically grounded tweezers or a grounding strap shall be used to handle PM filters as
described in Paragraph 9.3.4.
8.2.3.4. Unused Sample Media
8.2.3.5. Stabilization
8.2.3.6. Weighing
Unused sample media shall be placed in one or more containers that are open to the
PM-stabilization environment. If filters are used, they may be placed in the bottom half of a
filter cassette.
Sample media shall be stabilized in the PM-stabilization environment. An unused sample
medium can be considered stabilized as long as it has been in the PM-stabilization
environment for a minimum of 30min, during which the PM-stabilization environment has
been within the specifications of Paragraph 9.3.4.
The sample media shall be weighed automatically or manually, as follows:
(a)
(b)
For automatic weighing, the automation system manufacturer's instructions shall be
followed to prepare samples for weighing;
For manual weighing, good engineering judgment shall be used;
(c) Optionally, substitution weighing is permitted (see Paragraph 8.2.3.10.);
(d)
Once a filter is weighed it shall be returned to the Petri dish and covered.
8.2.3.7. Buoyancy Correction
8.2.3.8. Repetition
The measured weight shall be corrected for buoyancy as described in Paragraph 8.1.12.2.
The filter mass measurements may be repeated to determine the average mass of the
filter using good engineering judgement and to exclude outliers from the calculation of the
average.
8.2.3.9. Tare-weighing
Unused filters that have been tare-weighed shall be loaded into clean filter cassettes and
the loaded cassettes shall be placed in a covered or sealed container before they are
taken to the test cell for sampling.

8.2.4. PM Sample Post-conditioning and Total Weighing
8.2.4.1. Periodic Verification
It shall be assured that the weighing and PM-stabilization environments have met the
periodic verifications in Paragraph 8.1.12.1. After testing is complete, the filters shall be
returned to the weighing and PM-stabilization environment. The weighing and
PM-stabilization environment shall meet the ambient conditions requirements in
Paragraph 9.3.4.4., otherwise the test filters shall be left covered until proper conditions
have been met.
8.2.4.2. Removal from Sealed Containers
In the PM-stabilization environment, the PM samples shall be removed from the sealed
containers. Filters may be removed from their cassettes before or after stabilization. When
a filter is removed from a cassette, the top half of the cassette shall be separated from the
bottom half using a cassette separator designed for this purpose.
8.2.4.3. Electrical Grounding
To handle PM samples, electrically grounded tweezers or a grounding strap shall be used,
as described in Paragraph 9.3.4.5. below.
8.2.4.4. Visual Inspection
The collected PM samples and the associated filter media shall be inspected visually. If
the conditions of either the filter or the collected PM sample appear to have been
compromised, or if the particulate matter contacts any surface other than the filter, the
sample may not be used to determine particulate emissions. In the case of contact with
another surface; the affected surface shall be cleaned before proceeding.
8.2.4.5. Stabilization of PM Samples
To stabilize PM samples, they shall be placed in one or more containers that are open to
the PM-stabilization environment, which is described in Paragraph 9.3.4.3. A PM sample is
stabilized as long as it has been in the PM-stabilization environment for one of the
following durations, during which the stabilization environment has been within the
specifications of Paragraph 9.3.4.3. below:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If it is expected that a filter's total surface concentration of PM will be greater than
0.353μg/mm , assuming a 400μg loading on a 38mm diameter filter stain area, the
filter shall be exposed to the stabilization environment for at least 60min before
weighing;
If it is expected that a filter's total surface concentration of PM will be less than
0.353μg/mm , the filter shall be exposed to the stabilization environment for at least
30min before weighing;
If a filter's total surface concentration of PM to be expected during the test is
unknown, the filter shall be exposed to the stabilization environment for at least
60min before weighing.

9.2. Dilution Procedure (if applicable)
9.2.1. Diluent Conditions and Background Concentrations
Gaseous constituents may be measured raw or dilute whereas PM measurement
generally requires dilution. Dilution may be accomplished by a full flow or partial flow
dilution system. When dilution is applied then the exhaust may be diluted with ambient air,
synthetic air, or nitrogen. For gaseous emissions measurement the diluent shall be at least
15°C. For PM sampling the temperature of the diluent is specified in Paragraphs 9.2.2. for
CVS and 9.2.3. for PFD with varying dilution ratio. The flow capacity of the dilution system
shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and
sampling systems. De-humidifying the dilution air before entering the dilution system is
permitted, if the air humidity is high. The dilution tunnel walls may be heated or insulated
as well as the bulk stream tubing downstream of the tunnel to prevent aqueous
condensation.
Before a diluent is mixed with exhaust, it may be preconditioned by increasing or
decreasing its temperature or humidity. Constituents may be removed from the diluent to
reduce their background concentrations. The following provisions apply to removing
constituents or accounting for background concentrations:
(a)
(b)
Constituent concentrations in the diluent may be measured and compensated for
background effects on test results. See Annexes A.7-A.8 for calculations that
compensate for background concentrations;
To account for background PM the following options are available:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
For removing background PM, the diluent shall be filtered with high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) filters that have an initial minimum collection efficiency
specification of 99.97% (see Paragraph 2.1.38. of this Regulation for
procedures related to HEPA-filtration efficiencies);
For correcting for background PM without HEPA filtration, the background PM
shall not contribute more than 50% of the net PM collected on the sample
filter;
Background correction of net PM with HEPA filtration is permitted without
restriction.

(g)
Aqueous condensation. To ensure that a flow is measured that corresponds to a
measured concentration, either aqueous condensation shall be prevented between
the sample probe location and the flowmeter inlet in the dilution tunnel or aqueous
condensation shall be allowed to occur and humidity at the flow-meter inlet
measured. The dilution tunnel walls or bulk stream tubing downstream of the tunnel
may be heated or insulated to prevent aqueous condensation. Aqueous
condensation shall be prevented throughout the dilution tunnel. Certain exhaust
components can be diluted or eliminated by the presence of moisture;
For PM sampling, the already proportional flow coming from CVS goes through
secondary dilution (one or more) to achieve the requested overall dilution ratio as
shown in Figure 9.2 and mentioned in Paragraph 9.2.3.2.;
(h)
(i)
(j)
The minimum overall dilution ratio shall be within the range of 5:1 to 7:1 and at least
2:1 for the primary dilution stage based on the maximum engine exhaust flow rate
during the test cycle or test interval;
The overall residence time in the system shall be between 0.5 and 5 s, as measured
from the point of diluent introduction to the filter holder(s);
The residence time in the secondary dilution system, if present, shall be at least
0.5 s, as measured from the point of secondary diluent introduction to the filter
holder(s).
To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, a particulate
sampling filter, a gravimetric balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing
chamber, are required.

9.2.3. Partial Flow Dilution (PFD) System
9.2.3.1. Description of Partial Flow System
A schematic of a PFD system is shown in Figure 9.2. It is a general schematic showing
principles of sample extraction, dilution and PM sampling. It is not meant to indicate that all
the components described in the figure are necessary for other possible sampling systems
that satisfy the intent of sample collection. Other configurations which do not match these
schematics are allowed under the condition that they serve the same purpose of sample
collection, dilution, and PM sampling. These need to satisfy other criteria such as in
Paragraphs 8.1.8.6. (periodic calibration) and 8.2.1.2. (validation) for varying dilution PFD,
and Paragraph 8.1.4.5. as well as Table 8.2 (linearity verification) and
Paragraph 8.1.8.5.7. (verification) for constant dilution PFD.
As shown in Figure 9.2, the raw exhaust gas or the primary diluted flow is transferred from
the exhaust pipe EP or from CVS respectively to the dilution tunnel DT through the
sampling probe SP and the transfer line TL. The total flow through the tunnel is adjusted
with a flow controller and the sampling pump P of the particulate sampling system (PSS).
For proportional raw exhaust sampling, the dilution air flow is controlled by the flow
controller FC1, which may use q (exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis) or q
(intake air mass flow rate on wet basis) and q (fuel mass flow rate) as command signals,
for the desired exhaust split. The sample flow into the dilution tunnel DT is the difference
of the total flow and the dilution air flow. The dilution air flow rate is measured with the flow
measurement device FM1, the total flow rate with the flow measurement device of the
particulate sampling system. The dilution ratio is calculated from these two flow rates. For
sampling with a constant dilution ratio of raw or diluted exhaust versus exhaust flow
(e.g.: secondary dilution for PM sampling), the dilution air flow rate is usually constant and
controlled by the flow controller FC1 or dilution air pump.

Mass flow rates applicable only for proportional raw exhaust sampling PFD:
q = Exhaust gas mass gas flow rate on wet basis
q = Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
= Fuel mass flow rate
9.2.3.2. Dilution
9.2.3.3. Applicability
9.2.3.4. Calibration
The temperature of the diluents (ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen as quoted in
Paragraph 9.2.1.) shall be maintained between 293 and 325K (20 to 52°C) in close
proximity to the entrance into the dilution tunnel.
De-humidifying the dilution air before entering the dilution system is permitted. The partial
flow dilution system has to be designed to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample from
the engine exhaust stream, thus responding to excursions in the exhaust stream flow rate,
and introduce dilution air to this sample to achieve a temperature at the test filter as
prescribed by Paragraph 9.3.3.4.3. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio be
determined such that the accuracy requirements of Paragraph 8.1.8.6.1. are fulfilled.
To ensure that a flow is measured that corresponds to a measured concentration, either
aqueous condensation shall be prevented between the sample probe location and the
flow-meter inlet in the dilution tunnel or aqueous condensation shall be allowed to occur
and humidity at the flow-meter inlet measured. The PFD system may be heated or
insulated to prevent aqueous condensation. Aqueous condensation shall be prevented
throughout the dilution tunnel.
The minimum dilution ratio shall be within the range of 5:1 to 7:1 based on the maximum
engine exhaust flow rate during the test cycle or test interval.
The residence time in the system shall be between 0.5 and 5s, as measured from the
point of diluent introduction to the filter holder(s).
To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, a particulate
sampling filter, a gravimetric balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing
chamber, are required.
PFD may be used to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample for any batch or
continuous PM and gaseous emission sampling over any transient duty cycle, any
steady-state duty cycle or any ramped-modal duty cycle.
The system may be used also for a previously diluted exhaust where, via a constant
dilution-ratio, an already proportional flow is diluted (see Figure 9.2). This is the way of
performing secondary dilution from a CVS tunnel to achieve the necessary overall dilution
ratio for PM sampling.
The calibration of the PFD to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample is considered in
Paragraph 8.1.8.6.

9.3.2. Gas Sampling
9.3.2.1. Sampling Probes
Either single-port or multi-port probes are used for sampling gaseous emissions. The
probes may be oriented in any direction relative to the raw or diluted exhaust flow. For
some probes, the sample temperatures shall be controlled, as follows:
(a)
(b)
For probes that extract NO from diluted exhaust, the probe's wall temperature shall
be controlled to prevent aqueous condensation;
For probes that extract hydrocarbons from the diluted exhaust, a probe wall
temperature is recommended to be controlled approximately 190°C to minimize
contamination.
9.3.2.2. Transfer Lines
Transfer lines with inside surfaces of stainless steel, PTFE, Viton , or any other material
that has better properties for emission sampling shall be used. A non-reactive material
capable of withstanding exhaust temperatures shall be used. In-line filters may be used if
the filter and its housing meet the same temperature requirements as the transfer lines, as
follows:
(a)
(b)
For NO transfer lines upstream of either an NO -to-NO converter that meets the
specifications of Paragraph 8.1.11.5. or a chiller that meets the specifications of
Paragraph 8.1.11.4. a sample temperature that prevents aqueous condensation
shall be maintained;
For THC transfer lines a wall temperature tolerance throughout the entire line of
(191 ± 11)°C shall be maintained. If sampled from raw exhaust, an unheated,
insulated transfer line may be connected directly to a probe. The length and
insulation of the transfer line shall be designed to cool the highest expected raw
exhaust temperature to no lower than 191°C, as measured at the transfer line outlet.
For dilute sampling a transition zone between the probe and transfer line of up to
0.92m in length is allowed to transition the wall temperature to (191 ± 11)°C.
9.3.2.3. Sample-conditioning Components
9.3.2.3.1. Sample Dryers
9.3.2.3.1.1. Requirements
The instrument that is used for removing moisture shall meet the minimum requirements in
the following Paragraph. The moisture content of 0.8%vol H O is used in Equation (A.8-
14).
For the highest expected water vapour concentration H , the water removal technique
shall maintain CLD humidity at ≤ 5g water/kg dry air (or about 0.8%vol H O), which is
100% relative humidity at 3.9°C and 101.3kPa. This humidity specification is also
equivalent to about 25% relative humidity at 25°C and 101.3kPa. This may be
demonstrated by measuring the temperature at the outlet of a thermal dehumidifier, or by
measuring humidity at a point just upstream of the CLD.

9.3.2.4.
Sample
Storage Media
In the case of bag sampling, gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers
that minimally off-gas or allow permeation of gases. Good engineering judgment shall be
used to
determine acceptable thresholds of storage media cleanliness and permeation. To
clean a container, it may be repeatedly purged and evacuated e and may be heated. A
flexible container (such(
as a bag) within a temperature-controlled environment, or a
temperature controlled rigid container that is i initially evacuated or has a volume that can
be displaced, such
as a piston and cylinder arrangement, shall be used. Containers
meeting
the specifications in thee following Table 9.1 shall be used.
Table
9.1
Gaseous Batch Sampling Container Materials
CO, CO
, O , CH ,
C H , C H , NO, NO
THC, NMHC
polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) for example Tedlar
, polyvinylidene
fluoride
for example Kynar , polytetrafluoroethylene
for
example Teflon , or stainlesss steel
polytetrafluoroethylene
or stainless steel
9.3.3.
9.3.3.1.
PM Sampling
Sampling Probes
PM probes with a single opening at the end
shall be used. PM probes shall be oriented to
face directly upstream.
The PM
probe may be shielded with a hat that conforms withh the requirements in
Figure 9.3. In this case the pre-classifier described in Paragraph 9.3. .3.3. shall not be used.
Figure 9.3
Scheme of a Sampling Probe with a Hat-shapedd Pre-classifier

9.3.3.4.3. Dilution and Temperature Control of PM Samples
PM samples shall be diluted at least once upstream of transfer lines in case of a CVS
system and downstream in case of PFD system (see Paragraph 9.3.3.2. relating to
transfer lines). Sample temperature is to be controlled to a (47 ± 5)°C tolerance, as
measured anywhere within 200mm upstream or 200mm downstream of the PM storage
media. The PM sample is intended to be heated or cooled primarily by dilution conditions
as specified in sub-paragraph (a) of Paragraph 9.2.1.
9.3.3.4.4. Filter Face Velocity
9.3.3.4.5. Filter Holder
A filter face velocity shall be between 0.90 and 1.00m/s with less than 5% of the recorded
flow values exceeding this range. If the total PM mass exceeds 400μg, the filter face
velocity may be reduced. The face velocity shall be measured as the volumetric flow rate
of the sample at the pressure upstream of the filter and temperature of the filter face,
divided by the filter's exposed area. The exhaust stack or CVS tunnel pressure shall be
used for the upstream pressure if the pressure drop through the PM sampler up to the filter
is less than 2kPa.
To minimize turbulent deposition and to deposit PM evenly on a filter, a 12.5° (from centre)
divergent cone angle to transition from the transfer-line inside diameter to the exposed
diameter of the filter face shall be used. Stainless steel for this transition shall be used.
9.3.4. PM-stabilization and Weighing Environments for Gravimetric Analysis
9.3.4.1. Environment for Gravimetric Analysis
9.3.4.2. Cleanliness
This Section describes the two environments required to stabilize and weigh PM for
gravimetric analysis: the PM stabilization environment, where filters are stored before
weighing; and the weighing environment, where the balance is located. The two
environments may share a common space.
Both the stabilization and the weighing environments shall be kept free of ambient
contaminants, such as dust, aerosols, or semi-volatile material that could contaminate PM
samples.
The cleanliness of the PM-stabilization environment using reference filters shall be
verified, as described in Paragraph 8.1.12.1.4.
9.3.4.3. Temperature of the Chamber
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned
and weighed shall be maintained to within 22°C ± 1°C during all filter conditioning and
weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dew point of 9.5°C ± 1°C and a relative
humidity of 45% ± 8%. If the stabilization and weighing environments are separate, the
stabilization environment shall be maintained at a tolerance of 22°C ± 3°C.

9.4. Measurement Instruments
9.4.1. Introduction
9.4.1.1. Scope
This Paragraph specifies measurement instruments and associated system requirements
related to emission testing. This includes laboratory instruments for measuring engine
parameters, ambient conditions, flow-related parameters, and emission concentrations
(raw or diluted).
9.4.1.2. Instrument Types
Any instrument mentioned in this Annex shall be used as described in the Annex itself
(see Table 8.2 for measurement quantities provided by these instruments). Whenever an
instrument mentioned in this Annex is used in a way that is not specified, or another
instrument is used in its place, the requirements for equivalency provisions shall apply as
specified in Paragraph 5.1.3. Where more than one instrument for a particular
measurement is specified, one of them will be identified by the Type Approval Authority
upon application as the reference for showing that an alternative procedure is equivalent
to the specified procedure.
9.4.1.3. Redundant Systems
Data from multiple instruments to calculate test results for a single test may be used for all
measurement instruments described in this Paragraph, with prior approval of the Type
Approval Authority. Results from all measurements shall be recorded and the raw data
shall be retained, as described in Paragraph 5.3 of this Annex. This requirement applies
whether or not the measurements are actually used in the calculations.
9.4.2. Data Recording and Control
The test system shall be able to update data, record data and control systems related to
operator demand, the dynamometer, sampling equipment, and measurement instruments.
Data acquisition and control systems shall be used that can record at the specified
minimum frequencies, as shown in Table 9.2 (this table does not apply to discrete mode
testing).

9.4.3. Performance Specifications for Measurement Instruments
9.4.3.1. Overview
The test system as a whole shall meet all the applicable calibrations, verifications, and
test-validation criteria specified in Paragraph 8.1., including the requirements of the
linearity check of Paragraphs 8.1.4. and 8.2. Instruments shall meet the specifications in
Table 9.2 for all ranges to be used for testing. Furthermore, any documentation received
from instrument manufacturers showing that instruments meet the specifications in
Table 9.2 shall be kept.
9.4.3.2. Component Requirements
Table 9.3 shows the specifications of transducers of torque, speed, and pressure, sensors
of temperature and dew point, and other instruments. The overall system for measuring
the given physical and/or chemical quantity shall meet the linearity verification in
Paragraph 8.1.4. For gaseous emissions measurements, analysers may be used, that
have compensation algorithms that are functions of other measured gaseous components,
and of the fuel properties for the specific engine test. Any compensation algorithm shall
only provide offset compensation without affecting any gain (that is no bias).

9.4.4. Measurement of Engine Parameters & Ambient Conditions
9.4.4.1. Speed and Torque Sensors
9.4.4.1.1. Application
9.4.4.1.2. Shaft Work
Measurement instruments for work inputs and outputs during engine operation shall meet
the specifications in this Paragraph. Sensors, transducers, and meters meeting the
specifications in Table 9.3 are recommended. Overall systems for measuring work inputs
and outputs shall meet the linearity verifications in Paragraph 8.1.4.
Work and power shall be calculated from outputs of speed and torque transducers
according to Paragraph 9.4.4.1. Overall systems for measuring speed and torque shall
meet the calibration and verifications in Paragraphs 8.1.7. and 8.1.4.
Torque induced by the inertia of accelerating and decelerating components connected to
the flywheel, such as the drive shaft and dynamometer rotor, shall be compensated for as
needed, based on good engineering judgment.
9.4.4.2. Pressure Transducers, Temperature Sensors, and Dew Point Sensors
Overall systems for measuring pressure, temperature, and dew point shall meet the
calibration in Paragraph 8.1.7.
Pressure transducers shall be located in a temperature-controlled environment, or they
shall compensate for temperature changes over their expected operating range.
Transducer materials shall be compatible with the fluid being measured.
9.4.5. Flow-related Measurements
For any type of flow-meter (of fuel, intake-air, raw exhaust, diluted exhaust, sample), the
flow shall be conditioned as needed to prevent wakes, eddies, circulating flows, or flow
pulsations from affecting the accuracy or repeatability of the meter. For some meters, this
may be accomplished by using a sufficient length of straight tubing (such as a length equal
to at least 10 pipe diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, straightening
fins, orifice plates (or pneumatic pulsation dampeners for the fuel flow-meter) to establish
a steady and predictable velocity profile upstream of the meter.
9.4.5.1. Fuel Flow-meter
Overall system for measuring fuel flow shall meet the calibration in Paragraph 8.1.8.1. In
any fuel flow measurement it shall be accounted for any fuel that bypasses the engine or
returns from the engine to the fuel storage tank.
9.4.5.2. Intake-air Flow-meter
Overall system for measuring intake-air flow shall meet the calibration in
Paragraph 8.1.8.2.

9.4.5.4.2. Component Requirements
The overall system for measuring diluted exhaust flow shall meet the calibration and
verifications in Paragraphs 8.1.8.4. and 8.1.8.5. The following meters may be used:
(a)
(b)
For constant-volume sampling (CVS) of the total flow of diluted exhaust, a
critical-flow venturi (CFV) or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a
positive-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic
flow-meter (UFM) may be used. Combined with an upstream heat exchanger, either
a CFV or a PDP will also function as a passive flow controller by keeping the diluted
exhaust temperature constant in a CVS system;
For the Partial Flow Dilution (PFD) system the combination of any flow-meter with
any active flow control system to maintain proportional sampling of exhaust
constituents may be used. The total flow of diluted exhaust, or one or more sample
flows, or a combination of these flow controls may be controlled to maintain
proportional sampling.
For any other dilution system, a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flowmeter, a subsonic
venturi, a critical-flow venturi or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a
positive-displacement meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire
anemometer may be used.
9.4.5.4.3. Exhaust Cooling
Diluted exhaust upstream of a dilute flow-meter may be cooled, as long as all the following
provisions are observed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
PM shall not be sampled downstream of the cooling;
If cooling causes exhaust temperatures above 202°C to decrease to below 180°C,
NMHC shall not be sampled downstream of the cooling;
If cooling causes aqueous condensation, NO shall not be sampled downstream of
the cooling unless the cooler meets the performance verification in
Paragraph 8.1.11.4.;
If cooling causes aqueous condensation before the flow reaches a flowmeter, dew
point, T and pressure p shall be measured at the flowmeter inlet. These values
shall be used in emission calculations according Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.5.5. Sample Flow-meter for Batch Sampling
A sample flow-meter shall be used to determine sample flow rates or total flow sampled
into a batch sampling system over a test interval. The difference between two flow-meters
may be used to calculate sample flow into a dilution tunnel e.g. for partial flow dilution PM
measurement and secondary dilution flow PM measurement. Specifications for differential
flow measurement to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample is given in
Paragraph 8.1.8.6.1. and the calibration of differential flow measurement is given in
Paragraph 8.1.8.6.2.
Overall system for the sample flow-meter shall meet the calibration in Paragraph 8.1.8.

9.4.7.1.4. Methane
FID analysers measure total hydrocarbons (THC). To determine non-methane
hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane, CH , shall be quantified either with a nonmethane cutter
and a FID analyser as described in Paragraph 9.4.7.2., or with a gas chromatograph as
described in Paragraph 9.4.7.3. For a FID analyser used to determine NMHC, its response
factor to CH , RF , shall be determined as described in Paragraph 8.1.10.1. NMHCrelated
calculations are described in Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.7.1.5. Assumption on Methane
Instead of measuring methane, it is allowed to assume that 2% of measured total
hydrocarbons is methane, as described in Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.7.2. Non-methane Cutter
9.4.7.2.1. Application
A non-methane cutter may be used to measure CH with a FID analyser. A non-methane
cutter oxidizes all non-methane hydrocarbons to CO and H O. A non-methane cutter may
be used for raw or diluted exhaust for batch or continuous sampling.
9.4.7.2.2. System Performance
9.4.7.2.3. Configuration
9.4.7.2.4. Optimization
Non-methane-cutter performance shall be determined as described in Paragraph 8.1.10.3.
and the results shall be used to calculate NMHC emission in A.7 and A.8.
The non-methane cutter shall be configured with a bypass line for the verification
described in Paragraph 8.1.10.3.
A non-methane cutter may be optimised to maximize the penetration of CH and the
oxidation of all other hydrocarbons. A sample may be humidified and a sample may be
diluted with purified air or oxygen (O ) upstream of non-methane cutter to optimize its
performance. Any sample humidification and dilution shall be accounted for in emission
calculations.
9.4.7.3. Gas Chromatograph
Application: A gas chromatograph may be used to measure CH concentrations of diluted
exhaust for batch sampling. While also a non-methane cutter may be used to measure
CH , as described in Paragraph 9.4.7.2. a reference procedure based on a gas
chromatograph shall be used for comparison with any proposed alternate measurement
procedure under Paragraph 5.1.3.

9.4.8.2.3. NO -to-NO Converter
If the NDUV analyser measures only NO, an internal or external NO -to-NO converter that
meets the verification in Paragraph 8.1.11.5. shall be placed upstream of the NDUV
analyser. The converter shall be configured with a bypass to facilitate this verification.
9.4.8.2.4. Humidity Effects
The NDUV temperature shall be maintained to prevent aqueous condensation, unless one
of the following configurations is used:
(a)
(b)
An NDUV shall be connected downstream of any dryer or chiller that is downstream
of an NO -to-NO converter that meets the verification in Paragraph 8.1.11.5;
An NDUV shall be connected downstream of any dryer or thermal chiller that meets
the verification in Paragraph 8.1.11.4.
9.4.9. O Measurements
A paramagnetic detection (PMD) or magneto pneumatic detection (MPD) analyser shall be
used to measure O concentration in raw or diluted exhaust for batch or continuous
sampling.
9.4.10. Air-to-fuel Ratio Measurements
A Zirconia (ZrO ) analyser may be used to measure air-to-fuel ratio in raw exhaust for
continuous sampling. O measurements with intake air or fuel flow measurements may be
used to calculate exhaust flow rate according to Annexes A.7-A.8.
9.4.11. PM Measurements with Gravimetric Balance
A balance shall be used to weigh net PM collected on sample filter media.
The minimum requirement on the balance resolution shall be equal or lower than the
repeatability of 0.5 microgram recommended in Table 9.3. If the balance uses internal
calibration weights for routine spanning and linearity verifications, the calibration weights
shall meet the specifications in Paragraph 9.5.2.
The balance shall be configured for optimum settling time and stability at its location.

Table 9.5
Contamination limits, applicable for raw
measurements [μmol/mol = ppm (3.2.)]
Constituent Purified Synthetic Air Purified N
THC (C equivalent) ≤ 1μmol/mol ≤ 1μmol/mol
CO ≤ 1μmol/mol ≤ 1μmol/mol
CO ≤ 400μmol/mol ≤ 400μmol/mol
O 0.18 to 0.21mol/mol –
NO ≤ 0.1μmol/mol ≤ 0.1μmol/mol
(b)
The following gases shall be used with a FID analyser:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
FID fuel shall be used with an H concentration of (0.39 to 0.41) mol/mol,
balance He. The mixture shall not contain more than 0.05μmol/mol THC;
FID burner air shall be used that meets the specifications of purified air in
Paragraph (a) of this Paragraph;
FID zero gas. Flame-ionization detectors shall be zeroed with purified gas
that meets the specifications in Paragraph (a) of this Paragraph, except that
the purified gas O concentration may be any value;
FID propane span gas. The THC FID shall be spanned and calibrated with
span concentrations of propane, C H . It shall be calibrated on a carbon
number basis of one (C );
FID methane span gas. If a CH FID is always spanned and calibrated with a
non-methane cutter, then the FID shall be spanned and calibrated with span
concentrations of methane, CH . It shall be calibrated on a carbon number
basis of one (C );

9.5.1.3. Gas Transfer
Gases shall be transferred from their source to analysers using components that are
dedicated to controlling and transferring only those gases.
The shelf life of all calibration gases shall be respected. The expiration date of the
calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.
9.5.2. Mass Standards
PM balance calibration weights that are certified as international and/or national
recognized standards-traceable within 0.1% uncertainty shall be used. Calibration weights
may be certified by any calibration lab that maintains international and/or national
recognized standards-traceability. It shall be made sure that the lowest calibration weight
has no greater than ten times the mass of an unused PM-sample medium. The calibration
report shall also state the density of the weights.

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.2
STATISTICS
A.2.1.
Arithmetic Mean
The arithmetic mean, y , shall be calculated as follows:

y
y = (A.2-1)
N
A.2.2.
Standard Deviation
The standard deviation for a non-biased (e.g., N–1) sample, σ, shall be calculated as follows:
σ
=

( y − y)
( N − 1)
(A.2-2)
A.2.3.
Root Mean Square
The root mean square, rms , shall be calculated as follows:
rms

=
1
y
(A.2-3)
N

(c) Table A.2.1 of this Paragraph shall be used to compare t to the t values tabulated
versus the number of degrees of freedom. If t is less than t , then t passes the t-test.
v
Table A.2.1
Critical t Values Versus Number of Degrees of Freedom, v
Confidence
90% 95%
1
6.314
12.706
2
2.920
4.303
3
2.353
3.182
4
2.132
2.776
5
2.015
2.571
6
1.943
2.447
7
1.895
2.365
8
1.860
2.306
9
1.833
2.262
10
1.812
2.228
11
1.796
2.201
12
1.782
2.179
13
1.771
2.160
14
1.761
2.145
15
1.753
2.131
16
1.746
2.120
18
1.734
2.101
20
1.725
2.086
22
1.717
2.074
24
1.711
2.064
26
1.706
2.056
28
1.701
2.048
30
1.697
2.042
35
1.690
2.030
40
1.684
2.021
50
1.676
2.009
70
1.667
1.994
100
1.660
1.984
1000+
1.645
1.960
Linear interpolation shall be used to establish values not shown here.

Table A.2.2
Critical F Values, F , versus N–1 and N –1 at 90% Confidence
N–1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
24
30
40
60
120 1000+
N
–1
1
39.86 49.50 53.59 55.83 57.24 58.20 58.90 59.43 59.85 60.19 60.70 61.22 61.74 62.00 62.26 62.52 62.79 63.06 63.32
2
8.526 9.000 9.162 9.243 9.293 9.326 9.349 9.367 9.381 9.392 9.408 9.425 9.441 9.450 9.458 9.466 9.475 9.483 9.491
3
5.538 5.462 5.391 5.343 5.309 5.285 5.266 5.252 5.240 5.230 5.216 5.200 5.184 5.176 5.168 5.160 5.151 5.143 5.134
4
4.545 4.325 4.191 4.107 4.051 4.010 3.979 3.955 3.936 3.920 3.896 3.870 3.844 3.831 3.817 3.804 3.790 3.775 3.761
5
4.060 3.780 3.619 3.520 3.453 3.405 3.368 3.339 3.316 3.297 3.268 3.238 3.207 3.191 3.174 3.157 3.140 3.123 3.105
6
3.776 3.463 3.289 3.181 3.108 3.055 3.014 2.983 2.958 2.937 2.905 2.871 2.836 2.818 2.800 2.781 2.762 2.742 2.722
7
3.589 3.257 3.074 2.961 2.883 2.827 2.785 2.752 2.725 2.703 2.668 2.632 2.595 2.575 2.555 2.535 2.514 2.493 2.471
8
3.458 3.113 2.924 2.806 2.726 2.668 2.624 2.589 2.561 2.538 2.502 2.464 2.425 2.404 2.383 2.361 2.339 2.316 2.293
9
3.360 3.006 2.813 2.693 2.611 2.551 2.505 2.469 2.440 2.416 2.379 2.340 2.298 2.277 2.255 2.232 2.208 2.184 2.159
10
3.285 2.924 2.728 2.605 2.522 2.461 2.414 2.377 2.347 2.323 2.284 2.244 2.201 2.178 2.155 2.132 2.107 2.082 2.055
11
3.225 2.860 2.660 2.536 2.451 2.389 2.342 2.304 2.274 2.248 2.209 2.167 2.123 2.100 2.076 2.052 2.026 2.000 1.972
12
3.177 2.807 2.606 2.480 2.394 2.331 2.283 2.245 2.214 2.188 2.147 2.105 2.060 2.036 2.011 1.986 1.960 1.932 1.904
13
3.136 2.763 2.560 2.434 2.347 2.283 2.234 2.195 2.164 2.138 2.097 2.053 2.007 1.983 1.958 1.931 1.904 1.876 1.846
14
3.102 2.726 2.522 2.395 2.307 2.243 2.193 2.154 2.122 2.095 2.054 2.010 1.962 1.938 1.912 1.885 1.857 1.828 1.797
15
3.073 2.695 2.490 2.361 2.273 2.208 2.158 2.119 2.086 2.059 2.017 1.972 1.924 1.899 1.873 1.845 1.817 1.787 1.755
16
3.048 2.668 2.462 2.333 2.244 2.178 2.128 2.088 2.055 2.028 1.985 1.940 1.891 1.866 1.839 1.811 1.782 1.751 1.718
17
3.026 2.645 2.437 2.308 2.218 2.152 2.102 2.061 2.028 2.001 1.958 1.912 1.862 1.836 1.809 1.781 1.751 1.719 1.686
18
3.007 2.624 2.416 2.286 2.196 2.130 2.079 2.038 2.005 1.977 1.933 1.887 1.837 1.810 1.783 1.754 1.723 1.691 1.657
19
2.990 2.606 2.397 2.266 2.176 2.109 2.058 2.017 1.984 1.956 1.912 1.865 1.814 1.787 1.759 1.730 1.699 1.666 1.631
20
2.975 2.589 2.380 2.249 2.158 2.091 2.040 1.999 1.965 1.937 1.892 1.845 1.794 1.767 1.738 1.708 1.677 1.643 1.607
21
2.961 2.575 2.365 2.233 2.142 2.075 2.023 1.982 1.948 1.920 1.875 1.827 1.776 1.748 1.719 1.689 1.657 1.623 1.586
22
2.949 2.561 2.351 2.219 2.128 2.061 2.008 1.967 1.933 1.904 1.859 1.811 1.759 1.731 1.702 1.671 1.639 1.604 1.567
23
2.937 2.549 2.339 2.207 2.115 2.047 1.995 1.953 1.919 1.890 1.845 1.796 1.744 1.716 1.686 1.655 1.622 1.587 1.549
24
2.927 2.538 2.327 2.195 2.103 2.035 1.983 1.941 1.906 1.877 1.832 1.783 1.730 1.702 1.672 1.641 1.607 1.571 1.533
25
2.918 2.528 2.317 2.184 2.092 2.024 1.971 1.929 1.895 1.866 1.820 1.771 1.718 1.689 1.659 1.627 1.593 1.557 1.518
26
2.909 2.519 2.307 2.174 2.082 2.014 1.961 1.919 1.884 1.855 1.809 1.760 1.706 1.677 1.647 1.615 1.581 1.544 1.504
27
2.901 2.511 2.299 2.165 2.073 2.005 1.952 1.909 1.874 1.845 1.799 1.749 1.695 1.666 1.636 1.603 1.569 1.531 1.491
28
2.894 2.503 2.291 2.157 2.064 1.996 1.943 1.900 1.865 1.836 1.790 1.740 1.685 1.656 1.625 1.593 1.558 1.520 1.478
29
2.887 2.495 2.283 2.149 2.057 1.988 1.935 1.892 1.857 1.827 1.781 1.731 1.676 1.647 1.616 1.583 1.547 1.509 1.467
30
2.881 2.489 2.276 2.142 2.049 1.980 1.927 1.884 1.849 1.819 1.773 1.722 1.667 1.638 1.606 1.573 1.538 1.499 1.456
40
2.835 2.440 2.226 2.091 1.997 1.927 1.873 1.829 1.793 1.763 1.715 1.662 1.605 1.574 1.541 1.506 1.467 1.425 1.377
60
2.791 2.393 2.177 2.041 1.946 1.875 1.819 1.775 1.738 1.707 1.657 1.603 1.543 1.511 1.476 1.437 1.395 1.348 1.291
120 2.748 2.347 2.130 1.992 1.896 1.824 1.767 1.722 1.684 1.652 1.601 1.545 1.482 1.447 1.409 1.368 1.320 1.265 1.193
1000+ 2.706 2.303 2.084 1.945 1.847 1.774 1.717 1.670 1.632 1.599 1.546 1.487 1.421 1.383 1.342 1.295 1.240 1.169 1.000

A.2.6.
Slope
The least-squares regression slope, α , shall be calculated as follows:
α
=

( y − y) × ( y − y )

( y − y )
(A.2-8)
A.2.7.
Intercept
The least-squares regression intercept, α , shall be calculated as follows:
( α )
α = y − × y
(A.2-9)
A.2.8.
Standard Estimate of Error
The standard estimate of error, SEE, shall be calculated as follows:
SEE
=

[ y − α − ( α × y )]
N − 2
(A.2-10)
A.2.9.
Coefficient of Determination
The coefficient of determination, r , shall be calculated as follows:
r
= 1


[ y − α − ( α × y )]
∑ [ y − y]
(A.2-11)

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.4
CARBON FLOW CHECK
A.4.1.
Introduction
All but a tiny part of the carbon in the exhaust comes from the fuel, and all but a minimal part of
this is manifest in the exhaust gas as CO . This is the basis for a system verification check
based on CO measurements.
The flow of carbon into the exhaust measurement systems is determined from the fuel flow
rate. The flow of carbon at various sampling points in the emissions and particulate sampling
systems is determined from the CO concentrations and gas flow rates at those points.
In this sense, the engine provides a known source of carbon flow, and observing the same
carbon flow in the exhaust pipe and at the outlet of the partial flow PM sampling system verifies
leak integrity and flow measurement accuracy. This check has the advantage that the
components are operating under actual engine test conditions of temperature and flow.
Figure A.4.1 shows the sampling points at which the carbon flows shall be checked. The
specific equations for the carbon flows at each of the sample points are given in the following
Paragraphs.
location 1 location 2
Air Fuel Raw exhaust CO
ENGINE
location 3
Diluted exhaust CO
Partial Flow System
Figure A.4.1
Measuring Points for Carbon Flow Check

A.4.4. Carbon Flow Rate in the Dilution System (Location 3)
For the partial flow dilution system, the splitting ratio also needs to be taken into account. The
carbon flow rate in an equivalent dilution system q [kg/s] (with equivalent meaning
equivalent to a full flow system where the total flow is diluted) shall be determined from the
dilute CO concentration, the exhaust gas mass flow rate and the sample flow rate; the new
equation is identical to Equation A.4-2, being only supplemented by the dilution factor
q / q
⎛ c − c ⎞ 12.011 q
q = ⎜

× q × ×
(A.4-3)
⎝ 100 ⎠
M q
where:
c = wet CO concentration in the dilute exhaust gas at the outlet of the dilution tunnel
[per cent]
c = wet CO concentration in the ambient air [per cent]
q = diluted sample flow in the partial flow dilution system [kg/s]
q = exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis [kg/s]
q = sample flow of exhaust gas into partial flow dilution system [kg/s]
M
= molar mass of exhaust gas [g/mol]
If CO is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to wet basis according to
Paragraph A.7.3.2. or A.8.2.2.
A.4.5.
Calculation of the Molar Mass of the Exhaust Gas
The molar mass of the exhaust gas shall be calculated according to Equation (A.8-15) (see
Paragraph A.8.2.4.2.)
Alternatively, the following exhaust gas molar masses may be used:
M (diesel) = 28.9g/mol

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.7
MOLAR BASED EMISSION CALCULATIONS
A.7.0.
A.7.0.1.
Symbol Conversion
General Symbols
Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 Unit Quantity
A m Area
A m Venturi throat cross-sectional area
α
b, D
t.b.d.
y intercept of the regression line, PDP
calibration intercept
α m t.b.d. Slope of the regression line
β r m/m Ratio of diameters
C – Coefficient
C C – Discharge coefficient
C – Flow coefficient
d d m Diameter
DR r – Dilution ratio
e e g/kWh Brake specific basis
e
e
g/kWh
Specific emission of gaseous
components
e e g/kWh Specific emission of particulates
f Hz Frequency
f n min , s Rotational frequency (shaft)
γ – Ratio of specific heats
K
Correction factor
K X s/rev PDP slip correction factor
k k – Downward adjustment factor
k
Humidity correction factor for NO
k k – Multiplicative regeneration factor
k k – Upward adjustment factor
μ μ kg/(m·s) Dynamic viscosity

Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 Unit Quantity
W W kWh Work
W W kWh Actual cycle work of the test cycle
WF WF – Weighing factor
w w g/g Mass fraction
X
c
mol/mol,
per cent vol
Amount of substance mole fraction /
concentration (also in μmol/mol = ppm)
x mol/mol Flow-weighted mean concentration
y – Generic variable
y – Arithmetic mean
Z – Compressibility factor
m&
m&

Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 Quantity
raw
ref
rev
sat
slip
smpl
span
SSV
std
test
total
uncor
vac
weight
wet
zero
Raw exhaust
Reference quantity
Revolution
Saturated condition
PDP slip
Sampling
Span quantity
Subsonic venturi
Standard quantity
Test quantity
Total quantity
Uncorrected quantity
Vacuum quantity
Calibration weight
Wet quantity
Zero quantity

A.7.0.4.
Symbols and Abbreviations for the Fuel Composition
Appendix A.7 Appendix A.8 I Quantity
w
w
Carbon content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
w
w
Hydrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
w
w
Nitrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
w
w
Oxygen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
w
w
Sulphur content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
α α Atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C)
β ε Atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C)
γ γ Atomic sulphur-to-carbon ratio (S/C)
δ δ Atomic nitrogen-to-carbon ratio (N/C)

A.7.1.
A.7.1.1.
Basic Parameters And Relationships
Dry Air and Chemical Species
This Annex uses the following values for dry air composition:
x 0.209445mol/mol
x 0.000375 mol/mol
This Annex uses the following molar masses or effective molar masses of chemical
species:
M = 28.96559 g/mol (dry air)
M = 39.948 g/mol (argon)
M = 12.0107 g/mol (carbon)
M = 28.0101 g/mol (carbon monoxide)
M = 44.0095 g/mol (carbon dioxide)
M = 1.00794 g/mol (atomic hydrogen)
M = 2.01588 g/mol (molecular hydrogen)
M = 18.01528 g/mol (water)
M = 4.002602 g/mol (helium)
M = 14.0067 g/mol (atomic nitrogen)
M = 28.0134 g/mol (molecular nitrogen)
M = 13.875389 g/mol (non-methane hydrocarbon )
M = 46.0055 g/mol (oxides of nitrogen )
M = 15.9994 g/mol (atomic oxygen)
M = 31.9988 g/mol (molecular oxygen)
M = 44.09562 g/mol (propane)
M = 32.065 g/mol (sulphur)
M = 13.875389 g/mol (total hydrocarbon(a))
(a)
(b)
The effective molar masses of THC and NMHC are defined by an atomic
hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, α, of 1.85;
The effective molar mass of NO is defined by the molar mass of nitrogen dioxide,
NO .

A.7.1.2.2.
Dew Point
If humidity is measured as a dew point, the amount of water in an ideal gas x [mol/mol]
shall be obtained as follows:
x
=
ρ
(A.7-3)
ρ
where:
x
=
amount of water in an ideal gas [mol/mol]
p
=
vapour pressure of water at the measured dew point, T
=T
[kPa]
p
=
wet static absolute pressure at the location of dew point measurement [kPa]
A.7.1.2.3.
Relative Humidity
If humidity is measured as a relative humidity RH%, the amount of water of an ideal gas
x [mol/mol] is calculated as follows:
x
=
RH%
×
ρ
(A.7-4)
100
ρ
where:
RH% =
relative humidity [per cent]
p = water vapour pressure at 100% relative humidity at the location of relative
humidity measurement, T =T [kPa]
p
=
wet static absolute pressure at the location of relative humidity measurement
[kPa]

A.7.1.4.2.
NMHC Determination
To determine NMHC concentration, x
, one of the following shall be used:
(a)
If CH is not measured, NMHC concentrations may be determined as follows:
The background corrected mass of NMHC shall be compared to background
corrected mass of THC. If the background corrected mass of NMHC is greater than
0.98 times the background corrected mass of THC, the background corrected mass
of NMHC shall be taken as 0.98 times the background corrected mass of THC. If
the NMHC calculations are omitted, the background corrected mass of NMHC shall
be taken as 0.98 times the background corrected mass of THC;
(b) For non-methane cutters, x shall be calculated using the non-methane cutter's
penetration fractions (PF) of CH and C H from Paragraph 8.1.10.3., and using the
HC contamination and dry-to-wet corrected THC concentration x as
determined in sub-paragraph (a) of Paragraph of A.7.1.4.1.:
(i)
The following equation for penetration fractions determined using an NMC
configuration as outlined in Paragraph 8.1.10.3.4.1. shall be used:
x
x
− x
× RF
= (A.7-6)
1 − RFPF
× RF
where:
x = concentration of NMHC
x
=
concentration of THC, HC contamination and
dry-to-wet corrected, as measured by the THC FID
during sampling while bypassing the NMC
x
=
concentration of THC, HC contamination (optional)
and dry-to-wet corrected, as measured by the NMC
FID during sampling through the NMC
RF
=
response factor of THC FID to CH , according to
Paragraph 8.1.10.1.4.
RFPF = non-methane cutter combined ethane response
factor and penetration fraction, according to
Paragraph 8.1.10.3.4.1.

(c) For a gas chromatograph, x shall be calculated using the THC analyser's
response factor (RF) for CH , from Paragraph 8.1.10.1.4., and the HC
contamination and dry-to-wet corrected initial THC concentration x as
determined in Paragraph (a) above as follows:
x = x – RF × x (A.7-9)
where:
x = concentration of NMHC
x
=
concentration of THC, HC contamination and dry-to-wet
corrected, as measured by the THC FID
x = concentration of CH , HC contamination (optional) and
dry-to-wet corrected, as measured by the gas
chromatograph FID
RF = response factor of THC-FID to CH
A.7.1.4.3.
Approximation of NMHC from THC
NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon) emissions can be approximated as 98% of THC (total
hydrocarbon).
A.7.1.5.
Flow-weighted Mean Concentration
In some Paragraphs of this Annex, it may be necessary to calculate a flow-weighted mean
concentration to determine the applicability of certain provisions. A flow-weighted mean is
the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For
example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an
engine, its flow-weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded
concentration times its respective exhaust molar flow rate, divided by the sum of the
recorded flow rate values. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system
is the same as the flow-weighted mean concentration because the CVS system itself
flow-weights the bag concentration. A certain flow-weighted mean concentration of an
emission at its standard might be already expected based on previous testing with similar
engines or testing with similar equipment and instruments.
A.7.2.
A.7.2.1.
Chemical Balances of Fuel, Intake Air, and Exhaust
General
Chemical balances of fuel, intake air and exhaust may be used to calculate flows, the
amount of water in their flows, and the wet concentration of constituents in their flows.
With one flow rate of either fuel, intake air or exhaust, chemical balances may be used to
determine the flows of the other two. For example, chemical balances along with either
intake air or fuel flow to determine raw exhaust flow may be used.

(b)
(c)
Equations (A.7-10 to A.7-26) in Paragraph (d) of this Paragraph A.7.2.3. have to be
entered into a computer program to iteratively solve for x , x and x .
Good engineering judgment shall be used to guess initial values for x , x ,
and x . Guessing an initial amount of water that is about twice the amount of
water in the intake or dilution air is recommended. Guessing an initial value of
x as the sum of the measured CO , CO, and THC values is recommended.
Guessing an initial xdil between 0.75 and 0.95 (0.75 < x < 0.95), such as 0.8 is
also recommended. Values in the system of equations shall be iterated until the
most recently updated guesses are all within ±1% of their respective most recently
calculated values;
The following symbols and subscripts are used in the equation system of
sub-paragraph (c) of this Paragraph where x unit is mol/mol:
Symbol
Description
x Amount of dilution gas or excess air per mole of exhaust
x Amount of H O in exhaust per mole of exhaust
x Amount of carbon from fuel in the exhaust per mole of dry
exhaust
x Amount of water in exhaust per dry mole of dry exhaust
x Amount of dry stoichiometric products per dry mole of intake air
x Amount of dilution gas and/or excess air per mole of dry
exhaust
x Amount of intake air required to produce actual combustion
products per mole of dry (raw or diluted) exhaust
x Amount of undiluted exhaust, without excess air, per mole of dry
(raw or diluted) exhaust
x
Amount of intake air O per mole of dry intake air; x
=
0.209445mol/mol may be assumed
x Amount of intake air CO per mole of dry intake air. x =
375μmol/mol may be used, but measuring the actual
concentration in the intake air is recommended
x
x
x
x
x
x
Amount of the intake air H O per mole of dry intake air
Amount of intake air CO per mole of intake air
Amount of dilution gas CO per mole of dilution gas
Amount of dilution gas CO per mole of dry dilution gas. If air is
used as diluent, x = 375μmol/mol may be used, but
measuring the actual concentration in the intake air is
recommended
Amount of dilution gas H O per mole of dry dilution gas
Amount of dilution gas H O per mole of dilution gas

x
x
x
x
=
1+
x
(A.7-18)
x
=
1 + x
(A.7-19)
=
x
(A.7-20)
1 + x
x
x
x
x
x
x
=
x
(A.7-21)
1 + x
=
x
(A.7-22)
1 + x
x
=
1 + x
(A.7-23)
=
x
(A.7-24)
1+
x
=
x
(A.7-25)
1 + x
=
x
(A.7-26)
1 + x
At the end of the chemical balance, the molar flow rate n&
in Paragraphs A.7.3.3. and A.7.4.3.
is calculated as specified
A.7.2.4.
NO Correction for Humidity
All the NO concentrations, including dilution air background concentrations, shall be
corrected for intake-air humidity using the following equation:
( 9.953 × x 0.832)
x = x ×
+
(A.7-27)
where:
x = uncorrected NO molar concentration in the exhaust gas [μmol/mol]
x = amount of water in the intake air [mol/mol]

(a)
For continuous sampling, in the general case of varying flow rate, the mass of the
gaseous emission m [g/test] shall be calculated by means of the following
equation:
m
=
1
× M
f
× ∑ n × x
(A.7-30)
where:
M
= generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n&
= instantaneous exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
x
= instantaneous gaseous emission molar fraction on a wet basis [mol/mol]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
(b)
Still for continuous sampling but in the particular case of constant flow rate the mass
of the gaseous emission m [g/test] shall be calculated by means of the following
equation:
m
= M × n& × x × Δt
(A.7-31)
where:
M = generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n& = exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
x = mean gaseous emission molar fraction on a wet basis [mol/mol]
∆t
= time duration of test interval

For gaseous emissions a removed water correction shall be performed for the generic
concentration x [mol/mol] as follows:
( )


[ ] ⎢
1 − x
x = x

(A.7-35)



1 − x [ ] ⎦
where:
x = molar fraction of emission in the measured flow at measurement
location [mol/mol]
x = amount of water in the measured flow at the concentration
measurement [mol/mol]
x = amount of water at the flow-meter [mol/mol]
A.7.3.3.
Exhaust Gas Molar Flow Rate
The flow rate of the raw exhaust gases can be directly measured or can be calculated
based on the chemical balance of Paragraph A.7.2.3. Calculation of raw exhaust molar
flow rate is performed from measured intake air molar flow rate or fuel mass flow rate. The
raw exhaust molar flow rate can be calculated from the sampled emissions,
n& , based on the measured intake air molar flow rate, n& , or the measured fuel mass flow
rate, m& , and the values calculated using the chemical balance in Paragraph A.7.2.3. It
shall be solved for the chemical balance in Paragraph A.7.2.3. at the same frequency that
n& or m& is updated and recorded.
(a) Crankcase flow rate. The raw exhaust flow can be calculated based on n& or
m& only if at least one of the following is true about crankcase emission flow rate:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
The test engine has a production emission-control system with a closed
crankcase that routes crankcase flow back to the intake air, downstream of
intake air flow-meter;
During emission testing open crankcase flow are routed to the exhaust
according to Paragraph 6.10;
Open crankcase emissions and flow are measured and added brake-specific
emission calculations;
Using emission data or an engineering analysis, it can be demonstrated that
neglecting the flow rate of open crankcase emissions does not adversely
affect compliance with the applicable standards;

A.7.4.
A.7.4.1.
Diluted Gaseous Emissions
Emission Mass Calculation and Background Correction
Equations for the calculation of gaseous emissions mass m [g/test] as a function of
molar emissions flow rates are as follows:
(a)
Continuous sampling, varying flow rate
m
=
1
× M
f
× ∑ n& × x
(see A.7-29)
where:
M
= generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n&
= instantaneous exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
m
= instantaneous generic gas molar concentration on a wet basis [mol/mol]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
Continuous sampling, constant flow rate
m
= M × n& × x × Δt
(see A.7-31)
where:
M = generic emission molar mass [g/mol]
n& = exhaust gas molar flow rate on a wet basis [mol/s]
x = mean gaseous emission molar fraction on a wet basis [mol/mol]
∆t
= time duration of test interval

Considering the two cases (v) and (vi), the following equations shall be used:
m = M × x × n or m = M × x × x × n (A.7-38)
m
= m − m
(A.7-39)
where:
m = total mass of the gaseous emission [g]
m = total background masses [g]
m = mass of gas corrected for background emissions [g]
M = molecular mass of generic gaseous emission [g/mol]
x = gaseous emission concentration in dilution air [mol/mol]
n = dilution air molar flow [mol]
x = flow-weighted mean fraction of dilution air in diluted exhaust [mol/mol]
x = gas fraction of background [mol/mol]
n = total flow of diluted exhaust [mol]
A.7.4.2.
Dry-to wet Concentration Conversion
The same relations for raw gases (Paragraph A.7.3.2.) shall be used for dry-to-wet
conversion on diluted samples. For dilution air a humidity measurement shall be
performed with the aim to calculate its water vapour fraction x [mol/mol]:
x
=
x
(see A.7-21)
1 − x
where:
x = water molar fraction in the dilution air flow [mol/mol]

(b)
Measurement
The exhaust gas molar flow rate may be measured by means of three systems:
(i)
PDP molar flow rate. Based upon the speed at which the Positive
Displacement Pump (PDP) operates for a test interval, the corresponding
slope a , and intercept, a [-], as calculated with the calibration procedure of
Appendix 1 to this Annex, shall be used to calculate molar flow rate n& [mol/s]
as follows:
p × V
n& = f ×
(A.7-40)
R × T
where:
a p − p
V = ×
+ a (A.7-41)
f
p
where:
a
a
= calibration coefficient [m /s]
= calibration coefficient [m /rev]
p , p = inlet/outlet pressure [Pa]
R
T
= molar gas constant [J/(mol K)]
= inlet temperature [K]
V = PDP pumped volume [m /rev]
f = PDP speed [rev/s]

A.7.4.4.
A.7.4.4.1.
Determination of Particulates
Sampling
(a)
Sampling from a varying flow rate:
If a batch sample from a changing exhaust flow rate is collected, a sample
proportional to the changing exhaust flow rate shall be extracted. The flow rate shall
be integrated over a test interval to determine the total flow. The mean PM
concentration M (which is already in units of mass per mole of sample) shall be
multiplied by the total flow to obtain the total mass of PM m [g]:
m
( n × Δt
)
= M × ∑ & (A.7-44)
where:
n&
= instantaneous exhaust molar flow rate [mol/s]
M = mean PM concentration [g/mol]
∆t
= sampling interval [s]
(b)
Sampling from a constant flow rate
If a batch sample from a constant exhaust flow rate is collected, the mean molar
flow rate from which the sample is extracted shall be determined. The mean PM
concentration shall be multiplied by the total flow to obtain the total mass of PM
m [g]:
m
= M × n& × Δt
(A.7-45)
where:
n&
= exhaust molar flow rate [mol/s]
M = mean PM concentration [g/mol]
∆t
= time duration of test interval [s]

A.7.5.
A.7.5.1.
A.7.5.1.1.
Cycle Work and Specific Emissions
Gaseous Emissions
Transient and Ramped Modal Cycle
Reference is made to Paragraphs A.7.3.1. and A.7.4.1. for raw and diluted exhaust
respectively. The resulting values for power P [kW] shall be integrated over a test interval.
The total work W [kWh] is calculated as follows:
1 1 1 2 × π
∑ p × Δt
= × ×
( n T ) (A.7-49)
W = ∑ ×
f 3600 10 60
where:
P
= instantaneous engine power [kW]
n = instantaneous engine speed [min ]
T
= instantaneous engine torque [N·m]
W = actual cycle work [kWh]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
The specific emissions e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following ways depending on
the type of test cycle.
e
=
m
(A.7-50)
W
where:
m
= total mass of emission [g/test]
W = cycle work [kWh]
In case of the transient cycle, the final test result e [g/kWh] shall be a weighted average
from cold start test and hot start test by using:
e
( 0.1×
m ) + ( 0.9 × m )
( 0.1×
W ) + ( 0.9 × W )
= (A.7-51)
In case of an infrequent (periodic) exhaust regeneration (Paragraph 6.6.2.), the specific
emissions shall be corrected with the multiplicative adjustment factor k (Equation (6-4)) or
with the two separate pairs of adjustment additive factors k (upward factor of
Equation (6-5)) and k (downward factor of Equation (6-6)).

A.7.5.2.2.
Steady State Discrete-mode Cycle
The particulate specific emission e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following way:
A.7.5.2.2.1.
For the Single-filter Method
e
=

m&
( p × WF )
(A.7-54)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3. and 7.7.1.2.)
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
m& = particulate mass flow rate [g/h]
A.7.5.2.2.2.
For the Multiple-filter Method
e
=
∑ &

( m × WF )
( p × WF )
(A.7-55)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3. and 7.7.1.2.)
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
m& = particulate mass flow rate at mode i [g/h]

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.7.1
DILUTED EXHAUST FLOW (CVS) CALIBRATION
This Appendix describes the calculations for calibrating various flow-meters. Paragraph A.7.6.1. of this
Appendix describes how to convert reference flow-meter outputs for use in the calibration equations,
which are presented on a molar basis. The remaining Paragraphs describe the calibration calculations
that are specific to certain types of flow-meters.
A.7.6.1.
Reference Meter Conversions
The calibration equations in this Section use molar flow rate, n& , as a reference quantity. If
he adopted reference
V & meter outputs a
V & flow rate in a different quantity, such as standard
volume rate, ,, actual volume rate, , or mass rate, m& , the reference meter output
shall be converted to a molar flow rate using the following equations, noting that while
values for volume rate, mass rate, pressure, temperature, and molar mass may change
during an emission test, they should be kept as constant as practical for each individual set
point during a flow-meter calibration:
V
&
p V
&
p m&
n& ×
×
= =
=
(A.7-57)
T × R T × R M
where:
n& = reference molar flow rate [mol/s]
V & = reference volume flow rate, corrected to a standard pressure and a standard
temperature [m /s]
V & = reference volume flow rate, at the actual pressure and temperature [m /s]
m& = reference mass flow [g/s]
p = standard pressure [Pa]
p = actual pressure of the gas [Pa]
T = standard temperature [K]
T = actual temperature of the gas [K]
R
= molar gas constant [J/(mol·K)]
M = molar mass of the gas [g/mol]

Table A.7.2
Example of PDP Calibration Data
f
f
(f)
For each speed at which the PDP is operated, the corresponding slope, a , and
intercept, a , shall be used to calculate flow rate during emission testing as described
in Paragraph A.7.4.3.(b)
A.7.6.3.
Venturi Governing Equations and Permissible Assumptions
This Section describes the governing equations and permissible assumptions for calibrating
a venturi and calculating flow using a venturi. Because a subsonic venturi (SSV) and a
critical-flow venturi (CFV) both operate similarly, their governing equations are nearly the
same, except for the equation describing their pressure ratio, r (i.e., r versus r ). These
governing equations assume one-dimensional isentropic inviscid compressible flow of an
ideal gas. In Paragraph A.7.6.3.(d), other assumptions that may be made are described. If
the assumption of an ideal gas for the measured flow is not allowed, the governing
equations include a first-order correction for the behaviour of a real gas; namely, the
compressibility factor, Z. If good engineering judgment dictates using a value other than
Z = 1, an appropriate equation of state to determine values of Z as a function of measured
pressures and temperatures may be used, or specific calibration equations may be
developed based on good engineering judgment. It shall be noted that the equation for the
flow coefficient, C , is based on the ideal gas assumption that the isentropic exponent, γ, is
equal to the ratio of specific heats, c /c . If good engineering judgment dictates using a real
gas isentropic exponent, an appropriate equation of state to determine values of γ as a
function of measured pressures and temperatures may be used, or specific calibration
equations may be developed. Molar flow rate, n& [mol/s], shall be calculated as follows:

Table A.7.3
C Versus β and γ for CFV Flow-meters
C
β
γ
= 1.385
γ
= γ = 1.399
0.000
0.6822
0.6846
0.400
0.6857
0.6881
0.500
0.6910
0.6934
0.550
0.6953
0.6977
0.600
0.7011
0.7036
0.625
0.7047
0.7072
0.650
0.7089
0.7114
0.675
0.7137
0.7163
0.700
0.7193
0.7219
0.720
0.7245
0.7271
0.740
0.7303
0.7329
0.760
0.7368
0.7395
0.770
0.7404
0.7431
0.780
0.7442
0.7470
0.790
0.7483
0.7511
0.800
0.7527
0.7555
0.810
0.7573
0.7602
0.820
0.7624
0.7652
0.830
0.7677
0.7707
0.840
0.7735
0.7765
0.850
0.7798
0.7828

(d)
Any of the following simplifying assumptions of the governing equations may be
made, or good engineering judgment may be used to develop more appropriate
values for testing:
(i)
For emission testing over the full ranges of raw exhaust, diluted exhaust and
dilution air, the gas mixture may be assumed to behave as an ideal gas: Z = 1;
(ii) For the full range of raw exhaust a constant ratio of specific heats of γ = 1.385
may be assumed;
(iii)
For the full range of diluted exhaust and air (e.g., calibration air or dilution air),
a constant ratio of specific heats of γ =1.399 may be assumed;
(iv) For the full range of diluted exhaust and air, the molar mass of the mixture, M
[g/mol], may be considered as a function only of the amount of water in the
dilution air or calibration air, x , determined as described in
Paragraph A.7.1.2., as follows:
( 1 − x ) + M ( x )
M = M ×
×
(A.7-65)
where:
M
= 28.96559 g/mol
M = 18.01528 g/mol
x = amount of water in the dilution or calibration air [mol/mol]
(v)
For the full range of diluted exhaust and air, a constant molar mass of the
mixture, M , may be assumed for all calibration and all testing as long as
assumed molar mass differs no more than ±1% from the estimated minimum
and maximum molar mass during calibration and testing. This assumption may
be made if sufficient control of the amount of water in calibration air and in
dilution air is ensured, or if sufficient water is removed from both calibration air
and dilution air. The following table gives examples of permissible ranges of
dilution air dew point versus calibration air dew point.

A.7.6.4.
SSV Calibration
(a)
Molar based approach. To calibrate an SSV flow-meter the following steps shall be
performed:
(i)
The Reynolds number, Re , for each reference molar flow rate, shall be
calculated using the throat diameter of the venturi, d . Because the dynamic
viscosity, μ, is needed to compute Re , a specific viscosity model may be used
to determine μ for calibration gas (usually air), using good engineering
judgment. Alternatively, the Sutherland three-coefficient viscosity model may
be used to approximate μ:
Re
=
4 × M
π × d
× n&
× μ
(A.7-66)
where:
d
= diameter of the SSV throat [m]
M = mixture molar mass [kg/mol]
n& = reference molar flow rate [mol/s]
and, using the Sutherland three-coefficient viscosity model:
μ = μ

⎜ T

⎝ T





⎜ T
×

⎝ T
+ S ⎞

+ S


(A.7-67)
where:
μ
μ
S
T
= Dynamic viscosity of calibration gas [kg/(m·s)]
= Sutherland reference viscosity [kg/(m·s)]
= Sutherland constant [K]
= Sutherland reference temperature [K]
T = Absolute temperature at the venturi inlet [K]

A.7.6.5.
CFV Calibration
(a)
Molar based approach. Some CFV flow-meters consist of a single venturi and some
consist of multiple venturis, where different combinations of venturis are used to
meter different flow rates. For CFV flow-meters that consist of multiple venturis, either
calibration of each venturi independently to determine a separate discharge
coefficient, C , for each venturi, or calibration of each combination of venturis as one
venture may be performed. In the case where a combination of venturis is calibrated,
the sum of the active venturi throat areas is used as A , the square root of the sum of
the squares of the active venturi throat diameters as d , and the ratio of the venturi
throat to inlet diameters as the ratio of the venturi throat to inlet diameters as the ratio
of the square root of the sum of the active venture throat diameters (d ) to the
diameter of the common entrance to all of the venturis (D). To determine the C for a
single venturi or a single combination of venturis, the following steps shall be
performed:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
With the data collected at each calibration set point to an individual C for each
point shall be calculated using Equation (A.7-60);
The mean and standard deviation of all the C values shall be calculated
according to Equations (A.2-1) and (A.2-2);
If the standard deviation of all the C values is less than or equal to 0.3% of the
mean C , then the mean C shall be used in Equation (A.7-43), and the CFV
shall be used only down to the lowest r measured during calibration;
r = 1 – (∆p/p )
(A.7-69)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
If the standard deviation of all the C values exceeds 0.3% of the mean C , the
C values corresponding to the data point collected at the lowest r measured
during calibration shall be omitted;
If the number of remaining data points is less than seven, corrective action
shall be taken by checking calibration data or repeating the calibration process.
If the calibration process is repeated, checking for leaks, applying tighter
tolerances to measurements and allowing more time for flows to stabilize, is
recommended;
If the number of remaining C values is seven or greater, the mean and
standard deviation of the remaining C values shall be recalculated;
If the standard deviation of the remaining C values is less than or equal to
0.3% of the mean of the remaining C , that mean C shall be used in
Equation (A.7-43) and the CFV values only down to the lowest r associated
with the remaining C shall be used;
(viii) If the standard deviation of the remaining C still exceeds 0.3% of the mean of
the remaining C values, the steps in sub-paragraph (e) (4) through (8) of this
Section shall be repeated.

A.7.7.4.
Drift Correction
All gas analyser signals shall be corrected as follows:
(a)
(b)
x
Each recorded concentration, x , shall be corrected for continuous sampling or
for batch sampling, x ;
Correction for drift shall be done using the following equation:
2x −
( )
( x + x )
x − x
( x + x ) − ( x + x )
= x +
(A.7-70)
where:
x = concentration corrected for drift [μmol/mol]
x = reference concentration of the zero gas, which is usually zero
unless known to be otherwise [μmol/mol]
x = reference concentration of the span gas [μmol/mol]
x = pre-test interval gas analyser response to the span gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
x = post-test interval gas analyser response to the span gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
x or x = concentration recorded, i.e. measured, during test, before drift
correction [μmol/mol]
x = pre-test interval gas analyser response to the zero gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
x = post-test interval gas analyser response to the zero gas
concentration [μmol/mol]
(c)
(d)
For any pre-test interval concentrations, concentrations determined most
recently before the test interval shall be used. For some test intervals, the most
recent pre-zero or pre-span might have occurred before one or more previous
test intervals;
For any post-test interval concentrations, concentrations determined most
recently after the test interval shall be used. For some test intervals, the most
recent post-zero or post-span might have occurred after one or more
subsequent test intervals;
(e) If any pre-test interval analyser response to the span gas concentration, x ,
is not recorded, x shall be set equal to the reference concentration of the
span gas: x = x ;

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.8
MASS BASED EMISSION CALCULATIONS
A.8.0.
A.8.0.1.
Symbol Conversion
General Symbols
Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Unit Quantity
b, D α t.b.d. y intercept of the regression line
m α t.b.d. Slope of the regression line
A/F – Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio
C C – Discharge coefficient
c x ppm, % vol Concentration (μmol/mol = ppm)
c ppm, % vol Concentration on dry basis
c ppm, % vol Concentration on wet basis
c ppm, % vol Background concentration
D x – Dilution factor
D m /rev PDP calibration intercept
d d m Diameter
d m Throat diameter of venturi
e e g/kWh Brake specific basis
e
e
g/kWh
Specific emission of gaseous
components
e e g/kWh Specific emission of particulates
E
1 – PF
per cent
Conversion efficiency (PF =
Penetration fraction)
F – Stoichiometric factor
f – Carbon factor
H g/kg Absolute humidity
K
⎡⎛
⎢⎜
⎣⎝
⎞ ⎤ CFV calibration function
K × m × s ⎟ / kg⎥
⎠ ⎦
k m /kg fuel Fuel specific factor
k

Humidity correction factor for NO ,
diesel engines

Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Unit Quantity
m
m
g
Mass of particulate emissions
over the test cycle
m
kg
Exhaust sample mass over the
test cycle
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas
passing the dilution tunnel
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas
passing the particulate collection
filters
m kg Mass of secondary dilution air
n f min Engine rotational speed
n r/s PDP pump speed
P P kW Power
p p kPa Pressure
p kPa Dry atmospheric pressure
p kPa Total atmospheric pressure
p
kPa
Saturation vapour pressure of the
dilution air
p p kPa Absolute pressure
p p kPa Water vapour pressure
p kPa Dry atmospheric pressure
1 – E PF per cent Penetration fraction
q
m&
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on dry
basis
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on wet
basis
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the raw
exhaust gas
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate into the
engine
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the
partial flow dilution system
q
kg/s
Diluted exhaust gas mass flow
rate on wet basis

Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Unit Quantity
q V & m /s Volume rate
V
m /r
PDP gas volume pumped per
revolution
W W kWh Work
W W kWh Actual cycle work of the test cycle
WF WF – Weighing factor
w w g/g Mass fraction
X K s/rev PDP calibration function
y y Arithmetic mean
A.8.0.2.
Subscripts
Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Quantity
act act Actual quantity
i
i
Instantaneous measurement (e.g.: 1Hz)
An individual of a series

A.8.0.4.
Symbols and Abbreviations for the Fuel Composition
w
w
w
w
w
Appendix A.8 Appendix A.7 Quantity
w
w
w
w
w
Carbon content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
Hydrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g]
or [per cent mass]
Nitrogen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
Oxygen content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
Sulphur content of fuel, mass fraction [g/g] or
[per cent mass]
α α Atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C)
ε β Atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C)
γ γ Atomic sulphur-to-carbon ratio (S/C)
δ δ Atomic nitrogen-to-carbon ratio (N/C)

A.8.2.
A.8.2.1.
A.8.2.1.1.
Raw Gaseous Emissions
Gaseous Emissions
Steady State Tests
The emission rate of a gaseous emission q for each mode i of the steady state test
shall be calculated. The concentration of the gaseous emission shall be multiplied by its
respective flow:
q = k × k × u × q × c × 3600
(A.8-3)
q = emission rate in mode i of the steady state test [g/h]
k = 1 for c in [ppm] and k = 10,000 for c in [per cent vol]
k
= NO correction factor [-], only to be applied for the NO emission
calculation (see Paragraph A.8.2.2.)
u = component specific factor or ratio between densities of gas component
and exhaust gas [-]; to be calculated with Equations (A.8-12) or (A.8-13)
q = exhaust gas mass flow rate in mode i on a wet basis [kg/s]
c = emission concentration in the raw exhaust gas in mode i, on a wet basis
[ppm] or [per cent vol]

A.8.2.2.
Dry-to wet Concentration Conversion
If the emissions are measured on a dry basis, the measured concentration c on dry
basis shall be converted to the concentration c on a wet basis according to the
following general equation:
c = k × c
(A.8-5)
where:
k = dry-to-wet conversion factor [-]
c
= emission concentration on a dry basis [ppm] or [per cent vol]
For complete combustion, the dry-to-wet conversion factor for raw exhaust gas is
written as k [-] and shall be calculated as follows:

q ⎞
⎜ 1.2442 × H + 111.19 × w ×

q
⎜1


q
773.4 + 1.2442 × H + × k × 1000

⎟ ⎟⎟⎟⎟
=

q
k

(A.8-6)
⎛ ⎞
⎜ p
1 − ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ p ⎠
where:
H
= intake air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
q = instantaneous fuel flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous dry intake air flow rate [kg/s]
p
p
w
k
= water pressure after cooler [kPa]
= total barometric pressure [kPa]
= hydrogen content of the fuel [per cent mass]
= combustion additional volume [m /kg fuel]

A.8.2.3.
NO Correction for Humidity and Temperature
As the NO emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NO concentration shall
be corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity with the factors k [-] given in the
following equation. This factor is valid for a humidity range between 0 and 25g H O/kg
dry air.
15.698 × H
k = + 0.832
(A.8-11)
1,000
where:
H
= humidity of the intake air [g H O/kg dry air]
A.8.2.4.
A.8.2.4.1.
Component Specific Factor u
Tabulated Values
Applying some simplifications (assumption on the λ value and on intake air conditions
as shown in the following table) to the equations of Paragraph A.8.2.4.2. figures for
u , can be calculated (see Paragraph A.8.2.1.). The u values are given in
Table A.8.1.
Table A.8.1
Raw Exhaust Gas u and Component Densities
(the u Figures are Calculated for Emission Concentration Expressed in ppm)
Gas NO CO HC CO O CH
ρ [kg/m ] 2.053 1.250 0.621 1.9636 1.4277 0.716
Fuel ρ [kg/m ] Coefficient u at λ = 2, dry air, 273 K, 101.3 kPa
Diesel 1.2939 0.001587 0.000966 0.000479 0.001518 0.001103 0.000553

The instantaneous raw exhaust density ρ [kg/m ] shall be derived as follows:
( q / q )
1,000 × ( q / q )
1,000 + H + 1,000 ×
ρ =
(A.8-15)
773.4 + 1.2434 × H + k ×
where:
q = instantaneous fuel mass flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous dry intake air mass flow rate [kg/s]
H
k
= intake air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
= combustion additional volume [m /kg fuel] (see Equation A.8-7)
A.8.2.5.
A.8.2.5.1.
Mass Flow Rate of the Exhaust Gas
Air and Fuel Measurement Method
The method involves measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow with suitable
flow-meters. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas flow q [kg/s] shall be
as follows:
q = q + q
(A.8-16)
where:
q = instantaneous intake air mass flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous fuel mass flow rate [kg/s]

A.8.2.5.3.
Air Flow and Air to Fuel Ratio Measurement Method
This involves exhaust mass calculation from the air flow and the air to fuel ratio. The
calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass flow q [kg/s] is as follows:


⎜ 1
q = q × 1 +

(A.8-18)


⎝ A / F × λ ⎠
with:
⎛ α ε ⎞
138.0 × ⎜

1 + − + γ
A / F =
⎝ 4 2 ⎠
(A.8-19)
12.011 + 1.00794 × α + 15.9994 × ε + 14.0067 × δ + 32.065 × γ
λ


c
100 −

=


2 × c × 10
1−
× 10
⎞ ⎜ α 3.5 × c
− c × 10 ⎟ +
2
⎜ ×
⎠ 4

c × 10
1 +
⎝ 3.5 × c
⎛ α ε ⎞
4.764 × ⎜1
+ − + γ⎟
×
⎝ 4 2 ⎠


ε δ ⎟
− − ×
2 2



( c + c × 10 + c × 10 )
(A.8-20)
( c + c × 10 )
where:
q
= wet intake air mass flow rate [kg/s]
A/F
= stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio [-]
λ
= instantaneous excess air ratio [-]
c
= concentration of CO in the raw exhaust gas on a dry basis [ppm]
c
= concentration of CO in the raw exhaust gas on a dry basis [per cent]
c
= concentration of HC in the raw exhaust gas on a wet basis [ppm C1]
α
= molar hydrogen-to-carbon ratio [-]
δ
= molar nitrogen-to-carbon ratio [-]
ε
= molar oxygen-to-carbon ratio [-]
γ
= atomic sulphur-to-carbon ratio [-]

A.8.3.
A.8.3.1.
A.8.3.1.1.
Diluted Gaseous Emissions
Mass of the Gaseous Emissions
Full flow dilution measurement (CVS)
The exhaust mass flow rate shall be measured with a constant volume sampling (CVS)
system, which may use a positive displacement pump (PDP), a critical flow venturi
(CFV) or a subsonic venturi (SSV).
For systems with constant mass flow (i.e. with heat exchanger), the mass of the
pollutants m [g/test] shall be determined from the following equation:
m = k × k × u × c × m (A.8-24)
where:
u = ratio between density of exhaust component and density of air, as given in
Table A.8.2 or calculated with Equation (A.8-35) [-]
c = mean background corrected concentration of the component on a wet basis
[ppm] or [per cent vol] respectively
k
= NO correction factor [-], only to be applied for the NO emission calculation
k = 1 for c in [ppm], k = 10,000 for c in [per cent vol]
m
= total diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle [kg/test]

A.8.3.2.1.
Diluted Exhaust Gas
All concentrations measured dry shall be converted to wet concentrations by one of the
following two equations applied to equation:
⎡⎛ α × c ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢⎜1


− k ⎥ × 1.008
(A.8-26)
⎢⎣
⎝ 200 ⎠ ⎥⎦
or




( 1 k )
k
⎜ −
=


× 1.008
c ⎟
(A.8-27)
α ×
⎜ 1 +

⎝ 200 ⎠
where:
k = dry-to-wet conversion factor for the diluted exhaust gas [-]
α = molar hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel [-]
c = concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas on a wet basis [per cent vol]
c = concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas on a dry basis [per cent vol]
The dry to wet correction factor k takes into consideration the water content of both
intake air and dilution air:
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤
1.608 × ⎢H
× ⎜1
− ⎟ + H × ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎣ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠
k =

(A.8-28)
⎪⎧
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤⎪⎫
1,000 + ⎨1.608
× ⎢H
× ⎜1
− ⎟ + H × ⎜ ⎟⎥⎬
⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠⎦⎪⎭
where:
H
H
= intake air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
= dilution air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
D = dilution factor (see Equation (A.8-29) of Paragraph A.8.3.2.2.) [-]

A.8.3.2.3.
Dilution Air
k = (1 – k ) × 1.008 (A.8-32)
with
k
=
1.608 × H
(A.8-33)
1000 + 1.608 × H
where:
H
= dilution air humidity [g H O/kg dry air]
A.8.3.2.4.
Determination of the Background Corrected Concentration
The average background concentration of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall
be subtracted from measured concentrations to get the net concentrations of the
pollutants. The average values of the background concentrations can be determined by
the sample bag method or by continuous measurement with integration. The following
equation shall be used:
⎛ 1 ⎞
c = c − c × ⎜ ⎟
1 −
(A.8-34)
⎝ D ⎠
where:
c = net concentration of the gaseous pollutant [ppm] or [per cent vol]
c = emission concentration in the diluted exhaust gas, on a wet basis [ppm] or
[per cent vol]
c
= emission concentration in the dilution air, on a wet basis [ppm] or [per cent
vol]
D = dilution factor (see Equation (A.8-29) of Paragraph A.8.3.2.2.) [-]

A.8.3.4.
A.8.3.4.1.
Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Calculation
PDP-CVS System
The calculation of the mass of the diluted exhaust [kg/test] over the cycle is as follows,
if the temperature of the diluted exhaust med is kept within ±6K over the cycle by using
a heat exchanger:
m
= 1.293 × V
× n
×
p
×
273.15
(A.8-36)
101.325
T
where:
V
n
p
T
= volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions [m /rev]
= total revolutions of pump per test [rev/test]
= absolute pressure at pump inlet [kPa]
= average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet [K]
1.293kg/m
= air density at 273.15K and 101.325kPa
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the mass of
the diluted exhaust gas m [kg] during the time interval shall be calculated as follows:
m
= 1.293 × V
× n
×
p
×
273.15
(A.8-37)
101.325
T
where:
V
p
= volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions [m /rev]
= absolute pressure at pump inlet [kPa]
n = total revolutions of pump per time interval i [rev/∆t]
T
= average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet [K]
1.293kg/m
= air density at 273.15K and 101.325kPa

A.8.3.4.3.
SSV-CVS System
The calculation of the diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle m [kg/test] shall be as
follows, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust is kept within ±11K over the cycle by
using a heat exchanger:
m = 1.293 × q × ∆t (A.8-40)
where:
1.293kg/m
= air density at 273.15K and 101.325kPa
∆t
= cycle time [s]
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325 kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
with
( r − r )


⎞⎤
A
⎢ 1
⎜ 1
q = d C p
×
⎟⎥


⎟ (A.8-41)
60

T


1 − r r


where:
A = collection of constants and units conversions = 0.0056940


⎢ m K 1 ⎥
⎢ × × ⎥
⎢ min kPa mm ⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
d
= diameter of the SSV throat [mm]
C = discharge coefficient of the SSV [-]
p
T
r
r
= absolute pressure at venturi inlet [kPa]
= temperature at the venturi inlet [K]
= ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute static pressure,
⎛ ⎞
⎜ Δp
1 − ⎟ [-]
⎜ ⎟
⎝ p ⎠
= ratio of the SSV throat diameter to the inlet pipe inner
d
diameter [-]
D

A.8.3.5.1.1.2.
Calculation Based on Dilution Ratio
The particulate emission over the cycle m [g] shall be calculated with the following
equation:
m m
m = ×
(A.8-45)
m 1,000
where:
m
= particulate mass sampled over the cycle [mg]
m = mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters [kg]
m = mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle [kg]
The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle m [kg] shall be
determined as follows:
m
= 1
q
f
× ∑
(A.8-46)
q = q × r
(A.8-47)
r
q
= (A.8-48)
q − q
where:
q = instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate [kg/s]
q = instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
r = instantaneous dilution ratio [-]
q = instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
q = instantaneous dilution air mass flow rate [kg/s]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]

A.8.3.5.2.
A.8.3.5.2.1.
Calculation for Steady-state Discrete-mode Cycles
Dilution System
All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes i during
the sampling period.
(a)
For partial-flow dilution, the equivalent mass flow of diluted exhaust gas shall be
determined by means of the system with flow measurement shown in Figure 9.2:
q = q × r
(A.8-52)
r
q
= (A.8-53)
q − q
where:
q
= equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate [kg/s]
q
= exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
r
= dilution ratio [-]
q
= diluted exhaust mass flow rate on a wet basis [kg/s]
q
= dilution air mass flow rate [kg/s]
(b)
For full-flow dilution systems q
is used as q
.

(b)
For the multiple-filter method
m
3,600
q = × q ×
(A.8-57)
m
1,000
where:
q = particulate mass flow rate for the mode i [g/h]
m
= particulate sample mass collected at mode i [mg]
q = equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis at mode i
[kg/s]
m = mass of diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate
sampling filter at mode i [kg]
The PM mass is determined over the test cycle by summation of the average
values of the individual modes i during the sampling period.
The particulate mass flow rate qmPM [g/h] or qmPMi [g/h] may be background
corrected as follows:
(a)
For the single-filter method

⎧ m ⎡m
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎤⎪
⎫ 3,600
q = ⎨ − ⎢ × 1 WF ⎥⎬
× q
m m

⎜ ⎟
− ×
D
(A.8-58)
1,000
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
⎪⎭
where:
q = particulate mass flow rate [g/h]
m
= particulate sample mass collected [mg]
m = mass of diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate
sampling filter [kg]
m
m
= particulate sample mass of the dilution air collected [mg]
= mass of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate
sampling filters [kg]
D = dilution factor at mode i (see Equation (A.8-29) of
Paragraph A.8.3.2.2.) [-]
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
q = average equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
[kg/s]

A.8.4.
A.8.4.1.
A.8.4.1.1.
Cycle Work and Specific Emissions
Gaseous Emissions
Transient and Ramped Modal Cycles
Reference is made to Paragraphs A.8.2.1. and A.8.3.1. for raw and diluted exhaust
respectively. The resulting values for power P [kW] shall be integrated over a test
interval. The total work W [kWh] is calculated as follows:
1 1 1 2 × π
W = ×
f 3,600 10 60

where:
∑ P × Δt
= × ×
( n T ) (A.8-60)
P
= instantaneous engine power [kW]
n = instantaneous engine speed [min ]
T
= instantaneous engine torque [Nm]
W = actual cycle work [kWh]
f
= data sampling rate [Hz]
N = number of measurements [-]
The specific emissions e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following ways depending
on the type of test cycle.
e
=
m
(A.8-61)
W
where:
m = total mass of emission [g/test]
W = cycle work [kWh]
In case of the transient cycle, the final test result e [g/kWh] shall be a weighted
average from cold start test and hot start test by using:
e
( 0.1×
m ) + ( 0.9 × m )
( 0.1×
W ) + ( 0.9 × W )
= (A.8-62)
In case of an infrequent (periodic) exhaust regeneration (Paragraph 6.6.2. of
Annex 4B), the specific emissions shall be corrected with the multiplicative adjustment
factor k (Equation (6-4)) or with the two separate pairs of adjustment additive factors
k (upward factor of Equation (6-5)) and k (downward factor of Equation (6-6)).

A.8.4.2.2.
Steady State Discrete-mode Cycle
The particulate specific emission e [g/kWh] shall be calculated in the following way:
(a)
For the single-filter method
e
=

q
( P × WF )
(A.8-65)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3.
and 7.7.1.2.)
WF = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
q = particulate mass flow rate [g/h]
(b)
For the multiple-filter method
e
=


( q × WF )
( P × WF )
(A.8-66)
where:
P
= engine power for the mode i [kW] with P = P
+ P
(see Paragraphs 6.3.
and 7.7.1.2.)
W = weighing factor for the mode i [-]
q = particulate mass flow rate at mode i [g/h]

ANNEX 4B – APPENDIX A.8.1
DILUTED EXHAUST FLOW (CVS) CALIBRATION
A.8.5.
Calibration of CVS System
The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow-meter and a restricting
device. The flow through the system shall be measured at different restriction settings, and
the control parameters of the system shall be measured and related to the flow.
Various types of flow-meters may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi, calibrated laminar
flow-meter, calibrated turbine meter.
A.8.5.1.
Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
All the parameters related to the pump shall be simultaneously measured along with the
parameters related to a calibration venturi which is connected in series with the pump. The
calculated flow rate (in m /s at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) shall be
plotted versus a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump
parameters. The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function
shall be determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, the calibration shall be performed
for each range used.
Temperature stability shall be maintained during calibration.
Leaks in all the connections and ducting between the calibration venturi and the CVS pump
shall be maintained lower than 0.3% of the lowest flow point (highest restriction and lowest
PDP speed point).
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /s from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
airflow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
q
T 101.325
V = × ×
(A.8-68)
n 273.15 p
where:
q = airflow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
T
p
n
= temperature at pump inlet [K]
= absolute pressure at pump inlet [kPa]
= pump speed [rev/s]
To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the
correlation function (X ) [s/rev] between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet
to pump outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:

A.8.5.2.
Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi. Gas flow is a
function of venturi inlet pressure and temperature.
To determine the range of critical flow, K shall be plotted as a function of venturi inlet
pressure. For critical (choked) flow, K will have a relatively constant value. As pressure
decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and K decreases, which
indicates that the CFV is operated outside the permissible range.
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 8 settings) shall be calculated in
standard m /s from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
calibration coefficient K ⎡⎛
⎞ ⎤ shall be calculated from the calibration data for
⎢⎜
K × m × s ⎟ / kg⎥
⎣⎝
⎠ ⎦
each setting as follows:
K
q × T
= (A.8-71)
p
where:
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325 kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
T = temperature at the venturi inlet [K]
p = absolute pressure at venturi inlet [kPa]
The average K and the standard deviation shall be calculated. The standard deviation shall
not exceed ±0.3% of the average K .

with
μ =
b × T
(A.8-74)
S + T
where:
A = collection of constants and units conversions = 27.43831
⎡ kg min mm ⎤
⎢ × × ⎥
⎣ m s m ⎦
q = air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K) [m /s]
d
μ
= diameter of the SSV throat [mm]
= absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas [kg/(m·s)]
b = 1.458 × 10 (empirical constant) [kg/(m·s·K )]
S
= 110.4 (empirical constant) [K]
Because q is an input to the Re equation, the calculations shall be started with an initial
guess for q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to 0.1% of point or better.
For a minimum of sixteen points in the region of subsonic flow, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured C for
each calibration point.

ANNEX 5
TEST CYCLES
1. TEST CYCLES
1.1. Steady-state discrete-mode testing
(a)
For variable-speed engines, the following 8-mode cycle
shall be followed in
dynamometer operation on the test engine:
Mode Number
Engine Speed
Torque [per cent]
Weighing Factor
1
Rated
or reference
100
0.15
2
Rated
or reference
75
0.15
3
Rated
or reference
50
0.15
4
Rated
or reference
10
0.10
5
Intermediate
100
0.10
6
Intermediate
75
0.10
7
Intermediate
50
0.10
8
Idle

0.15
(b)
For constant-speed engines, the following 5-mode cycle
shall be followed in
dynamometer operation on the test engine:
Mode Number
Engine Speed
Torque [per cent]
Weighing Factor
1
Rated
100
0.05
2
Rated
75
0.25
3
Rated
50
0.30
4
Rated
25
0.30
5
Rated
10
0.10

(b)
For constant-speed engines, the following 5-mode duty cycle applies in case of
ramped-modal testing:
RMC mode Time in mode [s] Engine speed Torque (per cent)
1a Steady-state
1b Transition
2a Steady-state
2b Transition
3a Steady-state
3b Transition
4a Steady-state
4b Transition
5a Steady-state
53
20
101
20
277
20
339
20
350
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
Engine governed
100
Linear transition
10
Linear transition
75
Linear transition
25
Linear transition
50

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
34
14
8
15
39
39
35
27
43
14
10
15
35
60
55
47
16

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
83
77
74
76
46
78
79
82
81
79
78
78
78
75
73
79
79
83
53
40
51
75
89
93
89
86
81
78
78
76
79
82
86
88
92
97
73
36
63
78
69
67
72
71
78
81
75
60
50
66
73
73
73
72
77
62
35
38
41
37
35
38
46
49
50
58
71
44
48
48
75
72
67
60
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
72
71
54
43
64
31
1
27
28
9
9
36
56
53
45
37
41
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
51
68
29
24
64
90
100
94
84
79
75
78
80
81
81
83
85
84
85
86
85
85
85
85
83
79
78
81
82
94
66
35
51
60
64
63
70
76
78
76
75
81
76
76
80
71
71
71
65
31
61
47
42
73
71
71
61
73
73
73
72
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
72
73
73
73
73
73
72
56
48
71
44
23
10
14
37
45
18
51
33
17
45
30
14
18
14
11
2
26
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
24
64
77
80
83
83
83
85
86
89
82
87
85
89
87
91
72
43
30
40
37
37
43
70
77
79
85
83
86
85
70
50
38
30
75
84
85
86
86
89
99
77
81
89
49
79
104
103
102
102
72
70
62
68
53
50
50
43
45
35
61
50
55
49
70
39
3
25
60
45
32
32
70
54
47
66
53
57
52
51
39
5
36
71
53
40
42
49
57
68
61
29
72
69
56
70
59
54
56
56

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
103
102
104
103
102
103
103
103
102
103
102
103
102
102
103
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
103
102
102
102
102
103
102
102
103
102
102
103
84
48
48
48
48
48
48
67
105
105
105
105
105
105
89
39
46
46
49
45
42
46
38
48
35
48
49
48
46
47
49
42
52
57
55
61
61
58
58
59
54
63
61
55
60
72
56
55
67
56
42
7
6
6
7
6
7
21
59
96
74
66
62
66
41
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
52
48
48
48
48
48
52
51
51
51
52
52
57
98
105
105
105
105
105
105
104
100
94
87
81
81
80
80
81
80
80
80
80
81
80
81
80
81
81
80
80
80
80
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
5
5
7
5
6
4
6
5
6
6
5
5
44
90
94
100
98
95
96
92
97
85
74
62
50
46
39
32
28
26
23
23
20
19
18
17
20
24
21
26
24
23
22
21
24
24
22
22
21
31
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
81
80
80
81
80
81
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
76
49
51
51
78
80
81
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
59
50
51
51
51
50
50
50
50
50
51
51
51
63
27
26
26
25
21
20
21
15
12
9
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
5
8
7
20
52
38
33
29
22
16
12
9
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
50

Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
Time
(s)
Norm.
Speed
(%)
Norm.
Torque
(%)
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
76
78
75
86
83
81
81
79
80
84
79
87
82
84
82
81
85
86
79
78
74
78
80
80
82
83
79
83
86
64
24
49
77
103
98
101
99
103
103
103
103
103
102
101
102
102
96
99
102
70
81
71
47
35
43
41
46
44
20
31
29
49
21
56
30
21
16
52
60
55
84
54
35
24
43
49
50
12
14
14
21
48
11
48
34
39
11
19
7
13
10
13
29
25
20
60
38
24
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
100
100
98
102
95
102
102
98
93
101
95
101
94
97
97
93
98
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
102
102
101
102
103
102
99
96
74
66
74
64
69
76
72
66
54
69
69
73
63
61
72
31
28
3
26
64
23
25
42
68
25
64
35
59
37
60
98
53
13
11
11
13
10
10
11
10
10
18
31
24
19
10
12
56
59
28
62
29
74
40
2
29
65
69
56
40
54
92
67
42
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
78
76
67
70
53
72
60
74
69
76
74
72
62
54
72
72
64
74
76
69
66
64
51
70
72
71
70
67
74
75
74
75
76
75
75
75
75
76
76
67
75
75
73
68
74
76
76
74
74
2
34
80
67
70
65
57
29
31
1
22
52
96
72
28
35
68
27
14
38
59
99
86
53
36
47
42
34
2
21
15
13
10
13
10
7
13
8
7
45
13
12
21
46
8
11
14
11
18

A graphical display of the NRTC dynamometer schedule is shown below


Table 3
For Power Bands L to P and Q and R
Limits
Parameter
Unit
minimum
maximum
Test Method
Cetane number
54.0
EN-ISO 5165
Density at 15°C
kg/m
833
865
EN-ISO 3675
Distillation:
50% point
°C
245

EN-ISO 3405
95% point
°C
345
350
EN-ISO 3405
– Final boiling point
°C

370
EN-ISO 3405
Flash point
°C
55

EN 22719
CFPP
°C

–5
EN 116
Viscosity at 40°C
mm /s
2.3
3.3
EN-ISO 3104
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
per cent m/m 3.0
6.0
IP 391
Sulphur content
mg/kg

10
ASTM D 5453
Copper corrosion

Class 1
EN-ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue
per cent m/m –
0.2
EN-ISO 10370
(10% DR)
Ash content
per cent m/m –
0.01
EN-ISO 6245
Water content
per cent m/m –
0.02
EN-ISO 12937
Neutralization (strong acid) number
mg KOH/g

0.02
ASTM D 974
Oxidation stability
mg/ml

0.025
EN-ISO 12205
Lubricity (HFRR wear scar diameter at 60°C) μm

400
CEC F-06-A-96
FAME
prohibited

Number Equipment and auxiliaries Fitted for emission test
5 Liquid-cooling equipment
Radiator
Fan
Fan cowl
No
No
No
Water pump Yes
Thermostat
6 Air cooling
Yes
Cowl No
Fan or Blower No
Temperature-regulating device
7 Electrical equipment
No
Generator Yes
8 Pressure charging equipment
Compressor driven either directly by the
engine and/or by the exhaust gases
Yes
Charge air cooler Yes
Coolant pump or fan (engine-driven) No
Coolant flow control device
Yes
9 Auxiliary test-bed fan Yes, if necessary
10 Anti-pollution device Yes
11 Starting equipment Yes or test bed equipment
12 Lubricating oil pump Yes
13 Certain auxiliaries whose definition is
linked with the operation of the machine
and which may be mounted on the engine
shall be removed for the test.
The following non-exhaustive list is given
as an example:
(i)
air compressor for brakes
(ii) power steering compressor
(iii) suspension compressor
(iv) air-conditioning system.
No

ANNEX 8
DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS
1. VERIFYING THE DURABILITY OF ENGINES FOR POWER BANDS H TO P
This Annex shall apply to CI engines from Power Bands H to P only
1.1. Manufacturers shall determine a Deterioration Factor (DF) value for each regulated pollutant
for all engine families of Power Bands H to P. Such DFs shall be used for type approval and
production line testing, by either:
1.1.1. Test to establish DFs shall be conducted as follows:
1.1.1.1. The manufacturer shall conduct durability tests to accumulate engine operating hours
according to a test schedule that is selected on the basis of good engineering judgement to
be representative of in-use engine operation in respect to characterising emission
performance deterioration. The durability test period should typically represent the
equivalent of at least one quarter of the emission durability period (EDP).
Service accumulation operating hours may be acquired through running engines on a
dynamometer test bed or from actual in-field machine operation. Accelerated durability tests
can be applied whereby the service accumulation test schedule is performed at a higher
load factor than typically experienced in the field. The acceleration factor relating the
number of engine durability test hours to the equivalent number of EDP hours shall be
determined by the engine manufacturer based on good engineering judgement.
During the period of the durability test, no emission sensitive components can be serviced
or replaced other than to the routine service schedule recommended by the manufacturer.
The test engine, subsystems, or components to be used to determine exhaust emission DFs
for an engine family, or for engine families of equivalent emission control system
technology, shall be selected by the engine manufacturer on the basis of good engineering
judgement. The criterion is that the test engine should represent the emission deterioration
characteristic of the engine families that will apply the resulting DF values for certification
approval. Engines of different bore and stroke, different configuration, different air
management systems, different fuel systems can be considered as equivalent in respect to
emissions deterioration characteristics if there is a reasonable technical basis for such
determination.
DF values from another manufacturer can be applied if there is a reasonable basis for
considering technology equivalence with respect to emissions deterioration, and evidence
that the tests have been carried according to the specified requirements.
Emissions testing will be performed according to the procedures defined in this Regulation
for the test engine after initial run-in but before any service accumulation test, and at the
completion of the durability test. Emission tests can also be performed at intervals during
the service accumulation test period, and applied in determining the deterioration trend.

1.2. DF Information in Approval Applications
1.2.1. Additive DFs shall be specified for each pollutant in an engine family certification application
for CI engines not using any after-treatment device.
1.2.2. Multiplicative DFs shall be specified for each pollutant in an engine family certification
application for CI engines using an after-treatment device.
1.2.3. The manufacturer shall furnish to the Type Approval Authority on request with information to
support the DF values. This would typically include emission test results, service
accumulation schedule, maintenance procedures together with information to support
engineering judgements of technological equivalency, if applicable.
2. VERIFYING THE DURABILITY OF ENGINES FOR POWER BANDS Q TO R
2.1 General
2.1.1. This Paragraph shall apply to CI engines of Power Bands Q to R. At the request of the
manufacturer, it may also be applied to CI engines of Power Bands H to P as an alternative
to the requirements in Paragraph 1 of this Annex.
2.1.2. This Paragraph 2. details the procedures for selecting engines to be tested over a service
accumulation schedule for the purpose of determining deterioration factors for stage IV
engine type approval and conformity of production assessments. The deterioration factors
shall be applied in accordance with Paragraph 2.4.7. to the emissions measured according
to Annex 4B to this Regulation.
2.1.3. The service accumulation tests or the emissions tests performed to determine deterioration
need not be witnessed by the Type Approval Authority.
2.1.4. This Paragraph 2. also details the emission-related and non-emission-related maintenance
that should be or may be carried out on engines undergoing a service accumulation
schedule. Such maintenance shall conform to the maintenance performed on in-service
engines and communicated to owners of new engines.
2.1.5. At the request of the manufacturer, the Type Approval Authority may allow the use of
deterioration factors that have been established using alternative procedures to those
specified in Paragraphs 2.4.1. to 2.4.5. In this case, the manufacturer shall demonstrate to
the satisfaction of the Type Approval Authority that the alternative procedures that have
been used are no less rigorous than those contained in Paragraphs 2.4.1 to 2.4.5.
2.2. Reserved
2.3. Selection of Engines for Establishing Emission Durability Period Deterioration
Factors
2.3.1. Engines shall be selected from the engine family defined in Annex 1B of this Regulation for
emission testing to establish emission durability period deterioration factors.

2.4.2.1.5. In the case of constant speed engines only the NRSC cycle shall be run at each test point.
2.4.2.1.6. Service accumulation schedules may be different for different engine-after-treatment system
families.
2.4.2.1.7. Service accumulation schedules may be shorter than the emission durability period, but
shall not be shorter than the equivalent of at least one quarter of the relevant emission
durability period specified in Paragraph 3 of this Annex.
2.4.2.1.8. Accelerated ageing by adjusting the service accumulation schedule on a fuel consumption
basis is permitted. The adjustment shall be based on the ratio between the typical in-use
fuel consumption and the fuel consumption on the ageing cycle, but fuel consumption on the
ageing cycle shall not exceed typical in-use fuel consumption by more than 30%.
2.4.2.1.9. At the request of the manufacturer and with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority,
alternative methods of accelerated ageing may be permitted.
2.4.2.1.10. The service accumulation schedule shall be fully described in the application for typeapproval
and reported to the Type Approval Authority before the start of any testing.
2.4.2.2. If the Type Approval Authority decides that additional measurements need to be performed
between the points selected by the manufacturer it shall notify the manufacturer. The
revised service accumulation schedule shall be prepared by the manufacturer and agreed
by the Type Approval Authority.
2.4.3. Engine Testing
2.4.3.1. Engine System Stabilisation
2.4.3.1.1. For each engine-after-treatment system family, the manufacturer shall determine the
number of hours of machine or engine running after which the operation of the engine-aftertreatment
system has stabilised. If requested by the Type Approval Authority the
manufacturer shall make available the data and analysis used to make this determination.
As an alternative, the manufacturer may select to run the engine or machine between
60 and 125h or the equivalent time on the ageing cycle to stabilise the engine-aftertreatment
system.
2.4.3.1.2. The end of the stabilisation period determined in Paragraph 2.4.3.1.1. shall be deemed to
be the start of the service accumulation schedule.
2.4.3.2. Service Accumulation Testing
2.4.3.2.1. After stabilisation, the engine shall be run over the service accumulation schedule selected
by the manufacturer, as described in Paragraph 2.3.2. At the periodic intervals in the service
accumulation schedule determined by the manufacturer, and, where appropriate, also
stipulated by the Type Approval Authority in accordance with Paragraph 2.4.2.2., the engine
shall be tested for gaseous and particulate emissions over the hot NRTC and NRSC cycles.
The manufacturer may select to measure the pollutant emissions before any exhaust aftertreatment
system separately from the pollutant emissions after any exhaust after-treatment
system.

In the case that emission valuess are used for engine families f in the same engine-after-
treatment family but with different emission durability periods, then the emission
values at
the emission durability period end point shall be recalculated for each emission
durability
period by extrapolation or interpolation of
the regression equation as determined in
Paragraph 2.4.5.1.
2.4.5.3.
The deterioration factor (DF) for each pollutant is defined as thee ratio of the applied
emission values at the emission durability period end point and at the start of the service
accumulation schedule (multiplicative deterioration factor) .
At the request of the manufacturer and with the prior approval of the Type
Approval
Authority, an additive
DF for each pollutant may be applied. The additive DF is defined as
the difference between the calculated emission values at the emission durability period end
point and
at the start of the service accumulation schedule.
An example for determination off DFs by using linear egression is
NOx emission.
shown in Figure 1 for
Mixing of
multiplicative and additive DFs within one set of pollutants iss not permitted.
If the calculation results in a valuee of less than 1.00 for a multiplicativee DF, or lesss than 0.00
for an additive DF, then the deterioration factor shall be 1. 0 or 0.00, respectively.
In accordance with Paragraph 2.4.2.1.4., if it has been agreed that only one test cycle (hot
NRTC or
NRSC) be run r at each test point and
the other test cycle (hot NRTC or NRSC) run
only at the beginning and end of the service accumulation
n schedule, the deterioration factor
calculated for the test cycle that has been run
at each test point shalll be applicable also for
the other
test cycle.
Figure 1
Examplee of DF Determination

2.4.8. Checking of Conformity of Production
2.4.8.1. Conformity of production for emissions compliance is checked on the basis of Paragraph 7.
of this Regulation.
2.4.8.2. The manufacturer may select to measure the pollutant emissions before any exhaust aftertreatment
system at the same time as the type-approval test is being performed. In so
doing, the manufacturer may develop informal DFs separately for the engine and for the
after-treatment system that may be used by the manufacturer as an aid to end of production
line auditing.
2.4.8.3. For the purposes of type-approval, only the DFs determined in accordance with
Paragraph 2.4.5. or 2.4.6. shall be recorded in the test result document set out in
Appendix 1 to Annex 2 to this Regulation.
2.5. Maintenance
For the purpose of the service accumulation schedule, maintenance shall be performed in
accordance with the manufacturer's manual for service and maintenance.
2.5.1. Emission-Related Scheduled Maintenance
2.5.1.1. Emission-related scheduled maintenance during engine running, undertaken for the purpose
of conducting a service accumulation schedule, shall occur at equivalent intervals to those
that shall be specified in the manufacturer's maintenance instructions to the owner of the
machine or engine. This maintenance schedule may be updated as necessary throughout
the service accumulation schedule provided that no maintenance operation is deleted from
the maintenance schedule after the operation has been performed on the test engine.
2.5.1.2. The engine manufacturer shall specify for the service accumulation schedules any
adjustment, cleaning, maintenance (where necessary) and scheduled exchange of the
following items:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Filters and coolers in the exhaust gas re-circulation system
Positive crankcase ventilation valve, if applicable
Fuel injector tips (only cleaning is permitted)
Fuel injectors
Turbocharger
Electronic engine control unit and its associated sensors and actuators
Particulate after-treatment system (including related components)
NOx after-treatment system (including related components)
Exhaust gas re-circulation system, including all related control valves and tubing
Any other exhaust after-treatment system.

ANNEX 9
REQUIREMENTS TO ENSURE THE CORRECT OPERATION OF NOX CONTROL MEASURES
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex sets out the requirements to ensure the correct operation of NOx control
measures. It includes requirements for engines that rely on the use of a reagent in order to
reduce emissions.
2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The engine system shall be equipped with a NO Control Diagnostic system (NCD) able to
identify the NO control malfunctions (NCMs) considered by this Annex. Any engine system
covered by this Paragraph shall be designed, constructed and installed so as to be capable
of meeting these requirements throughout the normal life of the engine under normal
conditions of use. In achieving this objective, it is acceptable that engines which have been
used in excess of the useful life period as specified in Paragraph 3.1. of Annex 8 to this
Regulation show some deterioration in the performance and the sensitivity of the NOx
Control Diagnostic system (NCD), such that the thresholds specified in this Annex may be
exceeded before the warning and/or inducement systems are activated.
2.1. Required Information
2.1.1. If the emission control system requires a reagent, the characteristics of that reagent,
including the type of reagent, information on concentration when the reagent is in solution,
operational temperature conditions and reference to international standards for composition
and quality shall be specified by the manufacturer, in Paragraph 2.2.1.13. of Appendix 1 and
in Paragraph 2.2.1.13. of Appendix 3 to Annex 1A to this Regulation.
2.1.2. Detailed written information fully describing the functional operation characteristics of the
operator warning system in Paragraph 4. and of the operator inducement system in
Paragraph 5. shall be provided to the Type Approval Authority at the time of type-approval.
2.1.3. The manufacturer shall provide installation documents that, when used by the OEM, will
ensure that the engine, inclusive of the emission control system that is part of the approved
engine type, when installed in the machine, will operate, in conjunction with the necessary
machinery parts, in a manner that will comply with the requirements of this Annex. This
documentation shall include the detailed technical requirements and the provisions of the
engine system (software, hardware, and communication) needed for the correct installation
of the engine system in the machine.
2.2. Operating Conditions
2.2.1. The NO control diagnostic system shall be operational at the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Ambient temperatures between 266K and 308K (-7°C and 35°C);
All altitudes below 1,600m;
Engine coolant temperatures above 343K (70°C).

2.4. Diagnostic Requirements
2.4.1 The NO Control Diagnostic system (NCD) shall be able to identify the NOx control
malfunctions (NCMs) considered by this Annex by means of Diagnostic Trouble Codes
(DTCs) stored in the computer memory and to communicate that information off-board upon
request.
2.4.2 Requirements for Recording Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
2.4.2.1 The NCD system shall record a DTC for each distinct NOx Control Malfunction (NCM).
2.4.2.2. The NCD system shall conclude within 60min of engine operation whether a detectable
malfunction is present. At this time, a "confirmed and active" DTC shall be stored and the
warning system be activated according to Paragraph 4.
2.4.2.3 In cases where more than 60min running time is required for the monitors to accurately
detect and confirm a NCM (e.g. monitors using statistical models or with respect to fluid
consumption on the machine), the Type Approval Authority may permit a longer period for
monitoring provided the manufacturer justifies the need for the longer period (for example by
technical rationale, experimental results, in house experience, etc.).
2.4.3. Requirements for Erasing Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
(a)
(b)
DTCs shall not be erased by the NCD system itself from the computer memory until
the failure related to that DTC has been remedied.
The NCD system may erase all the DTCs upon request of a proprietary scan or
maintenance tool that is provided by the engine manufacturer upon request, or using
a pass code provided by the engine manufacturer.
2.4.4. An NCD system shall not be programmed or otherwise designed to partially or totally
deactivate based on age of the machine during the actual life of the engine, nor shall the
system contain any algorithm or strategy designed to reduce the effectiveness of the NCD
system over time.
2.4.5. Any reprogrammable computer codes or operating parameters of the NCD system shall be
resistant to tampering.
2.4.6. NCD Engine Family
The manufacturer is responsible for determining the composition of an NCD engine family.
Grouping engine systems within an NCD engine family shall be based on good engineering
judgment and be subject to approval by the Type Approval Authority.
Engines that do not belong to the same engine family may still belong to the same NCD
engine family.
2.4.6.1. Parameters defining an NCD engine family
An NCD engine family is characterized by basic design parameters that shall be common to
engine systems within the family.

4. OPERATOR WARNING SYSTEM
4.1. The machine shall include an operator warning system using visual alarms that informs the
operator when a low reagent level, incorrect reagent quality, interruption of dosing or a
malfunction of the type specified in Paragraph 9. has been detected that will lead to
activation of the operator inducement system if not rectified in a timely manner. The warning
system shall remain active when the operator inducement system described in Paragraph 5.
has been activated.
4.2. The warning shall not be the same as the warning used for the purposes of signalling a
malfunction or other engine maintenance, though it may use the same warning system.
4.3. The operator warning system may consist of one or more lamps, or display short messages,
which may include, for example, messages indicating clearly:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The remaining time before activation of the low-level and/or severe inducements;
The amount of low-level and/or severe inducement, for example the amount of torque
reduction;
The conditions under which machine disablement can be cleared.
Where messages are displayed, the system used for displaying these messages may be the
same as the one used for other maintenance purposes.
4.4. At the choice of the manufacturer, the warning system may include an audible component to
alert the operator. The cancelling of audible warnings by the operator is permitted.
4.5. The operator warning system shall be activated as specified in Paragraphs 2.3.3.1., 6.2.,
7.2., 8.4., and 9.3. respectively.
4.6. The operator warning system shall be deactivated when the conditions for its activation
have ceased to exist. The operator warning system shall not be automatically deactivated
without the reason for its activation having been remedied.
4.7. The warning system may be temporarily interrupted by other warning signals providing
important safety related messages.
4.8. Details of the operator warning system activation and deactivation procedures are described
in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
4.9. As part of the application for type-approval under this Regulation, the manufacturer shall
demonstrate the operation of the operator warning system, as specified in Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
5. OPERATOR INDUCEMENT SYSTEM
5.1. The machine shall incorporate an operator inducement system based on one of the
following principles:
5.1.1. A two-stage inducement system starting with a low-level inducement (performance
restriction) followed by a severe inducement (effective disablement of machine operation);

5.4.2.1.
Engine torque between the peak torque speed and the governor breakpoint shall be
gradually reducedd from the low-level inducement torque in Figure 1 by a minimum of 1%
per minute to 50%
of maximum torque or lower andd engine speed shall be
gradually
reduced to 60% of rated speed or lower within the same time period as the t torque
reduction, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2
Severee Inducement Torque Reduction Scheme
5.4.2.2.
Other inducement measures that are demonstrated to
having the same or greater level of severity may be used.
the Type Approval Authority as
5.5.
In order to account for safety concerns and to allow for self-healing
s diagnostics, use of an
inducement override function for releasing fulll engine power is permitted, providedd it
(a)
(b)
Is active for no longer than 30min, and
Is limited to 3 activations during each period that the t operator
active.
inducementt system is
5.6.
The operator inducement systemm shall be deactivated when the conditions for its
activation
have ceased to exist. The operator inducement system shall not be automatically
deactivated without the reason for its activation having been remedied.
5.7.
Details of the operator inducement system
activation
describedd in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
and deactivation procedures are
5.8.
As part of the application for type-approval
under this Regulation, R the manufacturer shall
demonstrate the operation of the operator inducement system, as specified in Appendix 2 to
this Annex.

7. REAGENT QUALITY MONITORING
7.1. The engine or machine shall include a means of determining the presence of an incorrect
reagent on board a machine.
7.1.1. The manufacturer shall specify a minimum acceptable reagent concentration CDmin, which
results in tailpipe NO emissions not exceeding a threshold of 0.9g/kWh.
7.1.1.1. The correct value of CDmin shall be demonstrated during type approval by the procedure
defined in Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in the extended documentation package
as specified in 5.3. of this Regulation.
7.1.2. Any reagent concentration lower than CDmin shall be detected and be regarded, for the
purpose of Paragraph 7.1., as being incorrect reagent.
7.1.3. A specific counter ("the reagent quality counter") shall be attributed to the reagent quality.
The reagent quality counter shall count the number of engine operating hours with an
incorrect reagent.
7.1.3.1. Optionally, the manufacturer may group the reagent quality failure together with one or more
of the failures listed in Paragraphs 8. and 9. into a single counter.
7.1.4. Details of the reagent quality counter activation and deactivation criteria and mechanisms
are described in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
7.2. Activation of the Operator Warning System
When the monitoring system confirms that the reagent quality is incorrect, the operator
warning system described in Paragraph 4. shall be activated. When the warning system
includes a message display system, it shall display a message indicating the reason of the
warning (for example "incorrect urea detected", "incorrect AdBlue detected", or "incorrect
reagent detected").
7.3 Activation of the Operator Inducement System
7.3.1. The low-level inducement system described in Paragraph 5.3. shall be activated if the
reagent quality is not rectified within a maximum of 10 engine operating hours after the
activation of the operator warning system described in Paragraph 7.2.
7.3.2. The severe inducement system described in Paragraph 5.4. shall be activated if the reagent
quality is not rectified within a maximum of 20 engine operating hours after the activation of
the operator warning system in described Paragraph 7.2.
7.3.3. The number of hours prior to activation of the inducement systems shall be reduced in case
of a repetitive occurrence of the malfunction according to the mechanism described in
Appendix 2 of this Annex.
8. REAGENT DOSING ACTIVITY
8.1 The engine shall include a means of determining interruption of dosing.

A non-exhaustive list of sensors that affect the diagnostic capability are those directly
measuring NOx concentration, urea quality sensors, ambient sensors and sensors used for
monitoring reagent dosing activity, reagent level, or reagent consumption.
9.2.2. EGR Valve Counter
9.2.2.1. A specific counter shall be attributed to an impeded EGR valve. The EGR valve counter
shall count the number of engine operating hours when the DTC associated to an impeded
EGR valve is confirmed to be active.
9.2.2.1.1. Optionally, the manufacturer may group the impeded EGR valve failure together with one or
more of the failures listed in Paragraphs 7., 8. and 9.2.3. into a single counter.
9.2.2.2. Details of the EGR valve counter activation and deactivation criteria and mechanisms are
described in Appendix 2 of this Annex.
9.2.3. NCD System Counter(s)
9.2.3.1. A specific counter shall be attributed to each of the monitoring failures considered in
Paragraph 9.1 (ii). The NCD system counters shall count the number of engine operating
hours when the DTC associated to a malfunction of the NCD system is confirmed to be
active. Grouping of several faults into a single counter is permitted.
9.2.3.1.1. Optionally, the manufacturer may group the NCD system failure together with one or more
of the failures listed in Paragraphs 7., 8. and 9.2.2. into a single counter.
9.2.3.2. Details of the NCD system counter(s) activation and deactivation criteria and mechanisms
are described in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
9.3. Activation of the Operator Warning System
The operator warning system described in Paragraph 4. shall be activated in case any of the
failures specified in Paragraph 9.1. occur, and shall indicate that an urgent repair is
required. When the warning system includes a message display system, it shall display a
message indicating the reason of the warning (for example "reagent dosing valve
disconnected", or "critical emission failure").
9.4. Activation of the Operator Inducement System
9.4.1. The low-level inducement system described in Paragraph 5.3. shall be activated if a failure
specified in Paragraph 9.1. is not rectified within a maximum of 36 engine operating hours
after the activation of the operator warning system in Paragraph 9.3.
9.4.2. The severe inducement system described in Paragraph 5.4. shall be activated if a failure
specified in Paragraph 9.1. is not rectified within a maximum of 100 engine operating hours
after the activation of the operator warning system in Paragraph 9.3.
9.4.3. The number of hours prior to activation of the inducement systems shall be reduced in case
of a repetitive occurrence of the malfunction according to the mechanism described in
Appendix 2 to this Annex.

ANNEX 9 - APPENDIX 1
DEMONSTRATION REQUIREMENTS
1. General
The compliance to the requirements of this Annex shall be demonstrated during
type-approval by performing, as illustrated in Table 1 and specified in this Paragraph:
(a)
(b)
(c)
A demonstration of the warning system activation;
A demonstration of the low level inducement system activation, if applicable;
A demonstration of the severe inducement system activation.
Table 1
Illustration of the Content of the Demonstration Process According
to the Provisions in Paragraphs 3. and 4.
Mechanism
Warning system activation specified in
Paragraph 3. of this Appendix
Low-level inducement activation
specified in Paragraph 4. of this
Appendix
Severe inducement activation specified
in Paragraph 4.6. of this Appendix
Demonstration Elements
● 2 activation tests (incl. lack of reagent)
● Supplementary demonstration elements,
as appropriate
● 2 activation tests (incl. lack of reagent)
● Supplementary demonstration elements,
as appropriate
● 1 torque reduction test
● 2 activation tests (incl. lack of reagent)
● Supplementary demonstration elements,
as appropriate
2. ENGINE FAMILIES AND NCD ENGINE FAMILIES
The compliance of an engine family or an NCD engine family with the requirements of this
Appendix may be demonstrated by testing one of the members of the considered family,
provided the manufacturer demonstrates to the Type Approval Authority that the monitoring
systems necessary for complying with the requirements of this Annex are similar within the
family.
2.1. The demonstration that the monitoring systems for other members of the NCD family are
similar may be performed by presenting to the approval authorities such elements as
algorithms, functional analyses, etc.
2.2. The test engine is selected by the manufacturer in agreement with the Type Approval
Authority. It may or may not be the parent engine of the considered family.

3.2.2.1. The manufacturer shall provide the Type Approval Authority with a list of such potential
failures.
3.2.2.2. The failure to be considered in the test shall be selected by the Type Approval Authority
from this list referred to in Paragraph 3.2.2.1.
3.3. Demonstration
3.3.1. For the purpose of this demonstration, a separate test shall be performed for each of the
failures considered in Paragraph 3.1.
3.3.2. During a test, no failure shall be present other than the one addressed by the test.
3.3.3. Prior to starting a test, all DTC shall have been erased.
3.3.4. At the request of the manufacturer, and with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority,
the failures subject to testing may be simulated.
3.3.5. Detection of Failures Other than Lack of Reagent
For failures other than lack of reagent, once the failure installed or simulated, the detection
of that failure shall be performed as follows:
3.3.5.1. The NCD system shall respond to the introduction of a failure selected as appropriate by the
Type Approval Authority in accordance to the provisions of this Appendix. This is considered
to be demonstrated if activation occurs within two consecutive NCD test-cycles according to
Paragraph 3.3.7.
When it has been specified in the monitoring description and agreed by the Type Approval
Authority that a specific monitor needs more than two NCD test-cycles to complete its
monitoring, the number of NCD test-cycles may be increased to 3 NCD test-cycles.
Each individual NCD test-cycle in the demonstration test may be separated by an engine
shut-off. The time until the next start-up shall take into consideration any monitoring that
may occur after engine shut-off and any necessary condition that shall exist for monitoring
to occur at the next start up.
3.3.5.2. The demonstration of the warning system activation is deemed to be accomplished if, at the
end of each demonstration test performed according to Paragraph 3.2.1, the warning
system has been properly activated and the DTC for the selected failure has got the
"confirmed and active" status.
3.3.6. Detection in Case of lack of Reagent Availability
For the purpose of demonstrating the activation of the warning system in case of lack of
reagent availability, the engine system shall be operated over one or more NCD test cycles
at the discretion of the manufacturer.
3.3.6.1. The demonstration shall start with a level of reagent in the tank to be agreed between the
manufacturer and the Type Approval Authority, but representing not less than 10% of the
nominal capacity of the tank.

4.3. For the purpose of this demonstration,
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The Type Approval Authority shall select, in addition to the lack of reagent, one of the
failures defined in Paragraphs 7., 8. or 9. of this Annex that has been previously used
in the demonstration of the warning system activation;
The manufacturer shall, in agreement with the Type Approval Authority, be permitted
to accelerate the test by simulating the achievement of a certain number of operating
hours;
The achievement of the torque reduction required for low-level inducement may be
demonstrated at the same time as the general engine performance approval process
performed in accordance with this Regulation. Separate torque measurement during
the inducement system demonstration is not required in this case;
The severe inducement shall be demonstrated according to the requirements of
Paragraph 4.6 of this Appendix.
4.4. The manufacturer shall, in addition, demonstrate the operation of the inducement system
under those failure conditions defined in Paragraphs 7., 8. or 9. of this Annex which have
not been chosen for use in demonstration tests described in Paragraphs 4.1. to 4.3.
These additional demonstrations may be performed by presentation to the Type Approval
Authority of a technical case using evidence such as algorithms, functional analyses, and
the result of previous tests.
4.4.1. These additional demonstrations shall in particular demonstrate to the satisfaction of the
Type Approval Authority the inclusion of the correct torque reduction mechanism in the
engine ECU.
4.5. Demonstration Test of the Low Level Inducement System
4.5.1. This demonstration starts when the warning system or when appropriate "continuous"
warning system has been activated as a result of the detection of a failure selected by the
Type Approval Authority.
4.5.2. When the system is being checked for its reaction to the case of lack of reagent in the tank,
the engine system shall be run until the reagent availability has reached a value of 2.5%of
the nominal full capacity of the tank or the value declared by the manufacturer in
accordance with Paragraph 6.3.1. of this Annex at which the low-level inducement system is
intended to operate.
4.5.2.1. The manufacturer may, with the agreement of the Type Approval Authority, simulate
continuous running by extracting reagent from the tank, either while the engine is running or
is stopped.
4.5.3. When the system is checked for its reaction in the case of a failure other than a lack of
reagent in the tank, the engine system shall be run for the relevant number of operating
hours indicated in Table 3 of this Appendix or, at the choice of the manufacturer, until the
relevant counter has reached the value at which the low-level inducement system is
activated.

ANNEX 9 - APPENDIX 2
DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATOR WARNING AND INDUCEMENT ACTIVATION AND
DEACTIVATION MECHANISMS
1. To complement the requirements specified in this Annex concerning the warning and
inducement activation and deactivation mechanisms, this Appendix specifies the technical
requirements for an implementation of those activation and deactivation mechanisms.
2. ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF THE WARNING SYSTEM
2.1. The operator warning system shall be activated when the diagnostic trouble code (DTC)
associated with a NCM justifying its activation has the status defined in Table 2 of this
Appendix.
Table 2
Activation of the Operator Warning System
Failure type
poor reagent quality
interruption of dosing
impeded EGR valve
malfunction of the monitoring system
NOx threshold, if applicable
DTC status for activation of the warning
system
confirmed and active
confirmed and active
confirmed and active
confirmed and active
confirmed and active
2.2. The operator warning system shall be deactivated when the diagnostic system concludes
that the malfunction relevant to that warning is no longer present or when the information
including DTCs relative to the failures justifying its activation is erased by a scan tool.
2.2.1. Requirements for erasing "NOx control information"
2.2.1.1. Erasing / resetting "NOx control information" by a scan-tool
On request of the scan tool, the following data shall be erased or reset to the value specified
in this Appendix from the computer memory (see Table 3).
Table 3
Erasing/Resetting "NO Control Information" by a Scan-tool
NOx control information
all DTCs
the value of the counter with the highest number of engine
operating hours
the number of engine operating hours from the NCD counter(s)
Erasable Resetable
X
X
X

4.1.3.1. When the manufacturer decides to use multiple NCD system counters, the system shall be
capable of assigning a specific monitoring system counter to each malfunction relevant
according to this Annex to that type of counters.
4.2. Principle of Counters Mechanism
4.2.1. Each of the counters shall operate as follows:
4.2.1.1. If starting from zero, the counter shall begin counting as soon as a malfunction relevant to
that counter is detected and the corresponding diagnostic trouble code (DTC) has the status
defined in Table 2.
4.2.1.2. In case of repeated failures, one of the following provisions shall apply at the choice of the
manufacturer:
(a)
(b)
If a single monitoring event occurs and the malfunction that originally activated the
counter is no longer detected or if the failure has been erased by a scan tool or a
maintenance tool, the counter shall halt and hold its current value. If the counter stops
counting when the severe inducement system is active, the counter shall be kept
frozen at the value defined in Table 4 of this Appendix or a value of greater than or
equal to the counter value for severe inducement minus 30min.
The counter shall be kept frozen at the value defined in Table 4 of this Appendix or a
value greater than or equal to the counter value for severe inducement minus 30min.
4.2.1.3. In the case of a single monitoring system counter, that counter shall continue counting if a
NCM relevant to that counter has been detected and its corresponding Diagnostic trouble
code (DTC) has the status "confirmed and active". It shall halt and hold one of the values
specified in Paragraph 4.2.1.2, if no NCM that would justify the counter activation is
detected or if all the failures relevant to that counter have been erased by a scan tool or a
maintenance tool.
Table 4
Counters and Inducement
DTC status for first
activation of the
counter
counter
value for lowlevel
inducement
counter
value for
severe
inducement
Frozen value held by the
counter
reagent quality counter confirmed and active ≤10h ≤20h
dosing counter confirmed and active ≤10h ≤20h
EGR valve counter confirmed and active ≤ 36h ≤100h
monitoring system
counter
NO threshold, if
applicable
confirmed and active ≤ 36h ≤100h
confirmed and active ≤ 10h ≤20h
≥90% of counter value for severe
inducement
≥90% of counter value for severe
inducement
≥95% of counter value for severe
inducement
≥95% of counter value for severe
inducement
≥90% of counter value for severe
inducement

5.2. Figure 5 illustrates the operation of the activation andd deactivation mechanisms when
monitoring the reagent availabilityy for five cases:
Use case
1: the operator continues operating the machine in spitee of the warning until
machine operation is disabled.
Refilling case 1 ("adequate" refilling): the operator refillss the reagent tank so that a level
above the
10% threshold is reached. Warning
and inducement are de-activated.
system is activated. The level of
Refilling cases 2 and 3 ("inadequate" refilling) ): The warning
warning depends on the t amount of available reagent.
Refilling case 4 ("very inadequate" refilling): The loww level inducement is
immediately.
activated
Figure 5
Reagent Availability

5.4. Figure 7 illustrates three casess of failure
illustratess the process that applies in the
Paragraph 9. of this Annex.
of the urea dosing system. This figure f also
case of thee monitoring failures described in
Use case
1: the operator continues operating the machine in spitee of the warning until
machine operation is disabled.
Repair case 1 ("good" repair): after disablement of the machine, the operator repairs r the
dosing system. However some time afterwards, the dosing system fails again. The warning,
inducement and counting processes restart from zero.
Repair case 2 ("bad"" repair): during the low-level inducement time (torque reduction), the
operator repairs the dosing system. Soon after, however, the dosing system fails again. The
low-level inducementt system is immediately
reactivated and the counter restartss from the
value it had at the time of repair.
Figure 7
Failure of thee Reagent Dosing System

ANNEX 10 - APPENDIX 1
DETERMINATION OF CO EMISSIONS FOR ENGINES OF POWER BANDS UP TO P
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Appendix sets out the provisions and test procedures for reporting CO emissions for
all Power Bands up to P. If the manufacturer, based on the option indicated in
Paragraph 5.2. of this Regulation, chooses to use the procedure of Annex 4B, Appendix 2 to
this Annex shall apply.
2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2.1. CO emissions shall be determined over the applicable test cycle specified in Paragraph 1.1
of Annex 4A in accordance with Paragraph 3. (NRSC) or Paragraph 4. (hot start NRTC),
respectively, of Annex 4A to this Regulation. For Power Bands L to P, CO emissions shall
be determined over the hot start NRTC test cycle.
2.2. The test results shall be reported as cycle averaged brake specific values and expressed in
the unit of g/kWh.
2.3. If, at the choice of the manufacturer, the NRSC is operated as a ramped modal cycle, either
the references to the NRTC laid down in this Appendix or the requirements of Appendix 2 to
this Annex shall apply.
3. DETERMINATION OF CO EMISSIONS
3.1. Raw Measurement
This Paragraph applies, if CO is measured in the raw exhaust gas.
3.1.1. Measurement
CO in the raw exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured
with a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyser in accordance with Paragraph 1.4.3.2.
(NRSC) or Paragraph 2.3.3.2. (NRTC), respectively, of Appendix 1 to Annex 4A to this
Regulation.
The measurement system shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 1.5. of
Appendix 2 to Annex 4A to this Regulation.
The measurement system shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 1.4.1. (NRSC) or
Paragraph 2.3.1. (NRTC), respectively, of Appendix 1 to Annex 4A to this Regulation.
3.1.2. Data Evaluation
The relevant data shall be recorded and stored in accordance with Paragraph 3.7.4. (NRSC)
or Paragraph 4.5.7.2. (NRTC), respectively, of Annex 4A to this Regulation.

For the NRTC, the mass of CO (g/test) shall be calculated in accordance with Paragraph
2.2.3. of Appendix 3 to Annex 4A to this Regulation. The diluted exhaust gas flow shall be
determined in accordance with Paragraph 2.2.1. of Appendix 3 to Annex 4A to this
Regulation.
Background correction shall be applied in accordance with Paragraph 2.2.3.1.1. of Appendix
3 to Annex 4A to this Regulation.
3.3. Calculation of Brake Specific Emissions
3.3.1. NRSC
The brake specific emissions e (g/kWh) shall be calculated as follows:
e
=
∑( CO × W )
∑( P × W )
Where
P = P + P
And
3.3.2. NRTC
CO is the mass of CO of the individual mode (g/h)
P is the measured power of the individual mode (kW)
P is the power of the auxiliaries of the individual mode (kW)
W is the weighting factor of the individual mode
The cycle work needed for the calculation of brake specific CO emissions shall be
determined in accordance with Paragraph 4.6.2. of Annex 4A to this Regulation.
The brake specific emissions eCO (g/kWh) shall be calculated as follows:
Where
m
e =
W
m is the CO mass emissions of the hot start NRTC (g)
W is the actual cycle work of the hot start NRTC (kWh)

The mass of CO (g/test) shall be calculated by multiplication of the time aligned
instantaneous CO concentrations and exhaust gas flows and integration over the test cycle
in accordance with either of the following:
(a)
(b)
Paragraph A.8.2.1.2. and Paragraph A.8.2.5. of Appendix 8 to Annex 4B, by using the
u values of CO from Table A.8.1. or calculating the u values in accordance with
Paragraph A.8.2.4.2. of Appendix 8 to Annex 4B to this Regulation;
Paragraph A.7.3.1. and Paragraph A.7.3.3. of Appendix 7 to Annex 4B to this
Regulation.
3.2. Dilute Measurement
This Paragraph applies, if CO is measured in the dilute exhaust gas.
3.2.1. Measurement
CO in the dilute exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured
with a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyser in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6. of
Annex 4B to this Regulation. Dilution of the exhaust shall be done with filtered ambient air,
synthetic air or nitrogen. The flow capacity of the full flow system shall be large enough to
completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems.
The measurement system shall meet the linearity requirements of Paragraph 8.1.4. of
Annex 4B to this Regulation.
The measurement system shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 8.1.9. of Annex 4B to
this Regulation.
3.2.2. Data Evaluation
The relevant data shall be recorded and stored in accordance with Paragraph 7.8.3.2. of
Annex 4B to this Regulation.
3.2.3. Calculation of Cycle Averaged Emission
If measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet correction in accordance with Paragraph A.8.3.2. of
Appendix 8 or Paragraph A.7.4.2. of Appendix 7 to Annex 4B to this Regulation shall be
applied to the instantaneous concentration values before any further calculation is done.
The mass of CO (g/test) shall be calculated by multiplication of the CO concentrations and
the diluted exhaust gas flows in accordance with either of the following:
(a)
(b)
Paragraph A.8.3.1. and Paragraph A.8.3.4. of Appendix 8 to Annex 4B to this
Regulation, by using the u values of CO from table A.8.2. or calculating the u values
in accordance with Paragraph A.8.3.3. of Appendix 8 to Annex 4B;
Paragraph A.7.4.1. and Paragraph A.7.4.3. of Appendix 7 to Annex 4B to this
Regulation.
Background correction shall be applied in accordance with Paragraph A.8.3.2.4. of
Appendix 8 or Paragraph A.7.4.1. of Appendix 8 to Annex 4B to this Regulation.

Emissions - Agricultural and Forestry Tractors and Non-road Mobile Machinery Engines.