Global Technical Regulation No. 6

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 6
Description:Safety Glazing Materials.
Official Title:Safety Glazing Materials for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2008-03-12
Amendment Level:Amendment 1 of April 6, 2011
Number of Pages:70
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Driver's Vision
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.6/Amend.1
April 6, 2011
Incorporating:
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 06
SAFETY GLAZING MATERIALS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
AND MOTOR VEHICLE EQUIPMENT
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 11, 2010)
Corrigendum 1
dated May 21, 2010
Amendment 1
dated April 6, 2011

5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.1.
Requirements Applicable to All Glazing
5.1.1.
Light Transmittance Test
5.1.2.
Test of Resistance to Abrasion
5.2.
Requirements Applicable to All Glazing Faced with Plastic
5.2.1.
Test of Resistance to Temperature Changes
5.2.2.
Test of Resistance to Fire
5.2.3.
Test of Resistance to Chemicals
5.3.
Requirements Applicable to All Laminated Glass and All Glazing Faced with Plastic
5.3.1.
Test of Resistance to Radiation
5.3.2.
Test of Resistance to High Temperature
5.3.3.
Test of Resistance to Humidity
5.4.
Requirements Applicable to Windscreens
5.4.1.
Optical Distortion Test
5.4.2.
Secondary Image Separation Test
5.4.3.
Head-form Test on Windscreens
5.4.4.
2 260 g Ball Test
5.4.5.
227 g Ball Test
5.5.
Requirements Applicable to Panes
5.5.1.
Requirements Applicable Only to Uniformly-Toughened Panes
5.5.1.1. Fragmentation Test
5.5.1.2. 227 g Ball Test
5.5.2.
Requirements Applicable Only to Laminated-Glass and Glass-Plastic Panes
5.5.2.1. 227 g Ball Test
5.5.3.
Requirements Applicable Only to Double-Glazed Units
5.5.3.1. Individual Components
5.5.3.2. Head-form Test
6. TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES
6.1.
Test Conditions
6.2.
Fragmentation Test
6.3.
227 g Ball Test
6.4.
2 260 g Ball Test
6.5.
Head-form Tests
6.6.
Test of Resistance to Abrasion
6.7.
Test of Resistance to High Temperature
6.8.
Test of Resistance to Radiation
6.9.
Test of Resistance to Humidity
6.10.
Test of Resistance to Temperature Changes
6.11.
Light Transmittance Test
6.12.
Optical Distortion Test
6.13.
Secondary Image Separation Test
6.14.
Test of Resistance to Fire
6.15.
Test of Resistance to Chemicals
7. ANNEXES
7.1
Procedures for Determining Test Areas on Windscreens
7.2.
Measurement of the Height of Segment and Position of the Points of Impact

(b)
Summary
5. The draft gtr specifies performance requirements for various types of glazing
(i.e., laminated and toughened glass) intended for installation in Category 1 and 2
vehicles as defined in Special Resolution No. 1. The requirements apply to glazing
as an item of equipment, and do not include installation requirements for vehicles.
Performance requirements for some of the materials are different if the material is
intended for installation as a windscreen or as a pane. The draft gtr includes
requirements and tests to ensure that the mechanical properties, optical qualities and
environmental resistance of glazing are satisfactory.
6. Four tests and requirements are used in the gtr for mechanical properties: a
fragmentation test, a 227 g steel ball, a 2.26 kg steel ball and a 10 kg head-form. The
first three appear in all of the national or regional regulations. The fragmentation test
in this gtr is similar to those included in UNECE Regulation No. 43 "Uniform
Provisions Concerning the Approval of Safety Glazing and Glazing Materials." The
227 g steel ball and 2.26 kg steel ball tests are similar in the national or regional
regulations examined and the differences were resolved in the gtr. The major
difference from all existing regulations is the drop height for the small ball test for
uniformly toughened glass panes. Based upon analysis conducted by Japan, which
demonstrated that the force from a drop height of 2.0 m represented the force of a
typical object impacting a pane, it was decided that a drop height of 2.0 m could be
retained. The head-form test in this gtr specifies one drop height, and not two as in
European and Asian regulations.
7. Three types of optical qualities are addressed by the gtr: light transmission, optical
distortion and double image. The minimum light transmittance level for glazing
required for the driver's forward field of vision is 70% as it is in North American and
Asian regulations, and not 75% as it is in European regulations. This is justified by
costs/benefits analysis. The test procedure is based on the UNECE test procedure.
The main difference from the other tests in the national or regional regulations
examined was not the requirements, but the test procedure. This was resolved by
selecting the test procedure that was most similar to real-world conditions.
8. For environmental resistance, the gtr includes requirements related to temperature
change, fire, chemical resistance, abrasion, radiation, high temperature and humidity.
The first four of these were common to all the examined regulations. Minor
differences in the other three were resolved for the gtr.
9. The IG understands that research to update some of the environmental tests is
currently being conducted within the glazing industry. However, for the time being,
the gtr can only consider the available practice and test requirements. Once the new
test procedures/test equipments are validated and updated by the industry, proposals
could be made to update the gtr accordingly. Other areas that could be the subject of
future proposals to upgrade the gtr such as installation provisions, plastic glazing, and
unified markings, are subject to the approval by WP.29 and AC.3.

(a)
Existing Requirements/Tests not included in the gtr
14. The European and Asian regulations include a requirement for colour recognition.
The requirement was originally adopted to prevent confusion concerning traffic
signals. The North American regulations do not include such a requirement, nor was
it adopted by ISO. Experience has shown that colour distortion is not a problem at
the light transmission levels allowed by any national or regional regulation for
windscreens. For lack of safety justification, the requirement is not included in the gtr.
15. The North American regulations include a 4.99 kg shot bag test. The test requires a
leather bag filled with lead shot. Experience has shown that it is difficult to obtain
consistent results because variations in the suppleness of the leather play a
significant role in the distribution of force on the impact area. For lack of objectivity,
the test was not included in the gtr.
16. The North American regulations also include a 198 g dart test. The dart test is a test
that causes fracture and delaminated areas for laminated windscreens and panes.
The 227 g ball test evaluates the same characteristics. Because the dart is very
close in mass to the 227 g ball, the tests provide similar information. For this reason
the 227 g ball test is included in the gtr only because the slightly increased weight
makes the test slightly more severe.
17. The European and Japanese regulations include head-form tests at both 1.5 m and
4 m drop heights. The test at the 4 m drop height is not included in this gtr. The 4 m
drop height test shall be conducted on specially manufactured test pieces rather than
normal production parts. The primary benefit of this test is to assess the penetration
resistance, which is already assessed in other test protocols included in the gtr.
(b)
Common Requirements in all of the Regulations
18. All of the regulations considered include identical requirements for glazing with an
exposed plastic layer. These requirements are tested for the resistance to:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Temperature change;
Fire;
Chemicals (e.g., cleaning compounds);
Abrasion.
19. By its nature, glass glazing is resistant to these factors. However glazing with an
exposed plastic face could have low resistance. If the glazing were not resistant to
temperature changes, chemicals or abrasion, the ability of a driver to see through the
glazing would be compromised. If the glazing permitted a fire to spread on an
exposed plastic surface, this could also be a hazard to the occupants of the vehicle.
Because a safety of justification for these requirements exists, they were included in
the gtr.

26. When a toughened pane is broken, the fracture pattern observed depends not only on
the degree of thermal toughening introduced in the processing, but also on the
peripheral shape of the pane and the location of the point of fracture. There is a
complex interaction between the developing crack and the resultant stress wave that
is reflected back from the edges of the pane. As a general rule the centre break
position is the most critical. However, if a pane has a significant degree of curvature
at the lateral extremities, a geometric centre break point can mask toughening issues.
Adding an additional fragmentation point in the region of smallest radius, it can be
verified if the glass has been properly toughened.
27. After reviewing all of these regulations the experts agreed that two breaking points
could be specified and adopted the minimum number of fragments count technique
with additional limits on fragment size and shape. The centre breaking position is
specified for all panes. For panes with complex curves, an additional test point is
introduced at the place where the minimum radius of curvature "r", on the longest
median, is less than 200 mm. Specifying this point means that the additional test
points in the European and Asian regulations are not required. The value of 200 mm
is based on tests carried out by the European test laboratories e.g. Material
Prüfungs-Amt (MPA), British Standard Institute (BSI) and L'Union Technique de
l'Automobile, du Motocycle et du Cycle (UTAC).
28. Both the North American technique of weighing the largest fragment and the
European/Asian technique of counting fragments are intended to ensure that, the
glazing breaks into a large number of small fragments to reduce the severity of
lacerations risks.
29. While the North American technique is a simpler test to perform, the recent use of
very thin toughened glazing would permit a significant increase of the fragment size.
For this reason assessing the number of fragments and limiting their area seemed to
provide the greatest measure of safety.
30. The purpose of the 227 g steel ball test is to assess the resistance of the glazing to
impacts from stones or other flying objects that might be encountered in everyday
use. For uniformly toughened glass panes, in Europe and Asia, a drop height of
2.0 to 2.5 m, depending on the thickness of the glazing, is specified. In the United
States of America, a drop height of 3.05 m is specified. Tests in Japan led to the
conclusion that a drop height of 2.0 m is sufficient for this type of glazing. The
typically encountered stone was determined to have a mass of 2-3 g. In the case of a
windscreen, an impact velocity of 150 km/h may be reached. However, the impact
velocity on a windscreen is largely determined by the speed of the vehicle, which is
not the case for panes where the impact velocity will be lower. Assuming a
worst-case impact velocity of 150 km/h, the impact energy of a 3 g object would be
equivalent to the impact energy of the 227 g ball dropped from a height of 1.17 m.
Therefore, it was decided that the lowest height, 2 m, used in any national or regional
regulation, would be sufficient to assess a pane impacted by a stone or other small
object. This lower drop height will also allow the use of thinner panes, resulting in a
weight reduction that could contribute to lower fuel consumption.

(d)
Optical Properties
34. The relationship between light transmission and a driver's visual needs is complex.
Factors involved include visual acuity, prevailing contrast levels, vehicle speed and
the location of the glazing in the vehicle. Body tinted heat absorbing and heat
reflecting darker glazing is desired to reduce the amount of heat from solar radiation
entering the vehicle, however, darker glazing also reduces the ability to see out of the
vehicle. In developing the gtr, there was agreement that glazing requisite for the
driver's primary visibility should exhibit good light transmission properties. All existing
national or regional regulations require higher levels of light transmission for glazing
at locations that the driver would use for his forward field of view, e.g., windscreens
and some side panes. In many instances where existing national or regional
regulations allow lower levels of light transmission at locations to the rear of the
driver, this allowance is tied to a requirement for rear-view mirrors.
The divergence in national legislation regarding light transmission levels for rearward
field of view glazing is one of the main issues that led the informal group to request
advice from AC.3 on including provisions in the gtr when various types of glazing
could be installed in a vehicle. However, since AC.3 determined that the gtr should
not include installation provisions, making lower light transmittance levels provisional
on other items of equipment could not be included in this gtr. Therefore, the use of
darker glazing to the rear of the driver is at the discretion of the Contracting Parties.
35. With regard to the light transmittance requirements for forward vision, the gtr specifies
a minimum level of 70% light transmittance. Current national or regional regulations
specify either 70% (North America) or 75% (UNECE). Laboratory test studies and
vehicle accident data do not show any influence on safety with the lower minimum
limit for light transmission. Therefore this level was selected for the gtr.
36. The gtr specifies limits on distortion and double image. If the glazing caused too
much distortion or created double images this could lead to driver confusion. The
main differences among the existing national or regional regulations are not in the
levels specified but in the test methods for both of these requirements. In the North
American and Canadian regulations, the test method specifies measuring at normal
incidence (perpendicular) to the glazing surface. By contrast, the European and
Asian regulations specify measuring in defined vision areas at the intended
installation angle of the glazing. Because the European and Asian regulations
evaluate the image seen by the driver, these tests were included in the gtr.
37. At the time many of the early regulations were developed, the angle of installation of
most windscreens was very low, that is close to vertical. Modern windscreens can be
complex in terms of styling. They are larger, with high angles of inclination (typically
in excess of 60° to the vertical) and shaped to bend into the bodywork to improve
aerodynamics. Distortion is a function of the angle of incidence and can be up to
10 times greater at an inclination of 62° than at normal incidence. For this reason, the
gtr specifies testing at the intended installation angle to ensure that the distortion
measured accurately reflects what a driver might encounter.

(f)
Application
42. The gtr is applicable to glazing intended for installation in Category 1 and 2 vehicles
as defined by Special Resolution No. 1. These definitions cover vehicles glazing
included within the scope of both the existing regulations and the 1998 Agreement.
As explained above, based on guidance from WP.29, the gtr specifies requirements
for glazing as an item of motor vehicle equipment and not for the vehicle.
(g)
Markings
43. Existing national or regional regulations require markings on glazing that generally fall
into three categories:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
The type of material the glazing is constructed from;
The manufacturer of the glazing; and
The regulation(s) the glazing is manufactured to comply with.
44. In the first category, the regulations vary only in the symbol used for each material,
not the content. In the second category, some regulations require a trade name or
mark, some require an assigned identifier, and others require a higher level of detail,
for example, not just the manufacturer but the actual plant where the glazing was
fabricated. The third category generally reflects differences in enforcement
mechanisms in various countries.
45. This gtr specifies marking requirements for only the first category. The marking
system in UNECE Regulation No. 43 was the starting point. However, some
additional markings were added to make sure each type of glazing which has unique
requirements under the gtr has a unique marking.
46. Contracting Parties will be able to continue to require additional markings in one or
both of the other two categories. While some manufacturers would also like the gtr to
include markings in these categories, thus eliminating the need to add multiple
markings if the glazing is sold in more than one country, they are not included at this
time.
(h)
Sampling
47. Whenever possible it is desirable to test actual production parts and/or test pieces cut
from production parts. However, in the abrasion and 1.5 m head-form test for
double-glazed panes, the test piece shall fit a holder or support frame. Since it is not
practicable to design a new holder or support frame for each production part, these
tests specify the testing of specially prepared test pieces. It is expected that the test
pieces would be identical to the glazing in production parts, except for the shape
and/or size.

Laminated Windscreens (Continued)
TEST
EUROPE
UNECE Regulation No. 43
JAPAN
Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles,
Article 29
USA
FMVSS 205
DRAFT
GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATION
Penetration
Resistance 2.26 kg
ball
Test method: ISO 3537
Drop height 4.0 m
Test method: ISO 3537
Drop height 4.0 m
Test method: ISO 3537
Drop height 3.66 m
As UNECE Regulation No. 43
Abrasion Resistance Test method: ISO 3537 As UNECE Regulation No. 43 As UNECE Regulation No. 43 As UNECE Regulation No. 43
Headform Impact
Test
Test method: ISO 3537
Evaluation of penetration
resistance and breaking pattern
4 m drop test on flat test pieces.
1.5 m drop test on windscreens
Test method: ISO 3537
No test
Evaluation as UNECE Regulation No. 43
Testing as UNECE Regulation No. 43
The headform 1.5 m drop test
on windscreens is included.
(The ECE R43 and Japanese
test at 4.0 m on flat test
pieces is not included)
Colour Identification
Test to verify that traffic light
colours can be recognized.
Not an ISO test
As UNECE Regulation No. 43 No test No test

Toughened Bodyglass (Continued)
TEST UNECE Regulation No. 43
JAPAN
Safety Regulations for Road
Vehicles, Article 29
USA
FMVSS 205
DRAFT
GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATION
Fragmentation Test procedure ISO 3537
● Production parts are broken using a
spring loaded centre punch or pointed
hammer from 4 defined breaking points
● The minimum particle count allowed is
40 (in any 5 × 5 cm sided square) with
an upper limit of 450 for a thickness
< 3.50 mm.
400 for thickness > 3.5 mm
● No elongated particles (splines) in
excess of 7.5 cm are permitted
● The maximum particle size allowed is
3 cm
NB: Some deviations on the above are
permitted.
Example: splines up to 10 cm
ISO 3537
Requirements are similar to
those specified in UNECE
Regulation No. 43
Some small differences in the
allowed deviations
Deviation examples:
● splines up to 15 cm
● in case particle count < 40,
then:
particle count
>= 160 in any 10 × 10 cm
square is acceptable
Fragmentation test as ISO 3537,
with only one defined break
position (25 mm inboard of the
mid-point of the longest edge)
The interpretation of results is
based on the weight of the
largest fragment, which shall not
exceed 4.25 g. This equates to
the following maximum particle
sizes: 3 mm thickness: 5.6 cm
4 mm thickness: 4.2 cm
5 mm thickness: 3.4 cm
No evaluation of the length of
fragments.
As UNECE
Regulation No. 43, with some
changes:
● a single centre break
position is specified.
● the upper particle count
limit is removed.
Minimum limit remains at
40.
● the elongated particle limit
is raised from 7.5 to 10 cm
● Determination of the
largest particle weight
rather than of the area,
e.g. for glass up to 4.5 mm
thickness the weight shall
not exceed 3.0 g.
This equates to:
3.9 cm for glass 3 mm
3.0 cm for glass 4 mm
Unlike UNECE Regulation
No. 43 and Japan,
no deviations are permitted.

3.3.3. Glass-plastics means glazing consisting of any glazing material which comprises one
layer of glass and one or more layers of plastic in which a plastic surface of the product
faces the inner side.
3.3.4. Interlayer: means any material designed to be used to hold together the component
layers of laminated-glass.
3.3.5. Laminated-glass: means glazing consisting of two or more layers of glass held together
by one or more inter-layers of plastic material.
3.3.6. Glazing faced with plastics: means either toughened-glass or laminated-glass with a
layer of plastic on the inner side.
3.3.7. Uniformly toughened-glass: means glazing consisting of a single layer of glass which
has been subjected to special treatment to increase its mechanical strength and to
condition its fragmentation after shattering.
3.4. Glazing Requisite for Driver Visibility
3.4.1. Glazing requisite for the driver's forward field of vision: means all the glazing
forward of a plane passing through the driver's "R" Point and perpendicular to the
longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, through which the driver can view the road
when driving or manoeuvring the vehicle.
3.4.2. Glazing requisite for the driver's rearward field of vision: means all glazing rearward
of a plane passing through the driver's "R" Point and perpendicular to the longitudinal
median plane of the vehicle, through which the driver can view the road when driving or
manoeuvring the vehicle.
3.5. Height of segment "h": means the maximum distance, measured at right angles to the
glazing, separating the inner surface of the glazing from a plane passing through the
ends of the glazing. (see Annex 7.2., Figure 1)
3.6. Inner side: means the side of glazing which is facing towards the passenger
compartment when the material is mounted in the vehicle.
3.7. Nominal thickness: means the manufacturer's design thickness with a tolerance of
± (n × 0.2 mm) where n equals the number of glass layers in the glazing.
3.8. Opaque obscuration: means any area of the glazing preventing light transmission,
including any screen-printed area, whether solid or dot-printed, but excluding any shade
band.
3.9. Optical deviation means the angle between the true and the apparent direction of a
point viewed through the windscreen, the magnitude of the angle being a function of the
angle of incidence of the line of sight, the thickness and inclination of the windscreen,
and the radius of curvature "r" at the point of incidence.
3.10. Optical distortion means an optical defect in a windscreen that changes the
appearance of an object viewed through the windscreen.
3.11 Outer side means the side of glazing which is facing away from the passenger
compartment when the material is mounted in the vehicle.

3.22. Windscreen means the glazing in front of the driver through which the driver views the
road ahead.
3.22.1. Inclination angle of a windscreen means the angle included between a vertical line
and a straight line passing through the top and bottom edges of the inner side of the
windscreen, when both lines are contained in the vertical plane through the longitudinal
axis of the vehicle.
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1. Markings
4.1.1. General Requirements for Markings.
4.1.1.1. All marking shall be clearly legible from at least one side of the glazing, indelible, and at
least 3 mm in height.
4.1.2. Identification Marks.
Each piece of glazing shall bear the appropriate marks set out in this section.
4.1.2.1. Identification marks for windscreens.
4.1.2.1.1. "II" for laminated-glass.
4.1.2.1.2. "IV" for glass-plastics.
4.1.2.2. Identification marks for panes.
4.1.2.2.1. No symbol is required for uniformly toughened glass.
4.1.2.2.2. "XI" for laminated glass.
4.1.2.2.3. "VI" for a double glazed unit.
4.1.2.2.4. "XII" for glass-plastics.
4.1.2.3. Additional identification marks.
4.1.2.3.1. Glazing faced with plastic shall be marked with "/P" after the mark required by
Paragraph 4.1.2.1. or 4.1.2.2., e.g., II/P.
4.1.2.3.2. Glazing with a light transmission of less than 70% shall be marked with "/V" and the mark
required by Paragraph 4.1.2.2.
4.1.2.3.3. If glazing requires both the "/P" and the "/V", the mark required by Paragraph 4.1.2.3.1
shall precede the mark required by Paragraph 4.1.2.3.2.

5.1. Requirements Applicable to all Glazing
5.1.1. Light Transmittance Test
5.1.1.1. When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.11, the regular light transmittance of
glazing requisite for the driver's forward field of vision shall not be less than 70%.
5.1.1.2. When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.11., the regular light transmittance of
glazing requisite for the driver's rearward field of vision may be less than 70%, if not
forbidden by the national legislation or regulation of Contracting Party.
5.1.1.3. Test pieces
5.1.1.3.1. Three test pieces shall be tested and each shall meet the requirements.
5.1.1.3.2. The test pieces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.11.3.
5.1.2. Test of Resistance to Abrasion
5.1.2.1. Except as provided in Paragraph 5.1.2.2., when tested in accordance with
Paragraph 6.6. for 1,000 cycles, light scatter shall not exceed 2%.
5.1.2.2. For glazing faced with plastic, when tested on the inner side in accordance with
Paragraph 6.6. for 100 cycles, light scatter shall not exceed 4%.
5.1.2.3. Test pieces
5.1.2.3.1. Three test pieces shall be tested and each shall meet the requirements.
5.1.2.3.2. The test pieces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.6.
5.2. Requirements Applicable to all Glazing Faced with Plastic
5.2.1. Test of Resistance to Temperature Changes.
5.2.1.1. When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.10. the test pieces shall not show any
evidence of cracking, clouding, separation of layers or apparent deterioration.
5.2.1.2. Test pieces
5.2.1.2.1. Two test pieces shall be tested and each shall meet the requirements.
5.2.1.2.1. The test pieces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.10.
5.2.2. Test of Resistance to Fire
5.2.2.1. When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.14., the rate of burning shall not exceed
90 mm/min.
5.2.2.2. Test pieces
5.2.2.2.1. Five test pieces shall be tested and each shall meet the requirements.
5.2.2.2.2. The test pieces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.14.

5.4. Requirements Applicable to Windscreens
5.4.1. Optical Distortion Test.
When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.12. optical distortion shall not exceed the
values given below for each zone or test area.
Vehicle category
Zone or test area
Maximum values of optical
distortion
1-1 and 2 (based on a 1-1 where the
windscreen and seating positions are
identical)
1-2 and 2 (except those based on a 1-1
where the windscreen and seating
position are identical)
A − extended according to
Paragraph 7.1.3.2.2.
B − reduced according to
Paragraph 7.1.3.2.4.
I according to
Paragraph 7.1.3.3.2.
2' of arc
6' of arc
2' of arc
5.4.1.1. No measurements shall be made in a peripheral area 25 mm inboard of the design glass
outline and of any opaque obscuration, provided that it does not impinge into the
extended Zone A or Zone I.
5.4.1.2. In the case of split windscreens, no measurements shall be made in a strip 35 mm from
the edge of the windscreen which is adjacent to the dividing pillar.
5.4.1.3. A maximum value of 6' of arc is permitted for all portions of Zone I or Zone A in a
peripheral area 100 mm inboard of the design glass outline.
5.4.1.4. Test pieces
5.4.1.4.1. Four windscreens shall be tested and each shall meet the requirements.
5.4.2. Secondary image separation test.
When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.13. separation of the primary and
secondary image shall not exceed the values given below for each zone or test area.
Vehicle category
Zone or test area
Maximum values of the
separation of the primary
and secondary images
1-1 and 2 (based on a 1-1 where the
windscreen and seating positions are
identical)
1-2 and 2 (except those based on a 1-1
where the windscreen and seating
position are identical)
A − extended according to
Paragraph 7.1.3.2.2.
B − reduced according to
Paragraph 7.1.3.2.4.
I according to
Paragraph 7.1.3.3.2.
15' of arc
25' of arc
15' of arc

5.4.5. 227 g Ball Test.
When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.3., at the temperature and drop height
specified in Paragraph 6.3.3.4., the test piece shall meet the following requirements:
5.4.5.1. The ball does not pass through the test piece.
5.4.5.2. The test piece does not break into separate pieces.
5.4.5.3. Tears in the interlayer are allowed provided that the ball does not pass through the test
piece.
5.4.5.4. If the interlayer is not torn, the mass of fragments detached from the side of the glass
opposite to the point of impact shall not exceed the applicable values specified in
Paragraph 6.3.3.4.
5.4.5.6. Test pieces
5.4.5.6.1. Ten test pieces shall be tested at each of the specified temperatures and at least eight of
each ten shall meet the requirements.
5.4.5.6.2. The test pieces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.3.4.
5.5. Requirements Applicable to Panes
5.5.1. Requirements Applicable only to Uniformly Toughened Glass Panes.
5.5.1.1. Fragmentation Test
When tested in accordance with Paragraph 6.2., at the points specified in
Paragraph 6.2.2.2., uniformly toughened glass shall fragment as follows:
5.5.1.1.1. The number of fragments in any 5 cm × 5 cm square shall not be less than 40.
5.5.1.1.2. For the purposes of this requirement, a fragment extending across at least one side of a
square shall count as half a fragment.
5.5.1.1.3. When a fragment extends beyond the excluded area only the part of the fragment falling
outside of the area shall be assessed.
5.5.1.1.4. Fragments of an area exceeding 3 cm shall not be allowed except in the parts defined in
Paragraph 6.2.2.3.
5.5.1.1.5. No fragment longer than 100 mm in length shall be allowed except in the areas defined
in Paragraph 6.2.2.3. provided that:
5.5.1.1.5.1. Fragment ends do not converge to a point.
5.5.1.1.5.2. If they extend to the edge of the pane they do not form an angle of more than 45° to it.
5.5.1.1.6. Test pieces
5.5.1.1.6.1. Four panes shall be tested from each point of impact and at least three shall meet the
requirements.

5.5.3.2.2. A double-glazed unit consisting of laminated-glass panes and/or glass-plastics panes
shall meet the following requirements:
5.5.3.2.2.1 The two components of the test piece yield and break, displaying numerous circular
cracks centred approximately on the point of impact;
5.5.3.2.2.2. Tears in the interlayer(s) are allowed provided that the head-form does not pass through
the test piece;
5.5.3.2.2.3. No fragment larger than 10 cm becomes detached from the interlayer.
5.5.3.2.3. A double-glazed unit consisting of a uniformly toughened-glass pane and of a
laminated-glass pane or glass-plastics pane shall meet the following requirements:
5.5.3.2.3.1. The uniformly toughened glass pane breaks;
5.5.3.2.3.2. The laminated-glass pane or glass-plastics pane:
5.5.3.2.3.2.1. Yields and breaks, displaying numerous circular cracks centred approximately on the
point of impact;
5.5.3.2.3.2.2. Tears in the interlayer(s) are allowed provided that the head-form does not pass through
the test piece;
5.5.4.2.3.2.3. No fragment larger than 10 cm becomes detached from the interlayer.
5.5.3.2.4. Test pieces
5.5.3.2.4.1. Twelve test pieces shall be tested and at least eleven shall meet the requirements.
5.5.3.2.4.2. The test pieces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.5.5.1.
5.5.3.2.4.3. In the case of an asymmetrical double-glazed unit, six tests shall be carried out on one
side and six tests on the other side.
6. TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES
6.1. Test Conditions
Unless specified otherwise, the test conditions shall be as follows:
6.1.1. Temperature: 20 ± 5°C.
6.1.2. Pressure: 860 to 1060 mbar.
6.1.3. Relative humidity: 60 ± 20%.
6.2. Fragmentation Test
6.2.1. Apparatus
6.2.1.1. To obtain fragmentation, a spring-loaded centre punch or a hammer of 75 g ± 5 g, each
with a point having a radius of curvature of 0.2 ± 0.05 mm, shall be used.

6.3.1.3. Supporting fixture, such as that shown in Figure 1, composed of steel frames, with
machined borders 15 mm wide, fitting one over the other and faced with rubber gaskets
3 mm thick and 15 mm wide and of hardness 50 ± 10 International Rubber Hardness
Degree (IRHD).
The lower frame rests on a steel box 150 mm high. The test piece is held in place by the
upper frame, the mass of which is 3 kg. The supporting frame is welded onto a sheet of
steel 12 mm thick resting on the floor with an interposed sheet of rubber 3 mm thick and
of hardness 50 ± 10 IRHD.
Dimensions in mm
6.3.2. Procedure
Figure 1
Support for Ball Tests
6.3.2.1. Condition the test piece at the temperature specified in Paragraph 6.1.1. for at least four
hours immediately preceding the test. In the case of laminated-glass and glass-plastic
windscreens the temperatures will be as specified in 6.3.3.4.
6.3.2.2. Place the test piece in the fixture described in Paragraph 6.3.2.3. The plane of the test
piece shall be perpendicular, within 3°, to the incident direction of the ball.
6.3.2.3. The point of impact shall be within 25 mm of the centre of the supported area for a drop
height less than or equal to 6 m, and within 50 mm of the centre of the supported area
for a drop height greater than 6 m.
6.3.2.4. The ball shall strike the outer face of the test piece.
6.3.2.5. The ball shall make only one impact.

6.4.1.3. The supporting fixture shall be as shown in Figure 1 and identical with that described in
Paragraph 6.3.1.3.
6.4.2. Procedure
6.4.2.1. Condition the test piece at the temperature specified in Paragraph 6.1.1. for at least four
hours immediately preceding the test.
6.4.2.2. Place the test piece in the supporting fixture. The plane of the test piece shall be
perpendicular within 3°, to the incident direction of the ball.
6.4.2.3. In the case of glass-plastics glazing the test piece shall be clamped to the support. All
other glazing shall not be clamped.
6.4.2.4. The point of impact shall be within 25 mm of the geometric centre of the test piece.
6.4.2.5. The ball shall strike the inner face of the test piece.
6.4.2.6. The ball shall make only one impact.
6.4.3. Drop Height
6.4.3.1. The drop height shall be measured from the under face of the ball to the upper face of
the test piece.
6.4.3.2. The drop height shall be 4.0 m mm.
6.4.4. Test Pieces
6.4.4.1. The test pieces shall be flat samples measuring 300 × 300 mm, specially made or cut
from the flattest part of a windscreen.
6.4.4.2. Test pieces can alternatively be finished products that may be supported over the
apparatus described in Paragraph 6.3.1.
6.4.4.3. If the test pieces are curved, care should be taken to ensure adequate contact with the
support.

6.5.1.3. Supporting fixture, as shown in Figure 3, for testing flat test pieces.
The fixture is composed of two steel frames, with machined borders 50 mm wide, fitting
one over the other and faced with rubber gaskets 3 mm thick and 15 ± 1 mm wide and of
hardness 70 ± 10 IRHD. The upper frame is held pressed against the lower frame by at
least eight bolts. The torque on the bolts shall ensure that the movement of the test piece
during the test will not exceed 2 mm.
Dimensions in mm
6.5.1.4. Supporting Fixture for Windscreens
Figure 3
Head-form Test Support for Flat Samples
The support shall consist of a rigid piece corresponding to the shape of the windscreen
so that the head-form strikes the inner face of the windscreen. It has an interposed strip
of rubber of hardness 70 ± 10 IRHD, thickness 3 mm and width 15 mm. The support
shall rest on a rigid stand with an interposed sheet of rubber of hardness 70 ± 10 IRHD
and thickness 3 mm.
6.5.2. Procedure for Tests on Flat Test Pieces.
6.5.2.1. Condition the test piece at the temperature specified in Paragraph 6.1.1. for at least four
hours immediately preceding the test.
6.5.2.2. Fix the test piece in the supporting frame described in Paragraph 6.5.1.3.
6.5.2.3. The plane of the test piece shall be perpendicular within 3°, to the incident direction of
the head-form.

6.6. Test of Resistance to Abrasion
6.6.1. Apparatus
6.6.1.1. Abrading instrument as shown in Figure 4 and consisting of:
6.6.1.1.1. A horizontal turntable, with centre clamp, which revolves counter-clockwise at
65 to 75 rev/min.
6.6.1.1.2. Two weighted parallel arms each carrying a special abrasive wheel freely rotating on a
ball-bearing horizontal spindle; each wheel rests on the test specimen under the
pressure exerted by a mass of 500 g.
6.6.1.1.3. The turntable of the abrading instrument shall rotate regularly, substantially in one plane
(the deviation from this plane shall not be greater than ± 0.05 mm at a distance of
1.6 mm from the turntable periphery).
6.6.1.1.4. The wheels shall be mounted in such a way that when they are in contact with the
rotating test piece they rotate in opposite directions so as to exert, twice during each
rotation of the test piece, a compressive and abrasive action along curved lines over an
annular area of about 30 cm .
Figure 4
Diagram of abrading instrument

6.6.1.5.4. The whole apparatus shall be checked at regular intervals by means of calibration
standards of defined haze.
6.6.2. Procedure
Figure 5
Hazemeter
6.6.2.1. The abrasion test shall be carried out on that surface of the test piece which represents
the outer side of the glass pane and also on the inner side if of plastics material.
6.6.2.2. Immediately before and after the abrasion, clean the test pieces in the following manner:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Wipe with a linen cloth under clean running water;
Rinse with distilled or demineralised water;
Blow dry with oxygen or nitrogen;
Remove possible traces of water by dabbing softly with a damp linen cloth. If
necessary, dry by pressing lightly between two linen cloths.
Any treatment with ultrasonic equipment is prohibited.
6.6.2.3. After cleaning, the test pieces shall be handled only by their edges and shall be stored to
prevent damage to, or contamination of, their surfaces.
6.6.2.4. Recondition the test pieces as specified in Paragraph 6.1. for a minimum time of
48 hours.
6.6.2.5. Immediately place the test piece against the entrance port of the integrating sphere. The
angle between the normal (perpendicular) to the surface of the test piece and the axis of
the light beam shall not exceed 8°.

6.7. Test of Resistance to High Temperature
6.7.1. Procedure
6.7.1.1. Heat to 100° C.
6.7.1.2 Maintain this temperature for a period of two hours, then allow the test pieces to cool to
the temperature specified in Paragraph 6.1.1.
6.7.1.3. If the test piece has both external surfaces of inorganic material, the test may be carried
out by immersing the test piece vertically in boiling water for the specified period of time,
care being taken to avoid undue thermal shock.
6.7.2. Test Pieces
6.7.2.1. The test pieces shall be flat samples measuring 300 × 300 mm, which have been
specially made or cut from the flattest part of three windscreens or three panes, as the
case may be, one edge of which corresponds to the upper edge of the glazing.
6.8. Test of Resistance to Radiation
6.8.1. Apparatus
6.8.1.1. Radiation source consisting of a medium-pressure mercury-vapour arc lamp with a
tubular quartz bulb of ozone-free type; the bulb axis shall be vertical. The nominal
dimensions of the lamp shall be 360 mm in length by 9.5 mm in diameter. The arc length
shall be 300 ± 4 mm. The lamp shall be operated at 750 ± 50 W.
Any other source of radiation which produces the same effect as the lamp specified
above may be used. To check that the effects of another source are the same, a
comparison shall be made by measuring the amount of energy emitted within a
wavelength range of 300 to 450 nanometres, all other wavelengths being removed by
the use of suitable filters.
6.8.1.2. Power-supply transformer and capacitor capable of supplying to the lamp specified in
Paragraph 6.8.1.1. a starting peak voltage of 1,100 V minimum and an operating voltage
of 500 ± 50 V.
6.8.1.3. Device for mounting and rotating the test pieces at 1 to 5 rev/min about the
centrally-located radiation source in order to ensure even exposure.
6.8.2. Procedure
6.8.2.1. Check the regular light transmittance, determined according to Paragraph 6.11., of three
test pieces before exposure. Protect a portion of each test piece from the radiation, and
then place the test pieces in the test apparatus 230 mm from and parallel lengthwise to
the lamp axis. Maintain the temperature of the test pieces at 45 ± 5° C throughout the
test.
6.8.2.2. That face of the test piece which would constitute the outer face of the glazing shall face
the lamp.

6.10.2. Test Pieces
6.10.2.1. The test pieces shall be flat samples measuring 300 × 300 mm, which have been
specially made or cut from three windscreens or panes, as the case may be.
6.11. Light Transmittance Test
6.11.1. Apparatus
6.11.1.1. Light source consisting of an incandescent lamp with its filament contained within a
parallelepiped measuring 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 3 mm. The voltage at the lamp filament
shall be such that the colour temperature is 2,856 ± 50 K. This voltage shall be
stabilised within ± 1/1,000.
6.11.1.2. Optical system consisting of a lens with a focal length f of at least 500 mm.
6.11.1.2.1. The full aperture of the lens shall not exceed f/20.
6.11.1.2.2. The distance between the lens and the light source shall be adjusted in order to obtain a
light beam which is parallel.
6.11.1.2.3. A diaphragm shall be inserted to limit the diameter of the light beam to 7 ± 1 mm. This
diaphragm shall be situated at a distance of 100 ± 50 mm from the lens on the side
remote from the light source. The point of measurement shall be taken at the centre of
the light beam.
6.11.1.3. Measuring Equipment
6.11.1.3.1. The receiver shall have a relative spectral sensitivity in substantial agreement with the
relative spectral luminous efficiency for the ICI standard photometric observer for
photocopy vision. The sensitive surface of the receiver shall be covered with a diffusing
medium and shall have at least twice the cross-section of the light beam emitted by the
optical system. If an integrating sphere is used, the aperture of the sphere shall have a
cross-sectional area at least twice that of the parallel portion of the beam.
6.11.1.3.2. The linearity of the receiver and the associated indicating instrument shall be within 2%
of the effective part of the scale.
6.11.1.3.3. The receiver shall be centred on the axis of the light beam.
6.11.2. Procedure
6.11.2.1. The sensitivity of the measuring system shall be adjusted in such a way that the
instrument indicating the response of the receiver indicates 100 divisions when the
safety glazing material is not inserted in the light path. When no light is falling on the
receiver, the instrument shall read zero.

6.12.1.1.1.4. 250 W quartz halogen lamp (if a green filter is used).
6.12.1.1.1.4.1. The projector is shown schematically in Figure 7. A diaphragm of 8 mm in diameter is
positioned 10 mm from the front lens.
Figure 7
Optical Arrangement of the Projector

6.12.1.3. Support stand, permitting vertical and horizontal scanning, rotation of the windscreen,
and mounting of the windscreen at a full range of installation angles of inclination.
6.12.1.4. Checking template for measuring changes in dimensions. A suitable design is shown in
Figure 10.
6.12.2. Procedure
6.12.2.1. General
Figure 10
Design for a Suitable Checking Template
6.12.2.1.1. Mount the windscreen on the support stand at the designed angle of inclination.
6.12.2.1.2. Project the test image through the area being examined.
6.12.2.1.3. Rotate the windscreen or move it either horizontally or vertically in order to examine the
whole of the specified area.
6.12.2.1.4. The distance Δx shall be 4 mm.
6.12.2.1.5. The projection axis in the horizontal plane shall be maintained approximately normal to
the trace of the windscreen in that plane.

6.13.1.2. Procedure
6.13.1.2.1. Mount the safety-glass pane at the angle of inclination on a suitable stand in such a way
that the observation is carried out in the horizontal plane passing through the centre of
the target.
6.13.1.2.2. The light box shall be viewed, in a dark or semi-dark room, through each part of the area
being examined, in order to detect the presence of any secondary image associated with
the illuminated target.
6.13.1.2.3. Rotate the windscreen as necessary to ensure that the correct direction of view is
maintained. A monocular may be used for viewing.
6.13.1.3. Expression of results. Determine whether:
6.13.1.3.1. When target (a) (Figure 11 (a)) is used, the primary and secondary images of the circle
separate, i.e. whether the limit value of η is exceeded, or
6.13.1.3.2. When target (b) (Figure 11 (b)) is used, the secondary image of the spot shifts beyond
the point of tangency with the inside edge of the circle, i.e. whether the limit value of η is
exceeded.
Figure 11
Dimensions of Targets

6.13.3. The direction of observation in the horizontal plane shall be maintained approximately
normal to the trace of the windscreen in that plane.
(1)
Lamp bulb
(2)
Condenser aperture > 8.6 mm
(3)
Ground-glass screen aperture > condenser aperture
(4)
Colour filter with central hole approximately 0.3 mm in diameter, diameter
> 8.6 mm
(5)
Polar co-ordinate plate, diameter > 8.6 mm
(6)
Achromatic lens, f ≥ 86 mm, aperture 10 mm
(7)
Achromatic lens, f ≥ 86 mm, aperture 10 mm
(8)
Black spot, diameter approximately 0.3 mm
(9)
Achromatic lens, f = 20 mm, aperture < 10 mm.
Figure 12
Apparatus for Collimation-telescope Test

Figure 14
Example of Combustion Chamber with Sample Holder and Drip Pan
Dimensions in mm
Tolerances according to ISO 2768
Figure 15
Example of Combustion Chamber

6.14.1.2. Sample holder
6.14.1.2.1. The sample holder consists of two U-shaped metal plates or frames of corrosion-proof
material. Dimensions are given in Figure 17.
Figure 17
Example of Sample Holder
6.14.1.2.2. The lower plate is equipped with pins and the upper one with corresponding holes, in
order to ensure a consistent holding of the sample. The pins also serve as measuring
points at the beginning and end of the burning distance.

6.14.1.7. Fume Cupboard
6.14.1.7.1. The combustion chamber may be placed in a fume-cupboard assembly provided that the
latter internal volume is at least 20 times, but not more than 110 times greater than the
volume of the combustion chamber and provided that no single height, width, or length
dimension of the fume cupboard is greater than 2.5 times either of the other two
dimensions.
6.14.1.7.2. Before the test, the vertical velocity of the air through the fume cupboard shall be
measured 100 mm forward of and to the rear of the ultimate site of the combustion
chamber. It shall be between 0.10 and 0.30 m/s in order to avoid possible discomfort to
the operator from combustion products. It is possible to use a fume cupboard with
natural ventilation and an appropriate air velocity.
6.14.2. Procedure
6.14.2.1. Conditioning. The samples shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours, but not more than
7 days, at a temperature of 20 ± 5° C and a relative humidity of 60 ± 20% and shall be
maintained under these conditions until immediately prior to testing.
6.14.2.2. Place samples with napped or tufted surfaces on a flat surface, and comb twice against
the nap using the comb (Paragraph 6.14.1.5.).
6.14.2.3. So place the sample in the sample holder (Paragraph 6.14.1.2.1.) that the inner side
faces downwards, towards the flame.
6.14.2.4. Adjust the gas flame to a height of 38 mm using the mark in the chamber, the air intake
of the burner being closed. The flame shall burn for at least one minute, for stabilisation,
before the first test is started.
6.14.2.5. Push the sample holder into the combustion chamber so that the end of the sample is
exposed to the flame, and after 15 seconds cut off the gas flow.
6.14.2.6. Measurement of burning time starts at the moment when the foot of the flame passes the
first measuring point. Observe the flame propagation on the side (upper or lower)
whichever burns faster.
6.14.2.7. Measurement of burning time is completed when the flame has come to the last
measuring point or when the flame is extinguished before reaching that point. If the
flame does not reach the last measuring point, measure the burnt distance up to the
point where the flame was extinguished. Burnt distance is the part of the sample
destroyed, on the surface or inside, by burning.
6.14.2.8. If the sample does not ignite or does not continue burning after the burner has been
extinguished, or the flame goes out before reaching the first measuring point, so that no
burning time is measured, note in the test report that the burning rate is 0 mm/min.
6.14.2.9. When running a series of tests or performing repeat tests, make sure before starting a
test that the temperature of the combustion chamber and sample holder does not exceed
30° C.

6.14.3.2. Sampling
6.14.3.2.1. Five samples shall be taken from the material under test. In materials having burning
rates differing according to the direction of the material (this being established by
preliminary tests) the five samples shall be taken and be placed in the test apparatus in
such a way that the highest burning rate will be measured.
6.14.3.2.2. When the material is supplied in set widths, a length of at least 500 mm covering the
entire width shall be cut. From the piece so cut, the samples shall be taken at not less
than 100 mm from the edge of the material and at points equidistant from each other.
6.14.3.2.3. Samples shall be taken in the same way from finished products when the shape of the
product so permits. If the thickness of the product is over 13 mm it shall be reduced to
13 mm by a mechanical process applied to the side which does not face the passenger
compartment.
6.14.3.2.4. Composite materials shall be tested as if they were homogeneous.
6.14.3.2.5. In the case of materials comprising superimposed layers of different composition which
are not composite materials, all the layers of material included within a depth of 13 mm
from the surface facing towards the passenger compartment shall be tested individually.
6.15. Test of Resistance to Chemicals
6.15.1. Chemicals Used for the Test
6.15.1.1. Non-abrasive soap solution: 1% by mass of potassium oleate in deionized water;
6.15.1.2. Window-cleaning solution: an aqueous solution of isopropanol and dipropylene glycol
monomethyl ether in concentration between 5 and 10% by mass each and ammonium
hydroxide in concentration between 1 and 5% by mass;
6.15.1.3. Undiluted denatured alcohol: 1 part by volume methyl alcohol in 10 parts by volume ethyl
alcohol;
Petrol or equivalent reference petrol: a mixture of 50% by volume toluene, 30% by
volume 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 15% by volume 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene and 5% by
volume ethyl alcohol;
N.B:. The composition of the petrol used shall be recorded in the test report.
6.15.1.5. Reference kerosene: a mixture of 50% by volume n-octane and 50% by volume
n-decane.
6.15.2. Procedure
6.15.2.1. Immersion Test
6.15.2.1.1. Test pieces shall be tested with each of the chemicals specified in Paragraph 6.15.1.
above, using a new test piece for each test and each cleaning product.
6.15.2.1.2. Before each test, test pieces shall be cleaned according to the manufacturer's
instruction, then conditioned for 48 hours at the conditions specified in Paragraph 6.1.
These conditions shall be maintained throughout the tests.

7.1.1.3. Correction for design seat-back angles other than 25°
7.1.1.3.1. Table 2 shows the further corrections to be made to the X and Z co-ordinates of each
"V" Point when the design seat-back angle is not 25°. The positive direction of the
co-ordinates is shown in this Annex, Figure 3.
Table 2
Seat-back
angle
(in °)
Horizontal
co-ordinates
X
Vertical
co-ordinates
Z
Seat-back
angle
(in °)
Horizontal
co-ordinates
X
Vertical
co-ordinates
Z
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
- 186 mm
- 177 mm
- 167 mm
- 157 mm
- 147 mm
- 137 mm
- 128 mm
- 118 mm
- 109 mm
- 99 mm
- 90 mm
- 81 mm
- 72 mm
- 62 mm
- 53 mm
- 44 mm
- 35 mm
- 26 mm
28 mm
27 mm
27 mm
27 mm
26 mm
25 mm
24 mm
23 mm
22 mm
21 mm
20 mm
18 mm
17 mm
15 mm
13 mm
11 mm
9 mm
7 mm
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
- 18 mm
- 9 mm
0 mm
9 mm
17 mm
26 mm
34 mm
43 mm
51 mm
59 mm
67 mm
76 mm
84 mm
92 mm
100 mm
108 mm
115 mm
123 mm
5 mm
3 mm
0 mm
- 3 mm
- 5 mm
- 8 mm
- 11 mm
- 14 mm
- 18 mm
- 21 mm
- 24 mm
- 28 mm
- 32 mm
- 35 mm
- 39 mm
- 43 mm
- 48 mm
- 52 mm
7.1.2. Position of the "O" Point
7.1.2.1. The eye-point "O" is the point located 625 mm above the R-Point in the vertical plane
parallel to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle for which the windscreen is
intended, passing through the axis of the steering wheel.
7.1.3. Test Areas
7.1.3.1. The test areas shall be determined as follows:
7.1.3.1.1. For optical distortion and image separation measurement
In case of Category 1-1 vehicles according to Paragraph 7.1.3.2.
In case of Category 1-2 and 2 vehicles according to Paragraph 7.1.3.3.
7.1.3.2.1. For the measurement of the light transmittance in the transparent area of the windscreen
according to Paragraph 7.1.3.4.

7.1.3.2.4.2. At the discretion of the vehicle manufacturer, one of the two following Paragraphs may
apply:
7.1.3.2.4.2.1. Any opaque obscuration bounded downwards by Plane 1 and laterally by Plane 4 and its
symmetrical in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle (Plane 4');
7.1.3.2.4.2.2. Any opaque obscuration bounded downwards by Plane 1, provided it is inscribed in an
area 300 mm wide centred on the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, and provided
the opaque obscuration below the Plane 5 trace is inscribed in an area limited laterally
by the traces of planes passing by the limits of a 150 mm wide segment and parallel
respectively to the traces of Planes 4 and 4';
7.1.3.2.4.3. Any opaque obscuration bounded by the intersection of the outer surface of the
windscreen:
(a)
With a plane inclined downwards from the X Axis at 4°, passing through V , and
parallel to the Y Axis (Plane 9);
(b) With Plane 6;
(c)
With Planes 7 and 8 or the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen if the
intersection of Plane 6 with Plane 7 (Plane 6 with Plane 8) does not cross the
outer surface of the windscreen;
7.1.3.2.4.4. Any opaque obscuration bounded by the intersection of the outer surface of the
windscreen:
(a) With a horizontal plane passing through V (Plane 10);
(b) With Plane 3 ;
(c) With Plane 7 or the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen if the
intersection of Plane 6 with Plane 7 (Plane 6 with Plane 8) does not cross the
outer surface of the windscreen;
(d) With Plane 9;
7.1.3.2.4.5. Any opaque band situated within Planes P3/P7 and P5/P10 respectively, that does not
extend by more than 25 mm from the edge of the design glass outline.
7.1.3.2.4.6. An area within 25 mm from the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen or from any
opaque obscuration. This area shall not impinge on the extended Test Area A.
7.1.3.2.5. Definition of the datum points (see Figure 3)
The datum points are points situated at the intersection with the outer surface of the
windscreen of lines radiating forward from the V Points:

Figure 2(a)
Reduced Test Area "B" (Example of a Left-hand Steering Control Vehicle)
Upper obscuration area as defined in Paragraph 7.1.3.2.4.2.2.
C : trace of the longitudinal
median plane of the vehicle
P : trace of the relevant plane
(see text)

C : trace of the longitudinal
median plane of the vehicle
P : datum points
a, b, c, d: co-ordinates of "V" Points
(see text)
Figure 3
Determination of the Datum Points
(example of a Left-hand Steering Control Vehicle)

7.1.3.4. Determination of the test area for light transmittance for all vehicle categories
The test area for light transmittance is the transparent area, excluding any opaque
obscuration and any shade band. For practical reasons relating to the method of
mounting and means of installation, it is accepted that a windscreen may incorporate an
obscuration band which extends by not more than 25 mm from the edge of the design
glass outline.
Additional opaque obscuration is also allowed in limited areas where it is intended that a
sensing device, e.g. a rain-drop detector or rear view mirror, will be bonded to the inner
side of the windscreen. The allowed areas where such devices may be applied are
defined in Paragraph 7.1.3.2.4. of this Annex.
Annex 7.2. Measurement of the height of segment and position of the points of impact
Figure 1
Determination of the Height of Segment "h"

Safety Glazing Materials.