Global Technical Regulation No. 4

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 4
Description:Emissions from Compression-ignition Engines and Positive-ignition Engines Fuelled with LPG or CNG.
Official Title:Test Procedure for Compression-ignition (CI) Engines and Positive-ignition (PI) Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas (NG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) with Regard to the Emission of Pollutants.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2006-11-15
Amendment Level:Amendment 3 of June 26, 2015
Number of Pages:304
Vehicle Types:Bus, Component, Heavy Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

test, system, engine, flow, speed, exhaust, paragraph, torque, gas, accordance, model, mass, time, hybrid, cycle, values, vehicle, sampling, manufacturer, power, dilution, measurement, temperature, sample, hils, powertrain, gear, reference, concentration, table, air, maximum, calculated, particulate, actual, rate, parameters, measured, figure, ratio, determined, emission, start, emissions, inertia, data, dat, type, electric, fuel

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.4/Amend.3
June 26, 2015
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 04
TEST PROCEDURE FOR COMPRESSION-IGNITION (C.I.) ENGINES AND POSITIVE-IGNITION (P.I.)
ENGINES FUELLED WITH NATURAL GAS (NG) OR LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON NOVEMBER 12, 2009)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1
dated March 5, 2010
Amendment 1 Corrigendum 1
dated April 30, 2012
Amendment 1 Corrigendum 2
dated January 17, 2013
Amendment 2
dated October 21, 2010
Amendment 3
dated June 26, 2015

GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION No. 04
TEST PROCEDURE FOR COMPRESSION-IGNITION (C.I.) ENGINES AND POSITIVE-IGNITION (P.I.)
ENGINES FUELLED WITH NATURAL GAS (NG) OR LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS
CONTENTS (Continued)
ANNEX 8
ANNEX 9
Reserved
Test procedure for engines installed in hybrid vehicles using the HILS method
Appendix 1 Hermite interpolation procedure
ANNEX 10
Test procedure for engines installed in hybrid vehicles using the powertrain method

6. When implementing the test procedure contained in this gtr as part of their national
legislation or regulation, Contracting Parties are invited to use limit values which represent
at least the same level of severity as their existing regulations, pending the development of
harmonized limit values by the Executive Committee (AC.3) under the 1998 Agreement
administered by the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29). The
performance levels (emissions test results) to be achieved in the gtr will, therefore, be
discussed on the basis of the most recently agreed legislation in the Contracting Parties,
as required by the 1998 Agreement.
2. ANTICIPATED BENEFITS
7. To enable manufacturers to develop new hybrid vehicle models more effectively and within
a shorter time, it is desirable that gtr No. 4 should be amended to cover the special
requirements for hybrid vehicles. These savings will accrue not only to the manufacturer,
but more importantly, to the consumer as well.
8. However, amending a test procedure just to address the economic question does not
address the mandate given when work on this amendment was first started. The test
procedure shall also better reflect how heavy-duty engines are actually operated in hybrid
vehicles. Compared to the measurement methods defined in this gtr, the new testing
methods for hybrid vehicles are more representative of in-use driving behaviour of heavyduty
hybrid vehicles.
3. POTENTIAL COST EFFECTIVENESS
9. Specific cost effectiveness values for this gtr have not been calculated. The decision by
the Executive Committee (AC.3) to the 1998 Agreement to move forward with this gtr
without limit values is the key reason why this analysis has not been completed. This
common agreement has been made knowing that specific cost effectiveness values are
not immediately available. However, it is fully expected that this information will be
developed, generally, in response to the adoption of this regulation in national
requirements and also in support of developing harmonized limit values for the next step in
this gtr's development. For example, each Contracting Party adopting this gtr into its
national law will be expected to determine the appropriate level of stringency associated
with using these new test procedures, with these new values being at least as stringent as
comparable existing requirements. Also, experience will be gained by the heavy-duty
engine industry as to any costs and cost savings associated with using this test procedure.
The cost and emissions performance data can then be analyzed as part of the next step in
this gtr development to determine the cost effectiveness values of the test procedures
being adopted today along with the application of harmonized limit values in the future.
While there are no values on calculated costs per ton, the belief of the GRPE experts is
that there are clear benefits associated with this regulation.

3.1.7. "Depth of discharge" means the discharge condition of a tested device as opposite of
SOC and is expressed as a percentage of its rated capacity.
3.1.8. "Diesel engine" means an engine which works on the compression-ignition principle.
3.1.9. "Drift" means the difference between the zero or span responses of the measurement
instrument after and before an emissions test.
3.1.10. "Drivetrain" means the connected elements of the powertrain downstream of the final
energy converter.
3.1.11. "Electric machine" means an energy converter transferring electric energy into
mechanical energy or vice versa for the purpose of vehicle propulsion.
3.1.12. "Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (REESS)" means a RESS storing
electrical energy.
3.1.13. "Enclosure" means the part enclosing the internal units and providing protection against
direct contact from any direction of access.
3.1.14. "Energy converter" means the part of the powertrain converting one form of energy into
a different one for the primary purpose of vehicle propulsion.
3.1.15. "Engine family" means a manufacturers grouping of engines which, through their design
as defined in Paragraph 5.2. of this gtr, have similar exhaust emission characteristics; all
members of the family shall comply with the applicable emission limit values.
3.1.16. "Energy storage system" means the part of the powertrain that can store chemical,
electrical or mechanical energy and that may also be able to internally convert those
energies without being directly used for vehicle propulsion, and which can be refilled or
recharged externally and/or internally.
3.1.17. "Engine system" means the engine, the emission control system and the communication
interface (hardware and messages) between the engine system Electronic Control Unit(s)
(ECU) and any other powertrain or vehicle control unit.
3.1.18. "Engine type" means a category of engines which do not differ in essential engine
characteristics.
3.1.19. "Exhaust after-treatment system" means a catalyst (oxidation or 3-way), particulate
filter, deNOx system, combined deNOx particulate filter or any other emission-reducing
device that is installed downstream of the engine. This definition excludes Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR), which is considered an integral part of the engine.
3.1.20. "Full flow dilution method" means the process of mixing the total exhaust flow with
diluent prior to separating a fraction of the diluted exhaust stream for analysis.
3.1.21. "Gaseous pollutants" means carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and/or non-methane
hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of CH for diesel, CH for LPG and CH for NG,
and an assumed molecule CH O for ethanol fuelled diesel engines), methane (assuming
a ratio of CH for NG) and oxides of nitrogen (expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO )
equivalent).

3.1.39. "Particulate after-treatment device" means an exhaust after-treatment system designed
to reduce emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) through a mechanical, aerodynamic,
diffusional or inertial separation.
3.1.40. "Partial flow dilution method" means the process of separating a part from the total
exhaust flow, then mixing it with an appropriate amount of diluent prior to the particulate
sampling filter.
3.1.41. "Particulate Matter (PM)" means any material collected on a specified filter medium after
diluting exhaust with a clean filtered dilution to a temperature between 315K (42°C) and
325K (52°C), this is primarily carbon, condensed hydrocarbons, and sulphates with
associated water.
3.1.42. "Periodic regeneration" means the regeneration process of an exhaust after-treatment
system that occurs periodically in typically less than 100h of normal engine operation.
During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards may be exceeded.
3.1.43. "Pneumatic RESS" means a RESS storing pneumatic energy.
3.1.44. "Powertrain" means the combination of energy storage system(s), energy converter(s)
and drivetrain(s) (for the purpose of vehicle propulsion), and the communication interface
(hardware and messages) among the powertrain or vehicle control units.
3.1.45. "Powertrain-in-the-loop simulation" means a HILS where the hardware is the
powertrain.
3.1.46. "Ramped steady state test cycle" means a test cycle with a sequence of steady state
engine test modes with defined speed and torque criteria at each mode and defined ramps
between these modes (WHSC).
3.1.47. "Rated capacity" means the electric charge capacity of a battery expressed in Cn (Ah)
specified by the manufacturer.
3.1.48. "Rated speed" means the maximum full load speed allowed by the governor as specified
by the manufacturer in his sales and service literature, or, if such a governor is not
present, the speed at which the maximum power is obtained from the engine, as specified
by the manufacturer in his sales and service literature.
3.1.49. "Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS)" means a system that provides energy
(other than from fuel) for propulsion in its primary use. The RESS may include
subsystem(s) together with the necessary ancillary systems for physical support, thermal
management, electronic control and enclosures.
3.1.50. "Response time" means the difference in time between the change of the component to
be measured at the reference point and a system response of 90% of the final reading (t )
with the sampling probe being defined as the reference point, whereby the change of the
measured component is at least 60% Full Scale (FS) and takes place in less than 0.1s.
The system response time consists of the delay time to the system and of the rise time of
the system.

Figure 1
Definitions of System Response

Symbol
Unit
Term
m
kg
Mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the test
cycle
m
kg
Total exhaust mass over the cycle
m
mg
Particulate sampling filter mass
m
g
Mass of gaseous emissions over the test cycle
m
mg
Particulate sample mass collected
m
g
Mass of particulate emissions over the test cycle
m
kg
Exhaust sample mass over the test cycle
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel
m
kg
Mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate
collection filters
m
kg
Mass of secondary diluent
M
g/mol
Molar mass of the intake air
M
g/mol
Molar mass of the diluent
M
g/mol
Molar mass of the exhaust
M
g/mol
Molar mass of gaseous components
M
Nm
Torque
M
Nm
Torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted
M
Nm
Torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be
removed
n

Number of measurements
n

Number of measurements with regeneration
n
min
Engine rotational speed
n
min
High engine speed
n
min
Low engine speed
n
min
Preferred engine speed
n
r/s
PDP pump speed
p
kPa
Saturation vapour pressure of engine intake air
p
kPa
Total atmospheric pressure
p
kPa
Saturation vapour pressure of the diluent
p
kPa
Absolute pressure
p
kPa
Water vapour pressure after cooling bath
p
kPa
Dry atmospheric pressure
P
kW
Power
P
kW
Power absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted
P
kW
Power
absorbed
by
auxiliaries/equipment
to
be
removed
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis
q
kg/s
Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the raw exhaust gas
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate into the engine
q
kg/s
Carbon mass flow rate in the partial flow dilution
system
q
kg/s
Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Diluent mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet
basis
q
kg/s
Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis
q
kg/s
Sample mass flow rate extracted from dilution tunnel
q
kg/s
Fuel mass flow rate

Symbol
Unit
Term
i
A
Electric auxiliary current
i
A
Electric machine current
J
kgm
Rotating inertia
J
kgm
Mechanical auxiliary load inertia
J
/J
kgm
Clutch rotational inertias
J
kgm
Electric machine rotational inertia
J
kgm
Final gear rotational inertia
J
kgm
Flywheel inertia
J
kgm
Transmission gear rotational inertia
J /J
kgm
Torque converter pump / turbine rotational inertia
J
kgm
Hydraulic pump/motor rotational inertia
J
kgm
Total powertrain rotational inertia
J
kgm
Retarder rotational inertia
J
kgm
Spur gear rotational inertia
J
kgm
Total vehicle powertrain inertia
J
kgm
wheel rotational inertia
K

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) anti-windup
parameter
K , K K

PID controller parameters
M
Nm
Aerodynamic drag torque
M
Nm
Clutch torque
M
Nm
Maximum clutch torque
M
Nm
CVT torque
M
Nm
Drive torque
M
Nm
Electric machine torque
M
W
Flywheel torque loss
M
Nm
Gravitational torque
M
Nm
Engine torque
M
Nm
Mechanical auxiliary load torque
M
Nm
Mechanical friction brake torque
M /M
Nm
Torque converter pump / turbine torque
M
Nm
Hydraulic pump/motor torque
M
Nm
Retarder torque
M
Nm
Rolling resistance torque
M
Nm
ICE starter motor torque
M
Nm
Torque converter torque loss during lock-up
M
kg
Vehicle test mass
m
kg
Vehicle curb mass
n
min
Actual engine speed
n
min
Final speed at end of test
n
min
Initial speed at start of test
n /n
-
Number of series/parallel cells
P
kW
(hybrid system) rated power
P
Pa
Hydraulic accumulator pressure
pedal

Accelerator pedal position
pedal

Brake pedal position
pedal

Clutch pedal position
pedal

Clutch pedal threshold
P
kW
Electric auxiliary power
P
kW
Electric machine electrical power
P
kW
Electric machine mechanical power
p
Pa
Accumulator gas pressure
P
W
ICE power loss

Symbol
Unit
Term
∆E
kWh
Net energy change of RESS
∆E
kWh
Net energy change of RESS in HILS simulated running
∆E
kWh
Net energy change of RESS in test
η

CVT efficiency
η

DC/DC converter efficiency
η
-
Electric machine efficiency
η
-
Final gear efficiency
η
-
Transmission gear efficiency
η

Hydraulic pump/motor mechanical efficiency
η

Spur gear efficiency
η

Hydraulic pump/motor volumetric efficiency
ρ
kg/m
Air density
T

First order time response constant
T
J/K
Battery thermal capacity
T
s
Clutch closing time constant
T
s
Clutch closing time constant for driveaway
T
J/K
Thermal capacity for electric machine mass
T
s
Clutch opening time constant
ω
rad/s
Shaft rotational speed
ω /ω
rad/s
Torque converter pump / turbine speed

rad/s
Rotational acceleration
3.3. Symbols and Abbreviations for the Fuel Composition
w hydrogen content of fuel, per cent mass
w carbon content of fuel, per cent mass
w sulphur content of fuel, per cent mass
w nitrogen content of fuel, per cent mass
w oxygen content of fuel, per cent mass
α
molar hydrogen ratio (H/C)
γ
molar sulphur ratio (S/C)
δ
molar nitrogen ratio (N/C)
ε
molar oxygen ratio (O/C)
referring to a fuel CH O N S
3.4. Symbols and Abbreviations for the Chemical Components
C1
CH
C H
C H
CO
CO
DOP
HC
H O
NMHC
NO
NO
NO
PM
Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Di-octylphtalate
Hydrocarbons
Water
Non-methane hydrocarbons
Oxides of nitrogen
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Particulate matter

5.1. Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants
5.1.1. Internal Combustion Engine
The emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants by the engine shall be determined on
the WHTC and WHSC test cycles, as described in Paragraph 7. This paragraph also
applies to vehicles with integrated starter/generator systems where the generator is not
used for propelling the vehicle, for example stop/start systems.
5.1.2. Hybrid Powertrain
The emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants by the hybrid powertrain shall be
determined on the duty cycles derived in accordance with Annex 9 for the HEC or
Annex 10 for the HPC.
Hybrid powertrains may be tested in accordance with Paragraph 5.1.1., if the ratio
between the propelling power of the electric motor, as measured in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.8.4. at speeds above idle speed, and the rated power of the engine is less
than or equal to 5%.
5.1.2.1. The Contracting Parties may decide to not make Paragraph 5.1.2. and the related
provisions for hybrid vehicles, specifically Annexes 9 and 10, compulsory in their regional
transposition of this gtr and may choose to transpose HILS and/or Powertrain testing. In
such case, the internal combustion engine used in the hybrid powertrain shall meet the
applicable requirements of Paragraph 5.1.1.
5.1.3. Measurement System
5.1.4. Equivalency
The measurement systems shall meet the linearity requirements in Paragraph 9.2. and the
specifications in Paragraph 9.3. (gaseous emissions measurement), Paragraph 9.4.
(particulate measurement) and in Annex 3.
Other systems or analyzers may be approved by the type approval or certification
authority, if it is found that they yield equivalent results in accordance with
Paragraph 5.1.4.
The determination of system equivalency shall be based on a seven-sample pair (or
larger) correlation study between the system under consideration and one of the systems
of this gtr.
"Results" refer to the specific cycle weighted emissions value. The correlation testing is to
be performed at the same laboratory, test cell, and on the same engine, and is preferred to
be run concurrently. The equivalency of the sample pair averages shall be determined by
F-test and t-test statistics as described in Annex 4, Paragraph A.4.3., obtained under the
laboratory test cell and the engine conditions described above. Outliers shall be
determined in accordance with ISO 5725 and excluded from the database. The systems to
be used for correlation testing shall be subject to the approval by the Type Approval or
Certification Authority.

5.2.3.3. Main Cooling Medium
(a)
(b)
(c)
air
water
oil
5.2.3.4. Individual Cylinder Displacement
5.2.3.4.1. Engine with a Unit Cylinder Displacement ≥ 0.75dm³
In order for engines with a unit cylinder displacement of ≥0.75dm³ to be considered to
belong to the same engine family, the spread of their individual cylinder displacements
shall not exceed 15% of the largest individual cylinder displacement within the family.
5.2.3.4.2. Engine with a Unit Cylinder Displacement < 0.75dm³
In order for engines with a unit cylinder displacement of <0.75dm³ to be considered to
belong to the same engine family, the spread of their individual cylinder displacements
shall not exceed 30% of the largest individual cylinder displacement within the family.
5.2.3.4.3. Engine with Other Unit Cylinder Displacement Limits
Engines with an individual cylinder displacement that exceeds the limits defined in
Paragraphs 5.2.3.4.1. and 5.2.3.4.2. may be considered to belong to the same family with
the approval of the Type Approval or Certification Authority. The approval shall be based
on technical elements (calculations, simulations, experimental results etc.) showing that
exceeding the limits does not have a significant influence on the exhaust emissions.
5.2.3.5. Method of Air Aspiration
(a)
(b)
(c)
naturally aspirated
pressure charged
pressure charged with charge cooler
5.2.3.6. Fuel Type
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Diesel
Natural Gas (NG)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Ethanol
5.2.3.7. Combustion Chamber Type
(a)
(b)
(c)
Open chamber
Divided chamber
Other types
5.2.3.8. Ignition Type
(a)
(b)
Positive ignition
Compression ignition

5.2.3.13. Exhaust After-treatment Systems
The function and combination of the following devices are regarded as membership
criteria for an engine family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Oxidation catalyst
Three-way catalyst
DeNOx system with selective reduction of NO (addition of reducing agent)
Other DeNOx systems
Particulate trap with passive regeneration
Particulate trap with active regeneration
Other particulate traps
Other devices
When an engine has been certified without after-treatment system, whether as parent
engine or as member of the family, then this engine, when equipped with an oxidation
catalyst, may be included in the same engine family, if it does not require different fuel
characteristics.
If it requires specific fuel characteristics (e.g. particulate traps requiring special additives in
the fuel to ensure the regeneration process), the decision to include it in the same family
shall be based on technical elements provided by the manufacturer. These elements shall
indicate that the expected emission level of the equipped engine complies with the same
limit value as the non-equipped engine.
When an engine has been certified with after-treatment system, whether as parent engine
or as member of a family, whose parent engine is equipped with the same after-treatment
system, then this engine, when equipped without after-treatment system, shall not be
added to the same engine family.
5.2.4. Choice of the Parent Engine
5.2.4.1. Compression Ignition Engines
Once the engine family has been agreed by the Type Approval or Certification Authority,
the parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criterion of the highest
fuel delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or
more engines share this primary criterion, the parent engine shall be selected using the
secondary criterion of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed.
5.2.4.2. Positive Ignition Engines
Once the engine family has been agreed by the Type Approval or Certification Authority,
the parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criterion of the largest
displacement. In the event that two or more engines share this primary criterion, the parent
engine shall be selected using the secondary criterion in the following order of priority:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the highest fuel delivery per stroke at the speed of declared rated power;
the most advanced spark timing;
the lowest EGR rate.

The normalized duty cycle shall be evaluated against the normalized duty cycle of the
parent hybrid powertrain by means of a linear regression analysis. This analysis shall be
performed at 1Hz or greater. A hybrid powertrain shall be deemed to belong to the same
family, if the criteria of Table 2 in Paragraph 7.8.8. are met.
5.3.2.1. In addition to the parameters listed in Paragraph 5.3.3., the manufacturer may introduce
additional criteria allowing the definition of families of more restricted size. These
parameters are not necessarily parameters that have an influence on the level of
emissions.
5.3.3. Parameters Defining the Hybrid Powertrain Family
5.3.3.1. Hybrid Topology (Architecture)
(a)
(b)
Parallel
Series
5.3.3.2. Internal Combustion Engine
The engine family criteria of Paragraph 5.2 shall be met when selecting the engine for the
hybrid powertrain family.
5.3.3.3. Energy Converter
(a)
(b)
(c)
Electric
Hydraulic
Other
5.3.3.4. RESS
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Electric
Hydraulic
Flywheel
Other
5.3.3.5. Transmission
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Manual
Automatic
Dual clutch
Other
5.3.3.6. Hybrid Control Strategy
The hybrid control strategy is a key parameter of the hybrid powertrain family. The
manufacturer shall present the technical elements of the hybrid control strategy explaining
the grouping of hybrid powertrains in the same family, i.e. the reasons why these
powertrains can be expected to satisfy the same emission requirements.
These elements can be calculations, simulations, estimations, description of the hybrid
ECU, experimental results, etc.

(b)
Positive ignition engines:
⎛ 99 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎛ T ⎞
f = ×


(4)
⎜ ⎟
⎝ p ⎠ ⎝ 298 ⎠
6.2. Engines with Charge Air-cooling
The charge air temperature shall be recorded and shall be, at the rated speed and full
load, within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer.
The temperature of the cooling medium shall be at least 293K (20°C).
If a test laboratory system or external blower is used, the coolant flow rate shall be set to
achieve a charge air temperature within ±5K of the maximum charge air temperature
specified by the manufacturer at the rated speed and full load. Coolant temperature and
coolant flow rate of the charge air cooler at the above set point shall not be changed for
the whole test cycle, unless this results in unrepresentative overcooling of the charge air.
The charge air cooler volume shall be based upon good engineering practice and shall be
representative of the production engine's in-use installation. The laboratory system shall
be designed to minimize accumulation of condensate. Any accumulated condensate shall
be drained and all drains shall be completely closed before emission testing.
If the engine manufacturer specifies pressure-drop limits across the charge-air cooling
system, it shall be ensured that the pressure drop across the charge-air cooling system at
engine conditions specified by the manufacturer is within the manufacturer's specified
limit(s). The pressure drop shall be measured at the manufacturer's specified locations.
6.3. Engine Power
The basis of specific emissions measurement is engine power and cycle work as
determined in accordance with Paragraphs 6.3.1. to 6.3.5.
For a hybrid powertrain, the basis of specific emissions measurement is system power and
cycle work as determined in accordance with Paragraph A.9.2.6.2. or Paragraph A.10.7.,
respectively.
6.3.1. General Engine Installation
The engine shall be tested with the auxiliaries/equipment listed in Annex 7.
If auxiliaries/equipment are not installed as required, their power shall be taken into
account in accordance with Paragraphs 6.3.2. to 6.3.5.
6.3.2. Auxiliaries/Equipment to be Fitted for the Emissions Test
If it is inappropriate to install the auxiliaries/equipment required in accordance with
Annex 7 on the test bench, the power absorbed by them shall be determined and
subtracted from the measured engine power (reference and actual) over the whole engine
speed range of the WHTC and over the test speeds of the WHSC.

6.5. Engine Exhaust System
An engine exhaust system or a test laboratory system shall be used presenting an exhaust
backpressure within 80 to 100% of the maximum value specified by the manufacturer at
the rated speed and full load. If the maximum restriction is 5kPa or less, the set point shall
be no less than 1.0kPa from the maximum. The exhaust system shall conform to the
requirements for exhaust gas sampling, as set out in Paragraphs 9.3.10. and 9.3.11.
6.6. Engine with Exhaust After-treatment System
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust pipe shall
have the same diameter as found in-use, or as specified by the manufacturer, for at least
four pipe diameters upstream of the expansion section containing the after-treatment
device. The distance from the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the
exhaust after-treatment system shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration or within
the distance specifications of the manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction
shall follow the same criteria as above, and may be set with a valve. For
variable-restriction after-treatment devices, the maximum exhaust restriction is defined at
the after-treatment condition (degreening/aging and regeneration/loading level) specified
by the manufacturer. If the maximum restriction is 5kPa or less, the set point shall be no
less than 1.0kPa from the maximum. The after-treatment container may be removed
during dummy tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent
container having an inactive catalyst support.
The emissions measured on the test cycle shall be representative of the emissions in the
field. In the case of an engine equipped with a exhaust after-treatment system that
requires the consumption of a reagent, the reagent used for all tests shall be declared by
the manufacturer.
For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on a
periodic basis, emission results shall be adjusted to account for regeneration events, as
described in Paragraph 6.6.2. In this case, the average emission depends on the
frequency of the regeneration event in terms of fraction of tests during which the
regeneration occurs.
After-treatment systems with continuous regeneration in accordance with Paragraph 6.6.1.
do not require a special test procedure.
6.6.1. Continuous Regeneration
For an exhaust after-treatment system based on a continuous regeneration process the
emissions shall be measured on an after-treatment system that has been stabilized so as
to result in repeatable emissions behaviour.
The regeneration process shall occur at least once during the relevant hot start duty cycle
(WHTC for conventional engines, HEC or HPC for hybrid powertrains) and the
manufacturer shall declare the normal conditions under which regeneration occurs (soot
load, temperature, exhaust back-pressure, etc.).

During the regeneration test, all the data needed to detect regeneration shall be recorded
(CO or NO emissions, temperature before and after the after-treatment system, exhaust
back pressure, etc.).
During the regeneration test, the applicable emission limits may be exceeded.
The test procedure is schematically shown in Figure 2.
e = (n x e + n x e ) / (n + n )
Figure 2
Scheme of Periodic Regeneration
The hot start emissions shall be weighted as follows:
n × e + n × e
e =
(6)
n + n
where:
n
n
e
e
is the number of hot start tests without regeneration,
is the number of hot start tests with regeneration (minimum one test),
is the average specific emission without regeneration, g/kWh,
is the average specific emission with regeneration, g/kWh.

6.8. Lubricating Oil
The lubricating oil shall be specified by the manufacturer and be representative of
lubricating oil available on the market; the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the
test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test.
6.9. Specification of the Reference Fuel
The use of one standardized reference fuel has always been considered as an ideal
condition for ensuring the reproducibility of regulatory emission testing, and Contracting
Parties are encouraged to use such fuel in their compliance testing. However, until
performance requirements (i.e. limit values) have been introduced into this gtr, Contracting
Parties to the 1998 Agreement are allowed to define their own reference fuel for their
national legislation, to address the actual situation of market fuel for vehicles in use.
The appropriate diesel reference fuels of the European Union, the United States of
America and Japan listed in Annex 2 are recommended to be used for testing. Since fuel
characteristics influence the engine exhaust gas emission, the characteristics of the fuel
used for the test shall be determined, recorded and declared with the results of the test.
The fuel temperature shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
6.10. Crankcase Emissions
No crankcase emissions shall be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere, with
the following exception: engines equipped with turbochargers, pumps, blowers, or
superchargers for air induction may discharge crankcase emissions to the ambient
atmosphere if the emissions are added to the exhaust emissions (either physically or
mathematically) during all emission testing. Manufacturers taking advantage of this
exception shall install the engines so that all crankcase emission can be routed into the
emissions sampling system.
For the purpose of this Paragraph, crankcase emissions that are routed into the exhaust
upstream of exhaust after-treatment during all operation are not considered to be
discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere.
Open crankcase emissions shall be routed into the exhaust system for emission
measurement, as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The tubing materials shall be smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not
reactive with crankcase emissions. Tube lengths shall be minimized as far as
possible;
The number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing shall be minimized, and the
radius of any unavoidable bend shall be maximized;
The laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing shall be heated, thin-walled or insulated
and shall meet the engine manufacturer's specifications for crankcase back
pressure;

7.1.3. Measurement Procedures
This gtr applies two measurement procedures that are functionally equivalent. Both
procedures may be used for both the WHTC, WHSC, HEC and HPC test cycle:
(a)
(b)
The gaseous components are sampled continuously in the raw exhaust gas, and
the particulates are determined using a partial flow dilution system;
The gaseous components and the particulates are determined using a full flow
dilution system (CVS system).
7.2. Test Cycles
Any combination of the two principles (e.g. raw gaseous measurement and full flow
particulate measurement) is permitted.
7.2.1. Transient Test Cycle WHTC
The transient test cycle WHTC is listed in Annex 1, Paragraph (a) as a second-by-second
sequence of normalized speed and torque values. In order to perform the test on an
engine test cell, the normalized values shall be converted to the actual values for the
individual engine under test based on the engine-mapping curve. The conversion is
referred to as denormalization, and the test cycle so developed as the reference cycle of
the engine to be tested. With those reference speed and torque values, the cycle shall be
run on the test cell, and the actual speed, torque and power values shall be recorded. In
order to validate the test run, a regression analysis between reference and actual speed,
torque and power values shall be conducted upon completion of the test.
For calculation of the brake specific emissions, the actual cycle work shall be calculated by
integrating actual engine power over the cycle. For cycle validation, the actual cycle work
shall be within prescribed limits of the reference cycle work.
For the gaseous pollutants, continuously sampling (raw or dilute exhaust gas) or batch
sampling (dilute exhaust gas) may be used. The particulate sample shall be diluted with a
conditioned diluent (such as ambient air), and collected on a single suitable filter. The
WHTC is shown schematically in Figure 3.

The WHSC is shown in Table 1. Except for Mode 1, the start of each mode is defined as
the beginning of the ramp from the previous mode.
Mode
Table 1
WHSC Test Cycle
Normalized Speed
(per cent)
Normalized Torque
(per cent)
Mode length(s) incl.
20s ramp
1 0 0 210
2 55 100 50
3 55 25 250
4 55 70 75
5 35 100 50
6 25 25 200
7 45 70 75
8 45 25 150
9 55 50 125
10 75 100 50
11 35 50 200
12 35 25 250
13 0 0 210
Sum 1895
7.2.3. Transient Test Cycle WHVC (Hybrid Powertrains Only)
7.2.3.1. HILS Method
The transient test cycle WHVC is listed in Appendix 1b as a second-by-second sequence
of vehicle speed and road gradients. In order to perform the test on an engine or
powertrain test cell, the cycle values need to be converted to the reference values for
rotational speed and torque for the individual engine or powertrain under test in
accordance with either method in Paragraph 7.2.3.1. or 7.2.3.2.
It should be noted that the test cycles referred to as HEC and HPC in this gtr are not
standardized cycles like the WHTC and WHSC, but test cycles developed individually from
the WHVC for the hybrid powertrain under test.
The conversion is carried out in accordance with Annex 9, and the test cycle so developed
is the reference cycle of the engine to be tested (HEC). With those references speed and
torque values, the cycle shall be run on the test cell, and the actual speed, torque and
power values shall be recorded. In order to validate the test run, a regression analysis
between reference and actual speed, torque and power values shall be conducted upon
completion of the test.


7.4.4. Alternate Mapping
If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or
unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used. These
alternate techniques shall satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures to
determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds achieved during the test
cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified in this Paragraph for reasons of
safety or representativeness shall be approved by the Type Approval or Certification
Authority along with the justification for their use. In no case, however, the torque curve
shall be run by descending engine speeds for governed or turbocharged engines.
7.4.5. Replicate Tests
An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine shall be
remapped prior to a test cycle if:
(a)
(b)
An unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined
by engineering judgement, or
Physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine which potentially
affect engine performance.
7.4.6. Denormalization of Engine Speed
For generating the reference cycles, the normalized speeds of Annex 1, Paragraph (a)
(WHTC) and Table 1 (WHSC) shall be denormalized using the following equation:
n = n × (0.45 × n + 0.45 × n + 0.1 × n – n ) × 2.0327 + n (11)
For determination of n , the integral of the maximum torque shall be calculated from n
to n from the engine mapping curve, as determined in accordance with Paragraph 7.4.3.
The engine speeds in Figures 4 and 5 are defined, as follows:
n
is the lowest speed where the power is 55% of maximum power
n is the engine speed where the integral of maximum mapped torque is 51% of the
whole integral between n and n
n
is the highest speed where the power is 70% of maximum power
n
is the idle speed
n
is the highest speed where the power is 95% of maximum power
For engines (mainly positive ignition engines) with a steep governor droop curve, where
fuel cut off does not permit to operate the engine up to n or n
, the following provisions
apply:
n
in Equation (11) is replaced with n
× 1.02
n
is replaced with n
× 1.02

7.4.7. Denormalization of Engine Torque
The torque values in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex 1, Paragraph (a)
(WHTC) and in Table 1 (WHSC) are normalized to the maximum torque at the respective
speed. For generating the reference cycles, the torque values for each individual reference
speed value as determined in Paragraph 7.4.6 shall be denormalized, using the mapping
curve determined according to Paragraph 7.4.3., as follows:
M
M
= × M + M − M
(12)
100
where:
M is the normalized torque, per cent
M is the maximum torque from the mapping curve, Nm
M
M
is the torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be fitted, Nm
is the torque absorbed by auxiliaries/equipment to be removed, Nm
If auxiliaries/equipment are fitted in accordance with Paragraph 6.3.1. and Annex 7, M and
M are zero.
The negative torque values of the motoring points (m in Annex 1, Paragraph (a)) shall take
on, for purposes of reference cycle generation, reference values determined in either of
the following ways:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Negative 40% of the positive torque available at the associated speed point,
Mapping of the negative torque required to motor the engine from maximum to
minimum mapping speed,
Determination of the negative torque required to motor the engine at idle and at n
and linear interpolation between these two points.
7.4.8. Calculation of Reference Cycle Work
Reference cycle work shall be determined over the test cycle by synchronously calculating
instantaneous values for engine power from reference speed and reference torque, as
determined in Paragraphs 7.4.6. and 7.4.7. Instantaneous engine power values shall be
integrated over the test cycle to calculate the reference cycle work W (kWh). If auxiliaries
are not fitted in accordance with Paragraph 6.3.1., the instantaneous power values shall
be corrected using Equation (5) in Paragraph 6.3.5.
The same methodology shall be used for integrating both reference and actual engine
power. If values are to be determined between adjacent reference or adjacent measured
values, linear interpolation shall be used. In integrating the actual cycle work, any negative
torque values shall be set equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a
frequency of less than 5Hz, and if, during a given time segment, the torque value changes
from positive to negative or negative to positive, the negative portion shall be computed
and set equal to zero. The positive portion shall be included in the integrated value.

7.5.4. Preparation of the Particulate Sampling Filter
At least 1h before the test, the filter shall be placed in a petri dish, which is protected
against dust contamination and allows air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilization. At the end of the stabilization period, the filter shall be weighed and the tare
weight shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed
filter holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from
the weighing chamber.
7.5.5. Adjustment of the Dilution System
The total diluted exhaust gas flow of a full flow dilution system or the diluted exhaust gas
flow through a partial flow dilution system shall be set to eliminate water condensation in
the system, and to obtain a filter face temperature between 315K (42°C) and 325K (52°C).
7.5.6. Starting the Particulate Sampling System
The particulate sampling system shall be started and operated on by-pass.The particulate
background level of the diluent may be determined by sampling the diluent prior to the
entrance of the exhaust gas into the dilution tunnel. The measurement may be done
during, prior to or after the test. If the measurement is done both at the beginning and at
the end of the test run, the values may be averaged. If a different sampling system is used
for background measurement, the measurement shall be done in parallel to the test run.
7.6. WHTC Cycle Run
This Paragraph also applies to the HEC and HPC duty cycles of hybrid vehicles. Different
cycles for the cold start and hot start are permitted, if it is the result of the conversion
procedure in Annex 9 or Annex 10.
7.6.1. Engine Cool-down
A natural or forced cool-down procedure may be applied. For forced cool-down, good
engineering judgment shall be used to set up systems to send cooling air across the
engine, to send cool oil through the engine lubrication system, to remove heat from the
coolant through the engine cooling system, and to remove heat from an exhaust
after-treatment system. In the case of a forced after-treatment system cool down, cooling
air shall not be applied until the after-treatment system has cooled below its catalytic
activation temperature. Any cooling procedure that results in unrepresentative emissions is
not permitted.

7.6.6. Collection of Emission Relevant Data
At the start of the test sequence, the measuring equipment shall be started,
simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Start collecting or analyzing diluent, if a full flow dilution system is used;
Start collecting or analyzing raw or diluted exhaust gas, depending on the method
used;
Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the required temperatures
and pressures;
Start recording the exhaust gas mass flow rate, if raw exhaust gas analysis is used;
Start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.
If raw exhaust measurement is used, the emission concentrations ((NM)HC, CO and NO )
and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be measured continuously and stored with at
least 2Hz on a computer system. All other data may be recorded with a sample rate of at
least 1Hz. For analogue analyzers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration
data may be applied online or offline during the data evaluation.
If a full flow dilution system is used, HC and NO shall be measured continuously in the
dilution tunnel with a frequency of at least 2Hz. The average concentrations shall be
determined by integrating the analyzer signals over the test cycle. The system response
time shall be no greater than 20s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and
sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO, CO , and NMHC may be determined by
integration of continuous measurement signals or by analyzing the concentrations in the
sample bag, collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the
diluent shall be determined prior to the point where the exhaust enters into the dilution
tunnel by integration or by collecting into the background bag. All other parameters that
need to be measured shall be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second
(1Hz).
7.6.7. Particulate Sampling
At the start of the test sequence, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from
by-pass to collecting particulates.
If a partial flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be controlled, so that the
flow rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained proportional
to the exhaust mass flow rate as determined in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
If a full flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow
rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within
±2.5% of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is
used, it shall be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow
does not change by more than ±2.5% of its set value (except for the first 10s of sampling).
The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet
shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle within
±2.5% because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test
shall be rerun using a lower sample flow rate.

7.7.4. Collection of Emission Relevant Data
At the start of the test sequence, the measuring equipment shall be started,
simultaneously:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Start collecting or analyzing diluent, if a full flow dilution system is used;
Start collecting or analyzing raw or diluted exhaust gas, depending on the method
used;
Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the required temperatures
and pressures;
Start recording the exhaust gas mass flow rate, if raw exhaust gas analysis is used;
Start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.
If raw exhaust measurement is used, the emission concentrations ((NM)HC, CO and NO )
and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be measured continuously and stored with at
least 2Hz on a computer system. All other data may be recorded with a sample rate of at
least 1Hz. For analogue analyzers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration
data may be applied online or offline during the data evaluation.
If a full flow dilution system is used, HC and NO shall be measured continuously in the
dilution tunnel with a frequency of at least 2Hz. The average concentrations shall be
determined by integrating the analyzer signals over the test cycle. The system response
time shall be no greater than 20s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and
sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO, CO , and NMHC may be determined by
integration of continuous measurement signals or by analyzing the concentrations in the
sample bag, collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the
diluent shall be determined prior to the point where the exhaust enters into the dilution
tunnel by integration or by collecting into the background bag. All other parameters that
need to be measured shall be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second
(1Hz).
7.7.5. Particulate Sampling
At the start of the test sequence, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from
by-pass to collecting particulates. If a partial flow dilution system is used, the sample
pump(s) shall be controlled, so that the flow rate through the particulate sample probe or
transfer tube is maintained proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate as determined in
accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1.
If a full flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow
rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within
±2.5% of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is
used, it shall be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow
does not change by more than ±2.5% of its set value (except for the first 10s of sampling).
The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet
shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle within
±2.5% because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test
shall be rerun using a lower sample flow rate.

The following provisions apply for analyzer drift:
(e)
(f)
(g)
The pre-test zero and span and post-test zero and span responses may be directly
inserted into Equation (68) of Paragraph 8.6.1. without determining drift;
If the drift difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 1% of full
scale, the measured concentrations may be used uncorrected or may be corrected
for drift in accordance with Paragraph 8.6.1.;
If the drift difference between the pre-test and post-test results is equal to or greater
than 1% of full scale, the test shall be voided or the measured concentrations shall
be corrected for drift in accordance with Paragraph 8.6.1.
7.8.5. Analysis of Gaseous Bag Sampling
As soon as practical, the following shall be performed:
(a)
(b)
Gaseous bag samples shall be analyzed no later than 30min after the hot start test
is complete or during the soak period for the cold start test;
Background samples shall be analyzed no later than 60min after the hot start test is
complete.
7.8.6. Calculation of Cycle Work
Before calculating actual cycle work, any points recorded during engine starting shall be
omitted. Actual cycle work shall be determined over the test cycle by synchronously using
actual speed and actual torque values to calculate instantaneous values for engine power.
Instantaneous engine power values shall be integrated over the test cycle to calculate the
actual cycle work W (kWh). If auxiliaries/equipment are not fitted in accordance with
Paragraph 6.3.1., the instantaneous power values shall be corrected using Equation (5) in
Paragraph 6.3.5.
The same methodology as described in Paragraph 7.4.8. shall be used for integrating
actual engine power.
7.8.7. Validation of Cycle Work
The actual cycle work W is used for comparison to the reference cycle work W and for
calculating the brake specific emissions (see Paragraph 8.6.3.).
W shall be between 85% and 105% of W .
This Section does not apply to engines used in hybrid vehicles or to hybrid powertrains.

Table 3
Regression Line Tolerances for the WHSC
Speed Torque Power
Standard error of
estimate (SEE) of y
on x
Slope of the
regression line, a
Coefficient of
determination, r²
y intercept of the
regression line, a
maximum 1% of
maximum test speed
maximum 2% of
maximum engine
torque
maximum 2% of
maximum engine
power
0.99 to 1.01 0.98 − 1.02 0.98 − 1.02
minimum 0.990 minimum 0.950 minimum 0.950
maximum 1% of
maximum test speed
±20Nm or ±2% of
maximum torque
whichever is greater
±4kW or ±2% of
maximum power
whichever is greater
For regression purposes only, point omissions are permitted where noted in Table 4 before doing
the regression calculation. However, those points shall not be omitted for the calculation of cycle
work and emissions. Point omission may be applied to the whole or to any part of the cycle.
Table 4
Permitted Point Omissions from Regression Analysis
Event Conditions Permitted point omissions
Minimum operator demand
(idle point)
Minimum operator demand
(motoring point)
n = 0%
and
M = 0%
and
M > (M - 0.02 M )
and
M < (M + 0.02 M )
M < 0%
Minimum operator demand n ≤ 1.02 n and M > M
and
n > n and M ≤ M
and
n > 1.02 n and M < M ≤ (M +
0.02 M )
Maximum operator
demand
n < n and M ≥ M
and
n ≥ 0.98 n and M < M
and
n < 0.98 n and M > M ≥ (M -
0.02 M )
speed and power
power and torque
power and either torque or
speed
power and either torque or
speed

with
k = 0.055594 × w + 0.0080021 × w + 0.0070046 × w (18)
and
k
1.608 × H
= (19)
1,000 +
( 1.608 × H )
where:
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
w is the hydrogen content of the fuel, per cent mass
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
q
p
p
is the instantaneous dry intake air mass flow rate, kg/s
is the water vapour pressure after cooling bath, kPa
is the total atmospheric pressure, kPa
w is the nitrogen content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the oxygen content of the fuel, per cent mass
α
is the molar hydrogen ratio of the fuel
c is the dry CO concentration, per cent
c is the dry CO concentration, per cent
Equations (15) and (16) are principally identical with the factor 1.008 in Equations (15) and
(17) being an approximation for the more accurate denominator in Equation (16).
8.1.2. Diluted Exhaust Gas
⎡⎛ α × c ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢
⎜1 −
⎟ − k ⎥ × 1.008
(20)
⎣⎝
200 ⎠

or
⎡⎛
⎞⎤
⎢⎜
⎟⎥
⎢⎜
( 1 − k ) ⎟
k =
⎥ × 1.008
⎢⎜

(21)
α × c ⎥

⎜1
+
⎟⎥
⎣⎝
200 ⎠⎦

8.2.2. Positive ignition Engines
k = 0.6272 + 44.030 × 10 × H – 0.862 × 10 × H ² (26)
where:
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
8.3. Particulate Filter Buoyancy Correction
The sampling filter mass shall be corrected for its buoyancy in air. The buoyancy
correction depends on sampling filter density, air density and the density of the balance
calibration weight, and does not account for the buoyancy of the PM itself. The buoyancy
correction shall be applied to both tare filter mass and gross filter mass.
If the density of the filter material is not known, the following densities shall be used:
(a) Teflon coated glass fibre filter: 2,300kg/m ;
(b) Teflon membrane filter: 2,144kg/m ;
(c) Teflon membrane filter with polymethylpentene support ring: 920kg/m .
For stainless steel calibration weights, a density of 8,000kg/m shall be used. If the
material of the calibration weight is different, its density shall be known.
The following equation shall be used:
⎛ ρ ⎞
⎜1−

⎜ ρ ⎟
m = m ×
⎜ ρ ⎟
(27)
⎜ 1−

⎝ ρ ⎠

8.4. Partial Flow Dilution (PFS) and Raw Gaseous Measurement
The instantaneous concentration signals of the gaseous components are used for the
calculation of the mass emissions by multiplication with the instantaneous exhaust mass
flow rate. The exhaust mass flow rate may be measured directly, or calculated using the
methods of intake air and fuel flow measurement, tracer method or intake air and air/fuel
ratio measurement. Special attention shall be paid to the response times of the different
instruments. These differences shall be accounted for by time aligning the signals. For
particulates, the exhaust mass flow rate signals are used for controlling the partial flow
dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The quality of
proportionality shall be checked by applying a regression analysis between sample and
exhaust flow in accordance with Paragraph 9.4.6.1. The complete test set up is
schematically shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6
Scheme of Raw/Partial Flow Measurement System
8.4.1. Determination of Exhaust Gas Mass Flow
8.4.1.1. Introduction
For calculation of the emissions in the raw exhaust gas and for controlling of a partial flow
dilution system, it is necessary to know the exhaust gas mass flow rate. For the
determination of the exhaust mass flow rate, either of the methods described in
Paragraphs 8.4.1.3 to 8.4.1.7 may be used.

8.4.1.5. Tracer Measurement Method
This involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust.
A known amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas
flow as a tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but shall not react in the
exhaust pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas
sample.
In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall
be located at least 1m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger,
downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to
the injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration
with the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.
The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle
speed after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyzer.
The calculation of the exhaust gas flow shall be as follows:
q
q × p
= (31)
60 × c
( c − )
where:
q is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
q
is tracer gas flow rate, cm³/min
c is the instantaneous concentration of the tracer gas after mixing, ppm
ρ is the density of the exhaust gas, kg/m³ (cf. Table 4)
c
is the background concentration of the tracer gas in the intake air, ppm
The background concentration of the tracer gas (c ) may be determined by averaging the
background concentration measured immediately before the test run and after the test run.
When the background concentration is less than 1% of the concentration of the tracer gas
after mixing (c ) at maximum exhaust flow, the background concentration may be
neglected.
The total system shall meet the linearity requirements for the exhaust gas flow of
Paragraph 9.2.

8.4.1.7. Carbon Balance Method
This involves exhaust mass calculation from the fuel flow and the gaseous exhaust
components that include carbon. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass
flow is as follows:

( ) ⎟ ⎞

w × 1.4 ⎛ H ⎞
q = q ×
⎜1
+ ⎟ + 1
(35)

1.0828 × w + k × k × k ⎝ 1,000 ⎠ ⎠
with
( c − c )
c c
k = × 0.5441 + +
(36)
18.522 17.355
and
k = − 0.055594 × w + 0.0080021×
w + 0.0070046 × w
(37)
where:
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
w is the carbon content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the hydrogen content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the nitrogen content of the fuel, per cent mass
w is the oxygen content of the fuel, per cent mass
c is the dry CO concentration, per cent
c is the dry CO concentration of the intake air, per cent
c is the dry CO concentration, ppm
c is the wet HC concentration, ppm
8.4.2. Determination of the Gaseous Components
8.4.2.1. Introduction
The gaseous components in the raw exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for
testing shall be measured with the measurement and sampling systems described in
Paragraph 9.3. and Annex 3. The data evaluation is described in Paragraph 8.4.2.2.

Table 5
Raw Exhaust Gas u Values and Component Densities
Gas
Fuel
p
NO CO HC CO O CH
p [kg/m ]
2.053
1.250
1.9636
1.4277
0.716
u
Diesel
1.2943
0.001586
0.000966
0.000479
0.001517
0.001103
0.000553
Ethanol
1.2757
0.001609
0.000980
0.000805
0.001539
0.001119
0.000561
CNG
1.2661
0.001621
0.000987
0.000558
0.001551
0.001128
0.000565
Propane
1.2805
0.001603
0.000976
0.000512
0.001533
0.001115
0.000559
Butane
1.2832
0.001600
0.000974
0.000505
0.001530
0.001113
0.000558
LPG
1.2811
0.001602
0.000976
0.000510
0.001533
0.001115
0.000559
λ
8.4.2.4. Calculation of Mass Emission Based on Exact Equations
The mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous
mass emissions from the raw concentrations of the pollutants, the u values and the
exhaust gas mass flow, aligned for the transformation time as determined in accordance
with Paragraph 8.4.2.2. and integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle. If
measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet correction in accordance with Paragraph 8.1. shall
be applied to the instantaneous concentration values before any further calculation is
done.
For the calculation of NO , the mass emission shall be multiplied with the humidity
correction factor k , or k , as determined in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.

The molar mass of the exhaust, M , shall be derived for a general fuel composition
CH O N S under the assumption of complete combustion, as follows:
Me,i
=
q m f,i
q m aw,i
q m f,i
1+
q m aw,i
α ε δ
+ +
4 2 2
×
+
12.011+
1.00794 × α + 15.9994
× ε + 14.0067× δ + 32.065× γ
−3
Ha
× 10
1
+
2 × 1.00794 + 15.9994 Ma
−3
1+
Ha
× 10
(43)
where:
q is the instantaneous intake air mass flow rate on wet basis, kg/s
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
H
M
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
is the molar mass of the dry intake air = 28.965g/mol
The exhaust density ρ shall be derived, as follows:
p
( q / q )
1,000 × ( q / q )
1,000 + H + 1,000 ×
= (44)
773.4 + 1.2434 × H + k ×
where:
q is the instantaneous intake air mass flow rate on dry basis, kg/s
q is the instantaneous fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
H
is the intake air humidity, g water per kg dry air
k is the fuel specific factor of wet exhaust (Equation (18)) in Paragraph 8.1.1.

8.4.3.2.2. Calculation Based on Dilution Ratio
m m
m = ×
(47)
m 1,000
where:
m
is the particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg
m is the mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters, kg
m is the mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle, kg
The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle shall be determined
as follows:
m
1
= ∑ q ×
(48)
f
q = q × r (49)
r
q
= (50)
( q − q )
where:
q is the instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
q is the instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
r
q
is the instantaneous dilution ratio
is the instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate, kg/s
q is the instantaneous diluent mass flow rate, kg/s
f
n
is the data sampling rate, Hz
is the number of measurements

8.5.1. Determination of the Diluted Exhaust Gas Flow
8.5.1.1. Introduction
For calculation of the emissions in the diluted exhaust gas, it is necessary to know the
diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate. The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle
(kg/test) shall be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the
corresponding calibration data of the flow measurement device (V for PDP, K for CFV,
C for SSV) by either of the methods described in Paragraphs 8.5.1.2. to 8.5.1.4. If the
total sample flow of particulates (m ) exceeds 0.5% of the total CVS flow (m ), the CVS
flow shall be corrected for m or the particulate sample flow shall be returned to the CVS
prior to the flow measuring device.
8.5.1.2. PDP-CVS System
The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle is as follows, if the temperature of the
diluted exhaust is kept within ±6K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:
m = 1.293 × V × n × p × 273 / (101.3 × T) (51)
where:
V
n
p
T
is the volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions, m³/rev
is the total revolutions of pump per test
is the absolute pressure at pump inlet, kPa
is the average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet, K
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the
instantaneous mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this
case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
m = 1.293 × V × n × p × 273 / (101.3 × T) (52)
where:
n is the total revolutions of pump per time interval


( )
⎥ ⎥ ⎤


⎜ ⎛
1
r − r ×


1 − r r
⎠⎦


1
Q = A d C p
(56)
⎢T

where:
⎛ ⎞
⎛ ⎞⎜

⎛ ⎞
A is 0.006111 in SI units of ⎜
m
⎟⎜
K

1
⎜ ⎟
⎝ min ⎠
⎜ kPa ⎟⎝
mm ⎠
⎝ ⎠
d
C
p
T
r
is the diameter of the SSV throat, m
is the discharge coefficient of the SSV
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, K
is the ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute static pressure,
1 −
Δp
p
r
is the ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d, to the inlet pipe inner diameter D
If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the
instantaneous mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this
case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:
m = 1.293 × Q × Δt (57)
where:
Δt
is the time interval, s
The real time calculation shall be initialized with either a reasonable value for C , such as
0.98, or a reasonable value of Q . If the calculation is initialized with Q , the initial value
of Q shall be used to evaluate the Reynolds number.
During all emissions tests, the Reynolds number at the SSV throat shall be in the range of
Reynolds numbers used to derive the calibration curve developed in Paragraph 9.5.4.
8.5.2. Determination of the Gaseous Components
8.5.2.1. Introduction
The gaseous components in the diluted exhaust gas emitted by the engine submitted for
testing shall be measured by the methods described in Annex 3. Dilution of the exhaust
shall be done with filtered ambient air, synthetic air or nitrogen. The flow capacity of the full
flow system shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the
dilution and sampling systems. Data evaluation and calculation procedures are described
in Paragraphs 8.5.2.2. and 8.5.2.3.

The u values are given in Table 6. For calculating the u values, the density of the diluted
exhaust gas has been assumed to be equal to air density. Therefore, the u values are
identical for single gas components, but different for HC.
Fuel
ρ
Table 6
Diluted Exhaust Gas u Values and Component Densities
Gas
NO CO HC CO O CH
ρ [kg/m ]
2.053 1.250 1.9636 1.4277 0.716
Diesel 1.293 0.001588 0.000967 0.000480 0.001519 0.001104 0.000553
Ethanol 1.293 0.001588 0.000967 0.000795 0.001519 0.001104 0.000553
CNG 1.293 0.001588 0.000967 0.000584 0.001519 0.001104 0.000553
Propane 1.293 0.001588 0.000967 0.000507 0.001519 0.001104 0.000553
Butane 1.293 0.001588 0.000967 0.000501 0.001519 0.001104 0.000553
LPG 1.293 0.001588 0.000967 0.000505 0.001519 0.001104 0.000553
u
λ
Alternatively, the u values may be calculated using the exact calculation method generally
described in Paragraph 8.4.2.4., as follows:
M
u =
(59)
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
M × ⎜1
− ⎟ + M × ⎜ ⎟
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠
where:
M is the molar mass of the gas component, g/mol (cf. Annex 6)
M
M
is the molar mass of the exhaust gas, g/mol
is the molar mass of the diluent = 28.965g/mol
D is the dilution factor (see Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.)

The stoichiometric factor shall be calculated as follows:
1
F = 100 ×
(63)
α ⎛ α ⎞
1 + + 3.76 × ⎜1
+ ⎟
2 ⎝ 4 ⎠
where:
α
is the molar hydrogen ratio of the fuel (H/C)
Alternatively, if the fuel composition is not known, the following stoichiometric factors may
be used:
F (diesel) = 13.4
F (LPG) = 11.6
F (NG) = 9.5
8.5.2.3.3 Systems with Flow Compensation
For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be
determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the
instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied
directly to the instantaneous concentration value. The following equation shall be applied:
[( m × c u )] − [( m × c × ( 1 − 1/ D)
u )]
m = ∑ ×
×
(64)
where:
c is the concentration of the component measured in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm
c
is the concentration of the component measured in the diluent, ppm
m is the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas, kg
m
is the total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle, kg
u is the tabulated value from Table 6
D
is the dilution factor

8.6. General Calculations
8.6.1. Drift Correction
With respect to drift verification in Paragraph 7.8.4., the corrected concentration value
shall be calculated as follows:
2⋅c
− ( c + c )
( ) ( )⎟ ⎟ ⎞
c + c − c + c ⎠

c = c + ( c − c ) ⎜
(68)

where:
c is the reference concentration of the zero gas (usually zero), ppm
c is the reference concentration of the span gas, ppm
c is the pre-test analyzer concentration of the zero gas, ppm
c is the pre-test analyzer concentration of the span gas, ppm
c is the post-test analyzer concentration of the zero gas, ppm
c is the post-test analyzer concentration of the span gas, ppm
c is the sample gas concentration, ppm
Two sets of specific emission results shall be calculated for each component in
accordance with Paragraph 8.3. and/or 8.4., after any other corrections have been applied.
One set shall be calculated using uncorrected concentrations and another set shall be
calculated using the concentrations corrected for drift in accordance with Equation (68).
Depending on the measurement system and calculation method used, the uncorrected
emissions results shall be calculated with Equations (38), (39), (58), (59) or (64),
respectively. For calculation of the corrected emissions, c in Equations (38), (39), (58),
(59) or (64), respectively, shall be replaced with c of Equation (68). If instantaneous
concentration values c are used in the respective equation, the corrected value shall
also be applied as instantaneous value c . In Equation (64), the correction shall be
applied to both the measured and the background concentration.
The comparison shall be made as a percentage of the uncorrected results. The difference
between the uncorrected and the corrected specific emission values shall be within ±4% of
the uncorrected specific emission values or within ±4% of the respective limit value,
whichever is greater. If the drift is greater than 4%, the test shall be voided.
If drift correction is applied, only the drift-corrected emission results shall be used when
reporting emissions.

For the WHSC, hot WHTC, or cold WHTC, the following formula shall be applied:
m
e =
W
(73)
where:
m
is the mass emission of the component, g/test
W is the actual cycle work as determined in accordance with Paragraph 7.8.6., kWh
For the WHTC, the final test result shall be a weighted average from cold start test and hot
start test in accordance with the following equation:
( 0.14 × m ) + ( 0.86 × m )
( 0.14 × W ) + ( 0.86 × W )
e = (74)
where:
m is the mass emission of the component on the cold start test, g/test
m is the mass emission of the component on the hot start test, g/test
W is the actual cycle work on the cold start test, kWh
W is the actual cycle work on the hot start test, kWh
8.6.3.2. Hybrid Vehicles
The specific emissions e or e (g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual
component in accordance with Paragraphs A.9.2.7. or A.10.7., respectively.
8.6.3.3. Regeneration Adjustment Factors
If periodic regeneration in accordance with Paragraph 6.6.2 applies, the regeneration
adjustment factors k or k shall be multiplied with or be added to, respectively, the
specific emissions result e as determined in Equations (73) and (74), or Equations (112)
and (113) in Paragraph A.9.2.7. or Equations (248) and (249) in Paragraph A.10.7..
9. EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION AND VERIFICATION
This Paragraph describes the required calibrations, verifications and interference checks
of the measurement systems. Calibrations or verifications shall be generally performed
over the complete measurement chain. Internationally recognized-traceable standards
shall be used to meet the tolerances specified for calibrations and verifications.
Instruments shall meet the specifications in Table 7 for all ranges to be used for testing.
Furthermore, any documentation received from instrument manufacturers showing that
instruments meet the specifications in Table 7 shall be kept.

Type of calibration or verification
Table 8
Summary of Calibration and Verifications
Minimum frequency (a)
9.2.:
Linearity
Speed: Upon initial installation, within 370 days before testing and
after major maintenance.
Torque: Upon initial installation, within 370 days before testing and
after major maintenance.
Clean air and diluted exhaust flows: Upon initial installation,
within 370 days before testing and after major maintenance, unless
flow is verified by propane check or by carbon oxygen balance.
Raw exhaust flow: Upon initial installation, within 185 days before
testing and after major maintenance.
Gas analyzers: Upon initial installation, within 35 days before
testing and after major maintenance.
PM balance: Upon initial installation, within 370 days before testing
and after major maintenance.
Pressure and temperature: Upon initial installation, within 370
days before testing and after major maintenance.
9.3.1.2.: Accuracy, repeatability and noise
Accuracy: Not required, but recommended for initial installation.
Repeatability:
Not
required,
but
recommended
for
initial
installation.
Noise: Not required, but recommended for initial installation.
9.3.4.: Vacuum-side leak check Before each laboratory test in accordance with Paragraph 7.
9.3.6.:
NO converter efficiency
Upon initial installation, within 35 days before testing, and after
major maintenance.
9.3.7.1.: Optimization
of
FID
detector
response
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance
9.3.7.2.: Hydrocarbon response factors Upon initial installation, within 185 days before testing, and after
major maintenance.
9.3.7.3.: Oxygen interference check Upon initial installation, and after major maintenance and after FID
optimization in accordance with Paragraph 9.3.7.1.
9.3.8.: Efficiency of the Non-Methane
Cutter (NMC)
Upon initial installation, within 185 days before testing, and after
major maintenance.
9.3.9.1.: CO analyser interference check Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
9.3.9.2.: NO analyser quench check for CLD Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
9.3.9.3.: NO analyser quench check for
NDUV
Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
9.3.9.4.: Sampler dryer Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
9.4.5.6.: Flow instrument calibration Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
9.5.: CVS calibration Upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
9.5.5.:
CVS verification(b)
Upon initial installation, within 35 days before testing, and after
major maintenance (propane check).
(a)
(b)

Table 9
Linearity Requirements of Instruments and Measurement Systems
Measurement system ( )
Slope
a
Standard
error
SEE
Coefficient of
determination
r
Engine speed
≤ 0.05% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Engine torque
≤1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Fuel flow
≤ 1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Airflow
≤ 1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Exhaust gas flow
≤ 1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Diluent flow
≤ 1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Diluted exhaust gas flow
≤ 1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Sample flow
≤ 1% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Gas analyzers
≤ 0.5% max
0.99 - 1.01
≤ 1% max
≥ 0.998
Gas dividers
≤ 0.5% max
0.98 - 1.02
≤ 2% max
≥ 0.990
Temperatures
≤ 1% max
0.99 - 1.01
≤ 1% max
≥ 0.998
Pressures
≤ 1% max
0.99 - 1.01
≤ 1% max
≥ 0.998
PM balance
≤ 1% max
0.99 - 1.01
≤ 1% max
≥ 0.998
9.2.1. Linearity Verification
9.2.1.1. Introduction
A linearity verification shall be performed for each measurement system listed in Table 7.
At least 10 reference values, or as specified otherwise, shall be introduced to the
measurement system, and the measured values shall be compared to the reference
values by using a least squares linear regression in accordance with Equation (13). The
maximum limits in Table 9 refer to the maximum values expected during testing.
9.2.1.2. General Requirements
9.2.1.3. Procedure
The measurement systems shall be warmed up according to the recommendations of the
instrument manufacturer. The measurement systems shall be operated at their specified
temperatures, pressures and flows.
The linearity verification shall be run for each normally used operating range with the
following steps.
(a)
(b)
The instrument shall be set at zero by introducing a zero signal. For gas analyzers,
purified synthetic air (or nitrogen) shall be introduced directly to the analyzer port.
The instrument shall be spanned by introducing a span signal. For gas analyzers,
an appropriate span gas shall be introduced directly to the analyzer port.

9.3.1.4. Gas Drying
Exhaust gases may be measured wet or dry. A gas-drying device, if used, shall have a
minimal effect on the composition of the measured gases. It shall meet the requirements
of Paragraph 9.3.9.4.
The following gas-drying devices are permitted:
(a)
(b)
An osmotic-membrane dryer shall meet the temperature specifications in
Paragraph 9.3.2.2. The dew point temperature, T , and absolute pressure, p ,
downstream of an osmotic-membrane dryer shall be monitored.
A thermal chiller shall meet the NO loss-performance check specified in
Paragraph 9.3.9.4.
Chemical dryers are not permitted for removing water from the sample.
9.3.2. Gas Analyzers
9.3.2.1. Introduction
Paragraphs 9.3.2.2 to 9.2.3.7 describe the measurement principles to be used. A detailed
description of the measurement systems is given in Annex 3. The gases to be measured
shall be analyzed with the following instruments. For non-linear analyzers, the use of
linearizing circuits is permitted.
9.3.2.2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Analysis
The carbon monoxide analyzer shall be of the Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) absorption
type.
9.3.2.3. Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Analysis
The carbon dioxide analyzer shall be of the NDIR absorption type.
9.3.2.4. Hydrocarbon (HC) Analysis
The hydrocarbon analyzer shall be of the Heated Flame Ionization Detector (HFID) type
with detector, valves, pipework, etc. heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of
463K ± 10K (190 ± 10°C). Optionally, for NG fuelled and PI engines, the hydrocarbon
analyzer may be of the Non-Heated Flame Ionization Detector (FID) type depending upon
the method used (see Annex 3, Paragraph A.3.1.3.).
9.3.2.5. Non-methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC) Analysis
The determination of the non-methane hydrocarbon fraction shall be performed with a
Heated Non-Methane Cutter (NMC) operated in line with an FID as per Annex 3,
Paragraph A.3.1.4. by subtraction of the methane from the hydrocarbons. For
determination of NMHC and CH , the FID may be calibrated and spanned with CH
calibration gas.

9.3.3.1. Pure Gases
The required purity of the gases is defined by the contamination limits given below. The
following gases shall be available for operation:
a) For raw exhaust gas
Purified nitrogen
(Contamination ≤1ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO)
Purified oxygen
(Purity > 99.5% vol O )
Hydrogen-helium mixture (FID burner fuel)
(40 ± 1% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤1ppm C1, ≤ 400ppm CO )
Purified synthetic air
(Contamination ≤ 1ppm C1, ≤ 1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤ 0.1ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 18-21% vol.)
b) For dilute exhaust gas (optionally for raw exhaust gas)
Purified nitrogen
(Contamination ≤ 0.05 ppm C1, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 10 ppm CO , ≤ 0.02 ppm NO)
Purified oxygen
(Purity > 99.5% vol O )
Hydrogen-helium mixture (FID burner fuel)
(40 ± 1% hydrogen, balance helium)
(Contamination ≤ 0.05ppm C1, ≤ 10ppm CO )
Purified synthetic air
(Contamination ≤ 0.05 ppm C1, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 10 ppm CO , ≤ 0.02 ppm NO)
(Oxygen content between 20.5 - 21.5% vol.)
If gas bottles are not available, a gas purifier may be used, if contamination levels can be
demonstrated.

9.3.3.4. Oxygen Interference Check Gases
Oxygen interference check gases are a blend of propane, oxygen and nitrogen. They shall
contain propane with 350ppm C ± 75ppm C hydrocarbon. The concentration value shall be
determined to calibration gas tolerances by chromatographic analysis of total
hydrocarbons plus impurities or by dynamic blending. The oxygen concentrations required
for positive ignition and compression ignition engine testing are listed in Table 10 with the
remainder being purified nitrogen.
Table 10
Oxygen Interference Check Gases
Type of engine
Compression ignition
Compression and positive ignition
Compression and positive ignition
Positive ignition
O concentration (per cent)
21 (20 to 22)
10 (9 to 11)
5 (4 to 6)
0 (0 to 1)
9.3.4. Vacuum-side Leak Check
Upon initial sampling system installation, after major maintenance such as pre-filter
changes, and within 8 hours prior to each test sequence, it shall be verified that there are
no significant vacuum-side leaks using one of the leak tests described in this paragraph.
This verification does not apply to any full-flow portion of a CVS dilution system.
A leak may be detected either by measuring a small amount of flow when there shall be
zero flow, by measuring the pressure increase of an evacuated system, or by detecting the
dilution of a known concentration of span gas when it flows through the vacuum side of a
sampling system.
9.3.4.1. Low-flow Leak Test
The probe shall be disconnected from the exhaust system and the end plugged. The
analyzer pump shall be switched on. After an initial stabilization period all flowmeters will
read approximately zero in the absence of a leak. If not, the sampling lines shall be
checked and the fault corrected.
The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side shall be 0.5% of the in-use flow
rate for the portion of the system being checked. The analyzer flows and bypass flows
may be used to estimate the in-use flow rates.

9.3.6. Efficiency Test of NO Converter
The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO into NO is tested as given in
Paragraphs 9.3.6.1 to 9.3.6.8 (see Figure 8).
9.3.6.1. Test Setup
9.3.6.2. Calibration
Figure 8
Scheme of NO Converter Efficiency Device
Using the test setup as schematically shown in Figure 8 and the procedure below, the
efficiency of the converter shall be tested by means of an ozonator.
The CLD and the HCLD shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following
the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which shall
amount to about 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas mixture
to less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyzer shall be in the NO mode so
that the span gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated concentration has to
be recorded.

9.3.6.9. Test Interval
The efficiency of the converter shall be tested at least once per month.
9.3.6.10. Efficiency Requirement
The efficiency of the converter E shall not be less than 95%.
If, with the analyzer in the most common range, the ozonator cannot give a reduction from
80% to 20% in accordance with Paragraph 9.3.6.5., the highest range which will give the
reduction shall be used.
9.3.7. Adjustment of the FID
9.3.7.1. Optimization of the Detector Response
The FID shall be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. A propane in air
span gas shall be used to optimize the response on the most common operating range.
With the fuel and airflow rates set at the manufacturer's recommendations, a
350 ± 75 ppm C span gas shall be introduced to the analyzer. The response at a given
fuel flow shall be determined from the difference between the span gas response and the
zero gas response. The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the
manufacturer's specification. The span and zero response at these fuel flows shall be
recorded. The difference between the span and zero response shall be plotted and the
fuel flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve. This is the initial flow rate setting which may
need further optimization depending on the results of the hydrocarbon response factors
and the oxygen interference check according to Paragraphs 9.3.7.2. and 9.3.7.3. If the
oxygen interference or the hydrocarbon response factors do not meet the following
specifications, the airflow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the
manufacturer's specifications, repeating Paragraphs 9.3.7.2. and 9.3.7.3. for each flow.
The optimization may optionally be conducted using the procedures outlined in SAE paper
No. 770141.

(f)
The oxygen interference E
shall be calculated for each mixture in step (d) as
follows:
where:
E = (c - c) × 100 / c (77)
with the analyzer response being
c × c c
c = ×
(78)
c c
c is the reference HC concentration in Step (b), ppm C
c is the reference HC concentration in Step (d), ppm C
c is the full scale HC concentration in Step (b), ppm C
c is the full scale HC concentration in Step (d), ppm C
c is the measured HC concentration in Step (b), ppm C
c is the measured HC concentration in Step (d), ppm C
(g) The oxygen interference E shall be less than ±1.5% for all required oxygen
interference check gases prior to testing.
(h) If the oxygen interference E is greater than ±1.5%, corrective action may be taken
by incrementally adjusting the airflow above and below the manufacturer's
specifications, the fuel flow and the sample flow.
(i)
The oxygen interference shall be repeated for each new setting.
9.3.8. Efficiency of the Non-methane Cutter (NMC)
The NMC is used for the removal of the non-methane hydrocarbons from the sample gas
by oxidizing all hydrocarbons except methane. Ideally, the conversion for methane is 0%,
and for the other hydrocarbons represented by ethane is 100%. For the accurate
measurement of NMHC, the two efficiencies shall be determined and used for the
calculation of the NMHC emission mass flow rate (see Paragraph 8.6.2.).
It is recommended that a non-methane cutter is optimized by adjusting its temperature to
achieve an E < 0.15 and an E > 0.98 as determined by Paragraphs 9.3.8.1. and 9.3.8.2.,
as applicable. If adjusting NMC temperature does not result in achieving these
specifications, it is recommended that the catalyst material is replaced.

9.3.9.1. CO Analyzer Interference Check
Water and CO can interfere with the CO analyzer performance. Therefore, a CO span
gas having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the maximum operating range
used during testing shall be bubbled through water at room temperature and the analyzer
response recorded. The analyzer response shall not be more than 2% of the mean CO
concentration expected during testing.
Interference procedures for CO and H O may also be run separately. If the CO and H O
levels used are higher than the maximum levels expected during testing, each observed
interference value shall be scaled down by multiplying the observed interference by the
ratio of the maximum expected concentration value to the actual value used during this
procedure. Separate interference procedures concentrations of H O that are lower than
the maximum levels expected during testing may be run, but the observed H O
interference shall be scaled up by multiplying the observed interference by the ratio of the
maximum expected H O concentration value to the actual value used during this
procedure. The sum of the two scaled interference values shall meet the tolerance
specified in this Paragraph.
9.3.9.2. NO Analyzer Quench Checks for Chemi-Luminence Dectector (CLD) Analyzer
The two gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO and water vapour.
Quench responses to these gases are proportional to their concentrations, and therefore
require test techniques to determine the quench at the highest expected concentrations
experienced during testing. If the CLD analyzer uses quench compensation algorithms
that utilize H O and/or CO measurement instruments, quench shall be evaluated with
these instruments active and with the compensation algorithms applied.
9.3.9.2.1. CO Quench Check
A CO span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100% of full scale of the maximum
operating range shall be passed through the NDIR analyzer and the CO value recorded
as A. It shall then be diluted approximately 50% with NO span gas and passed through the
NDIR and CLD, with the CO and NO values recorded as B and C, respectively. The CO
shall then be shut off and only the NO span gas be passed through the (H)CLD and the
NO value recorded as D.
The per cent quench shall be calculated as follows:
( C × A)
( D × A) − ( D × B)
⎡ ⎛
⎞⎤
E = ⎢1 − ⎜
⎟⎥
× 100
(81)
⎢ ⎜

⎣ ⎝
⎠⎥

where:
A
B
C
D
is the undiluted CO concentration measured with NDIR, per cent
is the diluted CO concentration measured with NDIR, per cent
is the diluted NO concentration measured with (H)CLD, ppm
is the undiluted NO concentration measured with (H)CLD, ppm

9.3.9.2.3. Maximum Allowable Quench
The combined CO and water quench shall not exceed 2% of the NO concentration
expected during testing.
9.3.9.3. NO Analyzer Quench Check for NDUV Analyzer
9.3.9.3.1. Procedure
Hydrocarbons and H O can positively interfere with a NDUV analyzer by causing a
response similar to NO . If the NDUV analyzer uses compensation algorithms that utilize
measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously such
measurements shall be conducted to test the algorithms during the analyzer interference
verification.
The NDUV analyzer shall be started, operated, zeroed, and spanned according to the
instrument manufacturer's instructions. It is recommended to extract engine exhaust to
perform this verification. A CLD shall be used to quantify NO in the exhaust. The CLD
response shall be used as the reference value. Also HC shall be measured in the exhaust
with a FID analyzer. The FID response shall be used as the reference hydrocarbon value.
Upstream of any sample dryer, if used during testing, the engine exhaust shall be
introduced into the NDUV analyzer. Time shall be allowed for the analyzer response to
stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the transfer line and to account for
analyzer response. While all analyzers measure the sample's concentration, 30s of
sampled data shall be recorded, and the arithmetic means for the three analyzers
calculated.
The CLD mean value shall be subtracted from the NDUV mean value. This difference shall
be multiplied by the ratio of the expected mean HC concentration to the HC concentration
measured during the verification, as follows:
⎛ c ⎞
E =
(86)
where
( c − c ) ×

⎟ ⎝ c ⎠
c is the measured NO concentration with CLD, ppm
c is the measured NO concentration with NDUV, ppm
c
c
is the expected max. HC concentration, ppm
is the measured HC concentration, ppm
9.3.9.3.2. Maximum Allowable Quench
The combined HC and water quench shall not exceed 2% of the NO concentration
expected during testing.

9.3.10. Sampling for Raw Gaseous Emissions, if applicable
The gaseous emissions sampling probes shall be fitted at least 0.5m or 3 times the
diameter of the exhaust pipe − whichever is the larger − upstream of the exit of the
exhaust gas system but sufficiently close to the engine as to ensure an exhaust gas
temperature of at least 343K (70°C) at the probe.
In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the
probe shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is
representative of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder
engines having distinct groups of manifolds, such as in a "Vee" engine configuration, it is
recommended to combine the manifolds upstream of the sampling probe. If this is not
practical, it is permissible to acquire a sample from the group with the highest CO
emission. For exhaust emission calculation the total exhaust mass flow shall be used.
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust sample shall
be taken downstream of the exhaust after-treatment system.
9.3.11. Sampling for Dilute Gaseous Emissions, if applicable
The exhaust pipe between the engine and the full flow dilution system shall conform to the
requirements laid down in Annex 3. The gaseous emissions sample probe(s) shall be
installed in the dilution tunnel at a point where the diluent and exhaust gas are well mixed,
and in close proximity to the particulates sampling probe.
Sampling can generally be done in two ways:
(a)
(b)
The emissions are sampled into a sampling bag over the cycle and measured after
completion of the test; for HC, the sample bag shall be heated to 464 ± 11K
(191 ± 11°C), for NO , the sample bag temperature shall be above the dew point
temperature;
The emissions are sampled continuously and integrated over the cycle.
The background concentrations shall be determined upstream of the dilution tunnel into a
sampling bag, and shall be subtracted from the emissions concentration according to
Paragraph 8.5.2.3.2.
9.4. Particulate Measurement and Sampling System
9.4.1. General Specifications
To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, a particulate
sampling filter, a microgram balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing
chamber, are required. The particulate sampling system shall be designed to ensure a
representative sample of the particulates proportional to the exhaust flow.

9.4.3.2. Full Flow Dilution System
The particulate sampling probe shall be installed in close proximity to the gaseous
emissions sampling probe, but sufficiently distant as to not cause interference, in the
dilution tunnel. Therefore, the installation provisions of Paragraph 9.3.11. also apply to
particulate sampling. The sampling line shall conform to the requirements laid down in
Annex 3.
9.4.4. Particulate Sampling Filters
The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a filter that meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 9.4.4.1. to 9.4.4.3. during the test sequence.
9.4.4.1. Filter Specification
All filter types shall have a 0.3µm DOP (di-octylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least
99%. The filter material shall be either:
(a)
(b)
fluorocarbon (PTFE) coated glass fibre, or
fluorocarbon (PTFE) membrane.
9.4.4.2. Filter Size
The filter size shall be circular with a nominal diameter of 47mm (tolerance of
46.50 ± 0.6mm) and an exposed diameter (filter stain diameter) of at least 38mm.
9.4.4.3. Filter Face Velocity
The face velocity through the filter shall be between 0.90 and 1.00m/s with less than 5% of
the recorded flow values exceeding this range. If the total PM mass on the filter exceeds
400µg, the filter face velocity may be reduced to 0.50m/s. The face velocity shall be
calculated as the volumetric flow rate of the sample at the pressure upstream of the filter
and temperature of the filter face, divided by the filter's exposed area.
9.4.5. Weighing Chamber and Analytical Balance Specifications
The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as
dust, aerosol, or semi-volatile material) that could contaminate the particulate filters. The
weighing room shall meet the required specifications for at least 60min before weighing
filters.
9.4.5.1. Weighing Chamber Conditions
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned
and weighed shall be maintained to within 295K ± 1K (22°C ± 1°C) during all filter
conditioning and weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dew point of 282.5K ± 1K
(9.5°C ± 1°C).
If the stabilization and weighing environments are separate, the temperature of the
stabilization environment shall be maintained at a tolerance of 295K ± 3K (22°C ± 3°C),
but the dew point requirement remains at 282.5K ± 1K (9.5°C ± 1°C).
Humidity and ambient temperature shall be recorded.

9.4.5.6. Calibration of the Flow Measurement Instrumentation
Each flowmeter used in a particulate sampling and partial flow dilution system shall be
subjected to the linearity verification, as described in Paragraph 9.2.1., as often as
necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements of this gtr. For the flow reference values, an
accurate flowmeter traceable to international and/or national standards shall be used. For
differential flow measurement calibration see Paragraph 9.4.6.2.
9.4.6. Special Requirements for the Partial Flow Dilution System
The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to extract a proportional raw exhaust
sample from the engine exhaust stream, thus responding to excursions in the exhaust
stream flow rate. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio or the sampling ratio r or r be
determined such that the accuracy requirements of Paragraph 9.4.6.2. are fulfilled.
9.4.6.1. System Response Time
For the control of a partial flow dilution system, a fast system response is required. The
transformation time for the system shall be determined by the procedure in
Paragraph 9.4.6.6. If the combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement
(see Paragraph 8.4.1.2.) and the partial flow system is ≤0.3s, online control shall be used.
If the transformation time exceeds 0.3s, look ahead control based on a pre-recorded test
run shall be used. In this case, the combined rise time shall be ≤1s and the combined
delay time ≤10s.
The total system response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the
particulates, q , proportional to the exhaust mass flow. To determine the proportionality,
a regression analysis of q versus q shall be conducted on a minimum 5Hz data
acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:
(a)
The coefficient of determination r of the linear regression between q
and q
shall not be less than 0.95;
(b)
The standard error of estimate of q
on q
shall not exceed 5% of q
maximum;
(c) q intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ±2% of q maximum.
Look-ahead control is required if the combined transformation times of the particulate
system, t and of the exhaust mass flow signal, t are > 0.3s. In this case, a pre-test
shall be run, and the exhaust mass flow signal of the pre-test be used for controlling the
sample flow into the particulate system. A correct control of the partial dilution system is
obtained, if the time trace of q of the pre-test, which controls q , is shifted by a
"look-ahead" time of t + t .
For establishing the correlation between q and q the data taken during the actual
test shall be used, with q time aligned by t relative to q (no contribution from t
to the time alignment). That is, the time shift between q and q is the difference in their
transformation times that were determined in Paragraph 9.4.6.6.

(d)
A tracer gas shall be fed into the exhaust Transfer Tube (TT). This tracer gas may
be a component of the exhaust gas, like CO or NO . After dilution in the tunnel the
tracer gas component shall be measured. This shall be carried out for 5 dilution
ratios between 3 and 50. The accuracy of the sample flow shall be determined from
the dilution ratio r :
9.4.6.4. Carbon Flow Check
q = q /r (88)
The accuracies of the gas analyzers shall be taken into account to guarantee the
accuracy of q .
A carbon flow check using actual exhaust is strongly recommended for detecting
measurement and control problems and verifying the proper operation of the partial flow
system. The carbon flow check should be run at least each time a new engine is installed,
or something significant is changed in the test cell configuration.
The engine shall be operated at peak torque load and speed or any other steady state
mode that produces 5% or more of CO . The partial flow sampling system shall be
operated with a dilution factor of about 15 to 1.
If a carbon flow check is conducted, the procedure given in Annex 5 shall be applied. The
carbon flow rates shall be calculated according to Equations (106) to (108) in Annex 5. All
carbon flow rates should agree to within 3%.
9.4.6.5. Pre-test Check
A pre-test check shall be performed within 2h before the test run in the following way.
The accuracy of the flowmeters shall be checked by the same method as used for
calibration (see Paragraph 9.4.6.2.) for at least two points, including flow values of q
that correspond to dilution ratios between 5 and 15 for the q value used during the
test.
If it can be demonstrated by records of the calibration procedure under Paragraph 9.4.6.2.
that the flowmeter calibration is stable over a longer period of time, the pre-test check may
be omitted.

9.5.2. Calibration of the Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
All the parameters related to the pump shall be simultaneously measured along with the
parameters related to a calibration venturi which is connected in series with the pump. The
calculated flow rate (in m /s at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) shall be
plotted versus a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump
parameters. The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function
shall be determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, the calibration shall be
performed for each range used.
Temperature stability shall be maintained during calibration.
Leaks in all the connections and ducting between the calibration venturi and the CVS
pump shall be maintained lower than 0.3% of the lowest flow point (highest restriction and
lowest PDP speed point).
9.5.2.1. Data Analysis
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
airflow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V ) in m /rev at absolute pump inlet
temperature and pressure as follows:
q T 101.3
V = × ×
(89)
n 273 p
where:
q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T
p
n
is the temperature at pump inlet, K
is the absolute pressure at pump inlet, kPa
is the pump speed, rev/s

9.5.3.1. Data Analysis
The airflow rate (q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 8 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
calibration coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as
follows:
K
q × T
= (92)
p
where:
q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T
p
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, K
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa
The average K and the standard deviation shall be calculated. The standard deviation
shall not exceed ±0.3% of the average K .
9.5.4. Calibration of the Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is
a function of inlet pressure and temperature, pressure drop between the SSV inlet and
throat, as shown in Equation (56) (see Paragraph 8.5.1.4.).
9.5.4.1. Data Analysis
The airflow rate (Q ) at each restriction setting (minimum 16 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
discharge coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as
follows:
Q
C =
(93)



1




⎜ ⎛
1
d × p × × r − r ×
T



1 − r × r

where:
( )
⎥ ⎥ ⎦
Q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.3kPa, 273K), m /s
T
d
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, K
is the diameter of the SSV throat, m
r is the ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute static pressure = 1 −
Δp
p
r
is the ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d , to the inlet pipe inner diameter D

9.5.5.1. Metering with a Critical Flow Orifice
A known quantity of pure gas (carbon monoxide or propane) shall be fed into the CVS
system through a calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow
rate, which is adjusted by means of the critical flow orifice, is independent of the orifice
outlet pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as in a normal exhaust
emission test for about 5 to 10min. A gas sample shall be analyzed with the usual
equipment (sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated.
The mass so determined shall be within ±3% of the known mass of the gas injected.
9.5.5.2. Metering by Means of a Gravimetric Technique
The mass of a small cylinder filled with carbon monoxide or propane shall be determined
with a precision of ±0.01g. For about 5 to 10min, the CVS system shall be operated as in a
normal exhaust emission test, while carbon monoxide or propane is injected into the
system. The quantity of pure gas discharged shall be determined by means of differential
weighing. A gas sample shall be analyzed with the usual equipment (sampling bag or
integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated.
The mass so determined shall be within ±3% of the known mass of the gas injected.

Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.4
11.1
15.0
15.9
15.3
14.2
13.2
11.6
8.4
5.4
4.3
5.8
9.7
13.6
15.6
16.5
18.0
21.1
25.2
28.1
28.8
27.5
23.1
16.9
12.2
9.9
9.1
8.8
8.5
8.2
9.6
14.7
24.5
39.4
39.0
38.5
42.4
38.2
41.4
44.6
38.8
37.5
35.4
28.4
14.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.9
7.3
28.7
26.4
9.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.6
24.4
20.7
21.1
21.5
21.9
22.3
46.9
33.6
16.6
7.0
5.0
3.0
1.9
2.6
3.2
4.0
3.8
12.2
29.4
20.1
16.3
8.7
3.3
2.9
5.9
8.0
6.0
3.8
5.4
8.2
8.9
7.3
7.0
7.0
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.4
22.2
33.0
43.7
39.8
36.0
47.6
61.2
72.3
76.0
74.3
68.5
61.0
56.0
54.0
53.0
50.8
46.8
41.7
35.9
29.2
20.7
10.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
31.6
13.6
16.9
53.5
22.1
0.0
45.7
75.9
70.4
70.4
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
78.6
65.5
52.4
56.4
59.7
45.1
30.6
30.9
30.5
44.6
58.8
55.1
50.6
45.3
39.3
49.1
58.8
50.7
42.4
44.1
45.7
32.5
20.7
10.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
7.0
12.8
17.0
20.9
26.7
35.5
46.9
44.5
42.1
55.6
68.8
81.7
71.2
60.7
68.8
75.0
61.3
53.5
45.9
48.1
49.4
49.7
48.7
21.5
0.0
31.3
60.1
29.2
0.0
4.2
8.4
4.3
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
0.0
1.5
41.1
46.3
48.5
50.7
52.9
55.0
57.2
23.8
0.0
45.7
77.4
100.0
47.9
0.0
38.3
72.7
m
m
m
58.0
80.0
97.9
m
m
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
45.5
40.4
49.7
59.0
48.9
40.0
33.5
30.0
29.1
29.3
30.4
32.2
33.9
35.3
36.4
38.0
40.3
43.0
45.5
47.3
48.8
50.1
51.4
52.5
53.7
55.1
56.8
42.4
27.9
29.0
30.4
32.6
35.4
38.4
41.0
42.9
44.2
44.9
45.1
44.8
43.9
42.4
40.2
37.1
47.0
57.0
45.1
32.6
46.8
61.5
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
12.0
40.4
29.3
15.4
15.8
14.9
15.1
15.3
50.9
39.7
20.6
20.6
22.1
22.1
42.4
31.9
21.6
11.6
5.7
0.0
8.2
15.9
25.1
60.5
72.7
88.2
65.1
25.6
15.8
2.9
m
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
0.0
m
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
56.7
46.9
37.5
30.3
27.3
30.8
41.2
36.0
30.8
33.9
34.6
37.0
42.7
50.4
40.1
29.9
32.5
34.6
36.7
39.4
42.8
46.8
50.7
53.4
54.2
54.2
53.4
51.4
48.7
45.6
42.4
40.4
39.8
40.7
43.8
48.1
52.0
54.7
56.4
57.5
42.6
27.7
28.5
29.2
29.5
29.7
30.4
31.9
34.3
37.2
m
m
m
m
32.3
60.3
62.3
0.0
32.3
60.3
38.4
16.6
62.3
28.1
0.0
8.0
15.0
63.1
58.0
52.9
47.8
42.7
27.5
20.7
13.1
0.4
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
5.8
39.7
37.1
39.1
22.0
13.2
13.2
6.6
0.0
10.9
21.3
23.9
15.2
8.8
20.8
22.9
61.4
76.6

Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
15.5
30.5
45.5
49.2
39.5
29.7
34.8
40.0
42.2
42.1
40.8
37.7
47.0
48.8
41.7
27.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.0
25.8
42.8
46.8
29.3
13.6
0.0
15.1
26.9
13.6
m
m
m
37.6
35.0
33.4
m
m
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
17.2
14.0
18.4
27.6
39.8
34.3
28.7
41.5
53.7
42.4
31.2
32.3
34.5
37.6
41.2
45.8
52.3
42.5
32.6
35.0
36.0
37.1
39.6
43.4
47.2
49.6
50.2
50.2
50.6
52.3
54.8
57.0
42.3
27.6
28.4
29.1
29.6
29.7
29.8
29.5
28.9
43.0
57.1
57.7
56.0
53.8
51.2
48.1
44.5
40.9
m
37.6
25.0
17.7
6.8
0.0
26.5
40.9
17.5
0.0
27.3
53.2
60.6
68.0
75.4
82.8
38.2
0.0
30.5
57.9
77.3
96.8
80.8
78.3
73.4
66.9
62.0
57.7
62.1
62.9
37.5
18.3
0.0
29.1
57.0
51.8
35.3
33.3
17.7
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
38.1
37.2
37.5
39.1
41.3
42.3
42.0
40.8
38.6
35.5
32.1
29.6
28.8
29.2
30.9
34.3
38.3
42.5
46.6
50.7
54.8
58.7
45.2
31.8
33.8
35.5
36.6
37.2
37.2
37.0
36.6
36.0
35.4
34.7
34.1
33.6
33.3
33.1
32.7
31.4
45.0
58.5
53.7
47.5
40.6
34.1
45.3
56.4
51.0
44.5
m
42.7
70.8
48.6
0.1
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
39.9
52.9
76.1
76.5
75.5
74.8
74.2
76.2
75.1
36.3
0.0
37.2
71.2
46.4
33.6
20.0
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m

Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
1,039
1,040
1,041
1,042
1,043
1,044
1,045
1,046
1,047
1,048
1,049
1,050
1,051
1,052
1,053
1,054
1,055
1,056
1,057
1,058
1,059
1,060
1,061
1,062
1,063
1,064
1,065
1,066
1,067
1,068
1,069
1,070
1,071
1,072
1,073
1,074
1,075
1,076
1,077
1,078
1,079
1,080
1,081
1,082
1,083
1,084
1,085
1,086
1,087
1,088
40.1
42.2
45.2
48.3
50.1
52.3
55.3
57.0
57.7
42.9
28.2
29.2
31.1
33.4
35.0
35.3
35.2
34.9
34.5
34.1
33.5
31.8
30.1
29.6
30.0
31.0
31.5
31.7
31.5
30.6
30.0
30.0
29.4
44.3
59.2
58.3
57.1
55.4
53.5
51.5
49.7
47.9
46.4
45.5
45.2
44.3
43.6
43.1
42.5
43.3
34.5
40.4
44.0
35.9
29.6
38.5
57.7
50.7
25.2
0.0
15.7
30.5
52.6
60.7
61.4
18.2
14.9
11.7
12.9
15.5
m
m
m
10.3
26.5
18.8
26.5
m
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
25.6
25.7
1,089
1,090
1,091
1,092
1,093
1,094
1,095
1,096
1,097
1,098
1,099
1,100
1,101
1,102
1,103
1,104
1,105
1,106
1,107
1,108
1,109
1,110
1,111
1,112
1,113
1,114
1115
1,116
1,117
1,118
1,119
1,120
1,121
1,122
1,123
1,124
1,125
1,126
1,127
1,128
1,129
1,130
1,131
1,132
1,133
1,134
1,135
1,136
1,137
1,138
46.3
47.8
47.2
45.6
44.6
44.1
42.9
40.9
39.2
37.0
35.1
35.6
38.7
41.3
42.6
43.9
46.9
52.4
56.3
57.4
57.2
57.0
56.8
56.3
55.6
56.2
58.0
43.4
28.8
30.9
32.3
32.5
32.4
32.1
31.0
30.1
30.4
31.2
31.5
31.5
31.7
32.0
32.1
31.4
30.3
29.8
44.3
58.9
52.1
44.1
24.0
20.6
3.8
4.4
4.1
m
m
m
m
m
2.0
43.3
47.6
40.4
45.7
43.3
41.2
40.1
39.3
25.5
25.4
25.4
25.3
25.3
25.2
25.2
12.4
0.0
26.2
49.9
40.5
12.4
12.2
6.4
12.4
18.5
35.6
30.1
30.8
26.9
33.9
29.9
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
1,139
1,140
1,141
1,142
1,143
1,144
1,145
1,146
1,147
1,148
1,149
1,150
1,151
1,152
1,153
1,154
1,155
1,156
1,157
1,158
1,159
1,160
1,161
1,162
1,163
1,164
1,165
1,166
1,167
1,168
1,169
1,170
1,171
1,172
1,173
1,174
1,175
1,176
1,177
1,178
1,179
1,180
1,181
1,182
1,183
1,184
1,185
1,186
1,187
1,188
51.7
59.2
47.2
35.1
23.1
13.1
5.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
1,339
1,340
1,341
1,342
1,343
1,344
1,345
1,346
1,347
1,348
1,349
1,350
1,351
1,352
1,353
1,354
1,355
1,356
1,357
1,358
1,359
1,360
1,361
1,362
1,363
1,364
1,365
1,366
1,367
1,368
1,369
1,370
1,371
1,372
1,373
1,374
1,375
1,376
1,377
1,378
1,379
1,380
1,381
1,382
1,383
1,384
1,385
1,386
1,387
1,388
30.1
28.8
28.0
28.6
28.8
28.8
29.6
30.3
31.0
31.8
32.6
33.5
34.6
35.6
36.4
37.0
37.3
37.6
37.8
37.8
37.8
37.6
37.2
36.3
35.1
33.7
32.4
31.1
29.9
28.7
29.0
29.7
31.0
31.8
31.7
29.9
40.2
50.4
47.9
45.0
43.0
40.6
55.5
70.4
73.4
74.0
74.9
60.0
45.1
47.7
m
m
29.5
100.0
97.3
73.4
56.9
91.7
90.5
81.7
79.5
86.9
100.0
78.7
50.5
57.0
69.1
49.5
44.4
43.4
34.8
24.0
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
58.6
88.5
86.3
43.4
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
41.7
83.2
83.7
41.7
0.0
41.6
84.2
1,389
1,390
1,391
1,392
1,393
1,394
1,395
1,396
1,397
1,398
1,399
1,400
1,401
1,402
1,403
1,404
1,405
1,406
1,407
1,408
1,409
1,410
1,411
1,412
1,413
1,414
1,415
1,416
1,417
1,418
1,419
1,420
1,421
1,422
1,423
1,424
1,425
1,426
1,427
1,428
1,429
1,430
1,431
1,432
1,433
1,434
1,435
1,436
1,437
1,438
50.4
53.0
59.5
66.2
66.4
67.6
68.4
68.2
69.0
69.7
54.7
39.8
36.3
36.7
36.6
36.8
36.8
36.4
36.3
36.7
36.6
37.3
38.1
39.0
40.2
41.5
42.9
44.4
45.4
45.3
45.1
46.5
47.7
48.1
48.6
48.9
49.9
50.4
51.1
51.9
52.7
41.6
30.4
30.5
30.3
30.4
31.5
32.7
33.7
35.2
50.2
26.1
0.0
38.4
76.7
100.0
76.6
47.2
81.4
40.6
0.0
19.9
40.0
59.4
77.5
94.3
100.0
100.0
79.7
49.5
39.3
62.8
73.4
72.9
72.0
71.2
77.3
76.6
43.1
53.9
64.8
74.2
75.2
75.5
75.8
76.3
75.5
75.2
74.6
75.0
37.2
0.0
36.6
73.2
81.6
89.3
90.4
88.5
97.2
99.7
1,439
1,440
1,441
1,442
1,443
1,444
1,445
1,446
1,447
1,448
1,449
1,450
1,451
1,452
1,453
1,454
1,455
1,456
1,457
1,458
1,459
1,460
1,461
1,462
1,463
1,464
1,465
1,466
1,467
1,468
1,469
1,470
1,471
1,472
1,473
1,474
1,475
1,476
1,477
1,478
1,479
1,480
1,481
1,482
1,483
1,484
1,485
1,486
1,487
1,488
36.3
37.7
39.2
40.9
42.4
43.8
45.4
47.0
47.8
48.8
50.5
51.0
52.0
52.6
53.0
53.2
53.2
52.6
52.1
51.8
51.3
50.7
50.7
49.8
49.4
49.3
49.1
49.1
49.1
48.9
48.8
49.1
49.4
49.8
50.4
51.4
52.3
53.3
54.2
54.9
55.7
56.1
56.3
56.2
56.0
56.2
56.5
56.3
55.7
56.0
98.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5
98.7
97.3
96.6
96.2
96.3
95.1
95.9
94.3
94.6
65.5
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
8.3
16.8
21.3
22.1
26.3
39.2
83.4
90.6
93.8
94.0
94.1
94.3
94.6
94.9
86.2
64.1
46.1
33.4
23.6
18.6
16.2
15.9

Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
Time
s
Norm.
Speed
%
Norm.
Torque
%
1,639
1,640
1,641
1,642
1,643
1,644
1,645
1,646
1,647
1,648
1,649
1,650
1,651
1,652
1,653
1,654
1,655
1,656
1,657
1,658
1,659
1,660
1,661
1,662
1,663
1,664
1,665
1,666
1,667
1,668
1,669
1,670
1,671
1,672
1,673
1,674
1,675
1,676
1,677
1,678
1,679
1,680
1,681
1,682
1,683
1,684
1,685
1,686
1,687
1,688
56.3
56.5
56.3
56.4
56.4
56.2
56.2
56.2
56.4
56.0
56.4
56.2
55.9
56.1
55.8
56.0
56.2
56.2
56.4
56.3
56.2
56.2
56.2
56.4
56.2
56.4
56.1
56.5
56.2
56.5
56.4
56.3
56.4
56.7
56.8
56.6
56.8
56.9
57.1
57.1
57.0
57.4
57.4
57.6
57.5
57.4
57.5
57.5
57.6
57.6
51.9
54.1
54.9
55.0
56.2
58.6
59.1
62.5
62.8
64.7
65.6
67.7
68.9
68.9
69.5
69.8
69.3
69.8
69.2
68.7
69.4
69.5
70.0
69.7
70.2
70.5
70.5
69.7
69.3
70.9
70.8
71.1
71.0
68.6
68.6
68.0
65.1
60.9
57.4
54.3
48.6
44.1
40.2
36.9
34.2
31.1
25.9
20.7
16.4
12.4
1,689
1,690
1,691
1,692
1,693
1,694
1,695
1,696
1,697
1,698
1,699
1,700
1,701
1,702
1,703
1,704
1,705
1,706
1,707
1,708
1,709
1,710
1,711
1,712
1,713
1,714
1,715
1,716
1,717
1,718
1,719
1,720
1,721
1,722
1,723
1,724
1,725
1,726
1,727
1,728
1,729
1,730
1,731
1,732
1,733
1,734
1,735
1,736
1,737
1,738
57.6
57.5
57.5
57.3
57.6
57.3
57.2
57.2
57.3
57.3
56.9
57.1
57.0
56.9
56.6
57.1
56.7
56.8
57.0
56.7
57.0
56.9
56.7
56.9
56.8
56.6
56.6
56.5
56.6
56.5
56.6
56.3
56.6
56.1
56.3
56.4
56.0
56.1
55.9
55.9
56.0
55.9
55.5
55.9
55.8
55.6
55.8
55.9
55.9
55.8
8.9
8.0
5.8
5.8
5.5
4.5
3.2
3.1
4.9
4.2
5.5
5.1
5.2
5.5
5.4
6.1
5.7
5.8
6.1
5.9
6.6
6.4
6.7
6.9
5.6
5.1
6.5
10.0
12.4
14.5
16.3
18.1
20.7
22.6
25.8
27.7
29.7
32.6
34.9
36.4
39.2
41.4
44.2
46.4
48.3
49.1
49.3
47.7
47.4
46.9
1,739
1,740
1,741
1,742
1,743
1,744
1,745
1,746
1,747
1,748
1,749
1,750
1,751
1,752
1,753
1,754
1,755
1,756
1,757
1,758
1,759
1,760
1,761
1,762
1,763
1,764
1,765
1,766
1,767
1,768
1,769
1,770
1,771
1,772
1,773
1,774
1,775
1,776
1,777
1,778
1,779
1,780
1,781
1,782
1,783
1,784
1,785
1,786
1,787
1,788
56.1
56.1
56.2
56.3
56.3
56.2
56.2
56.4
55.8
55.5
55.0
54.1
54.0
53.3
52.6
51.8
50.7
49.9
49.1
47.7
46.8
45.7
44.8
43.9
42.9
41.5
39.5
36.7
33.8
31.0
40.0
49.1
46.2
43.1
39.9
36.6
33.6
30.5
42.8
55.2
49.9
44.0
37.6
47.2
56.8
47.5
42.9
31.6
25.8
19.9
46.8
45.8
46.0
45.9
45.9
44.6
46.0
46.2
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
0.0
m
m
m
m
m
m

(b)
WHVC VEHICLE SCHEDULE
P = rated power of hybrid system as specified in Annex 9 or Annex 10, respectively
Road gradient from the previous time step shall be used where a placeholder (…) is set.
Time
Vehicle
Vehicle
Road gradient
Time
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
1

Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
179
17.56

226
0.73

180
18.38
+2.81E-06×P -3.15E-03×P +0.78
227
0.73

181
17.49
-2.81E-06×P +3.15E-03×P -0.78
228

Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
367
27.31

414
42.83

368
29.54

415
42.15

369
31.52

416
41.28

370
33.19

417
40.17

371
34.67

418
38.9

372
36.13

419
37.59

373
37.63

420
36.39

374
39.07

421
35.33

375
40.08

422
34.3

376
40.44

423
33.07

377
40.26
+6.91E-06×P -7.10E-03×P +0.94
424
31.41

378
39.29
+2.13E-06×P -1.91E-03×P -0.20
425
29.18

379
37.23
-2.65E-06×P +3.28E-03×P -1.33
426
26.41

380
34.14

427
23.4

381
30.18

428
20.9

382
25.71

429
19.59
+8.47E-07×P -6.08E-04×P +0.36
383
21.58

430
19.36
+3.09E-06×P -3.47E-03×P +0.69
384
18.5

431
19.79
+5.33E-06×P -6.33E-03×P +1.01
385
16.56

432
20.43

386
15.39

433
20.71

387
14.77
+2.55E-06×P -2.25E-03×P +0.26
434
20.56

388
14.58
+7.75E-06×P -7.79E-03×P +1.86
435
19.96

389
14.72
+1.30E-05×P -1.33E-02×P +3.46
436
20.22

390
15.44

437
21.48

391
16.92

438
23.67

392
18.69

439
26.09

393
20.26

440
28.16

394
21.63

441
29.75

395
22.91

442
30.97

396
24.13

443
31.99

397
25.18

444
32.84

398
26.16

445
33.33

399
27.41

446
33.45

400
29.18

447
33.27
+5.50E-07×P -1.13E-03×P -0.13
401
31.36

448
32.66
-4.23E-06×P +4.06E-03×P -1.26
402
33.51

449
31.73
-9.01E-06×P +9.25E-03×P -2.40
403
35.33

450
30.58

404
36.94

451
29.2

405
38.6

452
27.56

406
40.44

453
25.71

407
42.29

454
23.76

408
43.73

455
21.87

409
44.47

456
20.15

410
44.62

457
18.38

411
44.41
+8.17E-06×P -8.13E-03×P +2.32
458
15.93

412
43.96
+3.39E-06×P -2.94E-03×P +1.18
459
12.33

413
43.41
-1.39E-06×P +2.25E-03×P +0.04
460
7.99


Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
555
23.59

602
39.19

556
24.23

603
40.31

557
24.9

604
41.46

558
25.72

605
42.44

559
26.77

606
42.95

560
28.01

607
42.9

561
29.23

608
42.43

562
30.06

609
41.74

563
30.31

610
41.04

564
30.29
+1.21E-07×P² -4.06E-04×P +0.33
611
40.49

565
30.05
-4.66E-06×P² +4.79E-03×P -0.81
612
40.8

566
29.44
-9.44E-06×P² +9.98E-03×P -1.95
613
41.66

567
28.6

614
42.48

568
27.63

615
42.78
+1.21E-07×P -4.06E-04×P +0.33
569
26.66

616
42.39
-4.66E-06×P +4.79E-03×P -0.81
570
26.03
-4.66E-06×P² +4.79E-03×P -0.81
617
40.78
-9.44E-06×P +9.98E-03×P -1.95
571
25.85
+1.21E-07×P² -4.06E-04×P +0.33
618
37.72

572
26.14
+4.90E-06×P² -5.60E-03×P +1.47
619
33.29

573
27.08

620
27.66

574
28.42

621
21.43

575
29.61

622
15.62

576
30.46

623
11.51

577
30.99

624
9.69
-4.66E-06×P +4.79E-03×P -0.81
578
31.33

625
9.46
+1.21E-07×P -4.06E-04×P +0.33
579
31.65

626
10.21
+4.90E-06×P -5.60E-03×P +1.47
580
32.02

627
11.78

581
32.39

628
13.6

582
32.68

629
15.33

583
32.84

630
17.12

584
32.93

631
18.98

585
33.22

632
20.73

586
33.89

633
22.17

587
34.96

634
23.29

588
36.28

635
24.19

589
37.58

636
24.97

590
38.58

637
25.6

591
39.1

638
25.96

592
39.22

639
25.86
+1.21E-07×P -4.06E-04×P +0.33
593
39.11

640
24.69
-4.66E-06×P +4.79E-03×P -0.81
594
38.8

641
21.85
-9.44E-06×P +9.98E-03×P -1.95
595
38.31

642
17.45

596
37.73

643
12.34

597
37.24

644
7.59

598
37.06

645
4

599
37.1

646
1.76

600
37.42

647

Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
743

Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
837
39.56

884
34.89

838
37.93

885
32.69

839
36.69

886
30.99

840
36.27

887
29.31

841
36.42

888
27.29

842
37.14

889
24.79

843
38.13

890
21.78

844
38.55

891
18.51

845
38.42

892
15.1

846
37.89

893
11.06

847
36.89

894
6.28

848
35.53

895
2.24

849
34.01

896

Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
1,025
25.52

1,072
46.79
-3.07E-06×P² +3.20E-03×P -0.34
1,026
28.28

1,073
46.13

1,027
30.38

1,074
45.73

1,028
31.22

1,075
45.17

1,029
32.22

1,076
44.43

1,030
33.78

1,077
43.59

1,031
35.08

1,078
42.68

1,032
35.91

1,079
41.89

1,033
36.06

1,080
41.09

1,034
35.5

1,081
40.38

1,035
34.76

1,082
39.99

1,036
34.7

1,083
39.84

1,037
35.41

1,084
39.46

1,038
36.65

1,085
39.15

1,039
37.57

1,086
38.9

1,040
38.51

1,087
38.67

1,041
39.88

1,088
39.03

1,042
41.25

1,089
40.37

1,043
42.07

1,090
41.03

1,044
43.03

1,091
40.76

1,045
44.4

1,092
40.02

1,046
45.14

1,093
39.6

1,047
45.44

1,094
39.37

1,048
46.13

1,095
38.84

1,049
46.79

1,096
37.93

1,050
47.45

1,097
37.19

1,051
48.68

1,098
36.21
-2.43E-06×P +1.57E-03×P -0.48
1,052
50.13

1,099
35.32
-1.80E-06×P -5.59E-05×P -0.62
1,053
51.16

1,100
35.56
-1.16E-06×P -1.68E-03×P -0.77
1,054
51.37

1,101
36.96

1,055
51.3

1,102
38.12

1,056
51.15

1,103
38.71

1,057
50.88

1,104
39.26

1,058
50.63

1,105
40.64

1,059
50.2

1,106
43.09

1,060
49.12

1,107
44.83

1,061
48.02

1,108
45.33

1,062
47.7

1,109
45.24

1,063
47.93

1,110
45.14

1,064
48.57

1,111
45.06

1,065
48.88

1,112
44.82

1,066
49.03

1,113
44.53

1,067
48.94

1,114
44.77

1,068
48.32

1,115
45.6

1,069
47.97

1,116
46.28

1,070
47.92
-1.80E-06×P -5.59E-05×P -0.62
1,117
47.18

1,071
47.54
-2.43E-06×P +1.57E-03×P -0.48
1,118
48.49


Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
1,213
35.57

1,260
72.71

1,214
38.07

1,261
71.39

1,215
39.71

1,262
70.02

1,216
40.36

1,263
68.71

1,217
40.6

1,264
67.52

1,218
41.15

1,265
66.44

1,219
42.23

1,266
65.45

1,220
43.61

1,267
64.49

1,221
45.08

1,268
63.54

1,222
46.58

1,269
62.6

1,223
48.13

1,270
61.67

1,224
49.7

1,271
60.69

1,225
51.27

1,272
59.64

1,226
52.8

1,273
58.6

1,227
54.3

1,274
57.64

1,228
55.8

1,275
56.79

1,229
57.29

1,276
55.95

1,230
58.73

1,277
55.09

1,231
60.12

1,278
54.2

1,232
61.5

1,279
53.33

1,233
62.94

1,280
52.52

1,234
64.39

1,281
51.75

1,235
65.52

1,282
50.92

1,236
66.07

1,283
49.9

1,237
66.19

1,284
48.68

1,238
66.19

1,285
47.41

1,239
66.43

1,286
46.5
+1.06E-05×P -1.01E-02×P +1.57
1,240
67.07

1,287
46.22
+7.62E-06×P -7.70E-03×P +1.30
1,241
68.04

1,288
46.44
+4.65E-06×P -5.29E-03×P +1.03
1,242
69.12

1,289
47.35

1,243
70.08

1,290
49.01

1,244
70.91

1,291
50.93

1,245
71.73

1,292
52.79

1,246
72.66

1,293
54.66

1,247
73.67

1,294
56.6

1,248
74.55

1,295
58.55

1,249
75.18

1,296
60.47

1,250
75.59

1,297
62.28

1,251
75.82

1,298
63.9

1,252
75.9

1,299
65.2

1,253
75.92

1,300
66.02

1,254
75.87

1,301
66.39

1,255
75.68

1,302
66.74

1,256
75.37

1,303
67.43

1,257
75.01
+7.07E-06×P -7.30E-03×P +1.19
1,304
68.44

1,258
74.55
+1.03E-05×P -9.91E-03×P +1.51
1,305
69.52

1,259
73.8
+1.36E-05×P -1.25E-02×P +1.83
1,306
70.53


Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
1,401
51.53

1,448
80.2

1,402
50.17

1,449
81.67

1,403
49.99

1,450
82.11

1,404
50.32

1,451
82.91

1,405
51.05

1,452
83.43

1,406
51.45

1,453
83.79

1,407
52

1,454
83.5

1,408
52.3

1,455
84.01

1,409
52.22

1,456
83.43

1,410
52.66

1,457
82.99

1,411
53.18

1,458
82.77

1,412
53.8

1,459
82.33

1,413
54.53

1,460
81.78

1,414
55.37

1,461
81.81

1,415
56.29

1,462
81.05

1,416
57.31

1,463
80.72
-6.93E-06×P +5.24E-03×P -1.21
1,417
57.94

1,464
80.61
-1.05E-05×P +8.45E-03×P -1.74
1,418
57.86

1,465
80.46
-1.42E-05×P +1.17E-02×P -2.27
1,419
57.75

1,466
80.42

1,420
58.67

1,467
80.42

1,421
59.4

1,468
80.24

1,422
59.69

1,469
80.13

1,423
60.02

1,470
80.39

1,424
60.21

1,471
80.72

1,425
60.83

1,472
81.01

1,426
61.16

1,473
81.52

1,427
61.6

1,474
82.4

1,428
62.15

1,475
83.21

1,429
62.7
+2.30E-06×P -3.18E-03×P +1.81
1,476
84.05

1,430
63.65
-5.04E-07×P -5.74E-04×P +0.57
1,477
84.85

1,431
64.27
-3.31E-06×P +2.03E-03×P -0.68
1,478
85.42

1,432
64.31

1,479
86.18

1433
64.13

1,480
86.45

1,434
64.27

1,481
86.64

1,435
65.22

1,482
86.57

1,436
66.25

1,483
86.43

1,437
67.09

1,484
86.58

1,438
68.37

1,485
86.8

1,439
69.36

1,486
86.65

1,440
70.57

1,487
86.14

1,441
71.89

1,488
86.36

1,442
73.35

1,489
86.32

1,443
74.64

1,490
86.25

1,444
75.81

1,491
85.92

1,445
77.24

1,492
86.14

1,446
78.63

1,493
86.36

1,447
79.32

1,494
86.25


Time
Vehicle
Road gradient Time Vehicle
speed
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
s
km/h
%
1,589
87.1

1,636
86.92

1,590
86.81

1,637
86.77

1,591
86.99

1,638
86.88

1,592
86.81

1,639
86.63

1,593
87.14

1,640
86.85

1,594
86.81

1,641
86.63

1,595
86.85

1,642
86.77
-6.00E-06×P +5.11E-03×P -0.41
1,596
87.03

1,643
86.77
-5.09E-06×P +4.19E-03×P +0.10
1,597
86.92

1,644
86.55
-4.18E-06×P +3.26E-03×P +0.61
1,598
87.14

1,645
86.59

1,599
86.92

1,646
86.55

1,600
87.03

1,647
86.7

1,601
86.99

1,648
86.44

1,602
86.96

1,649
86.7

1,603
87.03

1,650
86.55

1,604
86.85

1,651
86.33

1,605
87.1

1,652
86.48

1,606
86.81

1,653
86.19

1,607
87.03

1,654
86.37

1,608
86.77

1,655
86.59

1,609
86.99

1,656
86.55

1,610
86.96

1,657
86.7

1,611
86.96

1,658
86.63

1,612
87.07

1,659
86.55

1,613
86.96

1,660
86.59

1,614
86.92

1,661
86.55

1,615
87.07

1,662
86.7

1,616
86.92

1,663
86.55

1,617
87.14

1,664
86.7

1,618
86.96

1,665
86.52

1,619
87.03

1,666
86.85

1,620
86.85

1,667
86.55

1,621
86.77

1,668
86.81

1,622
87.1

1,669
86.74

1,623
86.92

1,670
86.63

1,624
87.07

1,671
86.77

1,625
86.85

1,672
87.03

1,626
86.81

1,673
87.07

1,627
87.14

1,674
86.92

1,628
86.77

1,675
87.07

1,629
87.03

1,676
87.18

1,630
86.96

1,677
87.32

1,631
87.1

1,678
87.36

1,632
86.99

1,679
87.29

1,633
86.92

1,680
87.58
-6.58E-06×P +5.65E-03×P -0.51
1,634
87.1

1,681
87.61
-8.97E-06×P +8.04E-03×P -1.64
1,635
86.85

1,682
87.76
-1.14E-05×P +1.04E-02×P -2.77

Time
Vehicle
speed
Road gradient
s
km/h
%
1,777
46.51

1,778
44.35

1,779
41.97

1,780
39.33

1,781
36.48

1,782
33.8

1,783
31.09

1,784
28.24

1,785
26.81

1,786
23.33

1,787
19.01

1,788
15.05

1,789
12.09

1,790
9.49

1,791
6.81

1,792
4.28

1,793
2.09

1,794
0.88

1,795
0.88

1,796

A.2.2. United States of America Diesel Reference Fuel 2-D
Parameter Unit Test method
min.
Limits
max.
Cetane number
Cetane index
Density at 15°C
1
1
kg/m
ASTM D 613
ASTM D 976
ASTM D 1298
40
40
840
50
50
865
Distillation
Initial boiling point
10% Vol.
50% Vol.
90% Vol.
Final boiling point
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
ASTM D 86
171
204
243
293
321
204
238
282
332
366
Flash point
Kinematic viscosity at 37.9°C
°C
mm /s
ASTM D 93
ASTM D 445
54
2

3.2
Mass fraction of sulphur
Volume fraction of aromatics
ppm
per cent v/v
ASTM D 2785
ASTM D 1319
7
27
15

A.2.3.
Japan Diesel Reference Fuel
Property Unit Test method
Grade 1 Grade 2 Cert. Diesel
min. max. min. max. min. max.
Cetane index
Density at 15°C
Distillation
50% Vol.
90% Vol.
End point
kg/m
°C
°C
°C
ISO 4264
ISO 3405
50







360

45







350

53
824
255
300

57
840
295
345
370
Flash point
Cold filter plugging
point
Pour point
Kinematic viscosity
at 30°C
Mass fraction of
sulphur
°C
°C
°C
mm /s
%
ISO 3405
ICS 75.160.20
ISO 3015
ISO 2909
ISO 4260
50


2.7


-1
-2.5

0.001
50


2.5


-5
-7.5

0.001
58


3.0




4.5
0.001
Volume fraction of
total aromatics
Volume fraction of
poly-aromatics
Mass fraction of
carbon residue
(10% bottom)
% v/v
% v/v
mg
HPLC
HPLC
ISO 4260





0.1





0.1



25
5.0


a = vent
b = zero, span gas
c = dilution tunnel
d = optional
Figure 10
Schematic Flow Diagram of Diluted Exhaust Gas Analysis System for CO, CO , NO , HC
A.3.1.3.
Components of Figures 9 and 10
EP
SP
Exhaust pipe
Raw exhaust gas sampling probe (Figure 9 only)
A stainless steel straight closed end multi-hole probe is recommended. The inside diameter
shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the sampling line. The wall thickness of the
probe shall not be greater than 1mm. There shall be a minimum of 3 holes in 3 different radial
planes sized to sample approximately the same flow. The probe shall extend across at least
80% of the diameter of the exhaust pipe. One or two sampling probes may be used.
SP2 Dilute exhaust gas HC sampling probe (Figure 10 only)
The probe shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Be defined as the first 254mm to 762mm of the heated sampling line HSL1
Have a 5mm minimum inside diameter
Be installed in the Dilution Tunnel DT (Figure 15) at a point where the diluent and
exhaust gas are well mixed (i.e. approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the
point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel)

HSL2 Heated NO sampling line
The sampling line shall:
(a)
(b)
HP
maintain a wall temperature of 328K to 473K (55°C to 200°C), up to the converter for
dry measurement, and up to the analyzer for wet measurement
be made of stainless steel or PTFE
Heated sampling pump
The pump shall be heated to the temperature of HSL.
SL
Sampling line for CO and CO
The line shall be made of PTFE or stainless steel. It may be heated or unheated.
HC
HFID analyzer
Heated Flame Ionization Detector (HFID) or Flame Ionization Detector (FID) for the
determination of the hydrocarbons. The temperature of the HFID shall be kept at 453K to
473K (180°C to 200°C).
CO, CO
NDIR analyzer
NDIR analyzers for the determination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (optional for the
determination of the dilution ratio for PT measurement).
NO CLD analyzer or NDUV analyzer
CLD, HCLD or NDUV analyzer for the determination of the oxides of nitrogen. If a HCLD is
used it shall be kept at a temperature of 328K to 473K (55°C to 200°C).
B
Sample dryer (optional for NO measurement)
To cool and condense water from the exhaust sample. It is optional if the analyzer is free from
water vapour interference as determined in Paragraph 9.3.9.2.2. If water is removed by
condensation, the sample gas temperature or dew point shall be monitored either within the
water trap or downstream. The sample gas temperature or dew point shall not exceed 280K
(7°C). Chemical dryers are not allowed for removing water from the sample.
BK
Background bag (optional; Figure 10 only)
For the measurement of the background concentrations.
BG
Sample bag (optional; Figure 10 only)
For the measurement of the sample concentrations.

A.3.1.5. Components of Figure 11
NMC Non-methane cutter
To oxidize all hydrocarbons except methane
HC
Heated Flame Ionization Detector (HFID) or Flame Ionization Detector (FID) to measure the
HC and CH concentrations. The temperature of the HFID shall be kept at 453K to 473K
(180°C to 200°C).
V1
Selector valve
To select zero and span gas
R
Pressure regulator
To control the pressure in the sampling line and the flow to the HFID
A.3.2.
A.3.2.1.
Dilution and Particulate Sampling System
Description of Partial Flow System
A dilution system is described based upon the dilution of a part of the exhaust stream.
Splitting of the exhaust stream and the following dilution process may be done by different
dilution system types. For subsequent collection of the particulates, the entire dilute exhaust
gas or only a portion of the dilute exhaust gas is passed to the particulate sampling system.
The first method is referred to as total sampling type, the second method as fractional
sampling type. The calculation of the dilution ratio depends upon the type of system used.
With the total sampling system as shown in Figure 12, raw exhaust gas is transferred from the
Exhaust Pipe (EP) to the Dilution Tunnel (DT) through the Sampling Probe (SP) and the
Transfer Tube (TT). The total flow through the tunnel is adjusted with the flow controller FC2
and the Sampling Pump (SP) of the particulate sampling system (see Figure 16). The diluent
flow is controlled by the flow controller FC1, which may use q or q and q as command
signals, for the desired exhaust split. The sample flow into DT is the difference of the total
flow and the diluent flow. The diluent flow rate is measured with the flow measurement device
FM1, the total flow rate with the flow measurement device FM3 of the particulate sampling
system (see Figure 6) . The dilution ratio is calculated from these two flow rates.

a = exhaust
b = to PB or SB c = details see Figure 16
d = to particulate sampling system
e = vent
Figure 13
Scheme of Partial Flow Dilution System (Fractional Sampling Type)
A.3.2.2.
Components of Figures 12 and 13
EP
Exhaust pipe
The exhaust pipe may be insulated. To reduce the thermal inertia of the exhaust pipe a
thickness to diameter ratio of 0.015 or less is recommended. The use of flexible sections shall
be limited to a length to diameter ratio of 12 or less. Bends shall be minimized to reduce
inertial deposition. If the system includes a test bed silencer the silencer may also be
insulated. It is recommended to have a straight pipe of 6 pipe diameters upstream and 3 pipe
diameters downstream of the tip of the probe.
SP
Sampling Probe
The type of probe shall be either of the following
(a)
(b)
Open tube facing upstream on the exhaust pipe centreline
Open tube facing downstream on the exhaust pipe centreline

FC1 Flow controller
A flow controller shall be used to control the diluent flow through the Pressure Blower (PB)
and/or the Suction Blower (SB). It may be connected to the exhaust flow sensor signals
specified in Paragraph 8.4.1. The flow controller may be installed upstream or downstream of
the respective blower. When using a pressurized air supply, FC1 directly controls the airflow.
FM1 Flow Measurement Device
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluent flow. FM1 is optional if the
pressure blower (PB) is calibrated to measure the flow.
DAF Diluent Filter
The diluent (ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen) shall be filtered with a high-efficiency
(HEPA) filter that has an initial minimum collection efficiency of 99.97% in accordance with
EN 1822-1 (filter Class H14 or better), ASTM F 1471-93 or equivalent standard.
FM2 Flow Measurement Device (fractional sampling type, Figure 13 only)
Gas meter or other flow instrumentation to measure the diluted exhaust gas flow. FM2 is
optional if the Suction Blower (SB) is calibrated to measure the flow.
PB
Pressure blower (fractional sampling type, Figure 13 only)
To control the diluent flow rate, PB may be connected to the flow controllers FC1 or FC2. PB
is not required when using a butterfly valve. PB may be used to measure the diluent flow, if
calibrated.
SB
Suction Blower (fractional sampling type, Figure 13 only)
SB may be used to measure the diluted exhaust gas flow, if calibrated.
DT
Dilution Tunnel (partial flow)
The dilution tunnel:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Shall be of a sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and diluent
under turbulent flow conditions (Reynolds number Re, greater than 4,000, where Re is
based on the inside diameter of the dilution tunnel) for a fractional sampling system,
i.e. complete mixing is not required for a total sampling system;
Shall be constructed of stainless steel;
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
May be insulated.

a = analyzer system b = background air c = exhaust d = details see Figure 17
e = to double dilution system f = if EFC is used i = vent g = optional h = or
Figure 15
Scheme of Full Flow Dilution System (CVS)

EFC Electronic Flow Compensation (optional)
If the temperature at the inlet to the PDP, CFV or SSV is not kept within the limits stated
above, a flow compensation system is required for continuous measurement of the flow rate
and control of the proportional sampling into the double dilution system. For that purpose, the
continuously measured flow rate signals are used to maintain the proportionality of the
sample flow rate through the particulate filters of the double dilution system (see Figure 17)
within ±2.5%.
DT
Dilution tunnel (full flow)
The dilution tunnel
(a)
(b)
(c)
Shall be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds Number, Re,
greater than 4,000, where Re is based on the inside diameter of the dilution tunnel) and
of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and diluent;
May be insulated
May be heated up to a wall temperature sufficient to eliminate aqueous condensation.
The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the
dilution tunnel, and thoroughly mixed. A mixing orifice may be used.
For the double dilution system, a sample from the dilution tunnel is transferred to the
secondary dilution tunnel where it is further diluted, and then passed through the sampling
filters (Figure 17). The secondary dilution system shall provide sufficient secondary diluent to
maintain the doubly diluted exhaust stream at a temperature between 315K (42°C) and 325K
(52°C) immediately before the particulate filter.
DAF Diluent Air filter
The diluent (ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen) shall be filtered with a high-efficiency
(HEPA) filter that has an initial minimum collection efficiency of 99.97% in accordance with
EN 1822-1 (filter Class H14 or better), ASTM F 1471-93 or equivalent standard.
PSP Particulate Sampling Probe
The probe is the leading section of PTT and
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Shall be installed facing upstream at a point where the diluent and exhaust gases are
well mixed, i.e. on the dilution tunnel DT centreline of the dilution systems,
approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters
the dilution tunnel;
Shall be of 8mm minimum inside diameter;
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature by direct heating or by
diluent pre-heating, provided the air temperature does not exceed 325K (52°C) prior to
the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel;
May be insulated.

a = diluted exhaust from DT b = optional c = vent d = secondary diluent
Figure 17
Scheme of Double Dilution Particulate Sampling System
A.3.2.6.
Components of Figures 16 (Partial Flow System Only) and 17 (Full Flow System Only)
PTT Particulate Transfer Tube
The transfer tube:
(a)
(b)
(b)
shall be inert with respect to PM;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
may be insulated.
SDT Secondary Dilution Tunnel (Figure 17 only)
The secondary dilution tunnel:
(a)
(b)
(c)
FH
Shall be of sufficient length and diameter so as to comply with the residence time
requirements of Paragraph 9.4.2., subparagraph (f);
May be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
May be insulated.
Filter Holder
The filter holder:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Shall have a 12.5° (from center) divergent cone angle to transition from the transfer line
diameter to the exposed diameter of the filter face;
may be heated to no greater than 325K (52°C) wall temperature;
may be insulated.
Multiple filter changers (auto changers) are acceptable, as long as there is no interaction
between sampling filters.

ANNEX 4
STATISTICS
A4.1.
Mean Value and Standard Deviation
The arithmetic mean value shall be calculated as follows:

x
x = (96)
n
The standard deviation shall be calculated as follows:
s =
∑ ( x − x)
n − 1
(97)
A.4.2.
Regression Analysis
The slope of the regression shall be calculated as follows:
∑ ( y − y) × ( x − x)
a =
(98)
∑ ( x − x)
The y intercept of the regression shall be calculated as follows:
( x)
a = y − a ×
(99)
The Standard Error of Estimate (SEE) shall be calculated as follows:
SEE =

[ y − a − ( a × x ) ]
n − 2
(100)
The coefficient of determination shall be calculated as follows:
r
= 1 −

[ y − a − ( a × x )]
∑ ( y − y)
(101)

(g)
Determine the equivalency, as follows:
(i) if F < F and t < t , then the candidate system is equivalent to the reference system
of this gtr
(ii) if F ≥ F or t ≥ t , then the candidate system is different from the reference system
of this gtr
Table 11
t and F Values for Selected Sample Sizes
Sample Size F-test t-test
df F df t
7 6/6 3.055 12 1.782
8 7/7 2.785 14 1.761
9 8/8 2.589 16 1.746
10 9/9 2.440 18 1.734

A.5.2. Carbon Flow Rate into the Engine (Location 1)
The carbon mass flow rate into the engine for a fuel CH O is given by:
12β
q =
× q
12β + α + 16ε
(106)
where:
q
is the fuel mass flow rate, kg/s
A.5.3. Carbon Flow Rate in the Raw Exhaust (Location 2)
The carbon mass flow rate Q in the exhaust pipe of the engine shall be determined from
the raw CO concentration and the exhaust gas mass flow rate:
q
⎛ c − c ⎞ 12.011
= ⎜
× q ×
100

(107)


M
where:
c is the wet CO concentration in the raw exhaust gas, per cent
c is the wet CO concentration in the ambient air, per cent
q is the exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis, kg/s
M
is the molar mass of exhaust gas, g/mol
If CO is measured on a dry basis it shall be converted to a wet basis according to
Paragraph 8.1.

ANNEX 6
EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION PROCEDURE
A.6.1.
Speed and Torque Denormalization Procedure
As an example, the following test point shall be denormalized:
per cent speed
= 43%
per cent torque
= 82%
Given the following values:
n
=
1,015min
n
=
2,200min
n
=
1,300min
n
=
600min
Results in:
Equation (250):
actual speed =
= 1,178min
43 ×
( 0.45 × 1,015 + 0.45 × 1,300 + 0.1×
2,200 − 600)
100
× 2.0327
+ 600
With the maximum torque of 700 Nm observed from the mapping curve at 1,178min
actual torque =
82 × 700
100
= 574 Nm

The following fuel composition is considered:
Component
Molar ratio
per cent mass
H
α = 1.8529
w
= 13.45
C
β = 1.0000
w
= 86.50
S
γ = 0.0002
w
= 0.050
N
δ = 0.0000
w
= 0.000
O
ε = 0.0000
w
= 0.000
Step 1: Dry/wet correction (Paragraph 8.1.):
Equation (18): k = 0.055584 × 13.45 - 0.0001083 × 86.5 - 0.0001562 × 0.05 = 0.7382

0.005 ⎞
⎜ 1.2434 × 8 + 111.12 × 13.45 × ⎟
Equation (15): k =

1 −
0.148 ⎟
× 1.008 = 0. 9331

0.005

⎜ 773.4 + 1.2434 × 8 + × 0.7382 × 1,000 ⎟

0.148

Equation (14):
c (wet) = 40 × 0.9331 = 37.3 ppm
c (wet) = 500 × 0.9331 = 466.6 ppm
Step 2: NO correction for temperature and humidity (Paragraph 8.2.1.):
15.698 × 8.00
Equation (25): k =
+ 0.832 = 0. 9576
1,000
Step 3: Calculation of the instantaneous emission of each individual point of the cycle
(Paragraph 8.4.2.3.):
Equation (251): m = 10 × 3 × 0.155 = 4.650
m = 37.3 × 0.155 = 5.782
m = 466.6 × 0.9576 × 0.155 = 69.26
Step 4:
Calculation of the mass emission over the cycle by integration of the instantaneous
emission values and the u values from Table 5 (Paragraph 8.4.2.3.):

Step 3: Calculation of the particulate mass emission (Paragraph 8.4.3.5.2.):
1.7006 × 1,116
Equation (47): m =
= 1.253 g / test
1.515 × 1,000
Step 4: Calculation of the specific emission (Paragraph 8.6.3.):
Equation (73): e = 1.253 / 40 = 0.031g/kWh

ANNEX 7 (Cont'd)
INSTALLATION OF AUXILIARIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR EMISSIONS TEST
8 Air cooling
Cowl
Fan or Blower
Temperature-regulating device
9 Electrical equipment
Alternator
Coil or coils
Wiring
Electronic control system
10 Intake air charging equipment
Compressor driven either directly by the engine and/or by
the exhaust gases
Charge air cooler
Coolant pump or fan (engine-driven)
Coolant flow control device
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, or test cell system
No
Yes
11 Anti-pollution device (exhaust after-treatment system) Yes
12 Starting equipment Yes, or test cell system
13 Lubricating oil pump Yes

ANNEX 9
TEST PROCEDURE FOR ENGINES INSTALLED IN HYBRID VEHICLES USING
THE HILS METHOD
A.9.1.
A.9.2.
A.9.2.1
This Annex contains the requirements and general description for testing engines
installed in hybrid vehicles using the HILS method.
Test Procedure
HILS Method
The HILS method shall follow the general guidelines for execution of the defined process
steps as outlined below and shown in the flow chart of Figure 19. The details of each
step are described in the relevant paragraphs.
Deviations from the guidance are permitted where appropriate, but the specific
requirements shall be mandatory.
For the HILS method, the procedure shall follow:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Selection and confirmation of the HDH object for approval
Build of the HILS system setup
Check of the HILS system performance
Build and verification of the HV model
Component test procedures
Hybrid system rated power determination
Creation of the hybrid engine cycle
Exhaust emission test
Data collection and evaluation
Calculation of the specific emissions

A.9.2.5.
Exhaust Emission Test
The exhaust emission test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraphs 6. and 7.
A.9.2.6.
A.9.2.6.1.
Data collection and Evaluation
Emission Relevant Data
All data relevant for the pollutant emissions shall be recorded in accordance with
Paragraphs 7.6.6. during the engine emission test run.
If the predicted temperature method in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.2.18. is used,
the temperatures of the elements that influence the hybrid control shall be recorded.
A.9.2.6.2.
Calculation of Hybrid System Work
The hybrid system work shall be determined over the test cycle by synchronously using
the hybrid system rotational speed and torque values at the wheel hub (HILS chassis
model output signals in accordance with Paragraph A.9.7.3.) from the valid HILS
simulated run of Paragraph A.9.6.4. to calculate instantaneous values of hybrid system
power. Instantaneous power values shall be integrated over the test cycle to calculate
the hybrid system work from the HILS simulated running W (kWh). Integration shall
be carried out using a frequency of 5Hz or higher (10 Hz recommended) and include
only positive power values in accordance with Paragraph A.9.7.3. (Equation (146)).
The hybrid system work (W
) shall be calculated as follows:
(a) Cases where W < W :
W
W ⎛ 1 ⎞
= W × × ⎜ ⎟ (109)
W ⎝ 0.95 ⎠
(b) Cases where W ≥ W
W
⎛ 1 ⎞
= W × ⎜ ⎟ (110)
⎝ 0.95 ⎠
Where:
W is the hybrid system work, kWh
W
is the hybrid system work from the final HILS simulated run, kWh
W is the actual engine work in the HEC test, kWh
W
is the engine work from the final HILS simulated run, kWh
All parameters shall be reported.

A.9.2.7.
Calculation of the Specific Emissions for Hybrids
The specific emissions e
or e
(g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual
component as follows:
m
e = (112)
W
Where:
e
m
is the specific emission, g/kWh
is the mass emission of the component, g/test
W is the cycle work as determined in accordance with Paragraph A.9.2.6.2., kWh
The final test result shall be a weighted average from cold start test and hot start test in
accordance with the following equation:
( 0.14 × m ) + ( 0.86 × m )
e = (113)
Where:
( 0.14 × W ) + ( 0.86 × W )
m is the mass emission of the component on the cold start test, g/test
m is the mass emission of the component on the hot start test, g/test
W
W
is the hybrid system cycle work on the cold start test, kWh
is the hybrid system cycle work on the hot start test, kWh
If periodic regeneration in accordance with Paragraph 6.6.2. applies, the regeneration
adjustment factors k or k shall be multiplied with or be added to, respectively, the
specific emission result e as determined in Equations (112) and (113).

Figure 21
Outline of HILS System Setup
A.9.3.2.
HILS Hardware
The HILS hardware shall contain all physical systems to build up the HILS system, but
excludes the actual ECU(s).
The HILS hardware shall have the signal types and number of channels that are required
for constructing the interface between the HILS hardware and the actual ECU(s), and
shall be checked and calibrated in accordance with the procedures of Paragraph A.9.3.7.
and using the reference HV model of Paragraph A.9.4.

A.9.3.7.
Operation check of HILS System Setup
The operation check of the HILS system setup shall be verified through a SILS run using
the reference HV model (in accordance with Paragraph A.9.4.) on the HILS system.
Linear regression of the calculated output values of the reference HV model SILS run on
the provided reference values (in accordance with Paragraph A.9.4.4.) shall be
performed. The method of least squares shall be used, with the best-fit equation having
the form:
y = a x + a
(114)
Where:
y
x
a
a
is the actual HILS value of the signal
is the measured reference value of the signal
is the slope of the regression line
is the y-intercept value of the regression line
For the HILS system setup to be considered valid, the criteria of Table 13 shall be met.
In case the programming language for the HV model is other than Matlab®/Simulink®,
the confirmation of the calculation performance for the HILS system setup shall be
proven using the specific HV model verification in accordance with Paragraph A.9.5.
Table 13
Tolerances for HILS System Setup Operation Check
Criteria
Verification items
slope, a
y-intercept, a
coefficient of
determination, r
Vehicle speed
ICE speed
ICE torque
EM speed
EM torque
0.9995 to 1.0005
±0.05%or less of the
maximum value
minimum 0.995
REESS voltage
REESS current
REESS SOC

Figure 22
Reference HV Model Powertrain Topology
A.9.4.3.
Reference HV model input parameters
All component input data for the reference HV model is predefined and located in the
model directory:
"\HILS_GTR\Vehicles\ReferenceHybridVehicleModel\ParameterData".
This directory contains files with the specific input data for:
(a) The (internal combustion) engine model: "para_engine_ref.m"
(b) The clutch model: "para_clutch_ref.m"
(c) The battery model: "para_battery_ref.m"
(d) The electric machine model : "para_elmachine_ref.m"
(e) The mechanical gearing : "para_mechgear_ref.m"
(f) The (shift) transmission model : "para_transmission_ref.m"
(g) The final gear model : "para_finalgear_ref.m"
(h) The vehicle chassis model : "para_chassis_ref.m"
(i) The test cycle : "para_drivecycle_ref.m"
(j) The hybrid control strategy: "ReferenceHVModel_Input.mat"
The hybrid control strategy is included in the reference HV model and its control
parameters for the engine, electric machine, clutch and so on are defined in lookup
tables and stored in the specified file.

A.9.5.3
Cases Requiring Verification of Specific HV Model and HILS System
The verification aims at checking the operation and the accuracy of the simulated
running of the specific HV model. The verification shall be conducted when the
equivalence of the HILS system setup or specific HV model to the test hybrid powertrain
needs to be confirmed.
In case any of following conditions applies, the verification process in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.5.4. through A.9.5.8. shall be required:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
The HILS system including the actual ECU(s) is run for the first time.
The HV system layout has changed.
Structural changes are made to component models.
Different use of model component (e.g. manual to automated transmission).
Changes are made to the interface model that have relevant impact on the hybrid
system operation.
A manufacturer specific component model is used for the first time.
The Type Approval or certification Authority may conclude that other cases exist and
request verification.
The HILS system and specific HV model including the need for verification shall be
subject to approval by the Type Approval or Certification Authority.
All deviations that affect the above mentioned verification criteria shall be provided to the
Type Approval or certification Authority along with the rationale for justification and all
appropriate technical information as proof therefore, e.g. the deviation by changes to the
HILS system hardware, modification of the response delay times or time constants of
models. The technical information shall be based on calculations, simulations,
estimations, description of the models, experimental results and so on.
A.9.5.4.
A.9.5.4.1.
Actual Hybrid Powertrain Test
Specification and Selection of the Test Hybrid Powertrain
The test hybrid powertrain shall be the parent hybrid powertrain. If a new hybrid
powertrain configuration is added to an existing family in accordance with
Paragraph 5.3.2., which becomes the new parent powertrain, HILS model validation is
not required.
A.9.5.4.2.
Test Procedure
The verification test using the test hybrid powertrain (hereinafter referred to as the
"actual powertrain test") which serves as the standard for the HILS system verification
shall be conducted by either of the test methods described in Paragraphs A.9.5.4.2.1. to
A.9.5.4.2.2.

Prior to execution of the dynamometer coastdown procedure, the dynamometer shall
have been calibrated and verified in accordance with the dynamometer manufacturer
specifications. The dynamometer and vehicle shall be preconditioned in accordance with
good engineering judgement to stabilize the parasitic losses.
All measurement instruments shall meet the applicable linearity requirements of
Paragraph A.9.8.2.
All modifications or signals required to operate the hybrid vehicle on the chassis
dynamometer shall be documented and reported to the type approval authorities or
certification agency.
A.9.5.4.2.2.2.
Vehicle Test Mass
The vehicle test mass (m
) shall be calculated using the hybrid system rated power
(P
), as specified by the manufacturer for the actual test hybrid powertrain, as follows:
m
= 15.1×
P
(116)
Where:
m
is the vehicle test mass, kg
P
is the hybrid system rated power, kW
A.9.5.4.2.2.3.
Air Resistance Coefficients
The vehicle frontal area (A
, m ) shall be calculated as function of vehicle test mass in
accordance with Paragraph A.9.5.4.2.2.2. using following equations:
(a)
For m
≤ 18,050 kg:
A
=
− 1.69 × 10
× m
+ 6.33 × 10
× m
+ 1.67
(117)
or
(b)
for m
> 18,050kg:
A
= 7.59m
(118)
The vehicle air drag resistance coefficient (C
) shall be calculated as follows:
C
( 0.0299 × A − 0.000832)
3.6 ×
× g
= (119)
0.5 × ρ × A
Where:
g
ρ
is the gravitational acceleration with a fixed value of 9.80665m/s
is the air density with a fixed value of 1.17kg/m

A.9.5.4.2.2.7.
Dynamometer road load simulation mode
The dynamometer shall be operated in a mode that it simulates the vehicle inertia and
the road load curve defined by the Dyno coefficients.
The dynamometer shall be capable of correctly implementing road gradients as defined
in accordance with the test cycle in Annex 1, Paragraph (b) so that A effectively satisfies:
A = m × g × f × cos(α ) + m × g × sin (α ) (124)
(α ) = atan (α )/100) (125)
Where:
α is the road gradient, rad
α
is the road gradient as specified in Annex 1, Paragraph (b), percent
A.9.5.4.3.
A.9.5.4.3.1.
Test conditions
Test cycle run
The test shall be conducted as a time-based test by running the full test cycle as defined
in Annex 1, Paragraph (b) using the hybrid system rated power in accordance with the
manufacturer specification.
A.9.5.4.3.2.
Various system settings
The following conditions shall be met, if applicable:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The road gradient shall not be fed into the ECU (level ground position) or
inclination sensor should be disabled.
The ambient test conditions shall be between 20°C and 30°C.
Ventilation systems with adequate performance shall be used to condition
the ambient temperature and air flow condition to represent on-road driving
conditions.
Continuous brake systems shall not be used or shall be switched off if
possible.
`
(e)
All auxiliary or PTO systems shall be turned off or their power consumption
measured. If measurement is not possible, the power consumption shall be
based on calculations, simulations, estimations, experimental results and so
on. Alternatively, an external power supply for 12/24V systems may be
used.
(f)
Prior to test start, the test powertrain may be key-on, but not enabling a
driving mode, so that data communication for recording may be possible. At
test start, the test powertrain shall be fully enabled to the driving mode.

Figure 24
Tolerances for Speed Deviation and Duration During Chassis Dynamometer Test
A.9.5.4.3.4.
Test Data Analysis
The testing shall allow for analysing the measured data in accordance with the following
two conditions:
(a) Selected part of test cycle, defined as the period covering the first 140s;
(b)
The full test cycle.
A.9.5.4.4.
Measurement Items
For all applicable components, at least the following items shall be recorded using
dedicated equipment and measurement devices (preferred) or ECU data (e.g. using
CAN signals) in order to enable the verification:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Target and actual vehicle speed (km/h);
Quantity of driver manipulation of the vehicle (typically accelerator, brake, clutch
and shift operation signals, and alike) or quantity of manipulation on the (engine)
dynamometer (throttle valve opening angle). All signals shall be in units as
applicable to the system and suitable for conversion towards use in conversion
and interpolation routines;
Engine speed (min ) and engine command values (-, per cent, Nm, units as
applicable) or, alternatively, fuel injection value (e.g. mg/str);

A.9.5.6.5.
Capacitor Characteristics
The parameters for the capacitor model shall be the data obtained in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.8.6.
A.9.5.6.6.
Vehicle Test Mass
The vehicle test mass shall be defined as for the actual hybrid powertrain test in
accordance with Paragraph A.9.5.4.2.2.2.
A.9.5.6.7.
Air Resistance Coefficients
The air resistance coefficients shall be defined as for the actual hybrid powertrain test in
accordance with Paragraph A.9.5.4.2.2.3.
A.9.5.6.8.
Rolling Resistance Coefficient
The rolling resistance coefficients shall be defined as for the actual hybrid powertrain test
in accordance with Paragraph A.9.5.4.2.2.4.
A.9.5.6.9.
Wheel Radius
The wheel radius shall be the manufacturer specified value as used in the actual test
hybrid powertrain.
A.9.5.6.10.
Final Gear Ratio
The final gear ratio shall be the manufacturer specified ratio representative for the actual
test hybrid powertrain.
A.9.5.6.11.
Transmission Efficiency
The transmission efficiency shall be the manufacturer specified value for the
transmission of the actual test hybrid powertrain.
A.9.5.6.12.
A.9.5.6.13.
Clutch maximum transmitted torque For the maximum transmitted torque of the clutch
and the synchronizer, the design value specified by the manufacturer shall be used.
Gear Change Period
The gear-change periods for a manual transmission shall be the actual test values.
A.9.5.6.14.
Gear Change Method
Gear positions at the start, acceleration and deceleration during the verification test shall
be the respective gear positions in accordance with the specified methods for the types
of transmission listed below:
(a)
(b)
For manual shift transmission: gear positions are defined by actual test values.
For automated shift transmission (AMT) or automatic gear box (AT): gear positions
are generated by the shift strategy of the actual transmission ECU during the HILS
simulation run and shall not be the recorded values from the actual test.

In order to reflect the actual hybrid powertrain test conditions (e.g. temperatures, RESS
available energy content), the initial conditions shall be the same as those in the actual
test and applied to component parameters, interface parameters and so on as needed
for the specific HV model.
Figure 25
Flow Diagram for Verification Test HILS System
Running with Specific HV Model

A gear change period is defined from the actually-measured values as:
(a)
For gear change systems that require the disengagement and engagement of a
clutch system, the period from the disengagement of the clutch to the engagement
of the clutch,
or
(b)
For gear change systems that do not require the disengagement or engagement
of a clutch system, the period from the moment a gear is disengaged to the
moment another gear is engaged.
The omission of test points shall not apply for the calculation of the engine work.
For the specific HV model to be considered valid, the criteria of Table 16 and those of
Paragraph A.9.5.8.1. shall be met.
Table 16
Tolerances (for Full Test Cycle) for Actually Measured Verification Values
and HILS Simulated Running Values
Vehicle
Engine
Positive engine work
W
Speed
Torque
W
Coefficient of
determination, r
minimum 0.97
minimum 0.88
Conversion ratio
0.97 to 1.03
Where:
W
W
is the engine work in the HILS simulated running, kWh
is the engine work in the actual powertrain test, kWh
A.9.5.8.2.2.
Calculation method for verification items
The engine torque, power and the positive work shall be acquired by the following
methods, respectively, in accordance with the test data enumerated below:
(a)
Actually-measured verification values in accordance with Paragraph A.9.5.4.:
Methods that are technically valid, such as a method where the value is calculated
from the operating conditions of the hybrid system (revolution speed, shaft torque)
obtained by the actual hybrid powertrain test, using the input/output voltage and
current to/from the electric machine (high power) electronic controller, or a method
where the value is calculated by using the data such acquired pursuant the
component test procedures in Paragraph A.9.8.

(c)
Flywheel:
( n − n )
⎛ ⎞
E 0.5 J ⎜
π
Δ = × × ⎟
×
(129)
⎝ 30 ⎠
Where:
J is the flywheel inertia, kgm
n is the initial speed at start of test, min
n is the final speed at end of test, min
(d)
Other RESS:
The net change of energy shall be calculated using physically equivalent signal(s)
as for cases (a) through (c) in this Paragraph. This method shall be reported to the
Type Approval Authorities or Certification Agency.
A.9.5.8.2.4.
A.9.6.
A.9.6.1.
Additional provision on tolerances in case of fixed point engine operation In case of fixed
point engine operating conditions (both speed and torque), the verification shall be valid
when the criteria for vehicle speed, positive engine work and engine running duration
(same criteria as positive engine work) are met.
Creation of the Hybrid Engine Cycle
General Introduction
Using the verified HILS system setup with the specific HV model for approval, the
creation of the hybrid engine cycle shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions
of Paragraphs A.9.6.2 to A.9.6.5. Figure 26 provides a flow diagram of the required steps
for guidance in this process.

A.9.6.2.4.
Battery Characteristics
The parameters for the battery model shall be the data obtained in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.8.5.
A.9.6.2.5.
Capacitor Characteristics
The parameters for the capacitor model shall be the data obtained in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.8.6.
A.9.6.2.6.
Vehicle Test Mass
The vehicle test mass shall be calculated as function of the system rated power (as
declared by the manufacturer) in accordance with Equation (116).
A.9.6.2.7.
Vehicle Frontal Area and Air Drag Coefficient
The vehicle frontal area shall be calculated using Equation (117) and (118) using the test
vehicle mass in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.2.6.
The vehicle air drag resistance coefficient shall be calculated using Equation (119) and
the test vehicle mass in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.2.6.
A.9.6.2.8.
Rolling Resistance Coefficient
The rolling resistance coefficient shall be calculated by Equation (120) using the test
vehicle mass in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.2.6.
A.9.6.2.9.
Wheel Radius
The wheel radius shall be defined as 0.40m or a manufacturer specified value. In case a
manufacturer specified value is used, the wheel radius that represents the worst case
with regard to exhaust emissions shall be applied.
A.9.6.2.10.
Final Gear Ratio and Efficiency
The efficiency shall be set to 0.95.
The final gear ratio shall be defined in accordance with the provisions for the specified
HV type:

A.9.6.2.14.
Clutch Maximum Transmitted Torque
For the maximum transmitted torque of the clutch and the synchronizer, the design value
specified by the manufacturer for the test hybrid powertrain shall be used.
A.9.6.2.15.
Gear Change Period
The gear-change period for a manual transmission shall be set to one (1.0) second.
A.9.6.2.16
Gear Change Method
Gear positions at the start, acceleration and deceleration during the approval test shall
be the respective gear positions in accordance with the specified methods for the types
of HV listed below:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Parallel HV fitted with a manual shift transmission: the gear positions shall be
defined by the shift strategy in accordance with Paragraph A.9.7.4.3. and shall be
part of the driver model.
Parallel HV fitted with automated shift transmission or automatic shift
transmission: the gear positions shall be generated by the shift strategy of the
actual transmission ECU during the HILS simulation.
Series HV: in case of a shift transmission being applied, the gear positions shall
be defined by the shift strategy of the actual transmission ECU control.
A.9.6.2.17.
Inertia of Rotating Sections
Different inertia (J, kgm ) of the rotating sections shall be used for the respective
conditions as specified below:
In case of a parallel HV:
(a)
The inertia of the section between the (shift) transmission output shaft up to and
including the wheels shall be calculated using the vehicle curb mass m and
wheel radius r (in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.2.9.) as follows:
J
= 0.07 × m
× r
(131)
The vehicle curb mass m
shall be calculated as function of the vehicle test
mass in accordance with following equations:
(1)
For m
≤ 35,240kg:
m
= 7.38 × 10
× m
+ 0.604 × m
(132)
or
(2)
For m
> 35,240kg:
m
= 12,120kg
(133)

Figure 27
Initial Energy Level at Start of Test
(b)
(c)
(d)
Set maximum driver demand for a full load acceleration starting from the initial
speed condition and applying the respective constant road gradient as specified in
Table 17. The test run shall be stopped 30s after the vehicle speed is no longer
increasing to values above the already observed maximum during the test.
Record hybrid system speed and torque values at the wheel hub (HILS chassis
model output signals in accordance with Paragraph A.9.7.3.) with 100Hz to
calculate P from the wheel speed and wheel hub (drive) torque.
Repeat (a), (b), (c) for all test runs specified in Table 17. All deviations from
Table 17 conditions shall be reported to the Type Approval and
Certification Authority along with all appropriate information for justification
therefore.
All provisions defined in (a) shall be met at the start of the full load acceleration
test run.
Table 17
Hybrid System Rated Power Determination Conditions
Road
(%)
gradient
Initial vehicle speed (km/h)
0 30 60
0 test #1 test #4 test #7
2 test #2 test #5 test #8
6 test #3 test #6 test #9

A.9.6.4.
A.9.6.4.1.
Hybrid Engine Cycle HILS Run
General Introduction
The HILS system shall be run in accordance with Paragraphs A.9.6.4.2. through
A.9.6.4.5. for the creation of the hybrid engine cycle using the full test cycle as defined in
Annex 1, Paragraph (b).
A.9.6.4.2.
HILS Run Data to be Recorded
At least following input and calculated signals from the HILS system shall be recorded at
a frequency of 5Hz or higher (10Hz recommended):
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Target and actual vehicle speed (km/h).
(Rechargeable) energy storage system power (kW), voltage (V) and current (A) (or
their respective physically equivalent signals in case of another type of RESS).
Hybrid system speed (min ), hybrid system torque (Nm), hybrid system power
(kW) at the wheel hub (in accordance with Paragraphs A.9.2.6.2. and A.9.7.3.).
Engine speed (min-1), engine torque (Nm) and engine power (kW).
Electric machine speed(s) (min-1), electric machine torque(s) (Nm) and electric
machine mechanical power(s) (kW) as well as the electric machine(s) (high power)
controller current (A), voltage and electric power (kW) (or their physically
equivalent signals in case of a nonelectrical HV powertrain).
Quantity of driver manipulation of the vehicle (typically accelerator, brake, clutch
and shift operation signals and so on).
A.9.6.4.3.
HILS run adjustments
In order to satisfy the tolerances defined in paragraphs A.9.6.4.4. and A.9.6.4.5.,
following adjustments in interface and driver may be carried out for the HILS run:
(a)
(b)
Quantity of driver manipulation of the vehicle (typically accelerator, brake, clutch
and manual gear shift operation signals).
Initial value for available energy content of Rechargeable Energy Storage System.
In order to reflect cold or hot start cycle conditions, following initial temperature
conditions shall be applied to component, interface parameters, and so on:
(a)
(b)
25°C for a cold start cycle.
The specific warmed-up state operating condition for a hot start cycle, either
following from a cold start and soak period by HILS run of the model or in
accordance with the manufacturer specified running conditions for the warmed up
operating conditions.

A.9.6.4.5.
Validation of RESS Net Energy Change
The initial available energy content of the RESS shall be set so that the ratio of the
RESS net energy change to the (positive) engine work shall satisfy the following
equation:
Δ E / W < 0.03
(138)
Where:
∆E is the net energy change of the RESS in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.5.8.2.3.(a)-(d), kWh
W
is the engine work in the HILS simulated run, kWh
A.9.6.5.
A.9.6.5.1.
Hybrid Engine Cycle Set Points
Derivation of HEC Dynamometer Set Points
From the HILS system generated data in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.4., select and
define the engine speed and torque values at a frequency of at least 5Hz (10Hz
recommended) as the command set points for the engine exhaust emission test on the
engine dynamometer.
If the engine is not capable of following the cycle, smoothing of the 5Hz or higher
frequency signals to 1Hz is permitted with the prior approval of the type approval or
certification authority. In such case, the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the type
approval or certification authority, why the engine cannot satisfactorily be run with a 5Hz
or higher frequency, and provide the technical details of the smoothing procedure and
justification as to its use will not have an adverse effect on emissions.
A.9.6.5.2.
Replacement of Test Torque Value at Time of Motoring
When the test torque command set point obtained in paragraph A.9.6.5.1. is negative,
this negative torque value shall be replaced by a motoring request on the engine
dynamometer.
A.9.7.
A.9.7.1.
HILS Component Models
General Introduction
Component models in accordance with Paragraphs A.9.7.2. to A.9.7.9. shall be used for
constructing both the reference HV model and the specific HV model. A
Matlab®/Simulink® library environment that contains implementation of the component
models in accordance with these specifications is available at:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29globregistry.html .

A.9.7.2.2.
Mechanical Auxiliary Model
The mechanical auxiliary system shall be modelled using a controllable power loss,
P
. The power loss shall be implemented as a torque loss acting on the
representative shaft.
M
= P

(140)
Where:
is the mechanical auxiliary power demand, W
ω
M
is the shaft rotational speed, rad/s
is the auxiliary torque, Nm
An auxiliary inertia load J shall be part of the model and affect the powertrain inertia.
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 20.
Table 20
Mechanical Auxiliary Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
Parameter J kgm Inertia dat.inertia.value
Command signal P W
Control signal for auxiliary
system power demand
Sensor signal M Nm Auxiliary system
Mech out [Nm]
aux_pwrMechReq_W
torque output
aux_tqAct_A
M Nm Torque phys_torque_Nm
J kgm Inertia phys_inertia_kgm2
Mech fb in [rad/s] ω rad/s Speed phys_speed_radps
Table 21
Mechanical Auxiliary Model Parameters
Parameter Specification Reference paragraph
J Manufacturer -

The total drive torque shall balance with the torques for aerodynamic drag M , rolling
resistance M and gravitation M to find the resulting acceleration torque in
accordance with following differential equation:
J
ω& = M − M − M − M − M
(142)
Where:
J
is the total inertia of the vehicle, kgm
ω& is the wheel rotational acceleration, rad/s
The total inertia of the vehicle J shall be calculated using the vehicle mass m and
the inertias from the powertrain components as:
J = m × r + J + J
(143)
Where:
m is the mass of the vehicle, kg
J is the sum of all powertrain inertias, kgm
J is the inertia of the wheels, kg/m
r is the wheel radius, m
The vehicle speed v shall be determined from the wheel speed ω and wheel
radius r as:
v = ω × r
(144)
The aerodynamic resistance torque shall be calculated as:
M = 0.5 × ρ × C × A × v × r
(145)
Where:
ρ
is the air density, kg/m
C is the air drag coefficient
A is the total vehicle frontal area, m
v is the vehicle speed, m/s

Table 23
Chassis Model Parameters
Parameter
Specification
Reference paragraph
m
Regulated
A.9.5.4.2.2.2., A.9.5.6.6., A.9.6.2.6., A.10.5.2.1.
A
Regulated
A.9.5.4.2.2.3., A.9.5.6.7., A.9.6.2.7., A.10.5.2.2.
C
Regulated
A.9.5.4.2.2.3., A.9.5.6.7., A.9.6.2.7., A.10.5.2.2.
r
Regulated
A.9.5.6.9., A.9.6.2.9., A.10.5.2.4.
J
Regulated
A.9.5.6.5., A.9.6.2.7., A.10.5.2.12.
f
Regulated
A9.5.4.2.2.4., A.9.5.6.8., A.9.6.2.8., A.10.5.2.3.
τ
Tuneable
default: 0.1s
A.9.7.4.
Driver Models
The driver model shall actuate the accelerator and brake pedal to realize the desired
vehicle speed cycle and apply the shift control for manual transmissions through clutch
and gear control. Three different models are available in the standardized HILS library.
A.9.7.4.1.
Driver Output Using Recorded Test Data
Recorded driver output data from actual powertrain tests may be used to run the vehicle
model in open loop mode. The data for the accelerator pedal, the brake pedal and, in
case a vehicle with a manual shift transmission is represented, the clutch pedal and gear
position shall therefore be provided in a dataset as a function of time.
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 24.
Table 24
Driver Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
pedal 0-1 Requested brake pedal position Drv_BrkPedl_Rt
Command signal
Pedal 0-1 Requested accelerator pedal position Drv_AccPedl_Rt
pedal 0-1 Requested clutch pedal position Drv_CluPedl_Rt
- - Gear request Drv_nrGearReq

A.9.7.4.3.
Driver Model for Vehicles Equipped with Manual Transmission
The driver model consist of a PID-controller as described in Paragraph A.9.7.4.2, a
clutch actuation module and a gearshift logics as described in Paragraph A.9.7.4.3.1.
The gear shift logics module requests a gear change depending on the actual vehicle
running condition. This induces a release of the accelerator pedal and simultaneously
actuates the clutch pedal. The accelerator pedal is fully released until the drivetrain is
synchronized in the next gear, but at least for the specified clutch time. Clutch pedal
actuation of the driver (opening and closing) is modelled using a first order transfer
function. For starting from standstill, a linear clutch behaviour is realized and can be
parameterized separately (see Figure 30).
Figure 30
Clutch Pedal Operation (Example)

A.9.7.4.3.1.
Gear Shift Strategy for Manual Transmissions
The gear shift strategy for a (manual) shift transmission is available as a separate
component module and therefore can be integrated in other driver models different from
the one as described in Paragraph A.9.7.4.3. Besides the specified parameters below,
the gear shift strategy also depends on vehicle and driver parameters which have to be
set in the parameter file in accordance with the respective component data as specified
in Table 30.
The implemented gearshift strategy is based on the definition of shifting thresholds as
function of engine speed and torque for up- and down shift manoeuvres. Together with a
full load torque curve and a friction torque curve, they describe the permitted operating
range of the system. Crossing the upper shifting limit forces selection of a higher gear,
crossing the lower one will request the selection of a lower gear (see Figure 31 below).
Figure 31
Gear Shift Logic (example)

Table 29
Shift Logic Coordinate Pairs
Point x-coordinate (engine speed, min ) y-coordinate (engine torque, Nm)
P
n
x = y = 0
2
P x = n y = 0
P x =
n + n
2
y = T
P x = n y = T
P x = 0.85 × n + 0.15 × n y = T
P x = 0.80 × n + 0.20 × n y = T
Where in the above:
T is the overall maximum positive engine torque, Nm
T is the overall minimum negative engine torque, Nm
n , n , n , n are the reference speeds as defined in accordance with
Paragraph 7.4.6., min
Also the driving cycle and the time of clutch actuation during a shift manoeuvre (T )
are loaded in order to detect vehicle starts from standstill and engage the start gear in
time (T ) before the reference driving cycle speed changes from zero speed to a
value above zero. This allows the vehicle to follow the desired speed within the given
limits.
The standard output value of the gearshift module when the vehicle is at standstill is the
neutral gear.

Table 30
Gear Shift Strategy Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
Parameter T s satp driver dat.vecto.clutchtime.value
Command
Signal
Sensor
signal
– kg satp chassis dat.vecto.vehicle.mass.value
– m dat.vecto.wheel.radius.value
– kgm dat.vecto.wheel.inertia.value
– – dat.vecto.wheel.rollingres. value
– m dat.vecto.aero.af.value
– – dat.vecto.aero.cd.value
– – satp final gear dat.vecto.fg.ratio.value
– – satp transmission dat.vecto.gear.number.vec
– – dat.vecto.gear.ratio.vec
– – dat.vecto.gear.efficiency.vec
– rad/s satp engine dat.vecto.ICE.maxtorque_speed.vec
– Nm dat.vecto.ICE.maxtorque_torque.vec
– Nm dat.vecto.ICE.maxtorque_friction.vec
– rad/s dat.vecto.ICE.ratedspeed.value
– rad/s downshift limits speed vector dat.vecto.downshift_speed.vec
– Nm downshift limits torque vector dat.vecto.downshift_torque.vec
– rad/s upshift limits speed vector dat.vecto.upshift_speed.vec
– Nm upshift limits torque vector dat.vecto.upshift_torque.vec
SG
T s
ASG
– –
Boolean
Boolean
skip gears when upshifting
active or not
Default: 0
engage startgear prior
driveaway
Automatic start gear detection
active or not
Default: 0
Requested gear
dat.vecto.skipgears.value
dat.vecto.startgearengaged.value
dat.vecto.startgearactive.vlue
nrGearReq
v m/s Actual vehicle speed Chassis_vVehAct_mps
ω rad/s Transmission input speed Transm_nInAct_radps
– – Actual gear engaged Transm_nrGearAct
Dt Boolean
– –
Clutch disengaged or not and
drivetrain synchronized or not
Actual position of accelerator
pedal
Clu_flgConnected_B
Drv_AccPedl_rat

A.9.7.5.
A.9.7.5.1.
Electrical Component Models
DC/DC converter model
The DC/DC converter is a device that converts the voltage level to the desired voltage
level. The converter model is generally representative and captures the behaviour of
several different converters such as buck, boost and buck-boost converters. As DC/DC
converters are dynamically fast compared to other dynamics in a powertrain, a simple
static model shall be used:
u = x × u
(151)
Where:
u
is the input voltage level, V
u is the output voltage level, V
x is the conversion ratio, i.e. control signal
The conversion ratio xDCDC shall be determined by an open-loop controller to the
desired voltage u as:
x = u / u
(152)
The DC/DC converter losses shall be defined as current loss using an efficiency map in
accordance with:
i
( u , i )
= x × i × η
(153)
Where:
η is the DC/DC converter efficiency
i
is the input current to the DC/DC converter, A
i is the output current from the DC/DC converter, A
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 31

Figure 32
Electric Machine Model Diagram
The electric machine dynamics shall be modelled as a first order system
( M − M )
1
M & = − ×
τ
(154)
Where:
M & is the electric machine torque, Nm
M
τ
is the desired electric machine torque, Nm
is the electric machine time response constant
The electric machine system power P shall be mapped as function of the electric
motor speed ω , its torque M and DC-bus voltage level u. Two separate maps shall
be defined for the positive and negative torque ranges, respectively.
P
( M , ω , u)
= f
(155)
The efficiency of the electric machine system shall be calculated as:
M × ω
η =
(156)
P

Table 33
Electric Machine Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
Parameter J kgm Inertia dat.inertia.value
Optional
parameters
Command
signal
τ s Time constant dat.timeconstant.value
M Nm Maximum torque =f (speed) dat.maxtorque.torque.vec
M Nm Minimum torque =f (speed) dat.mintorque.torque.vec
K – Speed controller (PI) dat.controller.p.value
K – dat.controller.p.value
P
W
Power map
= f (speed, torque, voltage)
τ J/K Thermal capacity dat.cm.value
R K/W Thermal resistance dat.Rth.value
dat.elecpowmap.motor.
elecpowmap
dat.elecpowmap.generator.
elecpowmap
– – Properties of the cooling fluid dat.coolingFluid
ω rad/s Requested speed ElecMac_nReq_radps
– boolean Switch speed/torque control ElecMac_flgReqSwitch_B
M Nm Requested torque ElecMac_tqReq_Nm
Sensor signal M Nm Actual machine torque ElecMac_tqAct_Nm
ω rad/s Actual machine speed ElecMac_nAct_radps
i A Current ElecMac_iAct_A
T K Machine temperature ElecMac_tAct_K
Elec in [V] u V voltage phys_voltage_V
Elec fb out [A] i A current phys_current_A
Mech out [Nm] M Nm torque phys_torque_Nm
Mech
fb
in
[rad/s]
J kgm inertia phys_inertia_kgm2
ω rad/s rotational speed phys_speed_radps

The pump/motor torque shall be modelled as:
M = x × D × (p - p ) × η (162)
Where:
M is the pump/motor torque, Nm
x is the pump/motor control command signal between 0 and 1
D is the pump/motor displacement, m
p is the pressure in high pressure accumulator, Pa
p is the pressure in low pressure sump/reservoir, Pa
η is the mechanical pump/motor efficiency
The mechanical efficiency shall be determined from measurements and mapped as
function of the control command signal x, the pressure difference over the pump/motor
and its speed as follows:
n
Where:
( x, p , p , ω )
= f & (163)
ωpm
is the pump/motor speed, rad/s
The volumetric flow Q through the pump/motor shall be calculated as:
Q = x × D × ω × η (164)
The volumetric efficiency shall be determined from measurements and mapped as
function of the control command signal x, the pressure difference over the pump/motor
and its speed as follows:
( x, p , p , ω )
η = f
(165)
The hydraulic pump/motor dynamics shall be modelled as a first order system in
accordance with:
( x − u )
1
x& = − ×
(166)
τ
Where:
ẋ is the output pump/motor torque or volume flow, Nm or m /s
u is the input pump/motor torque or volume flow, Nm or m /s
τ
is the pump/motor time response constant, s

Table 35
Hydraulic Pump/Motor Model Parameters and Interface
(Continued)
Type/Bus
Name
Unit
Description
Reference
Fluid in 1
[Pa]
p
Pa
pressure
phys_pressure_Pa
Fluid in 2
[Pa]
P
Pa
pressure
phys_pressure_Pa
Fluid out
[m3/s]
Q
m /s
Volume
flow phys_flow_m3ps
Mech out
M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
[Nm]
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm2
Mech fb in
[rad/s]
ω
rad/s
rotational speed
phys_speed_radps
Table 36
Hydraulic Pump/Motor Model Parameters
Parameter Specification Reference paragraph
J Manufacturer -
τ Manufacturer -
M Manufacturer -
D Manufacturer -
η Manufacturer -
η Manufacturer -
K , K Tuneable -
A.9.7.6.3.
Internal Combustion Engine Model
The internal combustion engine model shall be modelled using maps to represent the
chemical to mechanical energy conversion and the applicable time response for torque
build up. The internal combustion engine model diagram is shown in Figure 34.

The second first-order system shall account for the slower dynamics corresponding to
turbo charger effects and boost pressure build-up as follows:
( ω )
( M − M ( ω ))
1
M & = −
×
τ
(170)
Where:

M
is the slow dynamic engine torque, Nm
is the slow dynamic engine torque demand, Nm
τ is the speed dependent time constant for slow engine torque response, s
Both the speed dependent time constant and the dynamic and direct torque division are
mapped as function of speed.
The total engine torque M shall be calculated as:
M = M + M (171)
The internal combustion engine model provides a thermodynamics model that may be
used to represent the engine heat-up from cold start to its normal stabilized operating
temperatures in accordance with:
T = max (T = ƒ(P ), T ) (172)
Where:
T is the ICE oil temperature, K
P are the ICE power losses, W
Since no fuel consumption nor efficiency map is available in the model
P = (ω × M ) is used as a simplified approach for loss estimation. Adaption of the
warm-up behaviour can be made via the function T = f(P ).
T
is the ICE oil temperature at (cold) start, K
T is the ICE oil temperature at normal warm-up operation condition, K

For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 37.
Table 37
Internal Combustion Engine Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus
Name
Unit
Description
Reference
Parameter
J
kgm
Inertia
dat.inertia.value
τ

Time constant
dat.boost.insttorque.
timeconstant.T1.value
Optional
parameters
Command
signal
Sensor
signal
Mech
[Nm]
Mech fb in
[rad/s]
τ

Time constant = f(speed)
dat.boost.timeconstant.T2.value
M
Nm
Engine friction torque
dat.friction.friction.vec
M
Nm
Exhaust brake torque
dat.exhaustbrake.brake.vec
M
Nm
Maximum torque =f(speed)
dat.maxtorque.torque.vec
K
K


PI controller
dat.controller.p.value
dat.controller.i.value
M
Nm
Starter motor torque
dat.startertorque.value
M
-
Desired torque type selector:
dat.torquereqtype.value
(0)
indicated
(1)
crankshaft

Properties of oil
dat.oil

Properties of coolant
dat.cf
ω
rad/s
Requested speed
Eng_nReq_radps
-
boolean
Switch speed/torque control
Eng_flgReqSwitch_B
M
Nm
Requested torque
Eng_tqReq_Nm
boolean
Exhaust
brake
on/off, Eng_flgExhaustBrake_B
continuous between 0-1
boolean
Engine on or off
Eng_flgOnOff_B
boolean
Starter motor on or off
Eng_flgStrtReq_B
boolean
Fuel cut off
Eng_flgFuelCut_B
M
Nm
Crankshaft torque
Eng_tqCrkSftAct_Nm
M
+M
+ M
Nm
Indicated torque
Eng_tqIndAct_Nm
ω
rad/s
Actual engine speed
Eng_nAct_radps
T
K
Oil temperature
Eng_tOilAct_K
out M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm2
ω
rad/s
rotational speed
phys_speed_radps

The clutch model shall be defined in accordance with following (differential) equations of motion:
J
J
× ω = M − M
(176)
× ω = M − M
(177)
During clutch slip operation following relation is defined:
M
( c × ( ω − ω ))
= u × M × tanh
(178)

( M ( t) − M ( t)
)dt
ω = ω +
(179)
Where:
M is the maximum torque transfer through the clutch, Nm
u is the clutch actuation control signal between 0 and 1
c
is a tuning constant for the hyperbolic function tanh(…).
When the speed difference between ω – ω is below the threshold limit slip and the
clutch pedal position is above the threshold limit pedal , the clutch shall no longer be
slipping and considered to be in closed (locked) mode.
During clutch open and closed operation, the following relations shall apply:
(1) For clutch open:
M = 0 (180)
(2) For clutch closed:
M = M
(181)
The clutch pedal actuator shall be represented as a first order system:
( u − u )
1
u& = − ×
(182)
τ
Where:
u&
is the clutch actuator position between 0 and 1
u
is the clutch pedal position between 0 and 1
τ
is the clutch time constant, s
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 39.

A.9.7.7.2.
Continuously Variable Transmission Model
The Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) model shall represent a mechanical
transmission that allows any gear ratio between a defined upper and lower limit. The
CVT model shall be in accordance with:
M = r × M × η (183)
Where:
M
M
is the CVT input torque, Nm
is the CVT output torque, Nm
r is the CVT ratio
η is the CVT efficiency
The CVT efficiency shall be defined as function of input torque, output speed and gear
ratio:
η = ƒ (r , M , ω ) (184)
The CVT model shall assume zero speed slip, so that following relation for speeds can
be used:
ω = r × ω (185)
The gear ratio of the CVT shall be controlled by a command setpoint and using a firstorder
representation for the CVT ratio change actuation in accordance with:
d
dt
r
( − r + r )
1
= ×
(186)
τ
Where:
τ is the CVT time constant, s
r is the CVT commanded gear ratio

The gear losses shall be considered as torque losses and implemented through an
efficiency as:
M = M × η (ω , M ) × r (188)
where the efficiency can be a function of speed and torque, represented in a map.
The final gear inertia shall be included as:
J = J × r + J
(189)
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 43.
Table 43
Final Gear Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
Parameter J kgm Inertia dat.inertia.value
r - Gear ratio dat.ratio.value
η - Efficiency dat.mechefficiency.efficiency.map
Mech in [Nm] M Nm torque phys_torque_Nm
J kgm inertia phys_inertia_kgm
Mech out [Nm] M Nm torque phys_torque_Nm
J kgm inertia phys_inertia_kgm
Mech fb in [rad/s]
ω
rad/s rotational
speed
Mech fb out [rad/s]
ω
rad/s rotational
speed
phys_speed_radps
phys_speed_radps
Table 44
Final Gear Model Parameters
Parameter
Specification
Reference paragraph
J
Manufacturer
-
r
Regulated
A.9.5.6.10., A.9.6.2.10.
η
Manufacturer
-

Table 45
Mechanical Connection Model Parameters and Interface
(Continued)
Type/Bus
Name
Unit
Description
Reference
Mech in 1 [Nm]
M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm
Mech in 2 [Nm]
M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm
Mech out [Nm]
M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm
Mech fb in [rad/s]
ω
rad/s
rotational speed
phys_speed_radps
Mech fb out 1 [rad/s] ω
rad/s
rotational speed
phys_speed_radps
Mech fb out 2 [rad/s] ω
rad/s
rotational speed
phys_speed_radps
Table 46
Mechanical Connection Model Parameters
Parameter
Specification
Reference paragraph
J
Manufacturer
-
r
Manufacturer
-
η
Manufacturer
-
J
Manufacturer
-
r
Manufacturer
-
η
Manufacturer
-
J
Manufacturer
-
r
Manufacturer
-
η
Manufacturer
-

Table 48
Retarder Model Parameters
Parameter Specification Reference paragraph
M Manufacturer -
J Manufacturer -
A.9.7.7.6.
Spur Gear Model
A spur gear transmission or fixed gear transmission with a set of cog wheels and fixed
gear ratio shall be represented in accordance with following equation:
ω = ω /r (192)
The gear losses shall be considered as torque losses and implemented through an
efficiency implemented as function of speed and torque:
M = M × η (ω ,M ) × r (193)
The gear inertias shall be included as:
J = J × r + J
(194)
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 49.
Table 49
Fixed Gear Model Parameters and Interface
Type / Bus Name Unit Description Reference
J kgm Inertia dat.in.inertia.value
Parameter
r - Gear ratio dat.in.ratio.value
η - Efficiency dat.in.mechefficiency.efficiency.map
Mech in [Nm]
Mech out [Nm]
M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm
M
Nm
torque
phys_torque_Nm
J
kgm
inertia
phys_inertia_kgm
Mech fb in [rad/s] ω rad/s rotational speed phys_speed_radps
Mech fb out [rad/s] ω rad/s rotational speed phys_speed_radps

The pump torque shall be mapped as function of the speed ratio as:
M = ƒ (ω /ω ) × (ω /ω ) (197)
Where:
ω is the reference mapping speed, rad/s
f is the mapped pump torque as function of the speed ratio (ω /ω ) at the constant
mapping speed ω , Nm
The turbine torque shall be determined as an amplification of the pump torque as:
M = ƒ (ω /ω ) × M (198)
Where:
ƒ is the mapped torque amplification as function of the speed ratio (ω /ω )
During closed operation, the following relations shall apply:
M = M - M (ω ) (199)
ω = ω (200)
Where:
M
is the torque loss at locked mode, Nm
A clutch shall be used to switch between the slipping phase and the closed phase. The
clutch shall be modelled in the same way as the clutch device in Paragraph A.9.7.7.1.
During the transition from slipping to closed operation, Equation (197) shall be modified
as:
M = ƒ (ω /ω ) × (ω /ω ) + u × M × tanh (c × (ω - ω )) (201)
Where:
M
is the maximum torque transfer through the clutch, Nm
u is the clutch actuation control signal between 0 and 1
c
is a tuning constant for the hyperbolic function tanh(…).
When the speed difference ω - ω is below the threshold limit slip and the clutch
actuator is above the threshold position u , the clutch is considered not to be slipping
and shall be considered as locked (closed).

Table 52
Torque Converter Model Parameters
A.9.7.7.8.
Shift Transmission Model
The shift transmission model shall be implemented as gears in contact, with a specific
gear ratio r in accordance with:
ω = ω × r (203)
All losses in the transmission model shall be defined as torque losses and implemented
through a fixed transmission efficiency for each individual gear.
The transmission model shall than be in accordance with:
M = {
> (204)
The total gearbox inertia shall depend on the active gear selection and is defined with
following equation:
J = J × r + J
(205)
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 53.
The model in the standardized HILS library includes a clutch model. This is used to
enable a zero torque transfer during gearshifts. Other solutions are possible. The time
duration where the transmission is not transferring torque is defined as the torque
interrupt time tinterrupt. This implementation directly links some of the parameters listed
in Table 53 to the clutch model as described in Paragraph A.9.7.7.1.

A.9.7.8.
A.9.7.8.1.
Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems
Battery Model
The battery model is based on the representation using resistor and capacitor circuits as
shown in Figure 36
Figure 36
Representation Diagram for RC-Circuit Battery Model
The battery voltage shall satisfy:
u = e – R × i - u
(206)
With:
d
dt
u
1 1
= − × u + × i
(207)
R × C C
The open-circuit voltage e, the resistances R and R and the capacitance C shall all
have dependency of the actual energy state of the battery and be modelled using
tabulated values in maps. The resistances R and R and the capacitance C shall have
current directional dependency included.
The battery state-of-charge SOC shall be defined as:
i
SOC = SOC( 0) − ∫
dt
(208)
3,600 × CAP
Where:
SOC(0)
CAP
is the initial state of charge at test start
is the battery capacity, Ah

Table 55
Battery Model Parameters and Interface
(Continued)
Type/Bus
Name
Unit
Description
Reference
τ
J/K
Thermal capacity
dat.cm.value
R
K/W
Thermal resistance
dat.Rth.value
Optional
parameters
Sensor signal
-
-
Properties of the
cooling fluid
dat.coolingFluid
i
A
Actual current
REESS_iAct_A
u
V
Actual output
voltage
REESS_uAct_V
SOC
-
State of charge
REESS_socAct_Rt
T
K
Battery
temperature
REESS_tAct_K
Elec out [V]
u
V
Voltage
phys_voltage_V
Elec fb in [A]
I
A
Current
phys_current_A
Table 56
Battery Model Parameters
Parameter
Specification
Reference paragraph
n
Manufacturer
-
n
Manufacturer
-
CAP
Regulated
A.9.5.6.4., A.9.6.2.4., A.9.8.5.
SOC(0)
Manufacturer
-
e
Regulated
A.9.5.6.4., A.9.6.2.4., A.9.8.5.
R
Regulated
A.9.5.6.4., A.9.6.2.4., A.9.8.5.
R
Regulated
A.9.5.6.4., A.9.6.2.4., A.9.8.5.
C
Regulated
A.9.5.6.4., A.9.6.2.4., A.9.8.5.

Table 57
Capacitor Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus
Name
Unit
Description
Reference
n
-
Number of cells connected in series
dat.ns.value
n
-
Number of cells connected in parallel
dat.np.value
C
F
Capacitance
dat.C.value
Parameter
R Ω Cell resistance dat.R.value
u (0)
V
Initial capacitor voltage
dat.initialVoltage.value
V
V
Minimum capacitor voltage
dat.Vmin.value
V
V
Maximum capacitor voltage
dat.Vmax.value
i
A
Actual current
REESS_iAct_A
Sensor signal
u V Actual output voltage REESS_uAct_V
SOC - State of charge REESS_socAct_Rt
T K Capacitor temperature REESS_tAct_K
Elec out [V] u V Voltage phys_voltage_V
Elec fb in [A] i A Current phys_current_A
Table 58
Capacitor Model Parameters
Parameter
Specification
Reference Paragraph
n
Manufacturer
-
n
Manufacturer
-
V
Regulated
A.9.5.6.5., A.9.6.2.5., A.9.8.6.
V
Regulated
A.9.5.6.5., A.9.6.2.5., A.9.8.6.
u (0)
Manufacturer
-
R
Regulated
A.9.5.6.5., A.9.6.2.5., A.9.8.6.
C
Regulated
A.9.5.6.5., A.9.6.2.5., A.9.8.6.

For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 59.
Table 59
Flywheel Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
J kgm Inertia dat.inertia.value
Parameter
M Nm Torque loss map dat.loss.torqueloss.vec
ω rad/s Lower speed limit dat.speedlimit.lower.value
ω rad/s Upper speed limit dat.speedlimit.upper.value
Sensor signal ω rad/s Flywheel speed Flywheel_nAct_radps
Mech in [Nm]
Mech fb out
[rad/s]
M Nm torque phys_torque_Nm
J kgm inertia phys_inertia_kgm
ω rad/s rotational speed phys_speed_radps
Table 60
Flywheel Model Parameters
Parameter
Specification
Reference paragraph
J
Manufacturer
-
M
Manufacturer
-
ω
Manufacturer
-
ω
Manufacturer
-
A.9.7.8.4.
Accumulator model
A hydraulic accumulator is a pressure vessel to store and release a working medium
(either fluid or gas). Commonly, a high pressure accumulator and a low pressure
reservoir are part of the hydraulic system. Both the accumulator and reservoir shall be
represented using the same modelling approach for which the basis is shown in
Figure 39.

The work resulting from the pressure-volume changes due to this adiabatic process is
equal to:
( 1 − γ) × 3600, 000
( V − V )
− p × V ×
W = (220)
and the corresponding state-of-charge shall be determined as:
W
SOC = (221)
C
Where:
C
is the hydraulic accumulator (maximum) energy capacity, kWh
For the model as available in the standardized HILS library, the model parameter and
interfacing definition is given in Table 61.
Table 61
Accumulator Model Parameters and Interface
Type/Bus Name Unit Description Reference
Parameter
p
Pa
Precharged
gas
pressure
dat.pressure.precharge.value
γ - Adiabatic index dat.gas.adiabaticindex.value
V m Precharged volume dat.vol.pressure.value
C
kWh
Accumulator
capacity
dat.capacity.value
V (0) m Initial volume dat.vol.initial.value
Sensor signal p Pa Pressure Acc_presAct_Pa
V - Gas volume Acc_volGas_Rt
Fluid out [Pa] p Pa Pressure phys_pressure_Pa
Fluid
fb
in
[m /s]
Q m /s Volume flow phys_flow_m3ps

These manufacturer specific procedures shall be in accordance with the intent of here
specified component test procedures to determine representative data for use of the
model in the HILS system. The technical details of these manufacturer component test
procedures shall be reported to and subject to approval by the Type Approval or
certification Authority along with all appropriate information relating to and including the
procedure along with the justification for its use. This information shall be based on
calculations, simulations, estimations, description of the models, experimental results
and so on.
A.9.8.2.
Equipment Specification
Equipment with adequate characteristics shall be used to perform tests. Requirements
are defined below and shall be in agreement with the linearity requirements and
verification of Paragraph 9.2.
The accuracy of the measuring equipment (serviced and calibrated in accordance with
the handling procedures) shall be such that the linearity requirements, given in Table 63
and checked in accordance with Paragraph 9.2., are not exceeded.
Table 63
Linearity Requirements of Instruments
Measurement
system
( a −1) a
x × +
(for maximum test
value)
Slope, a
Standard error,
SEE
Coefficient of
determination,
r
Speed
≤0.05 % max
0.98 – 1.02
≤2 % max
≥ 0.990
Torque
≤1 % max
0.98 – 1.02
≤2 % max
≥ 0.990
Temperatures
≤1 % max
0.99 – 1.01
≤1 % max
≥ 0.998
Current
≤1 % max
0.98 – 1.02
≤1 % max
≥ 0.998
Voltage
≤1 % max
0.98 – 1.02
≤1 % max
≥ 0.998
Power
≤2 % max
0.98 – 1.02
≤2 % max
≥ 0.990
A.9.8.3.
Internal Combustion Engine
The engine torque characteristics, the engine friction loss and auxiliary brake torque
shall be determined and converted to table data as the input parameters for the HILS
system engine model. The measurements and data conversion shall be carried out in
accordance with Paragraphs A.9.8.3.1. through A.9.8.3.7.
A.9.8.3.1.
Test Conditions and Equipment
The test conditions and applied equipment shall be in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraphs 6. and 9., respectively.

A.9.8.3.6.
Measurement of Positive Engine Torque Response
When the engine is stabilized in accordance with Paragraph A.9.8.3.2., the engine
torque response characteristics shall be measured as follows (and illustrated in
Figure 40).
The engine speeds A, B and C shall be calculated as follows:
Speed A = n + 25% × (n – n )
Speed B = n + 50% × (n – n )
Speed C = n + 75% × (n – n )
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The engine shall be operated at engine speed A and an operator command value
of 10% for 20 ± 2s. The specified speed shall be held to within ±20min and the
specified torque shall be held to within ±2% of the maximum torque at the test
speed.
The operator command value shall be moved rapidly to, and held at 100% for
10 ± 1s The necessary dynamometer load shall be applied to keep the engine
speed within ±150min during the first 3s, and within ±20min during the rest of
the segment.
The sequence described in (a) and (b) shall be repeated two times.
Upon completion of the third load step, the engine shall be adjusted to engine
speed B and 10% load within 20 ± 2s
(e) The sequence (a) to (c) shall be run with the engine operating at engine speed B.
(f)
Upon completion of the third load step, the engine shall be adjusted to engine
speed C and 10% load within 20 ± 2s.
(g) The sequence (a) to (c) shall be run with the engine operating at engine speed C.
(h)
Additional sequences (a) to (c) shall be run at selected speed points when
selected by the manufacturer.

Figure 41
Engine Parameters
At least 100 points for torque shall be included in the engine torque table with
dependency of at least 10 values for engine speed and at least 10 values for the
operator command value. The table points may be evenly spread and shall be defined
using good engineering judgement. Cubic Hermite interpolation in accordance with
Appendix 1 to this annex shall be used when interpolation is required.
A.9.8.4.
A.9.8.4.1.
Electric Machine
General
The torque map and electric power consumption map of the electric machine shall be
determined and converted to table data as the input parameters for the HILS system
electric machine model. The test method shall be as prescribed and schematically
shown in Figure 42.

(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
The voltage of the power supply and applied to the power electronics shall be
within ±5% of the nominal voltage of the REESS in the HV powertrain in
accordance with the manufacturer specification.
If performance characteristics of the REESS change due to a large voltage
variation in the voltage applied to the power electronics, the test shall be
conducted by setting at least 3 conditions for the applied voltage: the maximum,
minimum and nominal in its control in accordance with the manufacturer
specification.
The wiring between the electric machine and its power electronics shall be in
accordance with its in-vehicle specifications. However, if its in-vehicle layout is not
possible in the test cell, the wiring may be altered within a range not improving the
electric machine performance. In addition, the wiring between the power
electronics and the power supply need not be in accordance with its in-vehicle
specifications.
The cooling system shall be in accordance with its in-vehicle specifications.
However, if its in-vehicle layout is not possible in the test cell, the setup may be
modified, or alternatively a test cell cooling system may be used, within a range
not improving its cooling performance though with sufficient capacity to maintain a
normal safe operating temperature as prescribed by the manufacturer.
No transmission shall be installed. However, in the case of an electric machine
that cannot be operated if it is separated from the transmission due to the invehicle
configuration, or an electric machine that cannot be directly connected to
the dynamometer, a transmission may be installed. In such a case, a transmission
with a known fixed gear ratio and a known transmission efficiency shall be used
and specified.
A.9.8.4.3.
A.9.8.4.3.1.
A.9.8.4.3.2.
Test conditions
The electric machine and its entire equipment assembly shall be conditioned at a
temperature of 25°C ± 5°C.
The test cell temperature shall remain conditioned at 25°C ± 5°C during the test.
A.9.8.4.3.3. The cooling system for the test motor shall be in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.8.4.2.(f).
A.9.8.4.3.4.
A.9.8.4.4.
A.9.8.4.4.1.
The test motor shall have been run-in in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations.
Mapping of electric machine torque and power maps
General introduction
The test motor shall be driven in accordance with the method in Paragraph A.9.8.4.4.2.
and the measurement shall be carried out to obtain at least the measurement items in
Paragraph A.9.8.4.4.3.

(d)
(e)
In the operating condition prescribed in Paragraph A.9.8.4.4.2., the electric
machine internal temperature and temperature of its power electronics (as
specified by the manufacturer) shall be measured and recorded as reference
values, simultaneously with the measurement of the shaft torque at each test
rotational speed;
The test cell temperature and coolant temperature (in the case of liquid-cooling)
shall be measured and recorded during the test.
A.9.8.4.5.
Calculation Equations
The shaft output of the electric machine shall be calculated as follows:
P

= × n
60
× M
(222)
Where:
P
is the electric machine mechanical power, W
M
is the electric machine shaft torque, Nm
n
is the electric machine rotational speed, min
A.9.8.4.6.
Electric Machine Tabulated Input Parameters
The tabulated input parameters for the electric machine model shall be obtained from the
recorded data of speed, torque, (operator/torque) command values, current, voltage and
electric power as required to obtain valid and representative conditions during the HILS
system running. At least 36 points for the power maps shall be included in the table with
dependency of at least 6 values for speed and at least 6 values for the command value.
This shall be valid for both the motor and generator operation separately, if applicable.
The table points may be equally distributed and shall be defined using good engineering
judgement. Cubic Hermite interpolation in accordance with Appendix 1 to this annex
shall be used when interpolation is required. Values equivalent to or lower than the
minimum electric machine speed may be added to prevent non-representative or
instable model performance during the HILS system running in accordance with good
engineering judgement.
A.9.8.5.
A.9.8.5.1.
Battery
General
The characteristics of the battery shall be determined and converted to the input
parameters for the HILS system battery model in accordance with the measurements
and data conversion of Paragraphs A.9.8.5.2. through A.9.8.5.6.

Figure 43
Battery Temperature Measurement Locations
(left: rectangular battery; right: cylindrical battery)
A.9.8.5.5.
A.9.8.5.5.1.
Battery characteristics test
Open circuit voltage
If the measurement is performed with a representative subsystem, the final result is
obtained by averaging at least three individual measurements of different subsystems.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
After fully charging the test battery in accordance with the charging method
specified by the manufacturer, it shall be soaked for at least 12h.
The battery temperature at the start of each SOC discharge level shall be
298K ± 2K (25ºC ± 2ºC). However, 318 K ± 2K (45ºC ± 2ºC) may be selected by
reporting to the type approval or certification authority that this temperature level is
more representative for the conditions of the in-vehicle application in the test cycle
as specified in Annex 1, Paragraph (b).
The test battery shall be discharged with a current of 0.1C in 5% SOC steps
calculated based on the rated capacity specified by the battery manufacturer.
Each time a required 5% SOC discharge level is reached the discharge current is
disabled and the test battery is soaked for at least 1h, but no more than 4h
(e.g. by disconnecting the cell). The open circuit voltage (OCV) for this SOC level
is measured at the end of the soak time.
When the voltage drops below the minimum allowed limit the discharge current is
terminated and the last soak period starts. The last OCV value corresponds to the
empty battery condition. With this definition of the empty battery the actual
measured rated capacity of the test battery can be calculated by integrating the
recorded discharging current over time.

Figure 45
Example of Resulting Open Circuit Voltage as a Function of SOC
(Measured points are marked with a dot, spline interpolation is used for data in between the
recorded measurement values)
A.9.8.5.5.2.
Test procedure for R , R and C characteristics
In case the measurement is performed with a representative subsystem, the final results
for R , R and C shall be obtained by averaging at least five individual measurements of
different subsystems.
All SOC values used shall be calculated based on the actual measured rated capacity of
the test battery determined in accordance with Paragraph A.9.8.5.5.1.
The current and voltage over time shall be recorded at a sampling rate of at least 10Hz.
(a)
(b)
(c)
The test shall be conducted for at least 5 different levels of SOC which shall be set
in such a way as to allow for accurate interpolation. The selected levels of SOC
shall at least cover the range used for the test cycle as specified in Annex 1,
Paragraph (b)
After fully charging the test battery in accordance with the charging method
specified by the manufacturer, it shall be soaked for at least 1h, but no more than
4h.
The adjustment of the desired SOC before starting the test sequence shall be
performed by discharging or charging the test battery with a constant current C/n
in accordance with Paragraph A.9.8.5.2.

Figure 46
Test Sequence at each SOC Level
(g)
For each individual discharging and charging current pulse as specified in
Table 64, the no-load voltage before the start of the current pulse V , and the
voltages at, respectively, 1, 5 and 9s after the pulse has started (V , V and V )
shall be measured (as shown in Figure 47).
If the voltage signal contains signal noise, low-pass filtering of the signal or
averaging of the values over a short time frame of ±0.05 to 0.1s from the
respective voltage value may be used.
If a voltage value exceeds the lower limit of discharging voltage or the upper limit
of charging voltage, that measurement data shall be discarded.

For a discharge pulse:
V − V
V = + V
(227)
e
The values for R
, R
and C
for a specific current level I
shall be calculated
as:
R
R
R
C
V − V
= (228)
I
V − V
= (229)
I
τ
= (230)
R
The required values for R , R and C for, respectively, charging or discharging at one
specific SOC level shall be calculated as the mean values of the corresponding charging
or discharging current pulses. The same calculations shall be performed for all selected
levels of SOC in order to get the specific values for R , R and C not only depending on
charging or discharging, but also on the SOC.
A.9.8.5.6.2.
Correction of R for battery subsystems
In case the measurement is performed with a representative subsystem the final results
for all R values may be corrected if the internal connections between the subsystems
have a significant influence on the R values. The validity of the values used for
correction of the original R values shall be demonstrated to the type approval or
certification authority by calculations, simulations, estimations, experimental results and
so on.
A.9.8.6.
A.9.8.6.1.
Capacitor
General
The characteristics of the (super)capacitor shall be determined and converted to the
input parameters for the HILS system supercapacitor model in accordance with the
measurements and data conversion of Paragraphs A.9.8.6.2. through A.9.8.6.7.
The characteristics for a capacitor are hardly dependent of its state of charge or current,
respectively. Therefore only a single measurement is prescribed for the calculation of the
model input parameters.

(e)
The current and voltage over time, respectively I
and V
, shall be recorded
at a sampling rate of at least 10Hz.
(f)
The following characteristic values shall be determined from the measurement
(illustrated in Figure 48):
V
V
V
is the no-load voltage right before start of the charge pulse, V
is the no-load voltage right before start of the discharge pulse, V
is the no-load voltage recorded 30s after the end of the discharge
pulse, V
∆V(t ), ∆V(t ) are the voltage changes directly after applying the constant
charging or discharging current I at the time of t and t ,
respectively. These voltage changes shall be determined by
applying a linear approximation to the voltage characteristics as
defined in detail A of Figure 48 by using the least squares method,
V
∆V(t )
∆V(t )
is the absolute difference of voltages between V and the intercept
value of the straight-line approximation at the time of t , V
is the absolute difference of voltages between V and the intercept
value of the straight-line approximation at the time of t , V
∆V(t ) is the absolute difference of voltages between V and V , V
∆V(t ) is the absolute difference of voltages between V and V , V
Figure 48
Example of Voltage Curve for the Supercapacitor Measurement

A.9.8.6.6.2.
Correction of Resistance of Supercapacitor Subsystems
In case the measurement is performed with a representative subsystem the final results
for the system resistance value may be corrected if the internal connections between the
subsystems have a significant influence on the resistance value.
The validity of the values used for correction of the original resistance values shall be
demonstrated to the Type Approval or Certification Authority by calculations, simulations,
estimations, experimental results and so on.

ANNEX 10
TEST PROCEDURE FOR ENGINES INSTALLED IN HYBRID VEHICLES
USING THE POWERTRAIN METHOD
A.10.1.
A.10.2.
This Annex contains the requirements and general description for testing engines
installed in hybrid vehicles using the powertrain method.
Test Procedure
This annex describes the procedure for simulating a chassis test for a pretransmission or
post-transmission hybrid system in a powertrain test cell.
Following steps shall be carried out:
A.10.2.1.
Powertrain Method
The powertrain method shall follow the general guidelines for execution of the defined
process steps as outlined below and shown in the flow chart of Figure 49. The details of
each step are described in the relevant paragraphs.
Deviations from the guidance are permitted where appropriate, but the specific
requirements shall be mandatory.
For the powertrains method, the procedure shall follow:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Selection and confirmation of the HDH object for approval;
Set up of powertrain system;
Hybrid system rated power determination;
Powertrain exhaust emission test;
Data collection and evaluation;
Calculation of specific emissions.

A.10.3.
A.10.3.1.
Set up of Powertrain System
General Introduction
The powertrain system shall consist of, as shown in Figure 50, a HV model and its input
parameters, the test cycle as defined in Annex 1, Paragraph (b), as well as the complete
physical hybrid powertrain and its ECU(s) (hereinafter referred to as the "actual
powertrain") and a power supply and required interface(s). The powertrain system setup
shall be defined in accordance with Paragraphs A.10.3.2. through A.10.3.6. The HILS
component library in accordance with Paragraph A.9.7. shall be applied in this process.
The system update frequency shall be at least 100Hz to accurately control the
dynamometer.
Figure 50
Outline of Powertrain System Setup
A.10.3.2.
Powertrain System Hardware
The powertrain system hardware shall have the signal types and number of channels
that are required for constructing the interface between all hardware required for the
functionality of the powertrain test and to connect to the dynamometer and the actual
powertrain.

A.10.3.6.
Driver Model
The driver model shall contain all required tasks to drive the HV model over the test
cycle and typically includes e.g. accelerator and brake pedal signals as well as clutch
and selected gear position in case of a manual shift transmission. The driver model shall
use actual vehicle speed for comparison with the desired vehicle speed defined in
accordance with the test cycle of Annex 1, Paragraph (b)
The driver model tasks shall be implemented as a closed-loop control and shall be in
accordance with Paragraphs A.9.7.4.2. or A.9.7.4.3.
The shift algorithm for the manual transmission shall be in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.7.4.3.
A.10.4.
Hybrid System Rated Power Determination
The hybrid system rated power shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph A.9.6.3.
In addition, following conditions shall be respected:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The hybrid powertrain shall be warmed up to its normal operating condition as
specified by the manufacturer.
Prior to starting the test, the system temperatures shall be within their normal
operating conditions as specified by the manufacturer.
The test cell shall be conditioned between 20°C and 30°C.
A.10.5.
A.10.5.1.
Powertrain Exhaust Emission Test
General Introduction
Using the powertrain system setup and all required HV model and interface systems
enabled, the exhaust emission test shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions
of Paragraphs A.10.5.2. to A.10.5.6. Guidance on the test sequence is provided in the
flow diagram of Figure 57.

A.10.5.2.5.
Final gear ratio and efficiency
The final gear ratio and efficiency shall be defined in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.6.2.10.
A.10.5.2.6.
Transmission efficiency
The efficiency of each gear shall be set to 0.95.
A.10.5.2.7.
Transmission gear ratio
The gear ratios of the (shift) transmission shall have the manufacturer specified values
for the test hybrid powertrain.
A.10.5.2.8.
Transmission gear inertia
The inertia of each gear of the (shift) transmission shall have the manufacturer specified
value for the test hybrid powertrain.
A.10.5.2.9.
Clutch Maximum Transmitted Torque
For the maximum transmitted torque of the clutch and the synchronizer, the design value
specified by the manufacturer shall be used.
A.10.5.2.10.
Gear Change Period
The gear-change period for a manual transmission shall be set to one (1.0) second.
A.10.5.2.11.
Gear Change Method
The gear positions shall be defined in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph A.9.6.2.16.
A.10.5.2.12.
Inertia of Rotating Sections
The inertia for the post transmission parts shall be defined in accordance with
Paragraph A.9.6.2.17.
In case a post transmission component is included in the actual hardware (e.g. final
gear), this specific component inertia as specified by the manufacturer shall be used to
correct the inertia as specified in accordance with Paragraph A.9.6.2.17. taking into
account the gear ratios between this component and the wheels. The resulting post
transmission inertia shall have a minimum value of 0kgm .
A.10.5.2.13.
Other Input Parameters
All other input parameters shall have the manufacturer specified value for the actual test
hybrid powertrain.
A.10.5.3.
Data to be Recorded
All data required to allow for the checks of speed, net energy balance and determination
of emissions shall be recorded at 5Hz or higher (10Hz recommended).

For a test to be considered valid, the criteria of Table 65 shall be met.
Table 65
Statistical Criteria for Speed Validation
Parameter
Speed control
Slope, a
0.950 ≤ a ≤ 1.030
Absolute value of intercept, a
≤2.0% of maximum test speed
Standard Error of Estimate, SEE
≤5.0% of maximum test speed
Coefficient of determination, r
≥0.970
A.10.6.
Data Collection and Evaluation
In addition to the data collection required in accordance with Paragraph 7.6.6., the hybrid
system work shall be determined over the test cycle by synchronously using the hybrid
system rotational speed and torque values at the wheel hub (HV chassis model output
signals in accordance with Paragraph A.9.7.3.) recorded during the test in accordance
with Paragraph A.10.5. to calculate instantaneous values of hybrid system power.
Instantaneous power values shall be integrated over the test cycle to calculate the hybrid
system work W (kWh). Integration shall be carried out using a frequency of 5Hz or
higher (10Hz recommended) and include only positive power values.
he hybrid system work W shall be calculated as follows:
W
⎛ 1 ⎞
= W × ⎜ ⎟
(247)
⎝ 0.95 ⎠
Where:
W is the hybrid system work, kWh
W is the hybrid system work from the test run, kWh
All parameters shall be reported.

Emissions from Compression-ignition Engines and Positive-ignition Engines Fuelled with LPG or CNG.