Global Technical Regulation No. 3

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 3
Description:Motorcycle Brake Systems.
Official Title:Motorcycle Brake Systems.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2006-11-15
Amendment Level:Amendment 2 of June 12, 2015
Number of Pages:57
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Braking
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.3/Amend.2
June 12, 2015
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 03
MOTORCYCLE BRAKE SYSTEMS
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON NOVEMBER 15, 2006)
Incorporating:
Erratum
dated September 11, 2007
Corrigendum 1
dated January 29, 2008
Amendment 1
dated July 31, 2008
Corrigendum 2
dated October 21, 2010
Amendment 2
dated June 12, 2015

GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 03
A. STATEMENT OF TECHNICAL RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION
1. INTRODUCTION
Motorcycle brake regulations have not kept pace with the advancement of modern
technologies. With the improvement of disc brake systems and the recent introduction of new
technologies such as anti-lock brake systems (ABS) and combined brake systems (CBS),
modern motorcycles can be equipped with very sophisticated and effective braking systems.
In addition, the motorcycle manufacturing and testing certification industry has become a
global industry, serving a global market.
Together, the Contracting Parties to the 1998 Agreement and the motorcycle industry, have
determined that work should be undertaken to address the braking performance of
motorcycles as a means of improving road safety in their countries. The development of a
global technical regulation (gtr) on motorcycle brake systems is intended to reduce the
injuries and fatalities associated with motorcycle accidents. The Working Party on Brakes and
Running Gear (GRRF) believes that it is time to update current national standards by
implementing a harmonized regulation, based on the best practices within existing
Contracting Party national regulations, while taking into account modern brake system
technologies.
This gtr provides several benefits that would ultimately benefit motorcycle users and other
stakeholders. In addition to providing clear and objective test procedures and requirements
that can be easily followed, the gtr also addresses recently developed technologies, such as
CBS and ABS. This is significant, as most regulatory requirements of the Contracting Parties
currently do not include such requirements. In addition, since the gtr draws from the best of
existing national regulations, each Contracting Party would benefit from the overall gtr in
various ways. Several would see additional stopping tests that they did not originally have or
that are more stringent. Others would see improvement in test procedures such as an
improved wet brake test that simulates in service conditions by spraying water onto the disc
rather than immersing the disc in water; a specified burnishing procedure that is more
objective; and a specified test sequence that would improve test repeatability.

(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
IMMA (International Motorcycle Manufacturers Association)
FEMA (Federation of European Motorcyclists' Associations)
AMA (American Motorcyclist Association)
JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc.)
Early work on a motorcycle brake system gtr was initiated by the International Motorcycle
Manufacturer's Association (IMMA). They initiated a programme of work at the forty-sixth
session of GRRF in September of 2002 with the intention of completing a proposal for a gtr
for motorcycle brake systems. In an effort to select the most stringent performance
requirements for a gtr, the IMMA conducted an analysis of the relative stringency of three
national motorcycle brake system regulations in which the UNECE Regulation No. 78, the
United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard FMVSS No. 122 and the Japanese
Safety Standard JSS 12-61 were compared. The subsequent reports, along with proposed
provisions of a gtr, were presented at the fifty-first GRRF as informal document No. 15, and at
the fifty-third GRRF session as informal document No. 26.
The United States of America, in a joint project with Canada, conducted a similar study
comparing the stringency of the same three national regulations. This report was made
available at the fifty-fifth session of GRRF in February of 2004. Despite using different
methodologies, the results were very similar to that of the IMMA work. The results of this
report were also discussed at a second informal group meeting, held in Brussels. A
preliminary consensus was reached among all participants on an outline of the performance
requirements of a gtr on motorcycle brake systems.
The United States of America and Canada conducted a further performance evaluation study,
in which selected motorcycles equipped with anti-lock brake systems were compared to like
models without ABS. This report was presented at the third informal group meeting in
Montreal.
The studies completed by the United States of America, Canada and the IMMA, as well as
work completed by the JAMA, provided the basis for the development of the technical
requirements of the gtr.
Finally, the informal working group undertook a joint, international research project led by the
United States of America, to validate proposed performance requirements for the portion of
the gtr that deals with ABS. This test experience also served to verify the specified test
conditions and procedures, and to make the necessary adjustments to ensure a more realistic
approach to evaluating motorcycle braking performance.
The first formal proposal for a gtr concerning motorcycle brake systems was presented during
the fifty-eighth GRRF session in September 2005, as TRANS/WP.29/GRRF/2005/18 and
TRANS/WP.29/GRRF/2005/18/Add.1. A more detailed report on the technical details,
deliberations and conclusions, which led to the proposed gtr, was provided separately as
informal document No. GRRF-58-16.
This final report and appended gtr technical requirements are in response to Article 6 of the
1998 Agreement concerning the Establishment of Global Technical Regulations for Wheeled
Vehicles, Equipment and Parts Which Can be Fitted and/or Used on Wheeled Vehicles,
known as the 1998 Global Agreement. This final report has been prepared after a thoughtful
review by GRRF of the proposal submitted by Canada.

(d)
(e)
representative of state-of-the-art testing and measurement technology, and;
applicable in practice to existing and foreseeable future braking technologies.
The gtr does not cover additional requirements for a braking system fitted with an electrical
regenerative braking system.
The informal group reviewed each of the listed regulations and standards and compared the
requirements in each during the development of the gtr. These regulations and standards, in
conjunction with the research and analysis, were used to develop a draft table of regulatory
requirements. This draft table of requirements was continually updated as the technical issues
were raised, discussed and resolved. This table was presented and discussed at the fiftyseventh
GRRF session in February 2005, and discussed further at the fifty-eighth GRRF
session in September 2005 in conjunction with a first draft of the proposed gtr. The informal
group used the feedback from the GRRF presentations to assist with the completion of the
proposed gtr, a copy of which is included in Part B of this document.
Where national regulations or standards address the same subject, e.g. dry stop or heat fade
performance requirements, the informal group reviewed comparative data on the relative
stringency of the requirements from the research and studies and included the most stringent
options. In many cases, individual members of the informal group were tasked with
completing additional testing to confirm or refine the testing and performance requirements.
Qualitative issues, such as which wet brake test to include, were discussed on the basis of
the original rationales and the appropriateness of the tests to modern conditions and
technologies.
In each of these steps, specific technical issues were raised, discussed, and resolved. The
technical rationale provided in the following section describes this information.
5. TECHNICAL RATIONALE
5.1. General
The proposed gtr on motorcycle brake systems consists of a compilation of the most stringent
and relevant test procedures and performance requirements from current standards and
regulations. The informal group reviewed existing standards and regulations on various
levels, including estimating the relative stringency of the requirements, as well as considering
the original rationales for the tests and their appropriateness to modern conditions and
technologies.
As a result of the comparison process, the selected performance requirements of the gtr are
mainly drawn from the UNECE Regulation No. 78, the United States Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standard FMVSS No. 122 (FMVSS 122) and the Japanese Safety Standard
JSS 12-61 (JSS 12-61).
The selected format for the gtr text is based on the alternative formats section contained in
the UNECE document entitled "Format of global technical regulations (gtr)",
TRANS/WP.29/883, and was chosen to facilitate quick reference and understanding of the
requirements. While developing the gtr, the informal group endeavoured to clarify the selected
test procedures and performance requirements to ensure a better understanding of the
referenced tests and to improve consistency in the way in which the respective tests are
conducted.

Definitions were revised or updated when necessary, such as the terms used to describe
antilock brake system (ABS), vehicle maximum speed (V ) and peak braking coefficient
(PBC). New terminology was also introduced to bridge common definitions. For example, the
terminology "lightly-loaded vehicle weight" (FMVSS 135), "unladen vehicle"
(UNECE Regulation No. 78) and "unloaded" (JSS 12-61) essentially share the same
meaning, for defining the motorcycle test mass. In an effort to streamline the gtr, the
Contracting Parties agreed to use the term "lightly-loaded", as this does not conflict with
existing definitions in S.R.1, nor with the definitions in other publications.
5.1.2. Measurement of Deceleration and Stopping Distance
The UNECE Regulation No. 78 and JSS 12-61 test methods allow brake performance to be
measured through the use of either deceleration or stopping distance, whereas FMVSS 122
evaluates performance through stopping distance only.
UNECE Regulation No. 78 and JSS 12-61 measure deceleration slightly differently.
UNECE Regulation No. 78 utilizes the mean fully developed deceleration (MFDD), which is
the vehicle deceleration calculated between 10 and 80% of the vehicle initial speed.
JSS 12-61 uses the vehicle mean saturated deceleration (MSD), which can be obtained in
several ways depending on the instrumentation employed. Both methods measure a steady
state deceleration rate, by excluding the transient period during the initial stage of the brake
application and the very end of the braking manoeuvre. Nevertheless, the different methods
can provide different results. In order to maintain consistency in the results, the MFDD was
adopted to measure braking deceleration performance.
The FMVSS 122 stopping distance requirement is based on an average deceleration rate for
the entire stopping manoeuvre, from the moment a force is applied to the brake control to the
moment the vehicle comes to a complete stop. The UNECE Regulation No. 78 and
JSS 12-61 stopping distance requirements are based on the MFDD (or MSD) and also
include a factor for the brake system reaction time.
To maintain the integrity of the referenced test, the performance requirements are almost
entirely as specified in the respective national regulation on which the test was based.
5.1.3. Vehicle Test Speed and Corrected Stopping Distance
Deceleration or stopping distance performance requirements are set for a specified initial test
speed. While professional test riders can approach this initial test speed, it is unlikely that the
test will be started at the exact speed specified, affecting the stopping distance measurement.
A method for correcting the measured stopping distance is specified in JSS 12-61, to
compensate for the difference between the specified test speed and the actual speed where
the brakes were applied. Although not specified in their regulations, the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Transport Canada also apply a correction factor to
test data, using the method specified in SAE J299 − stopping distance test Procedure. The
above noted stopping distance correction methods, and the one specified in ISO 8710:1995,
Motorcycles − Brakes and braking devices - tests and measurement methods, were
evaluated.

Despite the differences in methodology, the ABS validation research program demonstrated
that, when properly conducted, both methods yield comparable results for evaluating the test
surface. The Contracting Parties therefore agreed to list both methods in the regulatory text of
the gtr, but decided to leave it to the national regulations to specify which of the above test
methods should be used to measure the PBC.
5.1.5. Test Sequence
There is no specified test order in the UNECE Regulation No. 78. Similarly, JSS 12-61
indicates that tests can be done in any order, with the exception that the fade test be
conducted last. FMVSS 122 requires that all tests be conducted in a specific sequence,
ending with the wet brake test. The purpose here is to minimize the variability of test results
through consistency in both the condition of the brakes throughout the tests and in the way in
which the brakes are evaluated.
The need for a testing sequence and whether this may have any effect on braking
performance was discussed. In order to eliminate the possibility of any effect, the informal
group agreed to adopt a specific sequence in which the tests are conducted. The proposed
sequence was selected based on increasing severity of the test on the motorcycle and its
brake components, in order to preserve the condition of the brakes.
There was general agreement among the Contracting Parties that the fade test would have
the greatest effect on the condition of the motorcycle brakes, which could affect brake
performance in subsequent tests. For this reason, FMVSS 122 requires that a re-burnishing
be conducted after the fade test, to refresh the brake components. In order to eliminate the
need for re-burnishing, the informal group agreed that the fade test be the last of the
motorcycle brake system performance tests, consistent with the existing practice in
JSS 12-61.
The ABS test would be the next most severe test, which will result in braking at or near the
limits of friction and the possibility of locked wheel braking and flat spotting the motorcycle
tyres. Thus for motorcycles so equipped, the ABS test would precede the fade test. The
remaining tests are not as severe on the brake system, and were sequenced according to
increasing test speed for the dry stop performance tests, followed by the wet brake
performance test.
The proposed test sequence is as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Dry stop test - single brake control actuated;
Dry stop test - all service brake controls actuated;
High speed test;
Wet brake test;
If fitted:
(i)
(ii)
Parking brake system test;
ABS test;

Finally, for those vehicles that use hydraulic fluid for brake force transmission, the gtr
stipulates that the master cylinder shall have a sealed, covered, separate reservoir for each
brake system. This includes one or more separate reservoirs located within the same
container, such as commonly found on passenger cars. Such containers may only have one
sealed, covered filling cap.
5.1.7. Brake Temperature Measurement
Test procedures typically require the measurement of the initial brake temperature.
FMVSS 122 includes a specification for plug type thermocouples, including detailed
schematics addressing their installation on disc or drum type brakes. Although
UNECE Regulation No. 78 and JSS 12-61 also require brake temperature measurement,
neither makes reference to specific measurement equipment or installation methods. In
informal meetings, the International Motorcycle Manufacturers Association (IMMA) and the
Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA) requested that rubbing
thermocouples should also be considered.
The plug type thermocouples required by the NHTSA and Transport Canada are imbedded in
the brake friction material, 0.04 inches (1mm) below the contact surface, between the friction
material and the disc or drum. Issues raised with this method include the effects of different
friction material composition (i.e. different heat transfer rates) on temperature readings and
the thermocouple installation that requires a modification of the actual brake component.
Rubbing thermocouples, also referenced as contact thermocouples, are in direct contact with
the disc or drum surface, and thus do not require the dismantling or modifying of any of the
brake system components. The thermocouple is spring loaded to maintain good contact with
the surface whose temperature is being measured. Although this type of thermocouple can
provide a quicker response to temperature change, there are limitations. Being spring loaded,
the thermocouple has self-heating characteristics while rubbing against the measured
surface, up to 15°C at 50km/h per the ISO publicly available specification,
ISO/PAS 12158:2002 Road vehicles − Braking systems − Temperature measuring methods.
Also, such thermocouples cannot be used or cannot be properly located on certain discs with
ventilation characteristics (whether grooves or cross-drilled holes).
After several discussions, including one with type approval experts from the technical service
company TUV SUD Group, the informal group agreed to list both methods for measuring
brake temperature. However, because of their unique characteristics, the informal group
agreed that these methods would be listed in the gtr with the qualification that Contracting
Parties may specify which temperature measurement method would be accepted.
With respect to the actual brake temperature values required for testing purposes, each of the
national regulations on which the gtr performance requirements are based specifies a value
for the initial brake temperature (IBT), prior to conducting a test. For most tests, the
UNECE Regulation No. 78 and JSS 12-61 specify that the IBT shall be less than or equal to
100°C (212°F), whereas FMVSS 122 specifies an IBT between 55°C and 65°C (130°F and
150°F).
The Contracting Parties agreed that a narrow IBT range could improve the repeatability of the
performance tests. However, test data indicated that the narrow range required by the
FMVSS 122 might not be achievable for those motorcycles equipped with a combined brake
system. Therefore, the Contracting Parties agreed to specify an IBT between 55°C and 100°C
in order to encompass all brake systems.

5.2. Specific Performance Tests
5.2.1. Dry Stop Test − Single Brake Control Actuated
The purpose of a dry stop test with the separate actuation of each brake control is to ensure a
minimum level of motorcycle braking performance on a dry road surface for each independent
brake system. Each of the major national motorcycle brake regulations,
UNECE Regulation No. 78, FMVSS 122, and JSS 12-61, includes such a test in its
requirements.
The UNECE Regulation No. 78 and the JSS 12-61 test procedures and performance
requirements are similar. The UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 regulations require that
the braking performance be evaluated separately for each brake control, with the motorcycle
in the laden condition and at test speeds of 40km/h or 60km/h depending on the vehicle
category. The only exception is for vehicle Category 3-5, whereby it is specified that the
brakes at all wheels shall be operated via a single foot actuated control.
The main FMVSS performance requirements are quite different as they require vehicles to be
tested in the lightly-loaded condition and with all brake controls actuated simultaneously. The
FMVSS also requires testing from 30mph (48.3km/h), 60mph (96.6km/h) and 80mph
(128.8km/h). Consistent with being tested in the lightly-loaded condition and with both brakes
applied together, the FMVSS 122 deceleration requirements are higher than in the UNECE
Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61. The FMVSS 122 and the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61
tests are conducted with the engine disconnected, which means that only the foundation
brake performance is measured and engine braking is not a factor. Although the FMVSS 122
also requires that independent service brake systems be evaluated separately, it is conducted
with the brakes in the pre-burnished condition, hence, requiring a lower level of performance.
In independent studies of the relative severity of the tests as they apply to Category 3-3
motorcycles, the IMMA concluded that the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 test was
marginally more stringent, whereas the NHTSA/TC findings indicated that the FMVSS 122
test was marginally more stringent. Despite this inconsistency, neither study demonstrated a
significant difference in stringency between these national regulations.
The primary advantage of the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 requirement is that each
brake control is tested separately, which ensures that each independent brake system meets
specific performance criteria. In the main FMVSS 122 dry stop test with both brake controls
actuated simultaneously, the test rider shall judge how to apportion the force actuated to the
front and rear brakes. This may give unrepeatable test results, or may allow the test rider to
compensate for a "weak" brake. Therefore, the informal group decided to develop the dry stop
test with single brake control based on UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 requirements,
for the purposes of the gtr. As per present UNECE/JSS national standards, the performance
requirement can be met through measurement of either the stopping distance or the MFDD.
In the event that the performance requirements cannot be achieved due to limited adhesion,
the UNECE Regulation No. 78 includes an alternate test with the vehicle laden, using both
braking devices together, for vehicle Categories 3-2 and 3-3. As noted earlier, the dry stop
test in UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 does not specify a value for the surface
coefficient of friction, other than to say that the surface shall afford good adhesion. Given that
the gtr includes a requirement that the test surface shall have a nominal PBC of 0.9, it was
agreed that this alternative test be omitted from the gtr.

However, for the purpose of the gtr, it became evident that maintaining the original FMVSS
break points would have the unintended effect of introducing two levels of stringency that are
dependant on the test speed, making it inconsistent with the other dry stop tests in the gtr −
i.e., both the high speed test and the dry stop test − single brake control actuated have
constant performance requirements irrespective of the test speed. For this reason, the
Contracting Parties agreed to a single performance requirement based on the 100km/h
performance requirement in the FMVSS, for all motorcycles to which this test applies.
5.2.3. High-speed Test
The purpose of the high-speed test is to evaluate the full braking performance of the
motorcycle from a high speed and with both front and rear brakes applied simultaneously.
Each of the major national motorcycle brake regulations, UNECE Regulation No. 78,
FMVSS 122, and JSS 12-61, includes a high-speed test in its requirements.
The UNECE Regulation No. 78 and the JSS 12-61 tests are similar and are performed from a
speed of 160km/h or 0.8 of the vehicle's maximum speed (V ), whichever is less. The
UNECE Regulation No. 78 test requires that vehicle braking performance and behaviour be
recorded, however, it does not have specific performance requirements. The performance
required by JSS 12-61 includes achieving a mean fully developed deceleration (MFDD) of at
least 5.8m/s or coming to a stop prior to the equivalent braking distance. The high-speed
effectiveness test of FMVSS 122 is conducted from a test speed that is based on the speed
capability of the motorcycle, not exceeding 193.2km/h (120mph). When tested at the
maximum speed of 120mph, the required stopping distance is 861 feet (262.5m), equivalent
to an average deceleration of 5.5m/s . Based on these figures, the FMVSS 122 test appears
to be more stringent due to the higher test speed, whereas the JSS 12-61 appears to be more
stringent based on a deceleration requirement.
The test conditions for the FMVSS 122 and the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 high
speed tests are quite similar, including the motorcycle test mass and the simultaneous
application of both brakes. The main difference between test parameters, besides the
difference in the vehicle test speeds, is that the FMVSS 122 test is conducted with the engine
disconnected (clutch disengaged), whereas the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 test is
conducted with the engine connected (clutch engaged). It is understood that with a connected
engine, the subsequent engine braking can assist in the deceleration of the motorcycle. This
effect is reduced to a minimum by placing the transmission in the highest gear during the
braking manoeuvre. The benefit of having the engine connected is the effect of stabilizing the
motorcycle while braking from such a high speed.
Based on the Transport Canada Test Report "Review of Motorcycle Brake Standards", the
Contracting Parties believe that 100mph (160km/h) or 0.8V is adequate for a high speed
effectiveness test since the benefits of testing from higher speeds do not warrant the potential
hazard to which the rider is exposed. The Contracting Parties agree that the test speed
should be limited to 160km/h to address test facility limitations and safety concerns.

The respective brake regulations address minimum performance requirements for wet brakes,
albeit under different conditions. In terms of the overall performance requirements, the
stringency comparison studies by IMMA and the NHTSA/TC both concluded that the
UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 performance requirements are more stringent. The
Contracting Parties agreed that the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 procedure akin to
braking while riding in the rain is a more common operating condition than crossing an area
covered with water.
Therefore, the Contracting Parties decided to propose a wet brake test based on the contents
of the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 test, and to make it applicable to all vehicle
categories. At present, the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 procedure excludes brakes
that are fully enclosed because water is prevented from reaching the braking surface. For the
purposes of the gtr, however, there was general agreement that the scope be expanded to
include testing of enclosed disc brakes or drum brakes that have ventilation or inspection
holes, as these include potential entry points for water spray.
5.2.5. Heat Fade Test
The heat fade test will ensure that a minimum level of braking performance is maintained,
after numerous consecutive brake applications. In terms of real world conditions, this could be
akin to frequent braking while driving in a busy suburban area or on a downhill gradient. Each
of the national regulations includes a test to evaluate the brake for heat fade and any change
in brake performance.
As with the wet brake test, the UNECE Regulation No. 78 and JSS 12-61 share the same test
procedure and performance requirements. Each require that the brakes be tested separately,
with the motorcycle loaded to its maximum mass capacity. The FMVSS 122 test parameters
are different in that all brakes are applied simultaneously and the motorcycle test mass is set
at 200 pounds (90.7 kg) above the unloaded motorcycle mass (i.e. the 200 pounds includes
the mass of the test rider and test equipment).
Each test begins with a baseline test with an IBT between 55°C and 100°C, which provides
the benchmark for performance comparison and evaluation of the heated brakes. This is
followed by 10 consecutive fade stops with the purpose of building heat within the brakes.
The similarities between national regulations end here. In the UNECE Regulation
No. 78/JSS 12-61, the final performance test occurs with one stop immediately following the
10 fade stops. FMVSS 122 requires an additional five recovery stops, and the performance in
the fifth stop is compared to the baseline performance. The respective regulation test
parameters include additional differences such as initial test speeds, brake lever and pedal
control forces, deceleration rates, and the transmission gear selection (engine
connected/disconnected).
Finally, to evaluate brake fade performance, the FMVSS 122 procedure compares the brake
pedal and lever actuation forces necessary to maintain the same deceleration as in the
baseline test, whereas the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 procedures compare
deceleration (or stopping distance) for the same brake pedal and lever actuation forces as
used in the baseline test.
Although the national regulations have distinct differences, they share the common goal of
evaluating the effect of heat on braking performance. The stringency of the respective tests
was evaluated separately by the IMMA and in a joint study by TC/NHTSA. The results from
both studies indicated that the UNECE Regulation No. 78/JSS 12-61 fade test was more
stringent, thus providing the basis for the requirements of the gtr.

5.2.7. Antilock Brake System (ABS) Performance
The purpose of the antilock brake system (ABS) requirements is to assess the stability and
stopping performance of a motorcycle with the ABS functioning. The proposed gtr does not
require that a motorcycle be equipped with ABS, but establishes minimum performance
requirements for motorcycles so equipped.
UNECE Regulation No. 78 and JSS 12-61 include ABS specific performance requirements
but do not require that ABS be fitted on motorcycles. Common to both national regulations are
wheel lock tests on high-friction and low-friction surfaces and ABS failed systems
performance test. In addition, the UNECE Regulation No. 78 performance requirements
include an ABS adhesion utilization (i.e. efficiency) test on high-friction and low-friction
surfaces, a high-friction surface to low-friction surface transition stop and a low-friction surface
to high-friction surface transition stop. FMVSS 122 does not include any ABS-specific
performance requirements.
The Contracting Parties reviewed each of the ABS performance tests and their corresponding
requirements to assess their appropriateness for the proposed motorcycle brake system gtr.
With the exception of the ABS adhesion utilization test and the low-friction surface to
high-friction surface transition stop, the Contracting Parties agreed to adopt, with selected
revisions and clarifications, the remaining ABS test procedures and performance
requirements. Possible alternatives for those tests on which a basic agreement was not
achieved are discussed further below.
Of the agreed tests, in the case of the wheel lock test on a low-friction surface, the present
UNECE Regulation No. 78 regulation states that for a road surface with a PBC ≤ 0.45, the
specified initial test speed of 80km/h may be reduced for safety reasons, but does not specify
by how much. In order to ensure consistency in the way the vehicles are evaluated and to
achieve the objective of rider safety, the proposed gtr text specifies that the test speed shall
be the lesser of 0.8V or 60km/h for the low-friction surface test.
With regard to the low-friction to high-friction surface transition test, the Contracting Parties
had proposed that the motorcycle be evaluated while crossing from a wetted low-friction
surface to a wetted high-friction surface (with a PBC exceeding 0.8). There was no reported
issue in obtaining a wetted surface with a PBC exceeding 0.8 during the ABS validation tests.
However, based on a Contracting Party's past testing experience, it was noted that there
might be a problem in obtaining such a PBC on a wetted surface, and therefore it was
proposed to remove all references to a wetted surface. This proposal facilitates testing by
providing greater options when selecting test surfaces.
Finally, when evaluating the performance of the ABS, it is required that the ABS be cycling
throughout the respective tests. Depending on the system, some brake feedback may be felt
through the brake control, such that it is not possible to maintain the specified control force.
Data obtained during the ABS validation tests revealed challenges while trying to maintain a
consistent maximum brake control force, within the 20% range as initially proposed. Also, of
the motorcycles tested, all ABS systems cycled at brake control actuation forces well below
the proposed maximum limits.

Safety and logistical issues were also noted with the UNECE Regulation No. 78 adhesion
utilization test:
(a) Rider safety. The test requires that the rider achieve an impending locked-wheel braking
condition with the ABS disabled, to obtain maximum deceleration data with which to
evaluate ABS in later tests. This impending locked-wheel braking condition is at the
beginning of loss-of-control of the vehicle, which could result in a crash. Even with
protective outriggers in place, it is a hazardous condition that is asked of the test rider.
(b) Logistical. The test requires modifying the brake system to disable the ABS. This may
not be a simple task, or may not be possible depending on the complexity of the
motorcycle brake system. Furthermore, the standard requires that maximum
deceleration be recorded with an altered brake system (i.e. with disabled ABS), hence
possibly outside the manufacturer's design parameters.
In light of these issues, alternate ABS tests were developed at the fourth informal group
meeting in June 2005, based on the UNECE Regulation No. 78. The tests developed
consisted of braking on both high- and low-friction surfaces with ABS cycling, but with
emphasis placed on maintaining vehicle stability rather than actual stopping performance.
Nevertheless, stopping performance was also specified for the high-friction surface test only,
based on the minimum performance requirements of the general UNECE Regulation No. 78
dry stop test. No stopping distance performance requirement was specified for the low-friction
surface test, as there was no baseline test in UNECE Regulation No. 78 with which to
compare it. The proposed tests did not require the brake system to be altered, nor the rider to
attempt to obtain the maximum attainable deceleration rate, thereby addressing the safety
and logistical issues.
The proposed alternate test was presented at the fifty-eighth GRRF in September 2005.
While there was no issue raised with regard to the test procedure, the relative stringency of
the stopping performance requirements was thought to be too low compared to the existing
UNECE Regulation No. 78 ABS requirement, which could result in unnecessarily long
stopping distances when ABS is cycling.
Options were reviewed at the fifth informal meeting in October 2005, and further discussed at
WP.29 in November 2005. After further consultation, a proposal was submitted by the
Netherlands, which was further developed to address brake performance and vehicle stability.
The result is an ABS test conducted with all service brake controls actuated simultaneously,
whereby brake and stability performance requirements are measured on low- and high-friction
surfaces. The benefits of testing all service brake controls simultaneously include being able
to compare the motorcycle ABS deceleration performance to the available peak braking
coefficient (PBC), without modification of the brake system and without rider influence.
The brake performance is based on the UNECE Regulation No. 78 requirement that braking
with the ABS cycling shall meet at least 70% of the maximum braking performance without
ABS. Regarding stability during the brake test, the vehicle shall not be affected to the extent
that it requires the rider to release the brake control or that it causes a vehicle wheel to pass
outside the applicable test lane.

5.2.7.2. ABS Performance − Low Friction to High-friction Surface Transition Stop
This is an existing test in UNECE Regulation No. 78, with the performance requirement that
the motorcycle does not deviate from its initial course and that its deceleration shall rise to an
"appropriate" value in a "reasonable" time. To make the test more objective and acceptable to
all Contracting Parties, actual performance values would have to be added to define what is
appropriate and reasonable.
At the fifth informal meeting in October 2005, Japan presented some preliminary test data that
revealed a wide range of ABS performance responses to the sudden change in surface
friction. Thus, at that time, it was not possible to determine a specific value that would be
required to improve the objectivity of the UNECE test.
The subsequent ABS validation tests provided additional insight in this regard, with a view to
establishing specific performance requirements. In all cases, a rise in deceleration could be
observed in a graphical depiction of the motorcycle deceleration over time, to various
degrees. Regarding the response time to the change in surfaces, the actual test surfaces and
the methods used to calculate the time interval varied sufficiently to make it difficult to define a
time limit on the basis of the testing so far. Based on this data and ABS testing experience
reported by some Contracting Parties, it was agreed that a limit of 1.0 second would be
introduced into the gtr in order to match the current UNECE requirement that the deceleration
should rise in a "reasonable time", although there was very limited, confirmed technical
support for such a figure. It was also agreed that when more data becomes available, these
requirements could be reconsidered.
Setting a minimum performance requirement to account for a rise in deceleration proved more
difficult. Different criteria were applied to establish a method to objectively quantify changes in
the deceleration rates before and after the transition point. Although each criterion yielded a
rise in deceleration, the magnitude of the rise in the deceleration varied over time.
This variation is related to the operating characteristics of the ABS as it cycles the brakes,
which causes the motorcycle to slow at different deceleration rates throughout the stop. For
the same motorcycle, ABS cycling can change depending on various factors including the
available traction at that time, as interpreted by the hardware and software that comprises the
ABS system. These provide sinusoidal-like deceleration signatures, before and after the
transition point. As such, there is no a clear point where the deceleration can be shown to
have increased. Rather, a segment of the deceleration data shall be analyzed, before and
after the transition point, from which trends can be established to compare deceleration rates.
In view of these findings, validation testing has demonstrated a need for further data analysis
and possibly the testing of a larger sample of motorcycles to propose performance limits in
terms of a minimum deceleration rate. In terms of quantifying a minimum rise in deceleration,
the Contracting Parties agreed to keep the performance requirement general, by stating that
the deceleration shall increase after passing over the transition point.

Statistics compiled to date indicate that improved motorcycle brake systems would be
beneficial in reducing motorcycle accidents. Fatal motorcycle accidents have been on the rise
in North America since 1997. Of particular concern is the rise in motorcycle accident fatalities
for riders of the age group of 40 and above, by 8.2% in Canada from 1994 to 2000, and
24.7% in the United States of America from 1994 to 1999. In addition, statistics from the
United States of America for the period of 1991 to 1999 inclusively indicate that about 13% of
the yearly average of 1,055 fatal single vehicle motorcycle crashes were related to braking
manoeuvres. A request for additional motorcycle traffic accident data was made at the
fifty-second GRRF session, to all nations, in an effort to prepare for the cost effectiveness
study for the purposes of the gtr. No responses were received following this request.
The informal group reviewed the benefits of developing a gtr. The group concluded that there
are many benefits to the consumer, Contracting Parties and for manufacturers. The following
highlights some of the significant benefits raised during the discussions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The gtr includes technical requirements to access recently developed technologies,
such as CBS and ABS. Most regulatory requirements of the Contracting Parties do not
include such current requirements.
A gtr enables motorcycle manufacturers to test their models to just one
regulation/series of tests to sell globally. Currently, tests have to be carried out to many
different regulations e.g. FMVSS No. 122 in the United States of America, UNECE
Regulation No. 78 in Europe, JSS 12-61 in Japan, ADR in Australia, CMVSS No. 122 in
Canada, etc.
Carrying out just one set of tests is particularly beneficial to new manufacturers and
manufacturers from the emerging nations. Apart from the benefits outlined above,
manufacturers' test departments need only become familiar with the gtr tests.
It has been many years since current regulations were reviewed for their relevance. In
order to compare current regulations, members of the informal gtr group (NHTSA,
Transport Canada, and IMMA) carried out many vehicle tests and analyses that
effectively checked the suitability of current regulations, with modifications being made
as required.
The informal group gave many individuals and organizations the opportunity to come
together to directly influence and participate in the development and content of the gtr.
This has, in fact, been the case where a broad cross-section of motorcycle
manufacturers, administrations of several countries, and the motorcycle riders' group
have all participated.
The gtr combines the better and more stringent procedures from current United States
of America, UNECE, and Japan regulations. This will result in an enhanced gtr that will
benefit all motorcycle users in terms of brake performance, brake durability, and
potential safety.
Countries that apply FMVSS/CMVSS 122 will benefit from the following:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
a wet brake test that simulates in service conditions by spraying water onto the
disc;
a more stringent dry brake test;
a more stringent heat fade test;

B. GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON MOTORCYCLE BRAKE SYSTEMS
1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE
This global technical regulation (gtr) specifies requirements for service brake systems and,
where applicable, associated parking brake systems. Its purpose is to ensure safe braking
performance under normal and emergency riding conditions. The gtr applies to power driven
vehicles with two or three wheels of Category 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4 and 3-5, as defined in S.R.1.
These categories do not include:
(a) vehicles with a V of < 25km/h;
(b)
vehicles equipped for disabled riders
2. DEFINITIONS
The following definitions apply for the purpose of interpreting this gtr :
2.1. "Antilock brake system (ABS)" means a system which senses wheel slip and
automatically modulates the pressure producing the braking forces at the wheel(s) to limit
the degree of wheel slip.
2.2. "Baseline test" means a stop or a series of stops carried out in order to confirm the
performance of the brake prior to subjecting it to a further test such as the heating
procedure or wet brake stop.
2.3. "Brake" means those parts of the brake system where the forces opposing the movement
of the vehicle are developed.
2.4. "Brake system" means the combination of parts consisting of the control, transmission,
and brake, but excluding the engine, whose function it is to progressively reduce the speed
of a moving vehicle, bring it to a halt, and keep it stationary when halted.
2.5. "Combined brake system (CBS)" means:
For vehicle Categories 3-1 and 3-3: a service brake system where at least two brakes on
different wheels are actuated by the operation of a single control.
For vehicle Categories 3-2 and 3-5: a service brake system where the brakes on all wheels
are actuated by the operation of a single control.
For vehicle Category 3-4: a service brake system where the brakes on at least the front and
rear wheels are actuated by the operation of a single control. (If the rear wheel and sidecar
wheel are braked by the same brake system, this is regarded as the rear brake.)
2.6. "Control" means the part actuated directly by the rider in order to supply or control the
energy required for braking the vehicle to the transmission.

3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1. Brake System Requirements
3.1.1. Each vehicle shall meet each of the tests specified for a vehicle of its category and for those
brake features on the vehicle.
3.1.2. Service Brake System Control Operation
Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to actuate the service brake system
control while seated in the normal driving position and with both hands on the steering
control.
3.1.3. Secondary Brake System Control Operation:
Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to actuate the secondary brake
system control while seated in the normal driving position and with at least one hand on the
steering control.
3.1.4. Parking Brake System:
If a parking brake system is fitted, it shall hold the vehicle stationary on the slope prescribed
in Paragraph 4.1.1.4.
The parking brake system shall:
(a)
(b)
have a control which is separate from the service brake system controls; and
be held in the locked position by solely mechanical means.
Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to be able to actuate the parking brake
system while seated in the normal driving position.
For 3-2, 3-4 and 3-5, the parking brake system shall be tested in accordance with
Paragraph 4.8.
3.1.5. Two-wheeled vehicles of Categories 3-1 and 3-3 shall be equipped with either two separate
service brake systems, or a split service brake system, with at least one brake operating on
the front wheel and at least one brake operating on the rear wheel.
3.1.6. Three-wheeled vehicles of vehicles Category 3-4 shall comply with the brake system
requirements set out in Paragraph 3.1.5. A brake on the sidecar wheel is not required if the
vehicle meets the performance requirements prescribed in Section 4.
3.1.7. Three-wheeled vehicles of Category 3-2 shall be equipped with a parking brake system plus
one of the following service brake systems:
(a)
(b)
(c)
two separate service brake systems, except CBS, which, when applied together,
operate the brakes on all wheels; or
a split service brake system; or
a CBS that operates the brakes on all wheels and a secondary brake system which
may be the parking brake system.

3.1.13. Vehicles that are equipped with an ABS system shall be fitted with a yellow warning lamp.
The lamp shall be activated whenever there is a malfunction that affects the generation or
transmission of signals in the vehicle's ABS system.
3.2. Durability
To permit function checking, the warning lamp shall be illuminated by the activation of the
ignition switch and extinguished when the check has been completed.
The warning lamp shall remain on while a failure condition exists whenever the ignition
switch is in the "on" position.
3.2.1. Wear of the brakes shall be compensated for by means of a system of automatic or manual
adjustment.
3.2.2. The friction material thickness shall either be visible without disassembly, or where the
friction material is not visible, wear shall be assessed by means of a device designed for
that purpose.
3.2.3. During all the tests in this gtr and on their completion, there shall be no friction material
detachment and no leakage of brake fluid.
3.3. Measurement of Dynamic Performance
The method used to measure performance is as specified in the respective tests in
Section 4. There are three ways in which the service brake system performance may be
measured:
3.3.1. MFDD (Mean Fully Developed Deceleration):
Calculation of MFDD:
d
V − V
= m/s
25.92 ⋅
( S − S )
Where:
d
V
V
S
S
V
= mean fully developed deceleration
= vehicle speed at 0.8V in km/h
= vehicle speed at 0.1V in km/h
= distance travelled between V and V in metres
= distance travelled between V and V in metres
= vehicle speed when rider actuates the control

4.1.1.2. Low-friction Surface:
(a)
(b)
applicable to ABS tests where a low-friction surface is specified;
the test area is a clean and level surface, with a gradient ≤ 1%; and
(c) the surface has a PBC ≤ 0.45.
4.1.1.3 Measurement of PBC:
The PBC is measured as specified in national or regional legislation using either:
(a)
An ASTM International (ASTM) E1136-93 (Re-approved 2003) standard reference
test tyre, in accordance with ASTM Method E1337-90 (Re-approved 2008), at a
speed of 40mph; or
(b) the method specified in Paragraph 5.
4.1.1.4. Parking Brake System Tests
The specified test slope shall have a test surface gradient of 18% and shall have a clean
and dry surface that does not deform under the weight of the vehicle.
4.1.1.5. Test Lane Width:
For two-wheeled vehicles (vehicle Categories 3-1 and 3-3) the test lane width is 2.5m.
For three-wheeled vehicles (vehicle Categories 3-2, 3-4 and 3-5) the test lane width is 2.5m
+ the vehicle width.
4.1.2. Ambient Temperature:
The ambient temperature is between 4°C and 45°C.
4.1.3. Wind Speed:
The wind speed is not more than 5m/s
4.1.4. Test Speed Tolerance:
The test speed tolerance is ±5km/h.
In the event of the actual test speed deviating from the specified test speed, the actual
stopping distance is corrected using the formula in Paragraph 3.3.2.

The input force is applied to a point located 50mm from the outermost point of the control
lever, measured along the axis between the central axis of the fulcrum of the lever and its
outermost point.
For a foot control pedal, the input force is applied to the centre of, and at right angles to, the
control pedal.
4.2.4. Brake Temperature Measurement:
As specified on national or regional legislation, the brake temperature is measured on the
approximate centre of the braking path of the disc or drum using:
(a)
(b)
a rubbing thermocouple that is in contact with the surface of the disc or drum; or
a thermocouple that is embedded in the friction material.
4.2.5. Burnishing Procedure:
The vehicle brakes are burnished prior to evaluating performance. This procedure may be
completed by the manufacturer.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Vehicle lightly loaded.
Engine disconnected.
Test speed:
(i) Initial speed: 50km/h or 0.8V , whichever is lower
(ii)
Final speed = 5 to 10km/h.
(d)
Brake application:
(i)
Each service brake system control actuated separately.

(d)
Brake actuation force:
(i)
Hand control: ≤ 200 N
(ii) Foot control: ≤ 350 N for vehicle Categories 3-1, 3-2, 3-3 and 3-4
≤ 500 N for vehicle Category 3-5
(e)
Number of stops:
until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 6 stops.
(f)
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control under the conditions specified in this paragraph.
4.3.3. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in
Paragraph 4.3.2., the stopping distance shall be as specified in Column 2 or the MFDD shall
be as specified in Column 3 of the following table:
Column 1
Column 2
Column 3
Vehicle
STOPPING DISTANCE (S)
MFDD
Category
(Where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is
the required stopping distance in metres)
Single brake system, front wheel(s) braking only:
3-1
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0111V
≥ 3.4m/s
3-2
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0143V
≥ 2.7m/s
3-3
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0087V
≥ 4.4m/s
3-4
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0105V
≥ 3.6m/s
3-5
Not applicable
Not applicable
Single brake system, rear wheel(s) braking only:
3-1
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0143V
≥ 2.7m/s
3-2
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0143V
≥ 2.7m/s
3-3
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0133V
≥ 2.9m/s
3-4
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0105V
≥ 3.6m/s
3-5
Not applicable
Not applicable
Vehicles with CBS or split service brake systems: for laden and lightly loaded conditions.
3-1 and 3-2
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0087V
≥ 4.4m/s
3-3
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0076V
≥ 5.1m/s
3-4
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0071V
≥ 5.4m/s
3-5
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0077V
≥ 5.0m/s
Vehicles with CBS − secondary service brake systems:
ALL
S ≤ 0.1V + 0.0154V
≥ 2.5m/s

4.5.2. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≥ 55°C and ≤ 100°C.
(b) Test speed: 0.8V for vehicles with V > 125km/h and < 200km/h;
160km/h for vehicles with V ≥ 200km/h.
(c)
Brake application:
Simultaneous actuation of both brake controls in the case of a vehicle with two
service brake systems or actuation of the single brake control in the case of a vehicle
with one service brake system.
(d)
Brake actuation force:
Hand control
≤ 200 N
Foot control ≤ 350 N for vehicle Categories 3-3, and 3-4
≤ 500 N for vehicle Category 3-5
(e)
(f)
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a
maximum of 6 stops.
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control(s) under the conditions specified in this paragraph.
4.5.3. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in
Paragraph 4.5.2.:
(a) The stopping distance (S) shall be ≤ 0.1V + 0.0067V
(where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in
metres); or
(b) the MFDD shall be ≥ 5.8m/s .
4.6. Wet Brake Test
4.6.1. General Information:
(a)
The test is comprised of two parts that are carried out consecutively for each brake
system:
(i)
(ii)
A baseline test based on the dry stop test - single brake control actuated
(Paragraph 4.3.).
A single wet brake stop using the same test parameters as in (i), but with the
brake(s) being continuously sprayed with water while the test is conducted in
order to measure the brakes' performance in wet conditions.
(b)
The test is not applicable to parking brake systems unless it is the secondary brake.

(ii)
Drum brakes with ventilation and open inspection ports:
The water spray equipment is installed as follows:
a. Water is sprayed equally onto both sides of the drum brake assembly
(on the stationary back plate and on the rotating drum) with a flow rate of
15l/h.
b. The spray nozzles are positioned two thirds of the distance from the
outer circumference of the rotating drum to the wheel hub centre.
c. The nozzle position is > 15° from the edge of any opening in the drum
back plate.

4.7. Heat Fade Test
4.7.1. General Information:
(a)
The test comprises three parts that are carried out consecutively for each brake
system:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A baseline test using the dry stop test - single brake control actuated
(Paragraph 4.3.).
A heating procedure which consists of a series of repeated stops in order to
heat the brake(s).
A hot brake stop using the dry stop test - single brake control actuated
(Paragraph 4.3.), to measure the brake's performance after the heating
procedure.
(b) The test is applicable to vehicle Categories 3-3, 3-4 and 3-5.
(c)
(d)
(e)
The test is not applicable to parking brake systems and secondary service brake
systems.
All stops are carried out with the vehicle laden.
The heating procedure requires the vehicle to be fitted with instrumentation that gives
a continuous recording of brake control force and vehicle deceleration. The MFDD
and stopping distance measurements are not appropriate for the heating procedure.
The baseline test and the hot brake stop require the measurement of either MFDD or
the stopping distance.
4.7.2. Baseline Test
4.7.2.1. Vehicle Condition:
(a)
Engine disconnected.
4.7.2.2. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≥ 55°C and ≤ 100°C.
(b) Test speed: 60km/h or 0.9V , whichever is the lower.
(c)
Brake application:
Each service brake system control actuated separately.
(d)
Brake actuation force:
Hand control
≤ 200 N
Foot control ≤ 350 N for vehicle Categories 3-3 and 3-4
≤ 500 N for vehicle Category 3-5

(ii)
For the remaining stops:
a. The same constant brake control force as used for the first stop.
b. Number of stops: 10.
c. Interval between stops: 1,000m.
(e)
Carry out a stop to the conditions specified in this paragraph and then immediately
use maximum acceleration to reach the specified speed and maintain that speed until
the next stop is made.
4.7.4. Hot Brake top
4.7.4.1. Test Conditions and Procedure:
Perform a single stop under the conditions used in the baseline test (Paragraph 4.7.2.) for
the brake system that has been heated during the procedure in accordance with
Paragraph 4.7.3. This stop is carried out within one minute of the completion of the
procedure set out in Paragraph 4.7.3. with a brake control application force less than or
equal to the force used during the test set out in Paragraph 4.7.2.
4.7.5. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in
Paragraph 4.7.4.1.:
(a) The stopping distance: S ≤ 1.67 S – 0.67 × 0.1V
Where:
S = corrected stopping distance in metres achieved in the baseline test set out in
Paragraph 4.7.2.
S = corrected stopping distance in metres achieved in the hot brake stop set out in
Paragraph 4.7.4.1.
V =
specified test speed in km/h.
or
(b)
The MFDD ≥ 60% of the MFDD recorded in the test set out in Paragraph 4.7.2.
4.8.
Parking Brake System Test − for Vehicles Equipped with Parking Brakes
4.8.1.
Vehicle Condition:
(a)
The test is applicable to vehicle Categories 3-2, 3-4 and 3-5.
(b)
(c)
Laden.
Engine disconnected.

4.9.2. Vehicle Condition:
(a)
(b)
Lightly loaded.
Engine disconnected.
4.9.3. Stops on a High Friction Surface
4.9.3.1. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≥ 55°C and ≤ 100°C.
(b) Test speed: 60km/h or 0.9V , whichever is lower.
(c)
Brake application:
Simultaneous actuation of both brake controls in the case of a vehicle with two
service brake systems or actuation of the single brake control in the case of a vehicle
with one service brake system
(d)
Brake actuation force:
The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will be fully
cycling throughout each stop, down to 10km/h.
(e)
(f)
(g)
If one wheel is not equipped with ABS, the control for the service brake on that wheel
is actuated with a force that is lower than the force that will cause the wheel to lock.
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a
maximum of 6 stops.
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control under the conditions specified in this paragraph.
4.9.3.2. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures referred to in
Paragraph 4.9.3.1.:
(a)
(b)
the stopping distance (S) shall be ≤ 0.0063V (where V is the specified test speed in
km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres) or the MFDD shall be
≥ 6.17m/s ; and
there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.
4.9.4. Stops on a Low Friction Surface
4.9.4.1. Test Conditions and Procedure:
As set out in Paragraph 4.9.3.1. but using the low friction surface instead of the high friction
one.

4.9.5.2. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in
Paragraph 4.9.5.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the
test lane.
4.9.6. Wheel Lock Check − High to Low Friction Surface Transition
4.9.6.1. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Test surfaces:
A high friction surface immediately followed by a low friction surface.
(b)
(c)
Initial brake temperature: ≥ 55°C and ≤ 100°C.
Test speed:
The speed that will result in 50km/h or 0.5V , whichever is the lower, at the point
where the vehicle passes from the high friction to the low friction surface.
(d)
Brake application:
(i)
(ii)
Each service brake system control actuated separately.
Where ABS is fitted to both brake systems, simultaneous actuation of both
brake controls in addition to (i).
(e)
Brake actuation force:
The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will be fully
cycling throughout each stop, down to 10km/h.
(f)
(g)
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a
maximum of 3 stops.
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control before the vehicle reaches the transition from one friction surface to the other.
4.9.6.2. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in
Paragraph 4.9.6.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the
test lane.
4.9.7. Wheel Lock Check − Low to High Friction Surface Transition
4.9.7.1. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
Test surfaces:
A low friction surface immediately followed by a high friction surface with a PBC ≥ 0.8.

4.9.8.2. Performance Requirements:
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in
Paragraph 4.9.8.1.:
(a) the system shall comply with the failure warning requirements of Paragraph 3.1.13.;
and
(b)
the minimum requirements for stopping distance or MFDD shall be as specified in
Column 2 or 3, respectively, under the heading "Single brake system, rear wheel(s)
braking only" in the table to Paragraph 4.3.3.
4.10. Partial Failure Test − for Split Service Brake Systems
4.10.1. General Information:
(a)
(b)
The test is only applicable to vehicles that are equipped with split service brake
systems.
The test is to confirm the performance of the remaining subsystem in the event of a
hydraulic system leakage failure.
4.10.2. Vehicle Condition:
(a) The test is applicable to vehicle Categories 3-3, 3-4 and 3-5
(b)
(c)
Lightly loaded.
Engine disconnected.
4.10.3. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a) Initial brake temperature: ≥ 55°C and ≤ 100°C
(b) Test speeds: 50km/h and 100km/h or 0.8V , whichever is lower.
(c)
Brake actuation force:
Hand control ≤ 250 N
Foot control ≤ 400 N
(d)
(e)
(f)
Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a
maximum of 6 stops for each test speed.
Alter the service brake system to induce a complete loss of braking in any one
subsystem. Then, for each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then
actuate the brake control under the conditions specified in this paragraph.
Repeat the test for each subsystem.

4.12. CBS Failure Test
4.12.1. General Information:
(a)
(b)
This test will only apply to vehicles fitted with CBS of which the separate service
brake systems share a common hydraulic or common mechanical transmission;
The test is to confirm the performance of the service brake systems in the event of a
transmission failure. This can be demonstrated by a common hydraulic hose or
mechanical cable failure.
4.12.2. Test Conditions and Procedure:
(a)
(b)
Alter the brake system to produce a failure causing a complete loss of braking in the
portion of the system which is shared.
Perform the dry stop test specified in Section 4.3. in the laden condition. Other
conditions to be observed are 4.3.1.(c) and 4.3.2.(a), (b), (d), (e) and (f). Instead of
the provisions in Section 4.3.2.(c), only apply the control for the brake not affected by
the failure.
4.12.3. Performance Requirements
When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in
Paragraph 4.12.2., the stopping distance shall be as specified in Column 2 or the MFDD
shall be as specified in Column 3 of the following table:
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
Vehicle Category
Front wheel(s) braking only
STOPPING DISTANCE (S)
(Where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S
is the required stopping distance in metres)
3-1 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0111 V ≥ 3.4 m/s
3-2 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0143 V ≥ 2.7 m/s
3-3 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0087 V ≥ 4.4 m/s
3-4 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0105 V ≥ 3.6 m/s
3-5 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0117 V ≥ 3.3 m/s
Rear wheel(s) braking only
3-1 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0143 V ≥ 2.7 m/s
3-2 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0143 V ≥ 2.7 m/s
3-3 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0133 V ≥ 2.9 m/s
3-4 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0105 V ≥ 3.6 m/s
3-5 S ≤ 0.1 V + 0.0117 V ≥ 3.3 m/s
MFDD

5.3. Test Conditions and Procedure
(a)
Initial brake temperature: ≥55°C and ≤100°C.
(b) Test speed: 60km/h or 0.9V , whichever is lower.
(c)
Brake application:
Simultaneous actuation of both service brake system controls, if so equipped, or of
the single service brake system control in the case of a service brake system that
operates on all wheels.
For vehicles equipped with a single service brake system control, it may be necessary
to modify the brake system if one of the wheels is not approaching maximum
deceleration.
(d)
Brake actuation force:
The control force that achieves the maximum vehicle deceleration rate as defined in
Paragraph 5.1.(c).
The application of the control force must be constant during braking.
(e)
Number of stops:
Until the vehicle meets its maximum deceleration rate.
(f)
For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake
control(s) under the conditions specified in this paragraph.
Motorcycle Brake Systems.