Regulation No. 9-07 Proposed Supplement 3

Name:Regulation No. 9-07 Proposed Supplement 3
Description:Noise - Three-wheel Vehicles. Proposed Supplement 3 to the 07 Series.
Official Title:Proposal for Supplement 3 to the 07 Series of Amendments to Regulation No. 9 (Noise of Three Wheeled Vehicles).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2016-12-21
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:37
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Drafts and Proposals (Current)
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Keywords:

vehicle, test, sound, regulation, approval, type, engine, exhaust, speed, paragraph, system, surface, level, requirements, silencing, vehicles, measured, maximum, measurements, measurement, annex, microphone, reference, number, series, amendments, gear, track, mass, manufacturer, conditions, figure, line, voids, pressure, rated, granted, made, fitted, area, mark, absorption, tests, measuring, means, date, content, defined, original, results

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2017/2
PROPOSAL FOR SUPPLEMENT 3 TO THE 07 SERIES OF
AMENDMENTS TO
REGULATION NO. 9
(NOISE OF THREE-WHEELED VEHICLES)
ADOPTED AT THE 171 SESSION – MARCH 2017
PROVISIONAL DATE OF ENTRY INTO FORCE: OCTOBER 10, 2017

2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of motor vehicles which do not differ in such essential
respects as:
2.2.1. The lines and constituent materials of the body (more particularly the engine compartment
and its soundproofing);
2.2.2. The length and width of the vehicle;
2.2.3. The type of engine (positive ignition or compression ignition; reciprocating or rotary piston;
number and capacity of cylinders; number and type of carburettors or injection systems,
arrangement of valves; rated maximum net power and rated engine speed).
For rotary piston engines, the cubic capacity should be taken to be double of the volume of
the chamber.
2.2.4. The electric motor in case of a hybrid electric vehicle.
2.2.5. Drive train, in particular the number and ratios of the gears of the transmission and the final
ratio.
2.2.6. The number, type and arrangement of exhaust systems.
2.3. "Rated maximum net power" of the combustion engine means the rated engine power as
defined in ISO 4106:2012.
The symbol P denotes the numerical value of the rated maximum net power expressed in
kW.
2.4. "Rated engine speed" of the combustion engine means the engine speed at which the
engine develops its rated maximum net power as stated by the manufacturer.
The symbol n denotes the rated engine speed expressed in min .
2.5. "Exhaust or silencing system(s)" means a complete set of components necessary for
limiting the sound emitted by a motor vehicle and its exhaust.
2.6. "Original exhaust or silencing system" means a system of the type with which the
vehicle is equipped on acceptance or extension of acceptance. It may be part of the original
equipment or a replacement.
2.7. "Exhaust or silencing systems of different types" means exhaust or silencing systems
which differ in such essential respects as:
2.7.1. That their components bear different trade names or marks;
2.7.2. That the characteristics of the materials constituting a component are different or that the
components differ in shape or size;
2.7.3. That the operating principles of at least one component are different;
2.7.4. That their components are assembled differently.

2.11. "Maximum vehicle speed" means the maximum vehicle design speed as measured
according to ISO 7116:2011 for L Category vehicles and according to ISO 7117:2010 for L
and L Category vehicles.
The symbol v
denotes the maximum vehicle speed expressed inkm/h.
3. Application for Approval
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to sound shall be submitted by its
manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the under mentioned documents in triplicate and the following
particulars:
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items mentioned in Paragraph 2.2.
above. The numbers and/or symbols identifying the engine type and the vehicle type shall
be specified;
3.2.2. A list of the components, duly identified, constituting the exhaust or silencing system;
3.2.3. A drawing of the assembled exhaust or silencing system and an indication of its position on
the vehicle;
3.2.4. Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified, and a
specification of the materials used.
3.3. At the request of the Technical Service conducting approval tests, the vehicle manufacturer
shall, in addition, submit a sample of the exhaust or silencing system.
3.4. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the
Technical Service conducting approval tests.
4. Markings
4.1. The components of the exhaust or silencing system shall bear at least the following
identifications marks:
4.1.1. The trade name or mark of the manufacturer of the exhaust or silencing system and of its
components;
4.1.2. The trade description given by the manufacturer;
4.1.3. The identifying part numbers;
4.1.4. For all original silencers, the "E" mark followed by the identification of the country which
granted the component type approval.

6. Specifications
6.1. General Specifications
6.1.1. The vehicle, its engine and its exhaust or silencing system shall be so designed,
constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibration to
which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.
6.1.2. The exhaust or silencing system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to be
able to resist the corrosive action to which it is exposed.
6.1.3. The following information shall be provided on the motor vehicle in an easily accessible but
not necessarily immediately visible location:
(a)
(b)
The manufacturer's name;
The target engine speed and the final result of the stationary test as defined in
Paragraph 3.2.4. of Annex 3.
6.2. Specifications Regarding Sound Levels
6.2.1. Methods of Measurement
6.2.1.1. The sound emitted by the vehicle type submitted for approval shall be measured by the
method(s) described in Annex 3 to this Regulation for the vehicle in motion and for the
vehicle when stationary; in the case of a vehicle with an electric motor or with an internal
combustion engine that does not operate when the vehicle is stationary, the emitted sound
shall only be measured when the vehicle is in motion.
If the vehicle has user selectable software programs or modes which affect the sound
emission of the vehicle, all these modes shall be in compliance with the requirements in this
Paragraph. Testing shall be based on the worst case scenario.
For hybrid electric vehicles, the tests shall be performed twice under the following
conditions:
(a) Condition A:
The batteries shall be at their maximum state of charge; if more than one 'hybrid
mode' is available, the most electric hybrid mode shall be selected for the test;
(b) Condition B:
The batteries shall be at their minimum state of charge; if more than one 'hybrid
mode' is available, the most fuel-consuming hybrid mode shall be selected for the
test.
The final result is the highest of the test results for conditions A and B.

8. Conformity of Production
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:
8.1. Every vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall conform
to the vehicle type approved, be fitted with the exhaust or silencing system(s) with which it
was approved and satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 6. above.
8.2. In order to verify conformity as prescribed in Paragraph 8.1. above, a vehicle, bearing the
approval mark required by this Regulation, shall be taken from the series. Production shall
be deemed to conform to the requirements of this Regulation if the levels measured using
the method described in Annex 3 do not exceed by more than 3dB(A) the value measured
on acceptance, nor by more than 1dB(A) the limits prescribed in Paragraph 6.2.1.3. above.
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8. above are not complied with, or if
the vehicle fails to pass the tests provided for in Paragraph 8.2. above.
9.2. If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has
previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model given in Annex 1 to
this Regulation.
10. Production Definitively Discontinued
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a vehicle or a exhaust or
silencing system approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type
Approval Authority which had granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant
communication, that Authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement
applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model given
in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
11. Transitional Provisions
11.1. As from the official date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments, no Contracting
Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type approvals under
this Regulation as amended by the 07 series of amendments.
11.2. As from 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments,
Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant type approvals only if the vehicle
type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 07 series
of amendments.
11.3. Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type
approvals for existing types which have been granted according to the preceding series of
amendments to this Regulation.
11.4. Until 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments to this
Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse national or regional
type approval of a vehicle type-approved to the preceding series of amendments to this
Regulation.

ANNEX 1
COMMUNICATION
(Maximum format: A4 (210 × 297mm))
Issued by:
Name of administration
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
concerning:
APPROVAL GRANTED
APPROVAL EXTENDED
APPROVAL REFUSED
APPROVAL WITHDRAWN
PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED
of a type with regards to its sound emission pursuant to Regulation No. 9
Approval No. ...................................
Extension No. ...........................................
1.
Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ................................................................................................ ..
2.
Vehicle type: .................................................................................................................................... .
2.1.
Variant(s) (as necessary): ............................................................................................................... ..
2.2.
Version(s) (as necessary): ............................................................................................................... .
3.
Manufacturer's name and address: ..................................................................................................
4.
If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: .............................................. ...
5.
Combustion engine ...........................................................................................................................
5.1.
Engine manufacturer ...................................................................................................................... ..
5.2.
Engine type .......................................................................................................................................
5.3.
Kind of engine: e.g., positive-ignition, compression ignition, etc.
............................................... ...
5.4.
Cycles: two-stroke or four-stroke (if applicable)
........................................................................... ..
5.5.
Engine capacity (if applicable): .................................................................................................. cm

16.3. Sound pressure level L : ...................................................................................................... ...dB(A)
17. Vehicle submitted for approval on: ................................................................................................ ...
18. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: ........................................................ ..
19. Date of report issued by that Service: ........................................................................................... ...
20. Number of report issued by that Service: ........................................................................................ .
21. Approval granted/extended/refused/withdrawn
22. Position of approval mark on the vehicle: .........................................................................................
23. Place: ................................................................................................................................................
24. Date: ................................................................................................................................................ .
25. Signature: ........................................................................................................................................ ..
26. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are annexed to this
communication:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Drawings, diagrams and plans of the engine and of the exhaust or silencing system;
Photographs of the engine and of the exhaust or silencing system;
List of components, duly identified constituting the exhaust or silencing system.

ANNEX 3
METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SOUND
EMITTED BY L , L AND L CATEGORY VEHICLES
1. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
1.1. General
The apparatus used for measuring the sound pressure level shall be a sound level meter or
equivalent measuring system meeting the requirements of Class 1 instruments (inclusive of the
recommended windscreen, if used). These requirements are described in IEC 61672-1:2013.
Measurements shall be carried out using the time weighting "F" of the acoustic measuring
instrument and the "A" frequency weighting curve also described in IEC 61672-1:2013. When
using a system that includes periodic monitoring of the A-weighted sound pressure level, a
reading should be made at a time interval not greater than 30ms. The instruments shall be
maintained and calibrated in accordance with the instructions of the instrument manufacturer.
1.2. Calibration
At the beginning and at the end of every measurement session, the entire acoustic measuring
system shall be checked by means of a sound calibrator that fulfils the requirements of Class 1
sound calibrators according to IEC 60942:2003. Without any further adjustment, the difference
between the readings shall be less than or equal to 0.5dB(A). If this value is exceeded, the
results of the measurements obtained after the previous satisfactory check shall be discarded.
1.3. Compliance with Requirements
Compliance of the sound calibrator with the requirements of IEC 60942:2003 shall be verified
once a year. Compliance of the instrumentation system with the requirements of
IEC 61672-1:2013 shall be verified at least every two years. All compliance testing shall be
conducted by a laboratory which is authorized to perform calibrations traceable to the
appropriate standards.
1.4. Instrumentation for Speed Measurements
The rotational speed of the engine shall be measured with an instrument meeting specification
limits of at least ±2% or better at the engine speeds required for the measurements being
performed.
The road speed of the vehicle shall be measured with instruments meeting specification limits
of at least ±0.5km/h when using continuous measuring devices. If testing uses independent
measurements of vehicle speed, this instrumentation shall meet specification limits of at least
±0.2km/h.

Table 1
Correction Applied to Individual Measured Test Value
Background sound pressure level difference
to measured sound pressure level, in dB
10 11 12 13 14 ≥15
2.2. Condition of the Vehicle
2.2.1. General Conditions
Correction, in dB(A) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
The vehicle shall be supplied as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
Before the measurements are started, the vehicle shall be brought to its normal operating
conditions as regards:




Temperatures;
Tuning;
Fuel;
Sparking plugs, carburettor(s), etc., (as appropriate).
If the vehicle is fitted with fans with an automatic actuating mechanism, this system shall not
be interfered with during the sound measurements.
If the vehicle is equipped with devices which are not necessary for its propulsion, but which
are used whilst the vehicle is in normal service on the road, those devices shall be in
operation in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.
For vehicles having more than one driven wheel, only the drive provided for normal road
operation may be used. If the vehicle is fitted with a trailer or a semi-trailer, this shall be
removed for the purposes of the test.
2.2.2. Test Mass of the Vehicle
The vehicle shall be tested with its test mass as defined in Paragraph 2.10 of this
Regulation.
2.2.3. Tyre Selection and Condition
The tyres shall be appropriate for the vehicle and shall be inflated to the pressure
recommended by the vehicle manufacturer for the test mass of the vehicle.
The tyres shall be selected by the vehicle manufacturer, and correspond to one of the tyre
sizes and types designated for the vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer. The minimum tread
depth shall be at least 80% of the full tread depth.

Figure 1
Measuring Positions for Vehicles in Motion
3.1.2.2. Determination of the Approach Vehicle Speed and the Gear Use
3.1.2.2.1. Vehicle with no gearbox
The vehicle shall approach line AA' at a steady vehicle speed v ' corresponding either, in
terms of engine speed, (min ) to 75% of the rated engine speed as defined in
Paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation, or to 75% of the maximum engine speed permitted by the
governor, or to 50km/h, whichever is the lowest.
3.1.2.2.2. Vehicles with manual transmissions, automatic transmissions, or transmissions with
continuously variable transmission ratios (CVT's) tested with locked gears
If the vehicle is fitted with a dual mode transmission (e.g. low and high), the mode for normal
on-road operation shall be selected.
If the vehicle is fitted with a gearbox with two or three or four forward gears or the same
number of lockable gears in automatic transmission or in CVT, the second gear shall be
used. If the gearbox has more than four forward gears or the same number of lockable
gears in automatic transmission or in CVT, the third gear shall be used.

3.1.4. Calculation of the Final Test Result
The final test result is the average of the four test results rounded off to the nearest whole
decibel. If the figure following the decimal point is between 0 and 4, the total is rounded
down and if it is between 5 and 9, it is rounded up.
In case of hybrid electric vehicles, the final result is the highest of the test results for
conditions A and B as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1 of this Regulation.
3.2. Measurement of the Sound Emitted by Stationary Vehicles (for Testing of Vehicles in
Use)
3.2.1. Sound Pressure Level Close to the Outlet(s) of the Exhaust System
In addition, so as to facilitate the subsequent testing of vehicles in use, the sound pressure
level shall be measured near the outlet of the exhaust system (silencing system), in
conformity with the requirements set out below, and the result of the measurement shall be
included in the test report prepared for the issuance of the document referred to in Annex 1
to this Regulation.
3.2.2. Measuring Instruments
The measurements shall be made using a precision sound level meter in accordance with
Paragraph 1. of this Annex.
3.2.3. Conditions for Measurements
3.2.3.1. Condition of the Vehicle
3.2.3.2. Test Site
Before the measurements are started, the vehicle engine shall be brought to its normal
operating temperature. If the vehicle is equipped with automatic fans, no adjustment shall be
made to them during the measurement of the sound level.
While measurements are being made, the gear lever shall be in neutral. If the transmission
cannot be disconnected, the drive wheel of the vehicle should be allowed to run under noload
conditions by, for example, placing the vehicle on a support or on rollers.
Any area not subject to major acoustic perturbations may be used as a test site. Level areas
covered with concrete, asphalt or some other hard material and are highly reflective are
suitable; surfaces consisting of earth which has been tamped down shall not be used. The
test site shall have at least the dimensions of a rectangle the sides of which shall be 3m
from the outline of the vehicle (excluding handlebars). No significant obstacle such as a
person other than the observer and the driver shall be within this rectangle.
The vehicle shall be placed within the above-mentioned rectangle in such a way that the
measuring microphone is at least one metre from any stone edging.

Figure 3
Reference Point
The reference point shall be the highest point satisfying the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
The reference point shall be at the end of the exhaust pipe,
The reference point shall be on the vertical plane containing the exhaust outlet centre
and the flow axis of the exhaust pipe termination.
If two microphone positions are possible, the location farthest laterally from the vehicle
longitudinal centreline shall be used.
If the flow axis of the exhaust outlet pipe is at 90° ± 5° to the vehicle longitudinal centreline,
the microphone shall be located at the point that is the furthest from the engine.
If a vehicle has two or more exhaust outlets spaced less than 0.3m apart and connected to
a single silencer, only one measurement shall be made. The microphone shall be located
relative to the outlet the farthest from the vehicle's longitudinal centreline, or, when such
outlet does not exist, to the outlet that is highest above the ground.
For vehicles having an exhaust provided with outlets spaced more than 0.3m apart, one
measurement is made for each outlet as if it were the only one, and the highest sound
pressure level shall be noted.
For the purpose of roadside checking, the reference point may be moved to the outer
surface of the vehicle body.
For vehicles equipped with multiple exhaust outlets, the reported sound pressure level shall
be for the outlet having the highest average sound pressure level.

4. SOUND FROM THE VEHICLE IN MOTION (DATA REPORTED TO FACILITATE
TESTING OF THE VEHICLE IN USE)
4.1. A test procedure for in use compliance tests may be defined by a Contracting Party, taking
due account of any differences from the test conditions used at type-approval.
4.2. In order to facilitate in use compliance test of vehicles, the following information relating to
the sound-pressure level measurements carried out in accordance with Paragraph 1. of
Annex 3 for the vehicle in motion is referred to as in use compliance reference data:
(a)
Gear (i) or, for vehicles tested with non-locked gear ratios, the position of the gear
selector chosen for the test;
(b)
The vehicle speed v
in km/h at the beginning of the full throttle acceleration test in
gear (i); and
(c)
The final test result in dB(A) as determined according to Paragraph 3.1.4 of this
Annex.
4.3. The in use compliance reference data shall be entered in the communication form
conforming to Annex 1.
5. ORIGINAL EXHAUST (SILENCING) SYSTEM
5.1. Requirements for Silencers Containing Absorbent Fibrous Materials
5.1.1. Fibrous absorbent material shall be asbestos-free and may be used in the construction of
silencers only if suitable devices ensure that the fibrous absorbent material is kept in place
for the whole time that the silencer is being used and the exhaust or silencing system meets
the requirements of any one of Paragraphs 5.1.2., 5.1.3., 5.1.4. or 5.1.5. below.
5.1.2. After removal of the fibrous material, the sound-level shall conform to the requirements of
Paragraph 6.2.1.3. of this Regulation.
5.1.3. The fibrous absorbent material may not be placed in those parts of the silencer through
which the exhaust gases pass and shall conform to the following requirements:
5.1.3.1. The material shall be heated at a temperature of 650 ± 5°C for 4h in a furnace without
reduction in the average length, diameter or bulk density of the fibre;
5.1.3.2. After heating at 650 ± 5°C for 1h in a furnace, at least 98% of the material shall be retained
in a sieve of nominal aperture size 250μm conforming to ISO Standard 3310-1:2000 when
tested in accordance with ISO Standard 2559:2011.

5.1.5. Exhaust gases are not in contact with fibrous materials and fibrous materials are not under
the influence of pressure variations.
1.
Inlet flange or sleeve for connection to the rear of the test exhaust system
2.
Hand-operated regulating valve.
3.
Compensating reservoir with a maximum capacity of 40L and a filling time of not less
than 1s.
4.
Pressure switch with an operating range of 5 to 250kPa.
5.
Time delay switch.
6.
Pulse counter.
7.
Quick-acting valve, such as exhaust brake valve 60mm in diameter, operated by a
pneumatic cylinder with an output of 120N at 400kPa. The response time, both when
opening and closing, shall not exceed 0.5s.
8.
Exhaust gas evacuation.
9.
Flexible pipe.
10.
Pressure gauge.
Figure 4
Test Apparatus for Conditioning by Pulsation
5.1.4.2.2. The test equipment shall be adjusted so that the flow of exhaust gases is alternately
interrupted and restored 2,500 times by a rapid-action valve.
5.1.4.2.3. The valve shall open when the exhaust gas back-pressure, measured at least 100mm
downstream of the intake flange, reaches a value of between 35 and 40kPa. Should such a
figure be unattainable because of the engine characteristics, the valve shall open when the
gas back-pressure reaches a level equivalent to 90% of the maximum that can be measured
before the engine stops. It shall close when this pressure does not differ by more than 10%
from its stabilized value with the valve open.
5.1.4.2.4. The time-delay switch shall be set for the duration of exhaust gases calculated on the basis
of the requirements of Paragraph 5.1.4.2.3. above.

5.1.4.3.5. During this conditioning procedure, at the request of the manufacturer, the engine and the
silencer may be cooled in order that the temperature recorded at a point not more than
100mm from the exhaust gas outlet does not exceed that measured when the vehicle is
running at 110km/h or 75% of the rated engine speed as defined in Paragraph 2.4 of this
Regulation in top gear. The engine and/or vehicle speeds shall be determined with a
tolerance of ±3%.
5.2. Diagram and Markings
5.2.1. The diagram and a dimensioned cross-section of the silencer shall be annexed to the
document mentioned in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
5.2.2. All original silencers shall bear at least the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The 'E' mark followed by the reference to the country which granted the
type-approval;
The vehicle manufacturer's name or trademark; and
The make and identifying part number.
This reference shall be legible, indelible and visible in the position at which it is to be fitted.
5.2.3. Any packaging of original replacements for exhaust or silencing systems shall be marked
legibly with the words "original part" and the make and type reference integrated together
with the "E" mark and also the reference of the country of origin.
5.3. Intake Silencers
If the engine intake has to be fitted with an air filter and/or intake silencer in order to comply
with the permissible sound level, the filter and/or silencer shall be regarded as part of the
silencer and the requirements of Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.2. above shall also be applicable to
them.

ANNEX 5
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE TEST SITE
1. Introduction
This Annex describes the specifications relating to the physical characteristics and the
laying of the test track. These specifications based on a special standard describe the
required physical characteristics as well as the test methods for these characteristics.
2. Required Characteristics of the Surface
A surface is considered to conform to this standard provided that the texture and voids
content or sound absorption coefficient have been measured and found to fulfil all the
requirements of Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.4. below and provided that the design requirements
(Paragraph 3.2. below) have been met.
2.1. Residual Voids Content
The residual voids content, V , of the test track paving mixture shall not exceed 8%. For the
measurement procedure, see Paragraph 4.1. below.
2.2. Sound Absorption Coefficient
If the surface fails to conform to the residual voids content requirement, the surface is
acceptable only if its sound absorption coefficient, α ≤0.10. For the measurement procedure,
see Paragraph 4.2. below. The requirements of Paragraphs 2.1. above and this Paragraph
are met also if only sound absorption has been measured and found to be α ≤0.10.
Note:
The most relevant characteristic is the sound absorption, although the residual
voids content is more familiar among road constructors. However, sound
absorption needs to be measured only if the surface fails to comply with the voids
requirement. This is because the latter is connected with relatively large
uncertainties in terms of both measurements and relevance and some surfaces
therefore may be rejected erroneously on the basis of the voids measurement
only.
2.3. Texture Depth
The texture depth (TD) measured according to the volumetric method (see Paragraph 4.3.
below) shall be:
TD ≥0.4mm

Figure 1
Minimum Requirement for Test Surface Area
The Shaded Part is Called "Test Area"
3.2. Design and Preparation of the Surface
3.2.1. Basic Design Requirements
The test surface shall meet four design requirements:
3.2.1.1. It shall be a dense asphaltic concrete;
3.2.1.2. The maximum chipping size shall be 8mm (tolerances allow from 6.3 to 10mm);
3.2.1.3. The thickness of the wearing course shall be ≥30mm;
3.2.1.4. The binder shall be a straight penetration grade bitumen without modification.

(c)
(d)
(e)
The chippings shall be crushed (100% crushed faces) and of a material with a high
resistance to crushing;
The chippings used in the mix shall be washed;
No extra chippings shall be added onto the surface;
(f) The binder hardness expressed as PEN value shall be 40-60, 60-80 or even 80-100
depending on the climatic conditions of the country. The rule is that as hard a binder
as possible shall be used, provided this is consistent with common practice;
(g)
The temperature of the mix before rolling shall be chosen so as to achieve by
subsequent rolling the required voids content. In order to increase the probability of
satisfying the specifications of Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.4. above, the compactness shall
be studied not only by an appropriate choice of mixing temperature, but also by an
appropriate number of passing and by the choice of compacting vehicle.
Table 1
Design Guidelines
By total
mass of mix
Target values
By mass of
the aggregate
Tolerances
Mass of stones, square mesh sieve (SM) >2mm 47.6% 50.5% ±5
Mass of sand 0.063 Mass of filler SM <0.063mm 8.8% 9.3% ±2
Mass of binder (bitumen) 5.8% N.A. ±0.5
Max. chipping size 8mm 6.3 – 10
Binder hardness
4. Test Method
(see Paragraph 3.2.2.(f))
Polished stone value (PSV) >50
Compactness, relative to Marshall compactness 98%
4.1. Measurement of the Residual Voids Content
For the purpose of this measurement, cores have to be taken from the track in at least four
different positions which are equally distributed in the test area between lines AA and BB
(see Figure 1). In order to avoid in homogeneity and unevenness in the wheel tracks, cores
should not be taken in wheel tracks themselves, but close to them. Two cores (minimum)
should be taken close to the wheel tracks and one core (minimum) should be taken
approximately midway between the wheel tracks and each microphone location.

5.3. Repaving the Test Area
If it is necessary to repave the test track, it is usually unnecessary to repave more than the
test strip (of 3m width in Figure 1) where vehicles are driving, provided the test area outside
the strip met the requirement of residual voids content or sound absorption when it was
measured.
6. Documentation of the Test Surface and of Tests Performed on it
6.1. Documentation of the Test Surface
The following data shall be given in a document describing the test surface:
6.1.1. The location of the test track.
6.1.2. Type of binder, binder hardness, type of aggregate, maximum theoretical density of the
concrete (D ), thickness of the wearing course and grading curve determined from cores
from the test track.
6.1.3. Method of compaction (e.g. type of roller, roller mass, number of passes).
6.1.4. Temperature of the mix, temperature of the ambient air and wind speed during laying of the
surface.
6.1.5. Date when the surface was laid and name of the contractor.
6.1.6. All test results or at least the latest test result, including:
6.1.6.1. The residual voids content of each core;
6.1.6.2. The locations in the test area from where the cores for voids measurements have been
taken;
6.1.6.3. The sound absorption coefficient of each core (if measured). Specify the results both for
each core and each frequency range, as well as the overall average;
6.1.6.4. The locations in the test area from where the cores for absorption measurement have been
taken;
6.1.6.5. Texture depth, including the number of tests and standard deviation;
6.1.6.6. The institution responsible for the tests according to Paragraphs 6.1.6.1. and 6.1.6.2. above
and the type of equipment used;
6.1.6.7. Date of the test(s) and date when the cores were taken from the test track.
6.2. Documentation of Vehicle Sound Tests Conducted on the Surface
In the document describing the vehicle sound test(s) it should be stated whether all the
requirements of this standard were fulfilled or not. Reference shall be given to a document
according to Paragraph 6.1. above describing the results which verify this."
Noise - Three-wheel Vehicles. Proposed Supplement 3 to the 07 Series.