Regulation No. 97-01

Name:Regulation No. 97-01
Description:Anti-theft Protection (Vehicle Alarm Systems).
Official Title:Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Vehicle Alarm Systems (VAS) and of Motor Vehicles with Regard to their Alarm Systems (AS).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:1996-03-15
Amendment Level:01 Series, Supplement 8
Number of Pages:64
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Anti-theft
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Keywords:

approval, vehicle, regulation, type, alarm, vas, immobiliser, part, paragraph, system, test, technical, annex, device, manufacturer, approved, tests, amendments, installation, requirements, signal, series, means, number, audible, granted, components, conditions, set, operation, mark, warning, fitted, separate, vehicles, date, information, case, compartment, production, instructions, regard, service, ece, setting, optical, extension, iii, agreement, passenger

Text Extract:

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E/ECE/324
) Rev.1/Add.96/Rev.1/Amend.4
E/ECE/TRANS/505 )
July 11, 2016
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
ECE 97-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
VEHICLE ALARM SYSTEMS (VAS) AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THEIR ALARM SYSTEMS (AS)
Incorporating:
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.01.96
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 06.03.98
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 02.10.97
Corr. 1 to Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Dated: 13.06.02
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.01.00
Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.09.01
Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 05.12.01
Corr. 1 to Supplement 2 to the 01 series of amendments
Dated: 13.06.02
Supplement 3 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 12.08.02
Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.10.06
Supplement 5 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.07
Supplement 6 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 23.06.11
Supplement 7 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.07.13
Supplement 8 to the 01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.06.16

REGULATION NO. 97-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLE ALARM SYSTEMS (VAS)
AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR ALARM SYSTEMS (AS)
1. Scope
CONTENTS
PART I
APPROVAL OF VEHICLE ALARM SYSTEMS
2.
Definitions
3.
Application for approval of VAS
4.
Approval
5.
General specifications
6.
Particular specifications
7.
Operation parameters and test conditions
8.
Instructions
9.
Modification of the VAS type and extension of approval
10.
Conformity of production
11.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
12.
Production definitely discontinued
13.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of
administrative departments
PART II
APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE WITH REGARD TO ITS ALARM SYSTEM
14.
Definitions
15.
Application for approval
16.
Approval
17.
General specifications
18.
Particular specifications
19.
Test conditions
20.
Instructions
21.
Modification of the vehicle type and extension of approval
22.
Conformity of production
23.
Penalties for non-conformity of production
24.
Production definitely discontinued
25.
Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and
administrative departments

REGULATION NO. 97-01
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLE ALARM SYSTEMS (VAS)
AND OF MOTOR VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR ALARM SYSTEMS (AS)
1. SCOPE
This Regulation applies to:
1.1. PART I: Vehicle Alarm Systems (VAS) which are intended to be permanently fitted to
vehicles of Category M and those of Category N with a maximum mass of not more than
2t.
1.2. PART II: Vehicles of Category M , and those of Category N with a maximum mass of not
more than 2t , with regard to their alarm system(s) (AS).
1.3. PART III: Immobilisers and vehicles of Category M and vehicles of Category N with a
maximum mass of not more than 2t with regard to immobilisers.
1.4. The fitting of devices specified under Parts II and III to vehicles of Categories other than M ,
or N with a maximum mass exceeding 2t , is optional, but any such device fitted is required
o comply with all relevant provisions of this Regulation. Vehicles approved in accordance
with the provisions of Parts III or IV of Regulation No. 116 are deemed to comply with
Parts II and III respectively of this Regulation.
2. DEFINITIONS
PART I
APPROVAL OF VEHICLE ALARM SYSTEMS
For the purpose of Part I of this Regulation
2.1. "Vehicle alarm system" (VAS) means a system intended for installation on (a) type(s) of
vehicle(s), designed to indicate intrusion into or interference with the vehicle; these systems
may provide additional protection against unauthorised use of the vehicle;
2.2. "Sensor" means a device which senses a change which could be caused by intrusion into
or interference with a vehicle;
2.3. "Warning device" means a device indicating that intrusion into or interference has
occurred;
2.4. "Control equipment" means equipment necessary for the setting, unsetting and testing of
a VAS and for sending an alarm condition to warning devices;
2.5. "Set" means the state of a VAS in which an alarm condition can be transmitted to warning
devices;
2.6. "Unset" means the state of a VAS in which an alarm condition cannot be transmitted to
warning devices;

4. APPROVAL
4.1. If the VAS submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of
Paragraph 5, 6 and 7 below, approval of that type of VAS shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (currently
01 for the 01 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating
the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of
the approval. The same Contracting Party may not assign the same number to another type
of VAS.
4.3. Notice of approval or of extension or of refusal of approval of a type of VAS pursuant to this
Regulation shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation 4.4.
There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to the main component(s) of the VAS conforming to a type of VAS approved
under this Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval ;
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a Symbol "A" or "I" or "AI"
indicating if the system is a vehicle alarm system or an immobiliser or a combination of both,
a dash and the approval number in the vicinity of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1.
4.4.3. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and indelible.
4.4.4. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
4.5. As an alternative to the approval mark described in Paragraph 4.4. above, a certificate of
conformity shall be issued for every VAS offered for sale.
Where a VAS manufacturer supplies an approved unmarked VAS to a vehicle manufacturer,
for fitment by that manufacturer as original equipment for a vehicle model or range of
vehicle models, the VAS manufacturer shall supply a number of copies of the certificate of
conformity to the vehicle manufacturer, sufficient for that manufacturer to obtain the vehicle
approval to Part II of this Regulation.
If the VAS is made up of separate components, its main component(s) shall bear a
reference mark and the certificate of conformity shall provide a list of such reference marks.
A model of the certificate of conformity is given in Annex 6 to this Regulation.

6. PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS
6.1. Protection Range
6.1.1. Specific Requirements
The VAS shall at least detect and signal the opening of any vehicle door, engine bonnet and
luggage compartment. The failure of switching off of light sources, e.g. passenger
compartment light, shall not impair the control operation.
Additional efficient sensors for information/display, e.g.:
(a)
(b)
of intrusions into the vehicle, e.g. passenger compartment control, window glass
control, breakage of any glazed area, or
of attempted vehicle theft, e.g. inclination sensor
are allowed, taking account of measures to prevent any unnecessary sounding of the alarm
(= false alarm, see Paragraph 6.1.2. below).
Insofar as these additional sensors generate an alarm signal even after an intrusion has
occurred (e.g. by breakage of a glazed area) or under external influences (e.g. wind), the
alarm signal, activated by one of the above-mentioned sensors, shall be activated not more
than 10 times within the same activation period of the VAS.
In this case the activation period shall be limited by the authorised unsetting of the system
as a result of the vehicle user's action.
Some kinds of additional sensors, e.g. passenger compartment control (ultrasonic, infrared)
or inclination sensor, etc., may be intentionally deactivated. In this case, separate deliberate
action must be taken each time before the VAS is set. It must not be possible to deactivate
the sensors while the alarm system is in a set state.
6.1.2. Safety Against False Alarm.
6.1.2.1. By adequate measures, e.g.
(a)
(b)
mechanical design and design of the electrical circuit according to conditions specific
to motor vehicles,
selection and application of operation and control principles for the alarm system and
components thereof,
it shall be ensured that the VAS both in set and unset conditions, cannot cause the alarm
signal to sound unnecessarily, in the event of:
(a) an impact on the vehicle : test specified in Paragraph 7.2.13.;
(b) electromagnetic compatibility : tests specified in Paragraph 7.2.12.;

6.2.3.3. Sound Level
The sound source shall be:
(a)
either an audible warning device approved under ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I
(b) or a device meeting the requirements of ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I,
Paragraph 6.1. and 6.2.
However, in the case of a different sound source from the original equipment audible
warning device, the minimum sound level may be reduced to 100 dB(A), measured under
conditions of ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I.
6.3. Optical Alarm – If Fitted
6.3.1. General
In the event of intrusion into or interference with the vehicle, the device shall activate an
optical signal as specified in Paragraphs 6.3.2. and 6.3.3. below.
6.3.2. Duration of the Optical Signal
The optical signal shall have a duration between 25 s and 5 min. after the alarm has been
activated.
The unsetting of the alarm system shall immediately stop the signal.
6.3.3. Type of Optical Signal
Flashing of all direction indicators and/or passenger compartment light of the vehicle,
including all lamps in the same electrical circuit.
Trigger frequency ......................................................... (2 ± 1)Hz
In relation to the audible signal, also asynchronous signals are allowed.
On time = off time ±10%
6.4. Radio Alarm (Pager) – If Fitted
The VAS may include a facility generating an alarm signal by radio transmission.
6.5. Alarm System Setting Lock
6.5.1. When the engine is in its running mode, deliberate or inadvertent setting of the alarm
system shall be impossible.
6.6. Setting and Unsetting of the VAS
6.6.1. Setting
Any suitable means of setting of the VAS is allowed, provided that such means does not
inadvertently cause false alarms.

6.11. Specifications For Optional Functions
6.11.1. Self Check, Automatic Failure Indication
On setting the VAS, irregular situations, e.g. open doors, etc., can be detected by a
self-check function (plausibility control), and this situation is indicated.
6.11.2. Panic Alarm
An optical and/or audible and/or radio alarm is allowed independent of the state (set or
unset) and/or function of the VAS. Such an alarm shall be triggered from within the vehicle
and shall not affect the state (set or unset) of the VAS. Also it must be possible for the
vehicle user to switch off the panic alarm. In the case of an audible alarm, its sounding
duration per activation shall not be restricted. A panic alarm shall not immobilise the engine
or stop it if it is running.
7. OPERATION PARAMETERS AND TEST CONDITIONS
7.1. Operation Parameters
All components of the VAS shall operate without any failure under the following conditions.
7.1.1. Climatic Conditions
Two classes of environmental temperature are defined as follows:
– 40° C to +85° C for parts to be fitted in the passenger or luggage compartment;
– 40° C to +125° C for parts to be fitted in the engine compartment unless otherwise
specified.
7.1.2. Degree of Protection for Installation
The following degrees of protection in accordance with IEC Publication 529-1989 shall be
provided:
IP 40 for parts to be fitted in the passenger compartment;
IP 42 for parts to be fitted in the passenger compartment of roadsters/convertibles and cars
with moveable roof-panels if the installation location requires a higher degree of protection
than IP 40;
IP 54 for all other parts.
The VAS manufacturer shall specify in the installation instructions any restrictions on the
positioning of any part of the installation with respect to dust, water and temperature.
7.1.3. Weatherbility
7 days according to IEC 68-2-30-1980.

7.2.2.3. For parts to be fitted in the engine compartment unless otherwise specified
Test temperature Θ = (+125 ± 2) °C
Test voltage U = (15 ± 0.2) V
Storage duration 4h
7.2.2.4. The VAS, in both set and unset state, shall be submitted to an excess voltage equal to
(18 ± 0.2) V for 1h.
7.2.2.5. The VAS, in both set and unset state, shall be submitted to an excess voltage equal to
(24 ± 0.2) V for 1min.
7.2.3. Safe Operation After Foreign Body and Water-Tightness Testing
After the test for tightness to foreign body and water according to IEC 529-1989, for degrees
of protection as in Paragraph 7.1.2., the operation tests according to Paragraph 7.2.1. shall
be repeated.
With the agreement of the Technical Service this requirement need not apply in the
following circumstances:
(a)
Type Approval of a VAS which is to be type approved as a separate technical unit
In this case, the manufacturer of the VAS shall:
(i)
(ii)
Specify in Item 4.5. of the information document (Annex 1A, Part 1) that the
requirement of this Paragraph was not applied to the VAS (in accordance with
PART I of this Regulation) and,
Specify in Item 4.1. of the information document, the list of vehicles on which
the VAS is intended to be fitted and the relevant installation conditions in
Item 4.2.
(b)
Type approval of a vehicle in respect of an AS
In this case, the manufacturer shall specify in Item 3.1.3.1.1. of the information
document (Annex 1A, Part 2), that the requirement of this Paragraph does not apply
to the AS due to the nature of installation conditions and the vehicle manufacturer
shall prove it by submitting related documents.
(c)
Type approval of a vehicle in respect of the installation of a VAS which is type
approved as a separate technical unit
In this case, the vehicle manufacturer shall specify in Item 3.1.3.1.1. of the
information document (Annex 1A, Part 2), that the requirement of this Paragraph does
not apply to the installation of the VAS where the relevant installation conditions are
met.
This requirement does not apply in cases where the information required in
Item 3.1.3.1.1. of Annex 1A, Part 2 has already been submitted for the approval of a
separate technical unit.

(c)
Type approval of a vehicle in respect of the installation of a VAS which is type
approved as a separate technical unit
In this case, the vehicle manufacturer shall specify in Item 3.1.3.1.1. of the
information document (Annex 1A, Part 2), that the requirement of this Paragraph does
not apply to the installation of the VAS where the relevant installation conditions are
met.
This requirement does not apply to the case where the information required in
Item 3.1.3.1.1. of Annex 1A, Part 2 is already submitted at the approval of a separate
technical unit.
7.2.8. Safe Operation After Vibration Test
7.2.8.1. For this test, the components are subdivided into two types:
Type 1: components normally mounted on the vehicle
Type 2: components intended for attachment to the engine.
7.2.8.2. The components/VAS shall be submitted to a sinusoidal vibration mode whose
characteristics are as follows:
7.2.8.2.1. For Type 1
7.2.8.2.2. For Type 2
The frequency shall be variable from 10Hz to 500Hz with a maximum amplitude of ±5mm
and maximum acceleration of 3 g (0-peak).
The frequency shall be variable from 20Hz to 300Hz with a maximum amplitude of ±2mm
and maximum acceleration of 15 g (0-peak).
7.2.8.2.3. For both Type 1 and Type 2:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the frequency variation is 1 octave/minute;
the number of cycles is 10, the test shall be performed along each of the 3 axes;
the vibrations are applied at low frequencies at a maximum constant amplitude and at
a maximum constant acceleration at high frequencies.
7.2.8.3. During the test the VAS shall be electrically connected and the cable shall be supported
after 200mm.
7.2.8.4. After the vibration test the operation tests according to Paragraph 7.2.1. shall be repeated.
7.2.9. Durability Test
Under the test conditions specified in Paragraph 7.2.1.2., triggering of 300 complete alarm
cycles (audible and/or optical) with a rest time of the audible device of 5 min.

8. INSTRUCTIONS
Each VAS shall be accompanied by:
8.1. Instructions for Installation:
8.1.1. The list of vehicles and vehicle models for which the device is intended. This list may be
specific or generic, e.g. "all cars with petrol engines and 12 V negative earth batteries".
8.1.2. The method of installation illustrated by photographs and/or very clear drawings.
8.1.3. In the case of VAS which inclined an immobiliser, additional instructions regarding
compliance with the requirements of Part III of this Regulation.
8.2. A blank installation certificate, an example of which is given in Annex 7.
8.3. A general statement to the VAS purchaser calling his attention to the following points:
The VAS should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions;
The selection of a good installer is recommended (the VAS manufacturer may be contacted
to indicate appropriate installers);
The installation certificate supplied with the VAS should be completed by the installer.
8.4. Instructions for Use
8.5. Instructions for Maintenance
8.6. A general warning regarding the danger of making any alterations or additions to the
system; such alterations or additions would automatically invalidate the certificate of
installation referred to in Paragraph 8.2. above.
8.7. Indication of the location(s) of the international approval mark mentioned in Paragraph 4.4.
of this Regulation and/or the international certificate of conformity mentioned in
Paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation.

12. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of VAS approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval.
Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other
Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a form
conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
13. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible
for conducting approval tests and of the Administrative Departments which grant approval
and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval,
issued in other countries are to be sent.
PART II
APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE WITH REGARD TO ITS ALARM SYSTEM
When a VAS approved to Part I of this Regulation is being used in a vehicle submitted for
approval to Part II of this Regulation, tests required to be passed by a VAS in order to obtain
approval to Part I of this Regulation shall not be repeated.
14. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of Part II of this Regulation,
14.1. "Alarm system(s)" (AS) means an arrangement of components fitted as original equipment
in a vehicle type, designed to indicate intrusion into or interference with the vehicle; these
systems may provide additional protection against unauthorised use of the vehicle.
14.2. "Vehicle type with regard to its alarm system" means vehicles which do not differ
significantly in such essential aspects as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the manufacturer's trade name or make,
vehicle features which significantly influence the performances of the AS,
the type and design of the AS or VAS.
14.3. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to the
requirements laid down in Paragraph 17, 18 and 19 below.
14.4. Other definitions applicable to Part II are contained in Paragraph 2 of this Regulation.
15. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
15.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to its AS shall be submitted by the
vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

16.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 16.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a
case the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations
under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under
this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in
Paragraph 16.4.1.
16.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and indelible.
16.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the
manufacturer.
16.8. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
17. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
17.1. ASs shall be designed and built in such a way that they, in the event of intrusion into or
interference with a vehicle, provide a warning signal, and may include an immobiliser.
The warning signal shall be audible and in addition may include optical warning devices, or
be a radio alarm, or any combination of the above.
17.2. Vehicles which are equipped with alarm systems shall comply with the relevant technical
requirements, especially with regard to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
17.3. If the AS includes the possibility of a radio transmission, e.g. for setting or unsetting of the
alarm or for alarm transmission, it shall comply with the relevant ETSI Standards ,
e.g. EN 300 220-1 V1.3.1 (2000-09), EN 300 220-2 V1.3.1 (2000-09), EN 300 220-3 V1.1.1
(2000-09) and EN 301 489-3 V1.2.1 (2000-08) (including any advisory requirements). The
frequency and maximum radiated power of radio transmissions for the setting and unsetting
of the alarm must comply with the CEPT/ERC Recommendation 70-03
(February 17, 2000) relating to the use of short ranges devices .
17.4. The AS and components thereof shall not activate inadvertently, particularly whilst the
engine is in its running mode.
17.5. Failure of the AS, or failure of its electrical supply shall not affect the safe operation of the
vehicle.
17.6. The alarm system, its components and the parts controlled by them shall be so installed as
to minimise the risk for anyone to make them inoperable or to destroy them rapidly and
without calling attention, e.g. using low-cost, easily-concealed tools, equipment or
fabrications readily available to the public at large.
17.7. The system shall be so arranged that the shorting out of any warning signal circuit shall not
render inoperative any aspects of the alarm system, other than the circuit which is shorted
out.

18.2. Audible Alarm
18.2.1. General
The warning signal shall be clearly audible and recognisable and shall differ significantly
from the other audible signals used in road traffic.
In addition to the original equipment audible warning device, a separate audible warning
device may be fitted in the area of the vehicle which is controlled by the AS, where it shall
be protected against easy, rapid access by persons.
If a separate audible warning device according to Paragraph 18.2.3.1. below is used, the
original equipment standard audible warning device may additionally be actuated by the AS,
provided that any tampering with the standard audible warning device (generally more
accessible) does not affect the operation of the additional audible warning device.
18.2.2. Duration of the Audible Signal
Minimum: 25 s
Maximum: 30 s.
The audible signal may sound again only after the next interference with the vehicle,
i.e. after the above-mentioned time span.
(Restrictions: see Paragraphs 18.1.1. and 18.1.2. above).
Unsetting of the alarm system shall immediately cut the signal.
18.2.3. Specifications Concerning the Audible Signal.
18.2.3.1. Constant tone signal device (constant frequency spectrum), e.g. horns : acoustical, etc. data
according to ECE Regulation No. 28, Part. I.
Intermittent signal (on/off):
Trigger frequency .................................................... (2 ± 1)Hz
On time = off time ±10%
18.2.3.2. Audible signal device with frequency modulation: acoustical, etc. data according to
ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I but equal passage of a significant frequency range within the
above-mentioned range (1,800 through 3,550Hz) in both directions.
18.2.3.3. Sound level
Passage frequency ................................................. (2 ± 1)Hz
The sound source shall be:
(a)
either an audible warning device approved under ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I
(b) or a device meeting the requirements of ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I,
Paragraphs 6.1. and 6.2. However, in the case of a different sound source from the
original equipment audible warning device, the minimum sound level may be reduced
to 100 dB(A), measured under the conditions of ECE Regulation No. 28, Part I.

18.7. Exit Delay
If the switching device for setting the AS is fitted within the protected area, an exit delay
shall be provided. It shall be possible for the exit delay to be set to between 15s and 45s
after the switch has been operated. The delay period may be adjustable to suit individual
operators' circumstances.
18.8. Entry Delay
If the device for unsetting the VAS AS is fitted within the protected area, a delay of 5s
minimum and 15s maximum shall be allowed before the activation of the audible and optical
signals. The delay period may be adjustable to suit individual operators' circumstances.
18.9. Status Display
18.9.1. To provide information on the status of the AS (set, unset, alarm setting period, alarm has
been activated), the installation of optical displays inside and optical signals outside the
passenger compartment is allowed. Any optical signal or any use of lighting and
light-signalling devices outside the passenger compartment shall fulfil the requirements of
Regulation No. 48.
18.9.2. If an indication of short-term "dynamic" processes such as changes from "set" to "unset" and
vice versa is provided, it shall be optical, according to Paragraph 18.9.1. Such optical
indication may also be produced by the simultaneous operation of the direction indicators
and/or passenger compartment lamp(s), provided that the duration of the optical indication
by the direction indicators does not exceed 3s.
18.10. Power Supply
The source of power for the AS may be the vehicle battery or a rechargeable battery. Where
provided, an additional rechargeable battery or non-rechargeable battery may be used.
These batteries shall by no means supply energy to the other parts of the vehicle electrical
system.
18.11. Specifications for Optional Functions
18.11.1. Self Check, Automatic Failure Indication
On setting the AS, irregular situations, e.g. open doors, etc., can be detected by a
self-check function (plausibility control), and this situation is indicated.
18.11.2. Panic Alarm
An optical and/or audible and/or radio alarm is allowed independent of the state (set or
unset) and/or function of the AS. Such an alarm shall be triggered from within the vehicle
and shall not affect the state (set or unset) of the AS. Also it must be possible for the vehicle
user to switch off the panic alarm. In the case of an audible alarm, its sounding duration per
activation shall not be restricted. A panic alarm shall not immobilise the engine or stop it if it
is running.

22.2. The authority which has granted approved may at any time verify the conformity control
methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications
shall be one every two years.
23. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
23.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 22 above are not complied with.
23.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
24. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a vehicle type approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the
approval.
Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other
Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a form
conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation.
25. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR
CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible
for conducting approval tests and of the Administrative Departments which grant approval
and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval,
issued in other countries are to be sent.

27. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF AN IMMOBILISER
27.1. The application for approval of an immobiliser shall be submitted by the manufacturer of the
immobiliser or by his duly accredited representative.
27.2. For each type of immobiliser the application must be accompanied by:
27.2.1. An information document established in accordance with the model shown in Annex 1A,
Part 1. and giving a description of the technical characteristics of the immobilizer, the
measures taken against inadvertent activation and the method of installation for each make
and type of vehicle on which the immobilizer is intended to be installed.
27.2.2. Three samples of the type of immobiliser with all its components. Each of the main
components must be clearly and indelibly marked with the applicant's trade name or mark
and the type designation of that component.
27.2.3. (A) vehicle(s) fitted with the immobiliser to be type-approved, chosen by the applicant in
agreement with the Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests.
27.2.4. Instructions in triplicate in accordance with Paragraph 34 below.
28. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE
28.1. When an immobiliser approved to Part III of this Regulation is being used in a vehicle
submitted for approval to Part III of this Regulation, tests required to be passed by an
immobiliser in order to obtain vehicle approval to Part III of this Regulation shall not be
repeated.
28.2. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to its immobilisers shall be
submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
28.3. It shall be accompanied by an information document giving a description of the technical
characteristics of the immobilizer and the method of installation for each make and type of
vehicle on which the immobilizer is intended to be installed in accordance with the model
shown in Annex 1A, Part 2 or 3, as appropriate.
28.4. A vehicle representative of the type to be approved shall be submitted to the Technical
Service.
28.5. A vehicle not comprising all the components proper to the type may be accepted provided
that it can be shown, by the applicant to the satisfaction of the Competent Authority, that the
absence of the components omitted as no effect on the results of the verifications, so far as
the requirements of this Regulation are concerned.
28.6. When an immobiliser approved to Part III of this Regulation is being used, the type-approval
communication of the immobilisers shall also be supplied to the Technical Service.
29. APPROVAL OF AN IMMOBILISER
29.1. If the immobiliser submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements
of Paragraphs 31, 32 and 33 below, approval of that type of immobiliser shall be granted.

30. APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE
30.1. If the vehicle submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 31, 32, and 33 below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
30.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (currently
01 for the 01 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating
the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of
the approval. The same Contracting Party may not assign the same number to another
vehicle type.
30.3. Notice of approval or of extension or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this
Regulation shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this
Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
30.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation,
an international approval mark consisting of:
30.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval
30.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a Symbol "A" or "I" or "AI"
indicating if the vehicle has been approved with regard to its alarm system or its
immobilisers or a combination of both, a dash and the approval number to the right of the
circle prescribed in Paragraph 30.4.1.
30.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 30.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a
case the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations
under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under
this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in
Paragraph 30.4.1.
30.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and indelible.
30.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the
manufacturer.
30.8. Annex 5 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.

31.8. An immobiliser shall be so designed and built such that when installed as specified by the
manufacturer it is able to withstand the environment within the vehicle for a reasonable
lifetime (for testing see Paragraph 33). More particularly the electrical properties of the
on-board circuitry shall not be adversely affected by the addition of the immobiliser (lead
cross-sections, contact safety, etc.).
31.9. An immobiliser may be combined with other vehicle systems or may be integrated into them
(e.g. engine management, alarm systems).
31.10. It shall not be possible for an immobiliser to prevent the release of the brakes of the vehicle,
except in the case of an immobiliser which prevents the release of pneumatically released
spring brakes and functions in such a way that in normal operation, or in failure conditions,
the technical requirements of Regulation No. 13 in force at the time of application for type
approval under this Regulation are satisfied.
Compliance with this Paragraph does not exempt an immobiliser which prevents the release
of pneumatically released spring brakes from the technical requirements set out in this
Regulation.
31.11. It shall not be possible for an immobiliser to operate in such a manner as to apply the
brakes of the vehicle.
32. PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS
32.1. Extent of Disablement
32.1.1. An immobiliser shall be designed so as to prevent the operation of the vehicle under its own
power by at least one of the following means:
32.1.1.1. Disable, in the case of after-market fitting, or vehicle equipped with diesel engine, at least
two separate vehicle circuits that are needed for vehicle operation under its own power
(e.g. starter motor, ignition, fuel supply, pneumatically released spring brakes, etc);
32.1.1.2. Interference by code of at least one control unit required for the operation of the vehicle;
32.1.2. An immobiliser for fitment to a vehicle equipped with a catalytic converter shall not cause
unburnt fuel to enter the exhaust.
32.2. Operating Reliability
Operating reliability shall be achieved by suitable design of the immobiliser, account being
taken of specific environmental conditions in the vehicle (see Paragraphs 31.8. and 33).
32.3. Operating Safety
It shall be ensured that the immobiliser does not change its state (set/unset) as a result of
any of the tests in Paragraph 33.

33. OPERATION PARAMETERS AND TEST CONDITIONS
33.1. Operation Parameters
All components of the immobiliser shall comply with prescriptions given in Paragraph 7 of
this Regulation.
This requirement does not apply to:
those components that are fitted and tested as part of the vehicle, whether or not an
immobiliser is fitted (e.g. lamps); or,
those components that have previously been tested as part of the vehicle and documentary
evidence has been provided.
33.2. Test Conditions
All the tests shall be carried out in sequence on a single immobiliser. However, at the
discretion of the test authority, other samples may be used if this is not considered to affect
the results of the other tests.
33.3. Operation Test
Upon completion of all the tests specified below, the immobiliser shall be tested under the
normal test conditions specified in Paragraph 7.2.1.2. of this Regulation to check that it
continues to function normally. Where necessary, fuses may be replaced prior to the test. All
components of the immobiliser shall comply with prescriptions given in Paragraphs 7.2.2. to
7.2.8. and 7.2.12. of this Regulation.
34. INSTRUCTIONS
(Paragraphs 34.1. to 34.3. for the purposes of aftermarket installation only).
Each immobiliser shall be accompanied by:
34.1. Instructions for Installation
34.1.1. The list of vehicles and vehicle models for which the device is intended. This list may be
specific or generic, e.g. "all cars with petrol engines and 12V negative earth batteries".
34.1.2. The method of installation illustrated by photographs and/or very clear drawings.
34.1.3. Detailed installation instructions provided by the supplier shall be such that when correctly
followed by a competent installer, the safety and reliability of the vehicle is not affected.
34.1.4. The supplied installation instructions shall identify the electrical power requirements of the
immobiliser and, where relevant, shall advise an increasing of battery size.
34.1.5. The supplier shall provide post installation procedures for checking the vehicle. Particular
attention shall be drawn to safety related features.

36. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The Conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:
36.1. Every immobiliser or vehicle approved under this Regulation with regard to its immobiliser
shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements
set out in Paragraphs 31, 32 and 33 above.
36.2. The authority which has granted approval may at any time verify the conformity control
methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications
shall be one every two years.
37. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
37.1. The approval granted in respect of a type of immobiliser or a type of vehicle pursuant to this
Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 36 above are not
complied with.
37.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the models in Annex 3 and Annex 4 to this
Regulation.
38. PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of immobiliser or a
type of vehicle approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority
which granted the approval.
Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other
Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a form
conforming to the model in Annex 4 to this Regulation.
39. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
39.1. Type Approval of an Immobiliser
39.1.1. As from 36 months after the date of entry into force of Supplement 4 to the 01 series of
amendments, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant approvals only if the
type of component or separate technical unit to be approved meets the requirements of this
Regulation as amended by Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments.
39.1.2. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall continue to grant approvals to those type
of components or separate technical units which comply with the requirements of the
original version of this Regulation, as amended by any previous series of amendments,
provided that the component or separate technical unit is intended as a replacement for
fitting on vehicles in use and that it would not be technically feasible to fit a component or
separate technical unit which satisfies the requirements contained in this Regulation as
amended by the Supplement 4 to the 01 series of amendments.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of Vehicle Alarm System (VAS) pursuant to Part I of Regulation No. 97
Approval No.: ........................................... Extensions No.: ..............................................
1. Trade name or mark of the VAS: ........................................................................................................
2. Type of VAS: .......................................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: .....................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ...................................................
5. Brief description of the VAS and of the immobiliser (if applicable): ....................................................
6. Type of vehicle on which the VAS has been tested: ...........................................................................
7. System submitted for approval on: ......................................................................................................
8. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: ............................................................
9. Date of report issued by that service: ..................................................................................................
10. Number of report issued by that service: ............................................................................................
11. Approval has been granted/refused/extended/withdrawn

ANNEX 1A
PART 1
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
In accordance with Part I as appropriate of Regulation No. 97 relating to ECE component type
or separate technical unit type approval with regard to vehicle alarm systems
(Maximum format: A4 (210mm × 297mm))
1. GENERAL
1.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
1.2. Type: ..............................................................................................................................................
1.3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the device: ............................................................
1.3.1. Location of that marking: ................................................................................................................
1.4. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
1.5. Location of the ECE approval mark: ..............................................................................................
1.6. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): .................................................................................................
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE
2.1. A detailed description of the alarm system and of the vehicle parts related to the alarm system
installed: .........................................................................................................................................
2.1.1. A list of the main components comprising the alarm system: ........................................................
2.1.2. The measures taken against false alarms: ....................................................................................
2.2. Range of protection offered by the device: ....................................................................................
2.3. Method of setting/unsetting the device: .........................................................................................
2.4. Number of effective interchangeable codes, if applicable: ............................................................
2.5. List of main components of the device and, if applicable, their reference marks: .........................
3. DRAWINGS
3.1. Drawings of the main components of the device (the drawings must show the intended space
for ECE type approval mark): .........................................................................................................

PART 2
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
In accordance with Part II of Regulation No. 97 relating to ECE system type approval of vehicle
type with regard to the alarm system and immobilizer system
Without / including an alarm system
Without / including an immobilizer
1. GENERAL
(Maximum format: A4 (210mm × 297mm)
1.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): ........................................................................................
1.2. Type: .........................................................................................................................................
1.3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the device : .......................................................
1.3.1. Location of that marking: ...........................................................................................................
1.4. Category of vehicle : ...............................................................................................................
1.5. Name and address of the manufacturer: ..................................................................................
1.6. Location of the ECE approval mark: .........................................................................................
1.7. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): ............................................................................................
2. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE
2.1. Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: .......................................................
2.2. Left hand drive / right hand drive

PART 3
INFORMATION DOCUMENT
In accordance with Part III as appropriate of Regulation No. 97 relating to ECE component type
or separate technical unit type approval with regard to the immobilizer system
(Maximum format: A4 (210mm × 297mm)
1. GENERAL
1.1. Make (trade name of manufacturer): .............................................................................................
1.2. Type: ..............................................................................................................................................
1.3. Means of identification of type, if marked on the device
1.3.1. Location of that marking: ................................................................................................................
1.4. Name and address of manufacturer: .............................................................................................
1.5. Location of the ECE approval mark: ..............................................................................................
1.6. Address(es) of assembly plant(s): .................................................................................................
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE
2.1. A detailed description of the alarm system and of the vehicle parts related to the alarm system
installed: .........................................................................................................................................
2.1.1. A list of the main components comprising the alarm system: ........................................................
2.1.2. The measures taken against false alarms: ....................................................................................
2.2. Range of protection offered by the device: ....................................................................................
2.3. Method of setting/unsetting the device: .........................................................................................
2.4. Number of effective interchangeable codes, if applicable: ............................................................
2.5. List of main components comprising the device and, if applicable, their reference marks: ...........
3. DRAWINGS
3.1. Drawings of the main components of the device (the drawings must show the intended space
for ECE type approval mark or reference mark, as applicable): ....................................................

ANNEX 2
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with regard to its Alarm System pursuant to Part II of Regulation No. 97
Approval No.: ........................................... Extensions No.: ..............................................
1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ....................................................................................................
2. Vehicle type: ........................................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: .....................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ...................................................
5. Brief description: ..................................................................................................................................
6. Vehicle submitted for approval on: ......................................................................................................
7. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: ............................................................
8. Date of report issued by that service: ..................................................................................................
9. Number of report issued by that service: ............................................................................................
10. Approval has been granted/refused/extended/withdrawn : ...............................................................

ANNEX 3
COMMUNICATION
(maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of immobiliser pursuant to Part III of Regulation No. 97
Approval No. ............................................ Extension No. .................................................
1. Trade name or mark of the immobiliser: .............................................................................................
2. Type of immobiliser: ............................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: .....................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ...................................................
5. Brief description of the immobiliser: ....................................................................................................
6. Type of vehicle on which the immobiliser has been tested: ................................................................
7. If applicable, type(s) of vehicle(s) to which the immobiliser is intended to be fitted: ..........................
8. System submitted for approval on: ......................................................................................................
9. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: ............................................................

ANNEX 4
COMMUNICATION
(maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
issued by:
Name of administration
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with regard to its immobilisers pursuant to Part III of Regulation No. 97.
Approval No. ............................................ Extension No. .................................................
1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ....................................................................................................
2. Vehicle type: ........................................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: .....................................................................................................
4. If applicable,, name and address of manufacturer's representative: ..................................................
5. Brief description: ..................................................................................................................................
6. Vehicle submitted for approval on: ......................................................................................................
7. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: ............................................................
8. Date of report issued by that service: ..................................................................................................
9. Number of report issued by that service: ............................................................................................
10. Approval has been granted/extended/refused/withdrawn
11. Reason(s) for extension of approval: ..................................................................................................

ANNEX 5
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
Model A
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark Figure 1 affixed to a vehicle or a VAS shows that the type concerned has been
approved in the Netherlands (E4), pursuant to Regulation No. 97 as amended by the 01 series of
amendments under Approval No. 011234.
The above approval mark Figure 2 affixed to a vehicle or an immobiliser shows that the type concerned
has been approved in the Netherlands (E4), pursuant to Regulation No. 97 as amended by the 01 series
of amendments under Approval No. 011234.
The above approval mark Figure 3 affixed to a vehicle or a VAS and an immobiliser shows that the type
concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E4), pursuant to Regulation No. 97 as amended by
the 01 series of amendments under Approval No. 011234.
The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the
requirements of Regulation No. 97 as amended by the 01 series of amendments.

ANNEX 6
MODEL OF CERTIFICATE OF CONFORMITY
I the undersigned ...........................................................................................................................................
(surname and name)
Testify that the vehicle alarm system/immobiliser below:
Make: .............................................................................................................................................................
Type: ..............................................................................................................................................................
is in total conformity with the type approved
at ...................................................................
on .................................................................................
(place of approval)
(date)
as described in the communication form bearing approval No. ....................................................................
Identification of the main component(s):
Component: .....................................
Marking: .........................................................................
..........................................................
........................................................................................
..........................................................
........................................................................................
Done at: ............................................
on: .......................................................................................
Manufacturer's full address and stamp: .........................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
Signature:
........................................................................................................... (please specify position)

ANNEX 8
Paragraphs 7.2.11 and 19
TEST OF SYSTEMS FOR
THE PROTECTION OF
THE PASSENGER COMPARTMENT

This requirement does not apply in cases where the information required in Item 3.1.3.1.1.
of Annex 1A, Part 2 has already been submitted for the approval of the separate technical
unit.
VAS/AS in unset state and set state
The test pulses 1 through 5, shall be applied. The required functional status for all applied test
pulses is given in Table 1.
Table 1
Severity/Functional Status (For Supply Lines)
Test pulse No Test level Functional status
1 III C
2a III B
2b III C
3a III A
3b III A
4 III B
5a/5b III A
Immunity against disturbance coupled on signal lines
Leads which are not connected to supply lines (e.g. special signal lines) shall be tested in
accordance with the International Standard ISO/DIS 7637:1993 Part 3. The required functional
status for all applied test pulses are given in Table 2.
Table 2
Test Level/Functional Status (For Signal Lines)
Test pulse No Test level Functional status
3a III C
3b III A
Immunity against radiated high frequency disturbances
Testing of the immunity of a VAS/AS in a vehicle may be performed according to the technical
prescriptions and transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10, 04 series of amendments and test
methods described in Annex 6 for the vehicles and Annex 9 for a separate unit.

2. METHOD IEC
Electromagnetic field
The VAS/AS shall undergo the basic test. It shall be subjected to the electromagnetic field test
described in IEC Publication 839-1-3-1988 test A-13 with a frequency range from 20 to 1000MHz,
and for a field strength level of 30V/m.
In addition, the VAS/AS shall be subjected to the electrical transient conducted and coupled tests
described in the International Standard ISO 7637 Parts 1:1990, 2:1990 and 3:1993 as appropriate.
Electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharges
The VAS/AS shall undergo the basic test. It shall be subjected to testing for immunity against
electrostatic discharge as described in either EN 61000-4-2, or ISO/TR 10605-1993, at the
manufacturer's choice.
Radiated emissions
The VAS/AS shall be subjected to testing for the suppression of radio frequency interference
according to the technical prescriptions and transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10, 04 series
of amendments and according to test methods described in Annexes 4 and 5 for vehicles and
Annexes 7 and 8 for a separate technical unit.

Anti-theft Protection (Vehicle Alarm Systems).