Global Technical Regulation No. 2

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 2
Description:Motorcycle Emissions.
Official Title:Measurement Procedure for Two-wheeled Motorcycles Equipped with a Positive or Compression Ignition Engine with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants, CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2005-06-22
Amendment Level:Amendment 3 of June 27, 2013
Number of Pages:131
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.2/Amend.3
July 19, 2013
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 02
MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE FOR TWO-WHEELED MOTORCYCLES EQUIPPED WITH A
POSITIVE OR COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF
GASEOUS POLLUTANTS, CO EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON JUNE 22, 2005)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1
dated January 29, 2008
Corrigendum 1
dated September 9, 2009
Corrigendum 2
dated September 9, 2009
Amendment 2
dated October 28, 2011
Amendment 3
dated June 27, 2013

ANNEXES
Annex 1
– Symbols Used
Annex 2.1 – Technical Data of the Reference Fuel to be Used for Testing Vehicles Equipped with
Positive Ignition Engines (Unleaded Petrol Properties)
Annex 2.2 – Technical Data of the Reference Fuel to be Used for Testing Vehicles Equipped with
Diesel Engines (Diesel Fuel Properties)
Annex 3
Annex 4
Annex 5
Annex 6
Annex 7
Annex 8
Annex 9
Annex 10
Annex 11
Annex 12
Annex 13
– Classification of Equivalent Inertia Mass and Running Resistance
– Essential Characteristics of the Engine, the Emission Control Systems and Information
Concerning the Conduct of Tests
– Driving Cycles for Type I Tests
– Chassis Dynamometer and Instruments Description
– Road Tests for the Determination of Test Bench Settings
– Form for the Record of Coast Down Time
– Record of Chassis Dynamometer Setting (by Coast Down Method)
– Record of Chassis Dynamometer Setting (by Table Method)
– Record of Type I Test Results
– Record of Type II Test Results
– Explanatory Note on Gearshift Procedure

2. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
The work on the gtr started in May 2000 with the establishment of the WMTC Informal
group. At the GRPE forty-fifth session in January 2003, a formal proposal by Germany for the
establishment of a gtr was approved for presentation to the Executive Committee for the
1998 Agreement (AC.3). At its session on November 13, 2003, the proposal from Germany
was also approved as a gtr project by AC.3.
The gtr No. 2 was approved by AC.3 in June 2005. Amendment 1 to gtr No. 2 was approved
by AC.3 in November 2007.
The draft text of Amendment 2 to gtr No. 2 on the introduction of performance requirements
(limit values for pollutant emissions for vehicles fitted with gasoline engines) was approved by
GRPE in January 2011, subject to final decisions concerning the format of the text by AC.3.
3. EXISTING REGULATIONS, DIRECTIVES, AND INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTARY
STANDARDS
Though there are no Regulations currently contained in the Compendium of Candidates, the
following Regulations contain relevant applications of exhaust-emissions requirements for
motorcycles which are available for technical reference in developing a new gtr:
UNECE Regulation No. 40, 01 Series of Amendments:
Uniform provisions concerning the approval of motorcycles equipped with a positive-ignition
engine with regard to the emission of gaseous pollutants by the engine
EU:
Directive 2002/51/EC amending Directive 97/24/EC: The reduction of the level of pollutant
emissions from two-and three-wheeled motor vehicles
Indian Regulation:
MoSRT&H/ CMVR/ TAP-115/116 and Central Motor Vehicle Rule No. 115
Japanese Regulation:
Road vehicle Act, Article 41 "Systems and Devices of Motor Vehicles"
Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles, Article 31 "Emission Control Devices"
United States of America Regulation:
US-FTP Subpart F, Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles
ISO Standards:
ISO 11486 (Motorcycles - Chassis dynamometer setting method)
ISO 6460 (gas sampling)
ISO 7860 (fuel consumption)
ISO 4106 (Motorcycles - Engine test code - Net power)
Most of these Regulations have been in existence for many years and the methods of
measurement vary significantly. The technical experts were familiar with these requirements
and discussed them in their working sessions. The Informal group therefore considered that
to be able to determine a vehicle’s real impact on the environment, in terms of its exhaust
emissions and fuel consumption, the test procedure and consequently the gtr needed to
represent modern, real-world vehicle operation.
Consequently, the proposed Regulation is based on new research into the worldwide pattern
of real motorcycle use.

(c)
General Requirements
The proposed Regulation is based on new research into the worldwide pattern of real
motorcycle use on a variety of road types. The weighting factors, both for creating the
test cycles and for calculating the overall emission results from the several cycle parts,
were calculated from the widest possible worldwide statistical basis. The classification
of vehicles reflects the general categories of use and real world driving behaviour.
The gtr contains:
1. A main cycle in three parts, which is applied to three different categories of
motorcycle according to their typical use
2. An alternative cycle, which is to be used by low-powered motorcycles
3. A specific gear shift procedure
4. The general laboratory conditions, which have been brought up to date by an
expert ISO committee, so that they are compatible with the latest technologies
The question of harmonized off-cycle emissions requirements will be considered and
appropriate measures introduced in due course.
(d)
Performance Requirements
The principal emission limit values (Paragraph 5.2. of the text of the regulation)
represent the most stringent limits currently applied in national or regional legislation
with the test procedures set out in this gtr. Vehicles complying with the principal
emission limits contained in Paragraph 5.2. are therefore deemed to comply with the
alternative requirements contained in Paragraph 5.3.
Paragraph 5.3. contains alternative emission limits of stringency proposed by the
Contracting Parties, as foreseen by Articles 4.2 and 7.2 of the 1998 Agreement.
There can be several reasons for the introduction of alternative emission limits:
(i)
(ii)
Different environmental priorities for different gaseous pollutants, CO and
energy/fuel conservation, or cost-benefit situation;
Diverse traffic situation or special vehicles (performance, classification);
(iii) Separated or combined limits for HC and NO ;
(iv)
Different reference fuels because of the market fuel situation.
Contracting Parties may opt to accept motorcycles complying with one or more of these
alternative performance requirements (Paragraph 5.3.) in addition to the motorcycles
complying with principal requirements (Paragraph 5.2.).

5. REGULATORY IMPACT AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS
(a)
Anticipated Benefits
Increasingly, motorcycles are vehicles which are prepared for the world market. To the
extent that manufacturers are preparing substantially different models in order to meet
different emission Regulations and methods of measuring CO /fuel consumption,
testing costs and other production values are increased. It would be more
economically efficient to have manufacturers using a similar test procedure worldwide
wherever possible. It is anticipated that the test procedure in this gtr will provide a
common test programme for manufacturers to use in countries worldwide and thus
reduce the amount of resources utilized to test motorcycles. These savings will accrue
not only to the manufacturer, but more importantly, to the consumer as well. However,
developing a test procedure just to address the economic question does not completely
address the mandate given when work on this gtr was first started. The test procedure
must also improve the state of testing motorcycles, and better reflect how motorcycles
are used today.
Compared to the measurement methods defined in existing legislation of the
Contracting Parties, the method defined in this gtr is much more representative of
global motorcycle in-use driving behaviour and more dynamic. Some of the present
testing requirements are over twenty years old and do not reflect current road traffic
conditions or the way users operate motorcycles in these conditions. Thus, the gtr
includes improved testing requirements with respect to the following parameters:
– Maximum test cycle speed,
– Vehicle acceleration, in transient modes of operation
– Gearshift prescriptions,
– Cold start consideration.
As a consequence, it can be expected that the application of this gtr for emissions
limitation within the certification procedure will result in a higher severity and higher
correlation with in-use emissions.
(b)
Potential Cost Effectiveness
Specific cost effectiveness values for this gtr have not been calculated. It is expected
that each Contracting Party can develop such information with the transposition of this
gtr into national or regional legislation. Specific cost effectiveness values can be quite
different, depending on the national or regional environmental needs and market
situation. While there are no calculated costs per ton values here, the belief of the
informal group on WMTC is that there are clear benefits associated with Amendment 2
to gtr No. 2.

3.5. "Gaseous pollutants" means carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen expressed in
terms of nitrogen dioxide (NO ) equivalence, and hydrocarbons (HC), assuming a ratio of:
C H for petrol,
C H for diesel fuel.
3.6. "CO emissions" means carbon dioxide.
3.7. "Fuel consumption" means the amount of fuel consumed, calculated by the carbon
balance method.
3.8. "Maximum vehicle speed" (v ) is the maximum speed of the vehicle as declared by the
manufacturer, measured in accordance with European Union (EU) Directive 95/1/EC (on
the maximum design speed, maximum torque and maximum net engine power of two- or
three-wheel motor vehicles).
Note 1 The symbols used in this Regulation are summarized in Annex 1.
3.9. "Maximum net engine power" is the maximum net engine power of the vehicle as
declared by the manufacturer, measured in accordance with ISO 4106:2004
(Motorcycles − Engine test code − Net power).
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous pollutants, carbon dioxide
emissions and fuel consumption shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to
enable the vehicle in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to
comply with the provisions of this Regulation.
5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR VEHICLES FITTED WITH GASOLINE
ENGINES
When implementing the test procedure contained in this gtr as part of their national
legislation, Contracting Parties are invited to use limit values which represent at least the
same level of severity as their existing Regulations; pending the development of
harmonized limit values, by the Administrative Committee (AC.3) of the 1998 Agreement,
for inclusion in the gtr at a later date.
5.1. Optional Performance Requirements
The principal requirements of performance are set out in Paragraph 5.2. Contracting
Parties may also accept compliance with one or more of the alternative performance
requirements set out in Paragraph 5.3.

5.3.2. Alternative Performance Requirements B
The gaseous emissions for each class of vehicle defined in Paragraph 6.3., obtained when
tested in accordance with the cycles specified in Paragraph 6.5.4.1., shall not exceed the
values specified in Table 5-3.
Table 5-3
Limit Values for Gaseous Emissions CO, HC, HC + NO
CO HC HC + NO
Vehicle Class All Class 1 and Class 2 Class 3
Limit values
L in mg/km
12000
1000
800
5.3.3. Alternative Performance Requirements C
The gaseous emissions for each class of vehicle defined in Paragraph 6.3., obtained when
tested in accordance with the cycles specified in Paragraph 6.5.4.1., shall not exceed the
values specified in Table 5-4.
Table 5-4
Limit Values for Gaseous Emissions CO, HC and NO
Vehicle Class
CO HC NO
All
Class 1 and
Class 2 Class 3
Class 1 and
Class 2 Class 3
Limit values
L in mg/km
2620
750
330
170
220
6. TEST CONDITIONS
6.1. Test Room and Soak Area
6.1.1. Test Room
6.1.2. Soak Area
The test room with the chassis dynamometer and the gas sample collection device, shall
have a temperature of 298 K ± 5 K (25°C ± 5°C). The room temperature shall be
measured twice in the vicinity of vehicle cooling blower (fan), both before and after the
Type I test.
The soak area shall have a temperature of 298 K ± 5 K (25°C ± 5°C) and be able to park
the test vehicle (motorcycle) to be preconditioned in accordance with Paragraph 7.2.4.

6.3.2. Class 2
6.3.3. Class 3
Vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to Class 2:
Engine capacity < 150 cm and 100km/h ≤ v < 115km/h or
Engine capacity ≥150 cm and v < 115km/h Subclass 2-1,
115km/h ≤ v < 130km/h Subclass 2-2.
Vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to Class 3:
130 ≤ v < 140km/h Subclass 3-1,
v ≥ 140km/h Subclass 3-2.
Figure 6-1
Vehicle Classification

6.5.2.5.2. The above mentioned air velocity shall be determined as an averaged value of 9
measuring points which are located at the centre of each rectangle dividing the whole of
the blower outlet into 9 areas (dividing both of horizontal and vertical sides of the blower
outlet into 3 equal parts). Each value at those 9 points shall be within 10% of the
averaged value of themselves.
6.5.2.5.3. The blower outlet shall have a cross section area of at least 0.4 m and the bottom of the
blower outlet shall be between 5 and 20 cm above floor level. The blower outlet shall be
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the motorcycle between 30 and 45 cm in front of
its front wheel. The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall be located
at between 0 and 20 cm from the air outlet.
6.5.3. Exhaust Gas Measurement System
6.5.3.1. The gas-collection device shall be a closed type device that can collect all exhaust gases
at the motorcycle exhaust outlet(s) on condition that it satisfies the backpressure condition
of ± 125 mm H O. An open system may be used as well if it is confirmed that all the
exhaust gases are collected. The gas collection shall be such that there is no
condensation, which could appreciably modify that nature of exhaust gases at the test
temperature. The system of gas-collection device is shown in Figure 6-2, for example.
Figure 6-2
Equipment for Sampling the Gases and Measuring their Volume

6.5.3.11. A revolution counter to count the revolutions of the positive displacement pump throughout
the test.
Note 2
Note 3
Note 4
Good care shall be taken on the connecting method and the material or
configuration of the connecting parts because there is a possibility that each
section (e.g. the adapter and the coupler) of the sampling system becomes
very hot. If the measurement cannot be performed normally due to
heat-damages of the sampling system, an auxiliary cooling device may be
used as long as the exhaust gases are not affected.
Open type devices have risks of incomplete gas collection and gas leakage
into the test cell. It is necessary to make sure there is no leakage throughout
the sampling period.
If a constant CVS flow rate is used throughout the test cycle that includes low
and high speeds all in one (i.e. Part 1, 2 and 3 cycles) special attention
should be paid because of higher risk of water condensation in high speed
range.
6.5.4. Driving Schedules
6.5.4.1. Test Cycles
Test cycles (vehicle speed patterns), for the Type I test consists of up to three parts that
are shown in Annex 5. Depending on the vehicle class (see Paragraph 6.3.) the following
test cycle parts have to be run:
Class 1:
Class 2:
Subclass 2-1:
Subclass 2-2:
Class 3:
Subclass 3-1:
Subclass 3-2:
Part 1, reduced speed in cold condition, followed by
Part 1 reduced speed in hot condition.
Part 1 reduced speed in cold condition, followed by
Part 2 reduced speed in hot condition.
Part 1 in cold condition, followed by Part 2 in hot
condition.
Part 1 in cold condition, followed by Part 2 in hot
condition, followed by Part 3 reduced speed in hot
condition.
Part 1 in cold condition, followed by Part 2 in hot
condition, followed by Part 3 in hot condition.
6.5.4.2. Speed Tolerances
6.5.4.2.1. The speed tolerance at any given time on the test cycle prescribed in Paragraph 6.5.4.1. is
defined by upper and lower limits. The upper limit is 3.2km/h higher than the highest point
on the trace within 1 second of the given time. The lower limit is 3.2km/h lower than the
lowest point on the trace within 1 second of the given time. Speed variations greater than
the tolerances (such as may occur during gear changes) are acceptable provided they
occur for less than 2 seconds on any occasion. Speeds lower than those prescribed are
acceptable provided the vehicle is operated at maximum available power during such
occurrences. Figure 6-3 shows the range of acceptable speed tolerances for typical
points.

6.5.5. Gearshift Prescriptions
Test vehicles (motorcycles) with automatic transmission
Vehicles equipped with transfer cases, multiple sprockets, etc., shall be tested in the
manufacturer's recommended configuration for street or highway use.
All tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in "Drive" (highest gear).
Automatic clutch-torque converter transmissions may be shifted as manual transmissions
at the option of the manufacturer.
Idle modes shall be run with automatic transmissions in "Drive" and the wheels braked.
Automatic transmissions shall shift automatically through the normal sequence of gears.
The deceleration modes shall be run in gear using brakes or throttle as necessary to
maintain the desired speed.
6.5.5.2. Test vehicles (motorcycles) with manual transmission
6.5.5.2.1 Mandatory Requirements
6.5.5.2.1.1. Step 1 − Calculation of shift speeds
Upshift speeds (v and v ) in km/h during acceleration phases shall be calculated
using the following formulas:
Equation 6-1:
⎡⎛


v = ⎢⎜
0.5753 × e
− 0.1

× ( s − n ) + n ⎥ ×
⎢⎜


⎣⎝


Equation 6-2:
1
ndv
v
where:
⎡⎛
⎢⎜
= 0.5753 e
⎢⎜
×
⎢⎣



⎟ ×


1
ndv
( s − n ) + n

× , i = 2 to ng − 1

⎥⎦
i is the gear number (≥ 2),
ng
P
m
is the total number of forward gears,
is the rated power in kW,
is the unladen mass in kg,
n is the idling speed in min ,
s is the rated engine speed in min ,
ndv is the ratio between engine speed in min and vehicle speed in km/h in gear i.

The downshift speed from gear 2 to gear 1 (v
equation:
) shall be calculated using the following
Equation 6-5:
[ 0.03 × ( s −n
) + n ]
v =
×
where:
1
ndv
ndv is the ratio between engine speed in min and vehicle speed in km/h in gear 2.
Since the cruise phases are defined by the phase indicator, slight speed increases could
occur and it may be meaningful to apply an upshift. The upshift speeds (v v and
v ) in km/h during cruise phases may be calculated using the following equations:
Equation 6-6:
[ 0.03 × ( s −n
) + n ]
v =
×
Equation 6-7:
1
ndv
⎡⎛


v
⎢⎜

= 0.5753 e
0.1 × ( s − n ) + n

×
⎢⎜
×
− ⎟

⎢⎣


⎥⎦
Equation 6-8:
1
ndv
⎡⎛


1
v
⎢⎜

= 0.5753 e
=
⎢⎜
×
⎟ ×
⎥ ndv
⎢⎣


⎥⎦
6.5.5.2.2. Step 2 − Gear choice for each cycle sample
( s − n ) + n

× , i 3 to ng
In order to avoid different interpretations about acceleration, deceleration, cruise and stop
phases corresponding indicators are added to the vehicle speed pattern as integral parts
of the cycles (see tables in Annex 5).
The appropriate gear for each sample shall then be calculated according to the vehicle
speed ranges resulting from the shift speed equations of paragraph 6.5.5.2.1.1. and these
phase indicators for the cycle parts appropriate for the test vehicle as follows:
Gear choice for stop phases:
For the last 5 seconds of a stop phase the gear lever shall be set to gear 1 and the clutch
shall be disengaged. For the previous part of a stop phase the gear lever shall be set to
neutral or the clutch shall be disengaged.

6.5.5.2.2. Optional Provisions
The gear choice may be modified according to the following provisions:
(a)
The use of lower gears than determined by the requirements described in
paragraph 6.5.5.2.1. is permitted in any cycle phase. Manufacturers'
recommendations for gear use shall be followed, if they do not result in higher gears
than determined by the requirements described in paragraph 6.5.5.2.1.
Note 5
The calculation program to be found on the UN website at the URL
below may be used as an aid for the gear selection:
6.5.6. Dynamometer Settings
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/wmtc.html
Explanations about the approach and the gearshift strategy and a calculation
example are given in Annex 13.
A full description of the chassis dynamometer and instruments shall be provided in
accordance with Annex 6. Measurements shall be made to the accuracies as specified in
Paragraph 6.5.7. The running resistance force for the chassis dynamometer settings can
be derived either from on-road coast down measurements or from a running resistance
table (see Annex 3).
6.5.6.1. Chassis dynamometer setting derived from on-road coast down measurements
To use this alternative on road coast down measurements have to be carried out as
specified in Annex 7.
6.5.6.1.1. Requirements for the equipment
The instrumentation for the speed and time measurement shall have the accuracies as
specified in Paragraph 6.5.7.
6.5.6.1.2. Inertia mass setting
6.5.6.1.2.1. The equivalent inertia mass for the chassis dynamometer shall be the flywheel equivalent
inertia mass, m , closest to the actual mass of the motorcycle, m . The actual mass, m is
obtained by adding the rotating mass of the front wheel, m , to the total mass of the
motorcycle, rider and instruments measured during the road test. Alternatively, the
equivalent inertia mass m can be derived from Annex 3. The value of m , in kilograms,
may be measured or calculated as appropriate, or may be estimated as 3% of m.

6.5.7. Measurement Accuracies
Measurements have to be carried out using equipment that fulfil the accuracy
requirements as described in Table 6-2 below:
Table 6-2
Required Accuracy of Measurements
Measurement Items
At measured value
Resolution
a)
Running resistance force, F
+ 2%

b)
Motorcycle speed (v , v )
± 1%
0.2km/h
c)
Coast down speed interval (2Δv = v - v )
± 1%
0.1km/h
d)
Coast down time (Δt)
± 0.5%
0.01 s
e)
Total motorcycle mass (m + m )
± 0.5%
1.0 kg
f)
Wind speed
± 10%
0.1 m/s
g)
Wind direction

5 deg.
h)
Temperatures
± 1°C
1°C
i)
Barometric pressure

0.2kPa
j)
Distance
± 0.1%
1 m
k)
Time
± 0.1 s
0.1 s
6.6. Type II Tests
6.6.1. Application
6.6.2. Test Fuel
This requirement applies to all test vehicles (motorcycles) powered by a positive-ignition
engine.
The fuel shall be the reference fuel whose specifications are given in Paragraph 6.4 to this
Regulation.
6.6.3. Measured Gaseous Pollutant
The content by volume of carbon monoxide shall be measured immediately after the
Type I test.

Figure 7-1
Flowchart for the Number of Type I Tests

7.2.2.2.1. Motoring by Chassis Dynamometer
This method applies only to chassis dynamometers capable of driving a motorcycle. The
motorcycle shall be driven by the chassis dynamometer steadily at the reference speed v
with the transmission engaged and the clutch disengaged. The total friction loss F (v ) at
the reference speed v is given by the chassis dynamometer force.
7.2.2.2.2. Coast Down without Absorption
The method of measuring the coast down time is the coast down method for the
measurement of the total friction loss F . The motorcycle coast down shall be performed
on the chassis dynamometer by the procedure described in Paragraph 5 of Annex 7 with
zero chassis dynamometer absorption, and the coast down time Δt corresponding to the
reference speed v shall be measured. The measurement shall be carried out at least
three times, and the mean coast down time Δt shall be calculated by the following
equation:
Δ = 1
t
n ∑ Δ t
Equation 7-3
7.2.2.2.3. Total Friction Loss
The total friction loss F (v ) at the reference speed v is calculated by the following
equation:
F
1
2Δv
= Equation 7-4
3.6
Δt
( v ) ( m + m )
7.2.2.2.4. Calculation of Power Absorption Unit Force
The force F (v ) to be absorbed by the chassis dynamometer at the reference speed v
is calculated by subtracting F (v ) from the target running resistance force F*(v ) as shown
in the following equation:
F (v ) = F* (v ) − F (v ) Equation 7-5
7.2.2.2.5. Chassis Dynamometer Setting
According to its type, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by one of the methods
described in Paragraphs 7.2.2.2.5.1. to 7.2.2.2.5.4. The chosen setting shall be applied to
the pollutant emissions measurements as well as to the CO emission measurements.
7.2.2.2.5.1. Chassis Dynamometer with Polygonal Function
In the case of a chassis dynamometer with polygonal function, in which the absorption
characteristics are determined by load values at several speed points, at least three
specified speeds, including the reference speed, shall be chosen as the setting points. At
each setting point, the chassis dynamometer shall be set to the value F (v ) obtained in
Paragraph 7.2.2.2.4.

7.2.2.2.5.4. Chassis Dynamometer with f* , f* Coefficient Digital Setter
In the case of a chassis dynamometer with a coefficient digital setter, where a CPU
(central processor unit) is incorporated in the system, the target running resistance force
F* = f* + f* × v is automatically set on the chassis dynamometer.
In this case, the coefficients f* and f* are directly input digitally; the coast down is
performed and the coast down time Δt is measured. F is automatically calculated and
set at motorcycle speed intervals of 0.06km/h, in the following sequence:
1
2Δv
F * + F = ( m + m )
Equation 7-10
3.6
Δt
F
1
2Δv
= ( m + m ) − F *
Equation 7-11
3.6
Δt
F = F* − F Equation 7-12
7.2.2.2.6. Dynamometer Settings Verification
7.2.2.2.6.1. Verification Test
Immediately after the initial setting, the coast down time Δt on the chassis dynamometer
corresponding to the reference speed (v ), shall be measured by the same procedure as in
Paragraph 5 of Annex 7. The measurement shall be carried out at least three times, and
the mean coast down time Δt shall be calculated from the results. The set running
resistance force at the reference speed, F (v ) on the chassis dynamometer is calculated
by the following equation:
F
1
2Δv
= Equation 7-13
3.6
Δt
( v ) ( m + m )

7.2.2.3.2.4. The setting error ε at the specified speed is calculated by the following equation:
( v )
F − F
ε = × 100
Equation 7-16
F
7.2.2.3.2.5. The chassis dynamometer shall be readjusted if the setting error does not satisfy the
following criteria:
ε ≤ 2% for v ≥ 50km/h
ε ≤ 3% for 30km/h ≤ v < 50km/h
ε ≤ 10% for v < 30km/h
7.2.2.3.2.6. The procedure described above shall be repeated until the setting error satisfies the
criteria. The chassis dynamometer setting and the observed errors shall be recorded. An
example of the record form is given in Annex 10.
7.2.3. Calibration of Analysers
7.2.3.1. The quantity of gas at the indicated pressure compatible with the correct functioning of the
equipment shall be injected into the analyser with the aid of the flow metre and the
pressure-reducing valve mounted on each gas cylinder. The apparatus shall be adjusted
to indicate as a stabilized value the value inserted on the standard gas cylinder. Starting
from the setting obtained with the gas cylinder of greatest capacity, a curve shall be drawn
of the deviations of the apparatus according to the content of the various standard
cylinders used. The flame ionisation analyser shall be recalibrated periodically, at
intervals of not more than one month, using air/propane or air/hexane mixtures with
nominal hydrocarbon concentrations equal to 50% and 90% of full scale.
7.2.3.2. Non-dispersive infrared absorption analysers shall be checked at the same intervals using
nitrogen/C0 and nitrogen/CO mixtures in nominal concentrations equal to 10, 40, 60, 85
and 90% of full scale.
7.2.3.3. To calibrate the NO chemiluminescence analyser, nitrogen/nitrogen oxide (NO) mixtures
with nominal concentrations equal to 50% and 90% of full scale shall be used. The
calibration of all three types of analysers shall be checked before each series of tests,
using mixtures of the gases, which are measured in a concentration equal to 80% of full
scale. A dilution device can be applied for diluting a 100% calibration gas to required
concentration.

7.2.5.1.7. If failure to start is an operational error, the test vehicle shall be rescheduled for testing
from a cold start. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction, corrective action
(following the unscheduled maintenance provisions) of less than 30 minutes duration may
be taken and the test continued. The sampling system shall be reactivated at the same
time cranking is started. When the engine starts, the driving schedule timing sequence
shall begin. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction and the vehicle cannot be
started, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, corrective
action taken (following the unscheduled maintenance provisions), and the vehicle
rescheduled for test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective
action taken shall be reported.
7.2.5.1.8. If the test vehicle does not start during the hot start after ten seconds of cranking, or ten
cycles of the manual starting mechanism, cranking shall cease, the test shall be voided,
the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken and the vehicle
rescheduled for test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective
action taken shall be reported.
7.2.5.1.9. If the engine "false starts", the operator shall repeat the recommended starting procedure
(such as resetting the choke, etc.)
7.2.5.2. Stalling
7.2.5.2.1. If the engine stalls during an idle period, the engine shall be restarted immediately and the
test continued. If the engine cannot be started soon enough to allow the vehicle to follow
the next acceleration as prescribed, the driving schedule indicator shall be stopped. When
the vehicle restarts, the driving schedule indicator shall be reactivated.
7.2.5.2.2. If the engine stalls during some operating mode other than idle, the driving schedule
indicator shall be stopped, the test vehicle shall then be restarted and accelerated to the
speed required at that point in the driving schedule and the test continued. During
acceleration to this point, shifting shall be performed in accordance with Paragraph 6.5.5.
7.2.5.2.3. If the test vehicle will not restart within one minute, the test shall be voided, the vehicle
removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken, and the vehicle rescheduled for
test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall
be reported.
7.2.6. Drive Instructions
7.2.6.1. The test vehicle shall be driven with minimum throttle movement to maintain the desired
speed. No simultaneous use of brake and throttle shall be permitted.
7.2.6.2. If the test vehicle cannot accelerate at the specified rate, it shall be operated with the
throttle fully opened until the roller speed reaches the value prescribed for that time in the
driving schedule.
7.2.7. Dynamometer Test Runs
7.2.7.1. The complete dynamometer test consists of consecutive parts as described in
Paragraph 6.5.4.

(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)
Turn the engine off 2 seconds after the end of the last part of the test.
Immediately after the end of the sample period, turn off the cooling fan.
Turn off the constant volume sampler (CVS) or critical flow venturi (CFV) or
disconnect the exhaust tube from the tailpipe(s) of the vehicle.
Disconnect the exhaust tube from the vehicle tailpipe(s) and remove the vehicle
from dynamometer.
For comparison and analysis reasons besides the bag results also second by
second data of the emissions (diluted gas) have to be monitored.
7.3. Type II Tests
7.3.1. Conditions of Measurement
7.3.1.1. The Type II test specified in Paragraph 6.6. must be measured immediately after the
Type I test with the engine at normal idling speed and at high idle.
7.3.1.2. The following parameters must be measured and recorded at normal idling speed and at
high idle speed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
the carbon monoxide content by volume of the exhaust gases emitted,
the carbon dioxide content by volume of the exhaust gases emitted,
the engine speed during the test, including any tolerances,
the engine oil temperature at the time of the test.
7.3.2. Sampling of Exhaust Gases
7.3.2.1. The exhaust outlets shall be provided with an air-tight extension, so that the sample probe
used to collect exhaust gases may be inserted into the exhaust outlet at least 60 cm,
without increasing the back pressure of more than 125 mm H 0, and without disturbance
of the vehicle running. The shape of this extension shall however be chosen in order to
avoid, at the location of the sample probe, any appreciable dilution of exhaust gases in the
air. Where a motorcycle is equipped with an exhaust system having multiple outlets,
either these shall be joined to a common pipe or the content of carbon monoxide must be
collected from each of them, the result of the measurement being reached from the
arithmetical average of these contents.
7.3.2.2. The concentrations in CO (C ) and CO2 (C ) shall be determined from the measuring
instrument readings or recordings, by use of appropriate calibration curves. The results
have to be corrected according to Paragraph 8.2.

8.1.1.4.1. Total Volume of Diluted Gas
The total volume of diluted gas, expressed in m /cycle part, adjusted to the reference
conditions of 20°C (293 K) and 101.3kPa is calculated by
× N × ( P − P )
( T + 273.15)
293.15 × V
V = Equation 8-1
101.325 ×
where:
V
N
Pa
is the volume of gas displaced by pump P during one revolution, expressed in
m /revolution. This volume is a function of the differences between the intake and
output sections of the pump,
is the number of revolutions made by pump P during each part of the test;
is the ambient pressure in kPa;
Pi is the average under-pressure during the test part in the intake section of pump P,
expressed in kPa;
T
is the temperature of the diluted gases during the test part in °C, measured in the
intake section of pump P.
8.1.1.4.2. Hydrocarbons
The mass of unburned hydrocarbons emitted by the vehicle's exhaust during the test shall
be calculated by means of the following formula:
HC
HC × V × dHC
= Equation 8-2
dist × 10
where:
HC is the mass of hydrocarbons emitted during the test part, in g/km
dist
is the distance defined in Paragraph 8.1.1.3. above;
V is the total volume, defined in Paragraph 8.1.1.4.1.,
dHC is the density of the hydrocarbons at a temperature of 20°C and a pressure of
101.3kPa, where the average carbon/hydrogen ratio is 1:1.85; dHC = 0.577kg/m
for gasoline and 0.579kg/m for diesel fuel,

8.1.1.4.4. Nitrogen Oxides
The mass of nitrogen oxides emitted by the vehicle's exhaust during the test shall be
calculated by means of the following formula:
NO
NO × K × V × dNO
= Equation 8-6
dist × 10
where:
NO is the mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test part, in g/km
dist is the distance defined in Paragraph 8.1.1.3.,
V is the total volume defined in Paragraph 8.1.1.4.1.,
dNO is the density of the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases, assuming that they will be
in the form of nitric oxide, at a temperature of 20°C and a pressure of 101.3kPa,
dNO = 1.91kg/m ,
NO is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million (ppm), corrected
to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:
⎛ 1 ⎞
NO = NO − NO × ⎜1
− ⎟
Equation 8-7
⎝ DF ⎠
where:
NO is the concentration of nitrogen oxides expressed in parts per million (ppm) of
nitrogen oxides, in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A,
NO is the concentration of nitrogen oxides expressed in parts per million (ppm) of
nitrogen oxides, in the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B,
DF
K
K
is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 8.1.1.4.6. below,
is the humidity correction factor, calculated by the following formula:
= 1
1 − 0.0329 ×
Equation 8-8
( H − 10.7)
where:
H
is the absolute humidity in g of water per kg of dry air:
6.211×
U × P
H = Equation 8-9
U
P − P ×
100

8.1.1.4.6. Dilution Factor DF
The dilution factor DF (in per cent vol.) is a coefficient expressed for gasoline by the
formula
13.4
DF = Equation 8-12
CO +
( CO + HC) × 10
The dilution factor DF (in vol-%) is a coefficient expressed for diesel fuel by the formula
13.28
DF = Equation 8-13
CO +
where:
( CO + HC) × 10
CO, CO and HC are the concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons,
expressed in parts per million (ppm) and carbon dioxide, expressed in per cent, in the
sample of diluted gases contained in bag(s) A.
8.1.1.5. Fuel Consumption Calculation
The fuel consumption, expressed in l/100km is calculated by means of the following
formulae:
8.1.1.5.1. Test vehicles (motorcycles) with a positive ignition engine fuelled with petrol
0.1155
FC = × (0.866 × HC + 0.429 × CO + 0.273 × CO ) Equation 8-14
D
where:
FC
HC
CO
is the fuel consumption in l/100km
is the measured emission of hydrocarbons in g/km
is the measured emission of carbon monoxide in g/km
CO is the measured emission of carbon dioxide in g/km
D
is the density of the test fuel in kg/litre at 15° C. In the case of gaseous fuels this is
the density at 20°C.

8.1.1.6.3. For each pollutant, the carbon dioxide emission and the fuel consumption the weightings
shown in Table 8-1 shall be used.
Table 8-1
Weighting Factors for the Final Emission and Fuel Consumption Results
Vehicle class Cycle Weighting
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Part 1, cold
w
50%
Part 1, hot
w
50%
Part 1, cold
w
30%
Part 2, hot
w
70%
Part 1, cold
w
25%
Part 2, hot
w
50%
Part 3, hot
w
25%
8.2. Type II Tests
8.2.1.
The corrected concentration for carbon monoxide (C
in per cent vol.) calculated by
the following equations:
8.2.1.1. For two stroke engines:
CO
C
= 10 ×
Equation 8-17
C + C
8.2.1.2. For four stroke engines:
CO
C
= 15 ×
Equation 8-18
C + C
8.2.2.
The concentration in C
measured according to Paragraph 7.3.2. need not be corrected if
the total of the concentrations measured (C
+ C
) is at least 10 for two-stroke engines
and 15 for four-stroke engines.

Note 8
If conditioning columns are not used this measurement can be deleted. If the
conditioning columns are used and the dilution air is taken from the test cell,
the ambient humidity can be used for this measurement.
(n)
(o)
(p)
The driving distance for each part of the test, calculated from the measured roll or
shaft revolutions.
The actual roller speed pattern of the test.
The gear use schedule of the test.
(q) The emissions results of the Type I test for each part of the test (see Annex 11).
(r)
The second by second emission values of the Type I tests, if necessary.
(s) The emissions results of the Type II test (see Annex 12).

Symbol Definition Unit
Δt Coast down time s
Δt i Coast down time measured the first road test s
Δt i Coast down time measured the second road test s
ΔT Corrected coast down time for the inertia mass (m + m ) s
Δt
Mean coast down time on the chassis dynamometer at the reference
speed
ΔT Average coast down time at specified speed s
Δt Coast down time corresponding speed s
ΔT Average coast down time at specified speed s
ΔT Target coast down time s
Δt Mean coast down time on the chassis dynamometer without absorption s
Δv Coast down speed interval (2Δv = v − v ) km/h
ε Chassis dynamometer setting error per cent
F Running resistance force N
F* Target running resistance force N
F* (v )
F* (v )
Target running resistance force at reference speed on chassis
dynamometer
Target running resistance force at specified speed on chassis
dynamometer
f* Corrected rolling resistance in the standard ambient condition N
f*
Corrected coefficient of aerodynamic drag in the standard ambient
condition
s
N
N
N/(km/h)
F* Target running resistance force at specified speed N
f Rolling resistance N
f Coefficient of aerodynamic drag N/(km/h)
F Set running resistance force on the chassis dynamometer N
F (v )
F (v )
Set running resistance force at the reference speed on the chassis
dynamometer
Set running resistance force at the specified speed on the chassis
dynamometer
N
N

Symbol Definition Unit
n Engine speed min
n Number of data regarding the emission or the test −
N Number of revolution made by pump P −
ng Number of forward gears −
n Idling speed min
n_max_acc (1) Upshift speed from 1 to 2 gear during acceleration phases min
n_max_acc (i) Upshift speed from i to i+1 gear during acceleration phases, i>1 min
n_min_acc (i) Minimum engine speed for cruising or deceleration in gear 1 min
NO
NO
NO
Nitrogen oxides concentration of diluted gases, corrected to take
account of diluents air
Nitrogen oxides concentration in the sample of diluents air corrected
to in bag B
Nitrogen oxides concentration in the sample of diluents air corrected
to in bag A
NO Mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test part g/km
P Standard ambient pressure kPa
P Ambient/Atmospheric pressure kPa
P Saturated pressure of water at the test temperature kPa
P Average under-pressure during the test part in the section of pump P kPa
P Rated engine power kW
P Mean ambient pressure during the test kPa
ρ Standard relative ambient air volumetric mass kg/m
r(i) Gear ratio in the gear i −
ppm
ppm
ppm
R
R
R
R
Final test result of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide or fuel
consumption
Test results of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel
consumption for cycle Part 1 with cold start.
Test results of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel
consumption for cycle Part 2 with hot condition.
Test results of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel
consumption for cycle Part 3 with hot condition.
g/km,
l/100km
g/km,
l/100km
g/km,
l/100km
g/km,
l/100km

ANNEX 2
A2.1.
TECHNICAL DATA OF THE REFERENCE FUEL TO BE USED FOR TESTING VEHICLES
EQUIPPED WITH POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES (UNLEADED PETROL PROPERTIES)
Parameter
Unit
Limits
Minimum Maximum
Test method
Publication
Research octane number, RON
95.0
EN 25164
1993
Motor octane number, MON
85.0
EN 25163
1993
Density at 15°C
kg/m
748
762
ISO 3675
1995
Reid vapour pressure
kPa
56.0
60.0
EN 12
1993
Distillation:
− initial boiling point
− evaporated at 100°C
− evaporated at 150°C
− final boiling point
Residue
Hydrocarbon analysis:
− olefins
− aromatics
− benzene
− saturates
Carbon/hydrogen ratio
°C
per cent v/v
per cent v/v
°C
per cent
24
49.0
81.0
190
40
57.0
87.0
215
2
EN-ISO 3205
EN-ISO 3205
EN-ISO 3205
EN-ISO 3205
EN-ISO 3205
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
per cent v/v
per cent v/v
per cent v/v
per cent v/v
28.0
10
40.0
1.0
balance
ASTM D 1319
ASTM D 1319
pr. EN 12177
ASTM D 1319
1995
1995
1998
1995
report
report
Oxidation stability
min.
480
EN-ISO 7536
1996
Oxygen content
per cent m/m
2.3
EN 1601
1997
Existent gum
mg/ml
0.04
EN-ISO 6246
1997
1998
Sulphur content
mg/kg
100
pr. EN-ISO/
DIS 14596
Copper corrosion at 50°C
1
EN-ISO 2160
1995
Lead content
g/l
0.005
EN 237
1996
Phosphorus content
g/l
0.0013
ASTM D 3231 1994

ANNEX 3
CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIVALENT INERTIA MASS AND RUNNING RESISTANCE
Mass in running order
m in kg
Equivalent inertia mass
m in kg
Rolling resistance of
front wheel a
in N
Aero drag coefficient b
in N/(km/h)
95 < m
≤ 105
100
8.8
0.0215
105 < m
≤ 115
110
9.7
0.0217
115 < m
≤ 125
120
10.6
0.0218
125 < m
≤ 135
130
11.4
0.0220
135 < m
≤ 145
140
12.3
0.0221
145 < m
≤ 155
150
13.2
0.0223
155 < m
≤ 165
160
14.1
0.0224
165 < m
≤ 175
170
15.0
0.0226
175 < m
≤ 185
180
15.8
0.0227
185 < m
≤ 195
190
16.7
0.0229
195 < m
≤ 205
200
17.6
0.0230
205 < m
≤ 215
210
18.5
0.0232
215 < m
≤ 225
220
19.4
0.233
225 < m
≤ 235
230
20.2
0.0235
235 < m
≤ 245
240
21.1
0.0236
245 < m
≤ 255
250
22.0
0.0238
255 < m
≤ 265
260
22.9
0.0239
265 < m
≤ 275
270
23.8
0.0241
275 < m
≤ 285
280
24.6
0.0242
285 < m
≤ 295
290
25.5
0.0244
295 < m
≤ 305
300
26.4
0.0245
305 < m
≤ 315
310
27.3
0.0247
315 < m
≤ 325
320
28.2
0.0248
325 < m
≤ 335
330
29.0
0.0250
335 < m
≤ 345
340
29.9
0.0251
345 < m
≤ 355
350
30.8
0.0253

ANNEX 4
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE, THE EMISSION CONTROL
SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONDUCT OF TESTS
1. GENERAL
1.1. Make: ...................................................................................................................................
1.2. Type (state any possible variants and versions: each variant and each version must be
identified by a code consisting of numbers or a combination of letters and numbers): .......
..............................................................................................................................................
1.2.1. Commercial name (where applicable): ................................................................................
1.2.2. Vehicle category : .............................................................................................................
1.3. Name and address of manufacturer: ...................................................................................
1.3.1.
Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plants: ....................................................................
1.4.
Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative, if any: ............................
2. MASSES (in kg)
2.1. Unladen mass : .................................................................................................................
2.2. Mass of vehicle in running order : .....................................................................................
2.2.1. Distribution of that mass between the axles: .......................................................................
2.3. Mass of vehicle in running order, together with rider : ......................................................
2.3.1. Distribution of that mass between the axles: .......................................................................

3.3.3. Fuel supply
3.3.3.1. Via carburettor(s): yes/no
3.3.3.1.1. Make(s): ...............................................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.2. Type(s): ................................................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.3. Number fitted: ......................................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.4. Settings
i.e. of
3.3.3.1.4.1. Diffusers: ..............................................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.4.2. Level in float chamber: .........................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.4.3. Mass of float: ........................................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.4.4. Float needle: ........................................................................................................................
or
3.3.3.1.4.5. Fuel curve as a function of the airflow and setting required in order to maintain that
curve: ...................................................................................................................................
3.3.3.1.5. Cold-starting system: manual/automatic
3.3.3.1.5.1. Operating principle(s): ..........................................................................................................
3.3.3.2. By fuel injection (solely in the case of compression ignition): yes/no
3.3.3.2.1. Description of system: ..........................................................................................................
3.3.3.2.2. Operating principle: direct/indirect/turbulence chamber injection
3.3.3.2.3. Injection pump
either:
3.3.3.2.3.1. Make(s): ...............................................................................................................................
3.3.3.2.3.2. Type(s): ................................................................................................................................
or
3.3.3.2.3.3. Maximum fuel flow rate mm /per stroke or cycle at a pump rotational speed
of: min or characteristic diagram: ............................................................................

3.3.3.2.8. Secondary starting device (if applicable)
either:
3.3.3.2.8.1. Make(s): ...............................................................................................................................
3.3.3.2.8.2. Type(s): ................................................................................................................................
or
3.3.3.2.8.3. Description of system: ..........................................................................................................
3.3.3.3. By fuel injection (solely in the case of spark-ignition): yes/no
either:
3.3.3.3.1. Description of system: ..........................................................................................................
3.3.3.3.2.
Operating principle: injection into induction manifold (single/multiple point)
/direct
injection/other
(state which): ........................................................................................................................
or
3.3.3.3.2.1. Make(s) of the injection pump: .............................................................................................
3.3.3.3.2.2. Type(s) of the injection pump: .............................................................................................
3.3.3.3.3. Injectors: opening pressure : kPa
or characteristic diagram : .................................................................................................
3.3.3.3.4. Injection advance: ................................................................................................................
3.3.3.3.5. Cold-starting system
3.3.3.3.5.1. Operating principle(s): ..........................................................................................................
3.3.3.3.5.2. Operating/setting limits : ................................................................................................
3.3.3.4. Fuel pump: yes/no
3.3.4. Ignition
3.3.4.1. Make(s): ...............................................................................................................................
3.3.4.2. Type(s): ................................................................................................................................
3.3.4.3. Operating principle: ..............................................................................................................
3.3.4.4. Ignition advance curve or operating set point : .................................................................

3.3.6.3.3. Inlet silencer, drawings: .......................................................................................................
or
3.3.6.3.3.1. Make(s): ...............................................................................................................................
3.3.6.3.3.2. Type(s): ................................................................................................................................
3.3.7. Exhaust system
3.3.7.1. Drawing of complete exhaust system: .................................................................................
3.3.8. Minimum cross-section of the inlet and exhaust ports: ........................................................
3.3.9. Induction system or equivalent data
3.3.9.1. Maximum valve lift, opening and closing angles in relation to the dead centres, or data
concerning the settings of other possible systems: .............................................................
3.3.9.2. Reference and/or setting ranges : .....................................................................................
3.3.10. Anti-air pollution measures adopted
3.3.10.1. Crankcase-gas recycling device, solely in the case of four-stroke engines (description
and drawings): .....................................................................................................................
3.3.10.2. Additional anti-pollution devices (where present and not included under another
heading):
3.3.10.2.1. Description and/or drawings: ...............................................................................................
3.3.11. Location of the coefficient of absorption symbol (compression-ignition engines only): .......
3.4. Cooling system temperatures permitted by the manufacturer
3.4.1. Liquid cooling
3.4.1.1. Maximum temperature at outlet: °C
3.4.2. Air cooling
3.4.2.1. Reference point: ...................................................................................................................
3.4.2.2. Maximum temperature at reference point: °C

4.5. Gear Ratios
Number of gear Ratio 1 Ratio 2 Ratio 3 Ratio t
Minimum
continuously
variable
transmission
1
2
3
4
5
6
Maximum
continuously
variable
transmission
Reverse gear
Ratio 1 = primary ratio (ratio of engine speed to rotational speed of primary gearbox
shaft).
Ratio 2 = secondary ratio (ratio of rotational speed of primary shaft to rotational speed of
secondary shaft in gearbox).
Ratio 3 = final drive ratio (ratio of rotational speed of gearbox output shaft to rotational
speed of driven wheels).
Ratio t = overall ratio.
4.5.1. Brief description of the electrical and/or electronic components used in the transmission:
..............................................................................................................................................
4.6. Maximum speed of vehicle and gear in which it is reached (in km/h) : ............................

Figure A5-2
Cycle Part 2 for Vehicle Classes 2 and 3

Table A5-1 − Cycle Part 1, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Classes 1 and 2-1, 1 to 180 s

Table A5-2 − Cycle Part 1, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Classes 1 and 2-1, 181 to 360 s

Table A5-3 − Cycle Part 1, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Classes 1 and 2-1, 361 to 540 s

Table A5-4 − Cycle Part 1, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Classes 1 and 2-1, 541 to 600 s

Table A5-5 − Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 1 to 180 s (Continued)

Table A5-6 − Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 181 to 360 s (Continued)

Table A5-7 − Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 361 to 540 s (Continued)

Table A5-9 − Cycle Part 2, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 1 to 180 s

Table A5-10 − Cycle Part 2, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 181 to 360 s

Table A5-11 − Cycle Part 2, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 361 to 540 s

Table A5-12 − Cycle Part 2, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 541 to 600 s

Table A5-13 − Cycle Part 2 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 1 to 180 s (Continued)

Table A5-14 − Cycle Part 2 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 181 to 360 s (Continued)

Table A5-15 − Cycle Part 2 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 361 to 540 s (Continued)

Table A5-17 − Cycle Part 3, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 3-1, 1 to 180 s

Table A5-18 − Cycle Part 3, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 3-1, 181 to 360 s

Table A5-19 − Cycle Part 3, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 3-1, 361 to 540 s

Table A5-20 − Cycle Part 3, Reduced Speed for Vehicle Class 3-1, 541 to 600 s

Table A5-21 − Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 1 to 180 s (Continued)

Table A5-22 − Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 181 to 360 s (Continued)

Table A5-23 − Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 361 to 540 s (Continued)

Chassis Dynamometer
ANNEX 6
CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER AND INSTRUMENTS DESCRIPTION
Trade name (-mark) and model: ....................................................................................................................
Diameter of roller: ...................................................................................................................................... m
Chassis dynamometer type: DC/ED
Capacity of power absorbing unit (pau): .................................................................................................. kW
Speed range ......................................................................................................................................... km/h
Power absorption system: polygonal function/coefficient control
Resolution: ................................................................................................................................................. N
Type of inertia simulation system: mechanical /electrical
Inertia equivalent mass: ........................................................................................................................... kg,
in steps of ................................................................................................................................................. kg
Coast down timer: digital/analogue/stop-watch
Speed Sensor
Trade name (-mark) and model: ....................................................................................................................
Principle: ........................................................................................................................................................
Range: ...........................................................................................................................................................
Position of installed sensor: ...........................................................................................................................
Resolution: .....................................................................................................................................................
Output: ...........................................................................................................................................................
Coast Down Meter
Trade name (-mark) and model: ....................................................................................................................
v , v speed: − Speed setting: ........................................................................................................................
− Accuracy: ........................................................................................................................................
− Resolution: .....................................................................................................................................
− Speed acquisition time: ..................................................................................................................
Coast down time: − Range: ...........................................................................................................................
− Accuracy: ........................................................................................................................................
− Resolution: .....................................................................................................................................
− Display output: ...............................................................................................................................
− Number of channels:

2.5. The relative air density when the vehicle (motorcycle) is tested, calculated in accordance with
the formula below, shall not differ by more than 7.5% from the air density under the standard
conditions.
2.6. The relative air density, dT, shall be calculated by the following formula:
P T
d = d × ×
Equation A7-1
ρ T
where:
p
is the mean ambient pressure during test, in kPa
T is the mean ambient temperature during test, in K.
3. CONDITION OF THE TEST VEHICLE (MOTORCYCLE)
3.1. The test vehicle shall comply with the conditions described in Paragraph 6.2.
3.2. When installing the measuring instruments on the test motorcycle, care shall be taken to
minimise their effects on the distribution of the load between the wheels. When installing the
speed sensor outside the motorcycle, care shall be taken to minimise the additional
aerodynamic loss.

5. MEASUREMENT OF COAST DOWN TIME
5.1. After a warm-up period, the motorcycle shall be accelerated to the coast down starting speed,
at which point the coast down measurement procedure shall be started.
5.2. Since it can be dangerous and difficult from the viewpoint of its construction to have the
transmission shifted to neutral, the coasting may be performed solely with the clutch
disengaged. For those motorcycles that have no way of cutting the transmitted engine power
off prior to coasting, the motorcycle may be towed until it reaches the coast down starting
speed. When the coast down test is reproduced on the chassis dynamometer, the
transmission and clutch shall be in the same condition as during the road test.
5.3. The motorcycle steering shall be altered as little as possible and the brakes shall not be
operated until the end of the coast down measurement period.
5.4. The first coast down time ΔT corresponding to the specified speed v shall be measured as the
elapsed time from the motorcycle speed v + Δv to v Δv.
5.5. The above procedure shall be repeated in the opposite direction to measure the second coast
down time ΔT .
5.6. The average ΔT of the two coast down times ΔT and ΔT shall be calculated by the following
equation:
ΔT
+ ΔT
Δ T =
Equation A7-2
2
5.7. At least four tests shall be performed and the average coast down time ΔT calculated by the
following equation:
Δ = 1
T
n
× ∑ ΔT
Equation A7-3

5.11. The coast down time shall be recorded. The example of the record form is given in Annex 8.
6. DATA PROCESSING
6.1. Calculation of Running Resistance Force
6.1.1. The running resistance force F , in Newton, at the specified speed v shall be calculated by the
following equation:
F
1
2Δv
= × ( m + m ) ×
Equation A7-6
3.6
ΔT
where:
m should be measured or calculated as appropriate. As an alternative, m may be estimated
as 7% of the unladen motorcycle mass.
6.1.2. The running resistance force F shall be corrected in accordance with Paragraph 6.2. below.
6.2. Running Resistance Curve Fitting
The running resistance force, F, shall be calculated as follows:
6.2.1. This following equation shall be fitted to the data set of F and v obtained above by linear
regression to determine the coefficients f and f ,
F = f + f × v Equation A7-7
6.2.2. The coefficients f and f determined shall be corrected to the standard ambient conditions by
the following equations:
f *
[ 1 + K ( T − T )]
= f
Equation A7-8
T p
f * = f × ×
Equation A7-9
T p
where:
K should be determined based on the empirical data for the particular motorcycle and tyre
tests, or should be assumed as follows, if the information is not available:
K = 6 × 10 K .
6.3. Target running resistance force F* for chassis dynamometer setting
The target running resistance force F*(v ) on the chassis dynamometer at the reference
motorcycle speed v , in Newton, is determined by the following equation:
F* (v ) = f* + f* × v Equation A7-10

ANNEX 9
RECORD OF CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER SETTING (BY COAST DOWN METHOD)
Trade name: ....................................... Production number (Body): ....................................................
Date:…./…../….. Place of the test: ........................................ Name of recorder ............................
Motorcycle
speed
in km/h
Coast down time(s)
in s
Running resistance
in N
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Setting value Target value
Setting
error, in
%
Note
Curve fitting: F* = … + … v

ANNEX 11
RECORD OF TYPE I TEST RESULTS
Trade name: ....................................... Production number (Body): ....................................................
Date:…./…../….. Place of the test: ........................................ Name of recorder ............................
Climate: ........................ Atmospheric pressure: ............. kPa Atmospheric temperature: ............. K
Motorcycle
Class
Reduced
speed
Yes/No
Cycle
part
Starting
cond.
Test
number
Distance
driven
in km
Emission in g
HC CO NO CO
Fuel
cons.
in litre
1
1, 2 or 3 1 Cold
2
3
Average
1
1 1 Hot
2
3
Average
1
2 or 3 2 Hot
2
3
Average
1
3 3 Hot
2
3
Average

ANNEX 12
RECORD OF TYPE II TEST RESULTS
Trade name: ....................................... Production number (Body): ....................................................
Date:…./…../….. Place of the test: ........................................ Name of recorder ............................
Climate: ........................ Atmospheric pressure: ............. kPa Atmospheric temperature: ............. K
Idling speed in min
Minimum Average Maximum
Engine oil
temperature
in °C
CO content
in per cent
vol.
CO content
in per cent
vol.
Corrected
CO content
in per cent
vol.
High idling speed in min
Minimum Average Maximum
Engine oil
temperature
in °C
CO content
in per cent
vol.
CO content
in per cent
vol.
Corrected
CO content
in per cent
vol.

Equation A13-1, normalised upshift speed in 1 gear (gear 1).
P
n_max_acc (1) = (0.5753 × e ( −1.9
× )
m + 75
− 0.1) × (s − n ) + n
Equation A13-2, normalised upshift speed in gears > 1.
P
n_max_acc (i) = (0.5753 × e ( −1.9
× ) ) × (s − n ) + n
m + 75
1.5. In use driving behaviour data from India was added to the WMTC database at a later stage. This
resulted in modifications of the part 1 cycles and the part 2, reduced speed cycle. Within this
modification work also the gearshift behaviour was checked. Fortunately, it could be proven that
the WMTC gearshift prescriptions are also suitable for the Indian gearshift behaviour.
2. EXAMPLE
Figure A13-1 shows an example of gearshift use for a small vehicle.
(a)
(b)
(c)
The lines in bold show the gear use for acceleration phases.
The dotted lines show the downshift points for deceleration phases.
The cruising phases the whole speed range between downshift speed and upshift speed
may be used.
In case of gradually increase of vehicle speed during cruise phases, upshift speeds (v , v
and v ) in km/h may be calculated using the following equations:
Equation A13-3:
[ 0.03 × ( s −n
) + n ]
v =
×
Equation A13-4:
1
ndv
⎡⎛


v
⎢⎜

= 0.5753 e
0.1 × ( s − n ) + n

×
⎢⎜
×
− ⎟

⎢⎣


⎥⎦
Equation A13-5:
1
ndv
⎡⎛


1
v
⎢⎜

= 0.5753 e
=
⎢⎜
×
⎟ ×
⎥ ndv
⎢⎣


⎥⎦
( s − n ) + n

× , i 3 to ng

3. PHASE INDICATORS
In order to avoid different interpretations in the application of the gearshift equations and thus to
improve the comparability of the test, fixed phase indicators are assigned to the speed pattern of
the cycles. The specification of the phase indicators is based on JARI's definition of the 4 driving
modes as shown in the following table:
Table A13-1
Definition of Driving Modes
4 modes Definition
Idle mode
vehicle speed < 5km/h and
-0.5km/h/s (-0.139 m/s ) < acceleration < 0.5km/h/s (0.139 m/s )
Acceleration mode acceleration ≥ 0.5km/h/s (0.139 m/s )
Deceleration mode acceleration ≤ - 0.5km/h/s (- 0.139 m/s )
Cruise mode
vehicle speed ≥ 5km/h and
-0.5km/h/s (-0.139 m/s ) < acceleration < 0.5km/h/s (0.139 m/s )
The indicators were then modified in order to avoid frequent changes during relatively
homogeneous cycle parts and thus improve the driveability. Figure A13-2 shows an example
from cycle part 1.
Figure A13-2
Example for Modified Phase Indicators

Table A13-3
Shift Speeds for Acceleration Phases for the First Gear
and for Higher Gears (According to Table A13-2)
Engine Speed
n_acc_max (1)
Upshift Speeds
n_acc_max (i)
n_norm in per cent 24.9 34.9
n in min 3,804 4,869
n_norm means the calculated value by Equation A13-1 and Equation A13-2.
Table A13-4
Engine and Vehicle Shift Speeds According to Table A13-2
Shift Speeds
Gearshift
v in km/h
n_norm (i)
in per cent
n in min
1 � 2 28.5 24.9 3,804
2 � 3 51.3 34.9 4,869
Upshift
Downshift
3 � 4
63.9
34.9
4,869
4 � 5
74.1
34.9
4,869
5 � 6
82.7
34.9
4,869
2 � cl
15.5
3.0
1,470
3 � 2
28.5
9.6
2,167
4 � 3
51.3
20.8
3,370
5 � 4
63.9
24.5
3,762
6 � 5
74.1
26.8
4,005
(*)
Motorcycle Emissions.