Global Technical Regulation No. 15

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 15
Description:Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure.
Official Title:Global Technical Regulation No. 15 on Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2014-05-12
Amendment Level:Amendment 1 of March 8, 2017
Number of Pages:374
Vehicle Types:Car, Component, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.15/Amend.1
March 8, 2017
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum 15:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 15
WORLDWIDE HARMONIZED LIGHT VEHICLES TEST PROCEDURE
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 12, 2014)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1 dated March 8, 2017

5. This version of the WLTP GTR, in particular, does not contain any specific test
requirements for dual fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles not based on a combination of an
internal combustion engine and an electric machine. Thus these vehicles are not included
in the scope of the WLTP GTR. Contracting Parties may, however, apply the WLTP GTR
provisions to such vehicles to the extent possible and complement them by additional
provisions, e.g. emission testing with different fuel grades and types, in regional
legislation.
B. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WLTP
6. In its November 2007 session, WP.29 decided to set up an informal WLTP group under
GRPE to prepare a road map for the development of WLTP. After various meetings and
intense discussions, WLTP presented in June 2009 a first road map consisting of three
phases, which was subsequently revised a number of times and contains the following
main tasks:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Phase 1 (2009 - 2015): development of the worldwide harmonized light duty driving
cycle and associated test procedure for the common measurement of criteria
compounds, CO , fuel and energy consumption;
Phase 2 (2014 - 2018): low temperature/high altitude test procedure, durability,
in-service conformity, technical requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD),
mobile air-conditioning (MAC) system energy efficiency, off-cycle/real driving
emissions;
Phase 3 (2018 - …): emission limit values and OBD threshold limits, definition of
reference fuels, comparison with regional requirements.
7. It should be noted that since the beginning of the WLTP process, the European Union had
a strong political objective set by its own legislation (Regulations (EC) No. 443/2009 and
No. 510/2011) to implement a new and more realistic test cycle by 2014, which was a
major political driving factor for setting the time frame of Phase 1.
8. For the work of Phase 1 the following working groups and subgroups were established:
(a)
Development of Harmonized Cycle (DHC): construction of a new Worldwide
Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC), i.e. the speed trace of the WLTP, based on statistical
analysis of real driving data.
The DHC group started working in September 2009, launched the collection of
driving data in 2010 and proposed a first version of the driving cycle by mid-2011,
which was revised a number of times to take into consideration technical issues
such as driveability and a better representation of driving conditions after a first
validation.

(iii)
Taskforces: for each specific topic that has to be integrated in the GTR, the informal
working group would designate a taskforce leader, who would work in a group with
interested stakeholders on developing a testing methodology and a GTR text
proposal.
An overview of the main topics that were addressed in Phase 1b and added to the
GTR is presented below:
(a)
Conventional ICE vehicles:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Normalisation methods and speed trace index;
Number of tests;
Wind tunnel as alternative method for road load determination;
Road load matrix family;
Interpolation family and road load family concept;
On-board anemometry and wind speed conditions;
Alternative vehicle warm-up procedure;
(viii) Calculation and interpolation of fuel consumption.
(b)
Electrified Vehicles (E-lab expert group):
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Fuel cell vehicle test procedure;
Shortened test procedure for PEV range test;
Phase-specific CO (fuel consumption) for Off-vehicle Charging Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (OVC-HEVs);
End of EV range criteria;
Interpolation approach for OVC-HEVs and PEVs;
Utility factors;
Predominant mode / mode selection.
(c)
Alternative pollutants:
Measurement
method
for
ammonia,
ethanol,
formaldehyde
and
acetaldehyde.

D. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY, ANTICIPATED COSTS AND BENEFITS
16. In designing and validating the WLTP, strong emphasis has been put on its practicability,
which is ensured by a number of measures explained above.
17. While in general WLTP has been defined on the basis of the best technology available at
the moment of its drafting, the practical facilitation of WLTP procedures on a global scale
has been kept in mind as well. The latter had some impact e.g. on the definition of set
values and tolerances for several test parameters, such as the test temperature or
deviations from the speed trace. Also, facilities without the most recent technical
equipment should be able to perform WLTP certifications, leading to higher tolerances
than those which would have been required just by best performing facilities.
18. The replacement of a regional test cycle by WLTP initially will bear some costs for
vehicle manufacturers, technical services and authorities, at least considered on a local
scale, since some test equipment and procedures will have to be upgraded. However,
these costs should be limited since such upgrades are done regularly as adaptations to
the technical progress. Related costs would have to be quantified on a regional level
since they largely depend on the local conditions.
19. As pointed out in the technical rationale and justification, the principle of a globally
harmonized light duty vehicle test procedure offers potential cost reductions for vehicle
manufacturers. The design of vehicles can be better unified on a global scale and
administrative procedures may be simplified. The monetary quantification of these
benefits depends largely on the extent and timing of implementations of the WLTP in
regional legislation.
20. The WLTP provides a higher representation of real driving conditions when compared to
the previous regional driving cycles. Therefore, benefits are expected from the resulting
consumer information regarding fuel and energy consumption. In addition, a more
representative WLTP will set proper incentives for implementing those CO saving
vehicle technologies that are also the most effective in real driving. The effectiveness of
technology costs relative to the real driving CO savings will, therefore, be improved with
respect to existing, less representative driving cycles.

3.1.12. "Span" means to adjust an instrument so that it gives a proper response to a calibration
standard that represents between 75% and 100% of the maximum value in the instrument
range or expected range of use.
3.1.13. "Total hydrocarbons" (THC) means all volatile compounds measurable by a flame
ionization detector (FID).
3.1.14. "Verification" means to evaluate whether or not a measurement system's outputs agrees
with applied reference signals within one or more predetermined thresholds for acceptance.
3.1.15. "Zero gas" means a gas containing no analyte, which is used to set a zero response on an
analyser.
3.2. Road Load and Dynamometer Setting
Figure 1
Definition of Accuracy, Precision and Reference Value
3.2.1. "Aerodynamic drag" means the force opposing a vehicle’s forward motion through air.
3.2.2. "Aerodynamic stagnation point" means the point on the surface of a vehicle where wind
velocity is equal to zero.
3.2.3. "Anemometer blockage" means the effect on the anemometer measurement due to the
presence of the vehicle where the apparent air speed is different than the vehicle speed
combined with wind speed relative to the ground.
3.2.4. "Constrained analysis" means the vehicle’s frontal area and aerodynamic drag coefficient
have been independently determined and those values shall be used in the equation of
motion.

3.2.16. "Simulated running resistance" means the running resistance experienced by the vehicle
on the chassis dynamometer which is intended to reproduce the running resistance
measured on the road, and consists of the torque applied by the chassis dynamometer and
the torque resisting the vehicle while driving on the chassis dynamometer and is
approximated by the three coefficients of a second order polynomial.
3.2.17. "Stationary anemometry" means measurement of wind speed and direction with an
anemometer at a location and height above road level alongside the test road where the
most representative wind conditions will be experienced.
3.2.18. "Standard equipment" means the basic configuration of a vehicle which is equipped with
all the features that are required under the regulatory acts of the Contracting Party including
all features that are fitted without giving rise to any further specifications on configuration or
equipment level.
3.2.19. "Target road load" means the road load to be reproduced.
3.2.20. "Target running resistance" means the running resistance to be reproduced.
3.2.21. "Vehicle coastdown setting" means a system of operation enabling an accurate and
repeatable determination of road load and an accurate dynamometer setting.
3.2.22. "Wind correction" means correction of the effect of wind on road load based on input of
the stationary or on-board anemometry.
3.2.23. "Technically permissible maximum laden mass" means the maximum mass allocated to
a vehicle on the basis of its construction features and its design performances.
3.2.24. "Actual mass of the vehicle" means the mass in running order plus the mass of the fitted
optional equipment to an individual vehicle.
3.2.25. "Test mass of the vehicle" means the sum of the actual mass of the vehicle, 25kg and the
mass representative of the vehicle load.
3.2.26. "Mass representative of the vehicle load" means x% of the maximum vehicle load
where x is 15% for Category 1 vehicles and 28% for Category 2 vehicles.
3.2.27. "Technically permissible maximum laden mass of the combination" (MC) means the
maximum mass allocated to the combination of a motor vehicle and one or more trailers on
the basis of its construction features and its design performances or the maximum mass
allocated to the combination of a tractor unit and a semi-trailer.
3.3. Pure Electric, Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles
3.3.1. "All-Electric Range" (AER) means the total distance travelled by an OVC-HEV from the
beginning of the charge-depleting test to the point in time during the test when the
combustion engine starts to consume fuel.
3.3.2. "Pure Electric Range" (PER) means the total distance travelled by a PEV from the
beginning of the charge-depleting test until the break-off criterion is reached.

3.3.11. "Equivalent all-electric range" (EAER) means that portion of the total charge-depleting
actual range (R ) attributable to the use of electricity from the REESS over the chargedepleting
range test.
3.3.12. "Hybrid electric vehicle" (HEV) means a hybrid vehicle where one of the propulsion
energy converters is an electric machine.
3.3.13. "Hybrid vehicle" (HV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing at least two
different categories of propulsion energy converters and at least two different categories of
propulsion energy storage systems.
3.3.14. "Net energy change" means the ratio of the REESS energy change divided by the cycle
energy demand of the test vehicle.
3.3.15. "Not off-vehicle charging hybrid electric vehicle" (NOVC-HEV) means a hybrid electric
vehicle that cannot be charged from an external source.
3.3.16. "Off-vehicle charging hybrid electric vehicle" (OVC-HEV) means a hybrid electric
vehicle that can be charged from an external source.
3.3.17. "Pure electric vehicle" (PEV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing
exclusively electric machines as propulsion energy converters and exclusively rechargeable
electric energy storage systems as propulsion energy storage systems.
3.3.18. "Fuel cell" means an energy converter transforming chemical energy (input) into electrical
energy (output) or vice versa.
3.3.19. "Fuel cell vehicle" (FCV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing
exclusively fuel cell(s) and electric machine(s) as propulsion energy converter(s).
3.3.20. "Fuel cell hybrid vehicle" (FCHV) means a fuel cell vehicle equipped with a powertrain
containing at least one fuel storage system and at least one rechargeable electric energy
storage system as propulsion energy storage systems.
3.4. Powertrain
3.4.1. "Powertrain" means the total combination in a vehicle, of propulsion energy storage
system(s), propulsion energy converter(s) and the drivetrain(s) providing the mechanical
energy at the wheels for the purpose of vehicle propulsion, plus peripheral devices.
3.4.2. "Auxiliary devices" means energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying nonperipheral
devices or systems which are installed in the vehicle for purposes other than the
propulsion of the vehicle and are therefore not considered to be part of the powertrain.
3.4.3. "Peripheral devices" means energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying devices,
where the energy is not primarily used for the purpose of vehicle propulsion, or other parts,
systems and control units, which are essential to the operation of the powertrain.
3.4.4. "Drivetrain" means the connected elements of the powertrain for transmission of the
mechanical energy between the propulsion energy converter(s) and the wheels.
3.4.5. "Manual transmission" means a transmission where gears can only be shifted by action of
the driver.

3.6. PM/PN
The term "particle" is conventionally used for the matter being characterised (measured) in
the airborne phase (suspended matter), and the term "particulate" for the deposited matter.
3.6.1. "Particle number emissions" (PN) means the total number of solid particles emitted from
the vehicle exhaust quantified according to the dilution, sampling and measurement
methods as specified in this GTR.
3.6.2. "Particulate matter emissions" (PM) means the mass of any particulate material from the
vehicle exhaust quantified according to the dilution, sampling and measurement methods as
specified in this GTR.
3.7. WLTC
3.7.1. "Rated engine power" (Prated) means maximum engine power in kW as per the
certification procedure based on current regional regulation. In the absence of a definition,
the rated engine power shall be declared by the manufacturer according to Regulation No.
85.
3.7.2. "Maximum speed" (v ) means the maximum speed of a vehicle as defined by the
Contracting Party. In the absence of a definition, the maximum speed shall be declared by
the manufacturer according to Regulation No. 68.
3.8. Procedure
3.8.1. "Periodically regenerating system" means an exhaust emissions control device (e.g.
catalytic converter, particulate trap) that requires a periodical regeneration process in less
than 4,000km of normal vehicle operation.
4. ABBREVIATIONS
4.1. General Abbreviations
AC
CFV
CFO
CLD
CLA
CVS
DC
EAF
ECD
ET
Extra High
Extra High
FCHV
FCHV
FID
FSD
FTIR
GC
HEPA
HFID
Alternate current
Critical flow venturi
Critical flow orifice
Chemiluminescent detector
Chemiluminescent analyser
Constant volume sampler
Direct current
Sum of ethanol, acetyldehyde and formaldehyde
Electron capture detector
Evaporation tube
WLTC extra high speed phase for Class 2 vehicles
WLTC extra high speed phase for Class 3 vehicles
Fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Flame ionization detector
Full scale deflection
Fourier transform infrared analyser
Gas chromatograph
High efficiency particulate air (filter)
Heated flame ionization detector

4.2. Chemical Symbols and Abbreviations
C
CH
C H
C H OH
C H
CH CHO
CO
CO
DOP
H O
HCHO
NH
NMHC
NO
NO
NO
N O
THC
Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon
Methane
Ethane
Ethanol
Propane
Acetaldehyde
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Di-octylphthalate
Water
Formaldehyde
Ammonia
Non-methane hydrocarbons
Oxides of nitrogen
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Total hydrocarbons
5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1. The vehicle and its components liable to affect the emissions of gaseous compounds,
particulate matter and particle number shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as
to enable the vehicle in normal use and under normal conditions of use such as humidity,
rain, snow, heat, cold, sand, dirt, vibrations, wear, etc. to comply with the provisions of this
GTR during its useful life.
5.1.1. This shall include the security of all hoses, joints and connections used within the emission
control systems.
5.2. The test vehicle shall be representative in terms of its emissions-related components and
functionality of the intended production series to be covered by the approval. The
manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree which vehicle test model is
representative.
5.3. Vehicle Testing Condition
5.3.1. The types and amounts of lubricants and coolant for emissions testing shall be as specified
for normal vehicle operation by the manufacturer.
5.3.2. The type of fuel for emissions testing shall be as specified in Annex 3 to this GTR.
5.3.3. All emissions controlling systems shall be in working order.
5.3.4. The use of any defeat device is prohibited.
5.3.5. The engine shall be designed to avoid crankcase emissions.
5.3.6. The tyres used for emissions testing shall be as defined in Paragraph 1.2.4.5. of Annex 6 to
this GTR.

5.6. Interpolation Family
5.6.1. Interpolation Family for ICE Vehicles
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following vehicle/powertrain/transmission
characteristics may be part of the same interpolation family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Type of internal combustion engine: fuel type, combustion type, engine displacement,
full-load characteristics, engine technology, and charging system but also other
engine subsystems or characteristics that have a non-negligible influence on CO
mass emissions under WLTP conditions;
Operation strategy of all CO -mass emission influencing components within the
powertrain;
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g. torque
rating, number of gears, number of clutches, etc.);
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement shall
be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the difference with
respect to the transmission ratios of the most commonly installed transmission type is
within 8%;
Number of powered axles.
Vehicles may only be part of the same interpolation family if they belong to the same vehicle
class.
5.6.2. Interpolation Family for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs
In addition to the requirements of paragraph 5.6.1., only OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs that
are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be part of the same
interpolation family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Type and number of electric machines (construction type (asynchronous/
synchronous, etc.), type of coolant (air, liquid) and any other characteristics having a
non-negligible influence on CO mass emission and electric energy consumption
under WLTP conditions;
Type of traction REESS (model, capacity, nominal voltage, nominal power, type of
coolant (air, liquid));
Type of energy converter between the electric machine and traction REESS, between
the traction REESS and low voltage power supply and between the recharge-plug-in
and traction REESS, and any other characteristics having a non-negligible influence
on CO mass emission and electric energy consumption under WLTP conditions.
The difference between the number of charge-depleting cycles from the beginning of
the test up to and including the transition cycle shall not be more than one.

(c)
(d)
Number of powered axles;
If at least one electric machine is coupled in the gearbox position neutral and the
vehicle is not equipped with a coastdown mode (Paragraph 4.2.1.8.5. of Annex 4)
such that the electric machine has no influence on the road load, the criteria from
Paragraph 5.6.2. (a) and Paragraph 5.6.3. (a) shall apply.
If there is a difference, apart from vehicle mass, rolling resistance and aerodynamics, that
has a non-negligible influence on road load, that vehicle shall not be considered to be part
of the family unless approved by the responsible authority.
5.8. Road Load Matrix Family
The road load matrix family may be applied for vehicles designed for a technically
permissible maximum laden mass ≥3,000kg.
Only vehicles which are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be part of
the same road load matrix family:
(a)
(b)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT);
Number of powered axles.
5.9. Periodically Regenerating Systems (K ) Family
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be part of
the same periodically regenerating systems family:
5.9.1. Type of internal combustion engine: fuel type, combustion type,
5.9.2. Periodically Regenerating System (i.e. Catalyst, Particulate Trap);
(a)
(b)
Construction (i.e. type of enclosure, type of precious metal, type of substrate, cell
density);
Type and working principle;
(c) Volume ±10%;
(d)
(e)
Location (temperature ±100°C at second highest reference speed);
The test mass of each vehicle in the family must be less than or equal to the test
mass of the vehicle used for the Ki demonstration test plus 250kg.

ANNEX 1
WORLDWIDE LIGHT-DUTY TEST CYCLES (WLTC)
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. The cycle to be driven depends on the test vehicle’s rated power to mass in running order,
W/kg, and its maximum velocity, v , and its mass, kg.
The cycle resulting from the requirements described in this Annex shall be referred to in
other parts of the GTR as the "applicable cycle".
2. VEHICLE CLASSIFICATIONS
2.1. Class 1 vehicles have a power to mass in running order ratio (P ) ≤22W/kg.
2.2. Class 2 vehicles have a power to mass in running order ratio >22 but ≤34W/kg.
2.3. Class 3 vehicles have a power to mass in running order ratio >34W/kg.
2.3.1. All vehicles tested according to Annex 8 shall be considered to be Class 3 vehicles.
3. TEST CYCLES
3.1. Class 1 Vehicles
3.1.1. A complete cycle for Class 1 vehicles shall consist of a low phase (Low ), a medium phase
(Medium ) and an additional low phase (Low ).
3.1.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/1 and Table A1/1.
3.1.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/2 and Table A1/2.
3.2. Class 2 Vehicles
3.2.1. A complete cycle for Class 2 vehicles shall consist of a low phase (Low ), a medium phase
(Medium ), a high phase (High ) and an extra high phase (Extra High ).
3.2.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/3 and Table A1/3.
3.2.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/4 and Table A1/4.
3.2.4. The High phase is described in Figure A1/5 and Table A1/5.
3.2.5. The Extra High phase is described in Figure A1/6 and Table A1/6.
3.2.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High phase may be excluded.

4. WLTC CLASS 1 VEHICLES
Figure A1/1
WLTC, Class 1 Vehicles, Phase Low
Figure A1/2
WLTC, Class 1 Vehicles, Phase Medium

Table A1/1 (Cont'd)

Table A1/1 (Cont'd)

Table A1/2 (Cont'd)

5. WLTC FOR CLASS 2 VEHICLES
Figure A1/3
WLTC, Class 2 Vehicles, Phase Low
WLTC, Class 2 Vehicles, Phase Medium
Figure A1/4

Table A1/3
WLTC, Class 2 Vehicles, Phase Low

Table A1/3 (Cont'd)

Table A1/4
WLTC, Class 2 Vehicles, Phase Medium

Table A1/4 (Cont'd)

Table A1/5 (Cont'd)

Table A1/6
WLTC, Class 2 Vehicles, Phase Extra High

6. WLTC FOR CLASS 3 VEHICLES
Figure A1/7
WLTC, Class 3 Vehicles, Phase Low
Figure A1/8
WLTC, Class 3 Vehicles, Phase Medium

Figure A1/11
WLTC, Class 3 Vehicles, Phase High
Figure A1/12
WLTC, Class 3 Vehicles, Phase Extra High

Table A1/7 (Cont'd)

Table A1/7 (Cont'd)

Table A1/8 (Cont'd)

Table A1/9
WLTC, Class 3 Vehicles, Phase Medium

Table A1/9 (Cont'd)

Table A1/10 (Cont'd)

Table A1/111
WLTC, Class 3 Vehicles, Phase High

Table A1/11 (Cont'd)

Table A1/12 (Cont'd)

8. CYCLE MODIFICATION
Paragraph 8. of this Annex shall not apply to OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs.
8.1. General Remarks
The cycle to be driven shall depend on the test vehicle’s rated power to mass in running
order ratio, W/kg, and its maximum velocity, v , km/h.
Driveability problems may occur for vehicles with power to mass ratios close to the
borderlines between Class 1 and Class 2, Class 2 and Class 3 vehicles or very low powered
vehicles in Class 1.
Since these problems are related mainly to cycle phases with a combination of high vehicle
speed and high accelerations rather than to the maximum speed of the cycle, the
downscaling procedure shall be applied to improve driveability.
8.2. This paragraph describes the method to modify the cycle profile using the downscaling
procedure.
8.2.1. Downscaling Procedure for Class 1 Vehicles
Figure A1/14 shows an example for a downscaled medium speed phase of the Class 1
WLTC.
Figure A1/14
Downscaled Medium Speed Phase of the Class 1 WLTC

8.2.2. Downscaling Procedure for Class 2 Vehicles
Since the driveability problems are exclusively related to the extra high speed phases of the
Class 2 and Class 3 cycles, the downscaling is related to those paragraphs of the extra high
speed phases where the driveability problems occur (see Figure A1/15).
Figure A1/15
Downscaled Extra High Speed Phase of the Class 2 WLTC
For the Class 2 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 1,520 and
second 1,742. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
a
=
v
− v
3.6
where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 1,520 and second 1,742.

8.2.3. Downscaling Procedure for Class 3 Vehicles
Figure A1/16 shows an example for a downscaled extra high speed phase of the Class 3
WLTC.
Figure A1/16
Downscaled Extra High Speed Phase of the Class 3 WLTC
For the Class 3 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 1,533 and
second 1,762. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
a
=
v
− v
3.6
where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 1,533 and second 1,762

The corresponding vehicle speed values v and acceleration values a are as follows:
v = 61.4km/h, a =0.22m/s for Class 1,
v = 109.9km/h, a = 0.36m/s for Class 2,
v = 111.9km/h, a = 0.50m/s for Class 3.
r shall be calculated using the following equation:
P
r =
P
The downscaling factor, f
, shall be calculated using the following equations:
if r < r , then f = 0
and no downscaling shall be applied.
if r ≥r , then f = a × r + b
The calculation parameter/coefficients, r , a and b , are as follows:
Class 1 r = 0.978, a = 0.680, b = –0.665
Class 2 r = 0.866, a = 0.606, b = –0.525
Class 3 r = 0.867, a = 0.588, b = –0.510.
The resulting f is mathematically rounded to three places of decimal and is applied only if
it exceeds 0.010.
The following data shall be recorded:
(a) f ;
(b) v ;
(c) distance driven, m.
The distance shall be calculated as the sum of v in km/h divided by 3.6 over the whole cycle
trace.

9.2.1.2. If v < v , the distances of the high speed phases of the base cycle d and the
interim capped speed cycle d shall be calculated using the following equation for both
cycles:
( v + v )


( ) ⎟ ⎞
d = ⎜ × t − t , for i = 1,024 to 1,477
⎝ 2 × 3.6

v is the maximum vehicle speed of the high speed phase as listed in Table A1/5 for
Class 2 vehicles, in Table A1/10 for Class 3a vehicles and in Table A1/11 for Class 3b
vehicles.
9.2.1.3. The distances of the extra high speed phase of the base cycle d and the interim
capped speed cycle d shall be calculated applying the following equation to the extra
high speed phase of both cycles:
( v + v )


( ) ⎟ ⎞
d = ⎜ × t − t , for i = 1,479 to 1,800
⎝ 2 × 3.6

9.2.2. Determination of the time periods to be added to the interim capped speed cycle in order to
compensate for distance differences
In order to compensate for a difference in distance between the base cycle and the interim
capped speed cycle, corresponding time periods with vi = vcap shall be added to the interim
capped speed cycle as described in the following paragraphs.
9.2.2.1. Additional Time Period for the Medium Speed Phase
If v interim capped speed cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
( d − d )
Δ t =
× 3.6
v
The number of time samples n with v = v to be added to the medium speed
phase of the interim capped speed cycle equals ∆t , mathematically rounded to the
nearest integer (e.g. 1.4 shall be rounded to 1, 1.5 shall be rounded to 2).
9.2.2.2 Additional Time Period for the High Speed Phase
If v interim capped speed cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
( d − d )
Δ t =
× 3.6
v
The number of time samples n with v = v to be added to the high speed phase of
the interim capped speed cycle equals ∆t , mathematically rounded to the nearest integer.

In a next step, the first part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle
up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time
of this sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this
sample in the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
+ n
).
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n + n + n ).
The remaining part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which
is identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,800 + n + n + n ).
The length of the final capped speed cycle is equivalent to the length of the base cycle
except for differences caused by the rounding process for n , n and n .
9.2.3.2.2 v <= v < v
The first part of the final capped speed cycle consists of the vehicle speed trace of the
interim capped speed cycle up to the last sample in the high speed phase where v = v .
The time of this sample is referred to as t .
Then, n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n
The remaining part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,477 + n ).
In a next step, the first part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle
up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time
of this sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this
sample in the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
).
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n + n ).
The remaining part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which
is identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,800 + n + n ).
The length of the final capped speed cycle is equivalent to the length of the base cycle
except for differences caused by the rounding process for n and n .

ANNEX 2
GEAR SELECTION AND SHIFT POINT DETERMINATION
FOR VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS
1. GENERAL APPROACH
1.1. The shifting procedures described in this Annex shall apply to vehicles equipped with
manual shift transmissions.
1.2. The prescribed gears and shifting points are based on the balance between the power
required to overcome driving resistance and acceleration, and the power provided by the
engine in all possible gears at a specific cycle phase.
1.3. The calculation to determine the gears to use shall be based on engine speeds and full load
power curves versus engine speed.
1.4. For vehicles equipped with a dual-range transmission (low and high), only the range
designed for normal on-road operation shall be considered for gear use determination.
1.5. The prescriptions for the clutch operation shall not be applied if the clutch is operated
automatically without the need of an engagement of disengagement of the driver.
1.6. This Annex shall not apply to vehicles tested according to Annex 8.
2. REQUIRED DATA AND PRECALCULATIONS
The following data are required and calculations shall be performed in order to determine
the gears to be used when driving the cycle on a chassis dynamometer:
(a) P , the maximum rated engine power as declared by the manufacturer, kW;
(b) n , the rated engine speed at which an engine develops its maximum power. If the
maximum power is developed over an engine speed range, n shall be the
minimum of this range, min ;
(c) n , idling speed, min
n shall be measured over a period of at least 1min at a sampling rate of at least
1Hz with the engine running in warm condition, the gear lever placed in neutral, and
the clutch engaged. The conditions for temperature, peripherals, auxiliaries, etc. shall
be the same as described in the Annex on the Type 1 test.
The value to be used in this Annex shall be the arithmetic average over the
measuring period, rounded or truncated to the nearest 10min .
(d)
ng, the number of forward gears;
The forward gears in the transmission range designed for normal on-road operation
shall be numbered in descending order of the ratio between engine speed in min
and vehicle speed in km/h. Gear 1 is the gear with the highest ratio, gear ng is the
gear with the lowest ratio. ng determines the number of forward gears.

(i) ng
ng , the gear in which the maximum vehicle speed is reached and shall be
determined as follows:
If v (ng) ≥v (ng-1), then,
ng = ng
otherwise, ng = ng -1
where:
v (ng) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power, P , in gear ng (see Figure 1a).
v
(ng-1) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power, P , in the next lower gear (see Figure 1b).
The required road load power, kW, shall be calculated using the following equation:
P
f
=
× v
+ f × v
3,600
+ f
× v
where:
v is the vehicle speed, km/h.
The available power at vehicle speed v
in gear ng or gear ng - 1 may be
determined from the full load power curve, P
(n), by using the following equation:
n = ndv × v (ng); n = ndv × v (ng-1)

(4) (ndv /ndv(ng )) × (v × ndv(ng )/n ) >4;
(5) The vehicle, having a mass as defined in the equation below, shall be able to
pull away from standstill within 4s, on an uphill gradient of at least 12%, on five
separate occasions within a period of 5min.
m + 25kg + (MC – m – 25kg) × 0.28 (0.15 in the case of M Category vehicles).
where:
ndv (ng
m
MC
) is the ratio obtained by dividing the engine speed n by the vehicle speed
v for gear ng , min /km/h;
is the mass in running order, kg;
is the gross train mass (gross vehicle mass + maximum trailer mass), kg.
In this case, gear 1 is not used when driving the cycle on a chassis dynamometer and
the gears shall be renumbered starting with the second gear as gear 1.
(k) Definition of n
n is the minimum engine speed when the vehicle is in motion, min ;
For n = 1, n = n ,
For n = 2,
(a)
For transitions from first to second gear during accelerations from standstill:
n = 1.15 × n ,
(b)
For decelerations to standstill:
n = n .
(c)
For all other driving conditions:
n = 0.9 × n .
For n >2, n shall be determined by:
n = n + 0.125 × (n - n ).
The final result for n
1,200, 1,199.4 is 1,199.
is rounded to the nearest integer. Example: 1,199.5 is
Higher values may be used if requested by the manufacturer.
(l)
TM, test mass of the vehicle, kg.

3.4. Calculation of Available Power
The available power for each possible gear i and each vehicle speed value of the cycle
trace v , shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
P is the rated power, kW;
P = P (n ) × (1 – (SM + ASM))
P is the power available at n at full load condition from the full load power curve;
SM
ASM
is a safety margin accounting for the difference between the stationary full load
condition power curve and the power available during transition conditions. SM is
set to 10%;
is an additional exponential power safety margin, which may be applied at the
request of the manufacturer. ASM is fully effective between n and n , and
approaches zero exponentially at n as described by the following requirements:
If n ≤n , then ASM = ASM ;
If n >n
, then:
ASM = ASM × exp (ln (0.005/ASM ) × (n – n)/(n – n ))
ASM , n and n shall be defined by the manufacturer but shall fulfil the
following conditions:
n ≥n ,
n >n .
If a >0 and i = 1 or i = 2 and P

1min until P = P and the clutch shall be disengaged.
3.5. Determination of Possible Gears to be Used
The possible gears to be used shall be determined by the following conditions:
(a)
The conditions of Paragraph 3.3 are fulfilled, and;
(b) P ≥P
The initial gear to be used for each second j of the cycle trace is the highest final possible
gear, i_max. When starting from standstill, only the first gear shall be used.
The lowest final possible gear if i .


(f)
If gear i is used for a time sequence of 1 to 5 seconds and the gear prior to this
sequence is lower and the gear after this sequence is the same as or lower than the
gear before this sequence, the gear for the sequence shall be corrected to the gear
before the sequence.
Examples:
(i)
(ii)
gear sequence i−1, i, i−1 shall be replaced by i−1, i−1, i−1;
gear sequence i−1, i, i, i−1 shall be replaced by i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1;
(iii) gear sequence i−1, i, i, i, i−1 shall be replaced by i−1, i−1,i−1, i−1, i−1;
(iv) gear sequence i−1, i, i, i, i, i−1 shall be replaced by i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1;
(v)
gear sequence i−1, i, i, i, i, i, i−1 shall be replaced by i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1, i−1,
i−1.
In all cases (i) to (v), g ≤i shall be fulfilled;
5. Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive shall be applied sequentially, scanning the complete cycle
trace in each case. Since modifications to Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) of this Annex may create
new gear use sequences, these new gear sequences shall be checked three times and
modified if necessary.
In order to enable the assessment of the correctness of the calculation, the average gear for
v ≥1km/h, rounded to four places of decimal, shall be calculated and recorded.

3. LIQUID FUELS FOR POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES
3.1. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)
Table A3/1
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)

3.3. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)
Table A3/3
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)

3.5. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 95 RON, E5)
Table A3/5
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 95 RON, E5)

3.7. Ethanol (Nominal 95 RON, E85)
Table A3/7
Ethanol (Nominal 95 RON, E85)

4.2. NG/Biomethane
4.2.1. "G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
Table A3/9
"G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
4.2.2. "K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)
Table A3/10
"K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)

4.2.5. Hydrogen
Characteristics
Table A3/13
Units
Hydrogen
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test
method
Hydrogen purity
% mole
98
100
ISO 14687-
1
Total hydrocarbon
μmol/mol

5. LIQUID FUELS FOR COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES
5.1. J-Diesel (Nominal 53 Cetane, B0)
Table A3/15
J-Diesel (Nominal 53 Cetane, B0)

5.3. K-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Table A3/17
K-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)

ANNEX 4
ROAD LOAD AND DYNAMOMETER SETTING
1. SCOPE
This Annex describes the determination of the road load of a test vehicle and the transfer
of that road load to a chassis dynamometer.
2. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1. For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3833 and in
Paragraph 3. of this GTR shall have primacy. Where definitions are not provided in
Paragraph 3. of this GTR, definitions given in ISO 3833:1977 "Road vehicles – Types –
Terms and Definitions" shall apply.
2.2. Reference speed points shall start at 20km/h in incremental steps of 10km/h and with the
highest reference speed according to the following provisions:
(a)
(b)
The highest reference speed point shall be 130km/h or the reference speed point
immediately above the maximum speed of the applicable test cycle if this value is
less than 130km/h. In the case that the applicable test cycle contains less than the
four cycle phases (low, medium, high and extra high) and at the request of the
manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, the highest reference
speed may be increased to the reference speed point immediately above the
maximum speed of the next higher phase, but no higher than 130km/h; in this case
road load determination and chassis dynamometer setting shall be done with the
same reference speed points;
If a reference speed point applicable for the cycle plus 14km/h is more than or equal
to the maximum vehicle speed v , this reference speed point shall be excluded
from the coastdown test and from chassis dynamometer setting. The next lower
reference speed point shall become the highest reference speed point for the
vehicle.
2.3. Unless otherwise specified, a cycle energy demand shall be calculated according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7 over the target speed trace of the applicable drive cycle.
2.4. f , f , f are the road load coefficients of the road load equation F = f + f × v + f × v ,
determined according to this Annex.
f is the constant road load coefficient, N;
f is the first order road load coefficient, , N/(km/h);
f is the second order road load coefficient, N/(km/h) .
Unless otherwise stated, the road load coefficients shall be calculated with a least square
regression analysis over the range of the reference speed points.

(g)
(h)
(i)
Atmospheric pressure: ±0.3kPa, with a measurement frequency of at least 1Hz;
Vehicle mass measured on the same weigh scale before and after the test: ±10kg
(±20kg for vehicles >4,000kg);
Tyre pressure: ±5kPa;
(j) Wheel rotational frequency: ±0.05s or 1%, whichever is greater.
3.2. Wind Tunnel Criteria
3.2.1. Wind Velocity
The wind velocity during a measurement shall remain within ±2km/h at the center of the
test section. The possible wind velocity shall be at least 140km/h.
3.2.2. Air Temperature
3.2.3. Turbulence
The air temperature during a measurement shall remain within ±3°C at the center of the
test section. The air temperature distribution at the nozzle outlet shall remain within ±3°C.
For an equally spaced 3 by 3 grid over the entire nozzle outlet, the turbulence intensity,
Tu, shall not exceed 1%. See Figure A4/1 below.
Figure A4/1
Turbulence Intensity
u'
Tu = U
where:
Tu
u'
U∞
is the turbulence intensity;
is the turbulent velocity fluctuation, m/s;
is the free flow velocity, m/s.

The absolute difference of the pressure coefficient cp over a distance 3m ahead and 3m
behind the centre of the balance in the empty test section and at a height of the centre of
the nozzle outlet shall not deviate more than ±0.02.
cp
− cp
≤ 0.02
where:
cp
is the pressure coefficient.
3.2.9. Boundary Layer Thickness
At = 0 (balance center point), the wind velocity shall have at least 99% of the inflow
velocity 30mm above the wind tunnel floor.
where:
δ (x = 0m) ≤ 30mm
δ is the distance perpendicular to the road, where 99% of free stream velocity is reached
(boundary layer thickness).
3.2.10. Restraint Blockage Ratio
The restraint system mounting shall not be in front of the vehicle. The relative blockage
ratio of the vehicle frontal area due to the restraint system, ε , shall not exceed 0.10.
ε
A
=
A
where:
ε is the relative blockage ratio of the restraint system;
A is the frontal area of the restraint system projected on the nozzle face, m ;
A is the frontal area of the vehicle, m .
3.2.11. Measurement Accuracy of the Balance in the x-direction
The inaccuracy of the resulting force in the x-direction shall not exceed ±5N. The
resolution of the measured force shall be within ±3N.
3.2.12. Measurement Repeatability
The repeatability of the measured force shall be within ±3N.

4.1.2. Test Road
4.2. Preparation
4.2.1. Test Vehicle
The road surface shall be flat, even, clean, dry and free of obstacles or wind barriers that
might impede the measurement of the road load, and its texture and composition shall be
representative of current urban and highway road surfaces. The longitudinal slope of the
test road shall not exceed ±1%. The local slope between any points 3m apart shall not
deviate more than ±0.5% from this longitudinal slope. If tests in opposite directions cannot
be performed at the same part of the test track (e.g. on an oval test track with an
obligatory driving direction), the sum of the longitudinal slopes of the parallel test track
segments shall be between 0 and an upward slope of 0.1%. The maximum camber of the
test road shall be 1.5%.
Each test vehicle shall conform in all its components with the production series, or, if the
vehicle is different from the production vehicle, a full description shall be recorded.
4.2.1.1 Without using the Interpolation Method
A test vehicle (vehicle H) with the combination of road load relevant characteristics
(i.e. mass, aerodynamic drag and tyre rolling resistance) producing the highest cycle
energy demand shall be selected from the interpolation family (see Paragraph 5.6. of this
GTR.
If the aerodynamic influence of the different wheel rims within one interpolation family is
not known, the selection shall be based on the highest expected aerodynamic drag. As a
guideline, the highest aerodynamic drag may be expected for a wheel with
(a)
(b)
(c)
the largest width,
the largest diameter, and
the most open structure design (in that order of importance).
The wheel selection shall be executed without prejudice to the requirement of the highest
cycle energy demand.
4.2.1.2. Using the Interpolation Method
At the request of the manufacturer, the interpolation method may be applied for individual
vehicles in the interpolation family (see Paragraph 1.2.3.1. of Annex 6 and
Paragraph 3.2.3.2. of Annex 7).
In this case, two test vehicles shall be selected from the interpolation family complying with
the requirements of the interpolation method (Paragraphs 1.2.3.1. and 1.2.3.2. of
Annex 6).

4.2.1.4. Application of the Road Load Matrix Family
A vehicle that fulfils the criteria of Paragraph 5.8. of this GTR that is:
(a)
(b)
representative of the intended series of the intended series of complete vehicles to
be covered by the road load matrix family in terms of estimated worst C value and
body shape; and
representative of the intended series of vehicles to be covered by the road load
matrix family in terms of estimated arithmetic average of the mass of optional
equipment shall be used to determine the road load.
In the case that no representative body shape for a complete vehicle can be determined,
the test vehicle shall be equipped with a square box with rounded corners with radii of
maximum of 25mm and a width equal to the maximum width of the vehicles covered by
the road load matrix family, and a total height of the test vehicle of 3.0m ± 0.1m, including
the box.
The manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree which vehicle test model is
representative.
The vehicle parameters test mass, tyre rolling resistance and frontal area of both a vehicle
H and L shall be determined in such a way that vehicle H produces the highest cycle
energy demand and vehicle L the lowest cycle energy from the road load matrix family.
The manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree on the vehicle parameters for
vehicle H and L .
The road load of all individual vehicles of the road load family, including H and L , shall
be calculated according to Paragraph 5.1. of this Annex.
4.2.1.5. Movable Aerodynamic Body Parts
4.2.1.6. Weighing
Movable aerodynamic body parts on the test vehicles shall operate during road load
determination as intended under WLTP Type 1 test conditions (test temperature, speed
and acceleration range, engine load, etc.).
Every vehicle system that dynamically modifies the vehicle’s aerodynamic drag
(e.g. vehicle height control) shall be considered to be a movable aerodynamic body part.
Appropriate requirements shall be added if future vehicles are equipped with movable
aerodynamic items of optional equipment whose influence on aerodynamic drag justifies
the need for further requirements.
Before and after the road load determination procedure, the selected vehicle shall be
weighed, including the test driver and equipment, to determine the arithmetic average
mass, m . The mass of the vehicle shall be greater than or equal to the test mass of the
vehicle H or of vehicle L at the start of the road load determination procedure.
4.2.1.7. Test Vehicle Configuration
The test vehicle configuration shall be recorded and shall be used for any subsequent
coastdown testing.

4.2.2. Tyres
4.2.2.1. Tyre Selection
The selection of tyres shall be based on Paragraph 4.2.1. of this Annex with their rolling
resistances measured according to Annex 6 to Regulation No. 117-02, or an
internationally accepted equivalent. The rolling resistance coefficients shall be aligned
according to the respective regional procedures (e.g. EU 1235/2011), and categorised
according to the rolling resistance classes in Table A4/1.
Table A4/1
Classes of Rolling Resistance Coefficients (RRC) for
Tyre Categories C1, C2 and C3, kg/tonne
The actual rolling resistance values for the tyres fitted to the test vehicles shall be used as
input for the calculation procedure of the interpolation method in Paragraph 3.2.3.2 of
Annex 7. For individual vehicles in the interpolation family, the interpolation method shall
be based on the RRC class value for the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle.
4.2.2.2. Tyre Condition
Tyres used for the test shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Not be older than two years after the production date;
Not be specially conditioned or treated (e.g. heated or artificially aged), with the
exception of grinding in the original shape of the tread;
Be run-in on a road for at least 200km before road load determination;
Have a constant tread depth before the test between 100 and 80% of the original
tread depth at any point over the full tread width of the tyre.
4.2.2.2.1. After measurement of tread depth, driving distance shall be limited to 500km. If 500km are
exceeded, tread depth shall be measured again.

4.2.4. Vehicle Warm-up
4.2.4.1. On the Road
Warming up shall be performed by driving the vehicle only.
4.2.4.1.1. Before warm-up, the vehicle shall be decelerated with the clutch disengaged or an
automatic transmission placed in neutral by moderate braking from 80 to 20km/h within
5 to 10s. After this braking, there shall be no further actuation or manual adjustment of the
braking system.
At the request of the manufacturer and upon approval of the responsible authority, the
brakes may also be activated after the warm-up with the same deceleration as described
in this Paragraph and only if necessary.
4.2.4.1.2. Warming Up and Stabilization
All vehicles shall be driven at 90% of the maximum speed of the applicable WLTC.
The vehicle may be driven at 90% of the maximum speed of the next higher phase
(see Table A4/2) if this phase is added to the applicable WLTC warm-up procedure as
defined in Paragraph 7.3.4. of this Annex. The vehicle shall be warmed up for at least
20min until stable conditions are reached.
Table A4/2
Warming Up and Stabilization Across Phases
4.2.4.1.3. Criterion for Stable Condition
Refer to Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex.

∆t
is the arithmetic average of the coastdown time at reference speed v , in seconds,
given by the equation
Δt
=

n
1
Δ t
where:
∆t
is the harmonic arithmetic average coastdown time of the i pair of measurements
at velocity v , seconds, given by the equation:
2
Δt =
.
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

1
⎟ + ⎜
1


Δt
⎠ ⎝
Δt

where:
∆t and ∆t are the coastdown times of the i measurement at reference speed v , in
seconds, in the respective directions a and b;
σ
is the standard deviation, expressed in seconds, defined by:
σ
=
1
n − 1

( Δt
− Δt
)
h
is a coefficient given in Table A4/3.
Table A4/3
Coefficient h as Function of n

4.3.2. Coastdown Method with On-board Anemometry
The vehicle shall be warmed up and stabilised according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this
Annex.
4.3.2.1. Additional Instrumentation for On-board Anemometry
The on-board anemometer and instrumentation shall be calibrated by means of operation
on the test vehicle where such calibration occurs during the warm-up for the test.
4.3.2.1.1. Relative wind speed shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and to an
accuracy of 0.3m/s. Vehicle blockage shall be accounted for in the calibration of the
anemometer.
4.3.2.1.2. Wind direction shall be relative to the direction of the vehicle. The relative wind direction
(yaw) shall be measured with a resolution of 1° and an accuracy of 3°; the dead band of
the instrument shall not exceed 10° and shall be directed towards the rear of the vehicle.
4.3.2.1.3. Before the coastdown, the anemometer shall be calibrated for speed and yaw offset as
specified in IS0 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A.
4.3.2.1.4. Anemometer blockage shall be corrected for in the calibration procedure as described in
ISO 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A in order to minimise its effect.
4.3.2.2. Selection of Speed Range for Road Load Curve Determination
The test speed range shall be selected according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
4.3.2.3. Data Collection
During the procedure elapsed time, vehicle speed, and air velocity (speed, direction)
relative to the vehicle, shall be measured at a frequency of 5Hz. Ambient temperature
shall be synchronised and sampled at a minimum frequency of 1Hz.
4.3.2.4. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
The measurements shall be carried out in opposite directions until a minimum of ten
consecutive runs (five in each direction) have been obtained. Should an individual run fail
to satisfy the required on-board anemometry test conditions, that run and the
corresponding run in the opposite direction shall be rejected. All valid pairs shall be
included in the final analysis with a minimum of five pairs of coastdown runs. See
Paragraph 4.3.2.6.10. for statistical validation criteria.
The anemometer shall be installed in a position such that the effect on the operating
characteristics of the vehicle is minimised.
The anemometer shall be installed according to on of the options below:
(a)
(b)
Using a boom approximately 2m in front of the vehicle’s forward aerodynamic
stagnation point.
On the roof of the vehicle at its centreline. If possible, the anemometer shall be
mounted within 30cm. from the top of the windshield.

4.3.2.5.1. General form
Symbol Units Description
D N tyre rolling resistance
(dh/ds)
-
sine of the slope of the track in the direction of travel (+ indicates
ascending)
(dv/dt) m/s acceleration
g m/s gravitational constant
m
kg
arithmetic average mass of the test vehicle before and after road
load determination
m kg effective vehicle mass including rotating components
ρ kg/m air density
t s time
T K Temperature
v km/h vehicle speed
v km/h relative wind speed
Y degrees yaw angle of apparent wind relative to direction of vehicle travel
The general form of the equation of motion is as follows:
where:
D = D + D + D ;
⎛ dv ⎞
− m ⎜ ⎟ = D + D + D
⎝ dt ⎠
⎛ 1 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ρ
⎝ 2 ⎠
D = C ( Y) A v
;
⎛ dh ⎞
D = m × g × ⎜ ⎟ .
⎝ ds ⎠
In the case that the slope of the test track is equal to or less than 0.1% over its length,
D may be set to zero.

4.3.2.6. Data Reduction
A three-term equation shall be generated to describe the road load force as a function of
velocity, F = A + Bv + Cv , corrected to standard ambient temperature and pressure
conditions, and in still air. The method for this analysis process is described in
Paragraphs 4.3.2.6.1. to 4.3.2.6.10. inclusive of this Annex.
4.3.2.6.1. Determining calibration coefficients
If not previously determined, calibration factors to correct for vehicle blockage shall be
determined for relative wind speed and yaw angle. Vehicle speed (v), relative wind velocity
(v ) and yaw (Y) measurements during the warm-up phase of the test procedure shall be
recorded. Paired runs in alternate directions on the test track at a constant velocity of
80km/h shall be performed, and the arithmetic average values of v, v and Y for each run
shall be determined. Calibration factors that minimize the total errors in head and cross
winds over all the run pairs, i.e. the sum of (head – head ) , etc., shall be selected where
head and head refer to wind speed and wind direction from the paired test runs in
opposing directions during the vehicle warm-up/stabilization prior to testing.
4.3.2.6.2. Deriving second by second observations
⎛ dh ⎞ ⎛ dv ⎞
From the data collected during the coastdown runs, values for v, ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ , v , and Y
⎝ ds ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠
shall be determined by applying calibration factors obtained in Paragraphs 4.3.2.1.3. and
4.3.2.1.4. of this Annex. Data filtering shall be used to adjust samples to a frequency of
1Hz.
4.3.2.6.3. Preliminary analysis
Using a linear least squares regression technique, all data points shall be analysed at
⎛ dh ⎞ ⎛ dv ⎞
once to determine A , B , C , a , a , a , a and a given M , ⎜ ⎟ , ⎜ ⎟⎠ , v, v , and ρ.
⎝ ds ⎠ ⎝ dt
4.3.2.6.4. Data "outliers"
⎛ dv ⎞
A predicted force m ⎜ ⎟ shall be calculated and compared to the observed data points.
⎝ dt ⎠
Data points with excessive deviations, e.g., over three standard deviations, shall be
flagged.
4.3.2.6.5. Data filtering (optional)
Appropriate data filtering techniques may be applied and the remaining data points shall
be smoothed out.

4.4. Measurement and Calculation of Running Resistance Using the Torque Meter
Method
As an alternative to the coastdown methods, the torque meter method may also be used in
which the running resistance is determined by measuring wheel torque on the driven
wheels at the reference speed points for time periods of at least 5s.
4.4.1. Installation of Torque Meter
Wheel torque meters shall be installed between the wheel hub and the rim of each driven
wheel, measuring the required torque to keep the vehicle at a constant speed.
The torque meter shall be calibrated on a regular basis, at least once a year, traceable to
national or international standards, in order to meet the required accuracy and precision.
4.4.2. Procedure and Data Sampling
4.4.2.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Running Resistance Curve Determination
Reference speed points for running resistance determination shall be selected according
to Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
The reference speeds shall be measured in descending order. At the request of the
manufacturer, there may be stabilization periods between measurements but the
stabilization speed shall not exceed the speed of the next reference speed.
4.4.2.2. Data Collection
Data sets consisting of actual speed v actual torque C and time over a period of at least
5s shall be measured for every v at a sampling frequency of at least 10Hz. The data sets
collected over one time period for a reference speed v shall be referred to as one
measurement.
4.4.2.3. Vehicle Torque Meter Measurement Procedure
Prior to the torque meter method test measurement, a vehicle warm-up shall be performed
according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex.
During test measurement, steering wheel movement shall be avoided as much as
possible, and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.
The test shall be repeated until the running resistance data satisfy the measurement
precision requirements as specified in Paragraph 4.4.3.2. of this Annex.
Although it is recommended that each test run be performed without interruption, split runs
may be performed if data cannot be collected in a single run for all the reference speed
points. For split runs, care shall be taken so that vehicle conditions remain as stable as
possible at each split point.

where:
v
k
C
C
is the actual vehicle speed of the i data set at reference speed point j, km/h;
is the number of data sets in a single measurement;
is the actual torque of the i data set, Nm;
is the compensation term for speed drift, Nm, given by the following equation:
C = (m + m ) × a r
c
1
k
∑ c
m
m
r
shall be no greater than 0.05 and may be disregarded if a is not greater than
±0.005m/s ;
is the test vehicle mass at the start of the measurements and shall be
measured immediately before the warm-up procedure and no earlier, kg;
is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to
Paragraph 2.5.1. of this Annex, kg;
is the dynamic radius of the tyre, determined at a reference point of 80km/h or
at the highest reference speed point of the vehicle if this speed is lower than
80km/h, calculated according to the following equation;
r
=
1
3.6
v
×
2 × πn
where:
n is the rotational frequency of the driven tyre, s ;
α
is the arithmetic average acceleration, m/s , which calculated using the
equation:
α
=
1
3.6
k
×
∑ t v − ∑ t ∑
k ×

∑ t − ∑ t
⎢⎣

⎥⎦
v
where:
t is the time at which the i data set was sampled, s.

4.4.4. Running Resistance Curve Determination
The arithmetic average speed and arithmetic average torque at each reference speed
point shall be calculated using the following equations:
V = ½ × (v + v )
C = ½ × (C +C )
The following least squares regression curve of arithmetic average running resistance
shall be fitted to all the data pairs (v , C ) at all reference speeds described in
Paragraph 4.4.2.1. of this Annex to the coefficients c , c , and c
The coefficients, c , c and c as well as the coastdown times measured on the chassis
dynamometer (see Paragraph 8.2.3.3. of this Annex) shall be recorded.
In the case that the tested vehicle is the representative vehicle of a road load matrix
family, the coefficient c shall be set to zero and the coefficients c and c shall be
recalculated with a least squares regression analysis.
4.5. Correction to Reference Conditions and Measurement Equipment
4.5.1. Air Resistance Correction Factor
The correction factor for air resistance K shall be determined using the following equation:
where:
T 100kPa
K = ×
293k P
T
P
is the arithmetic average atmospheric temperature of all individual runs, Kelvin (K);
is the arithmetic average atmospheric pressure, kPa.
4.5.2. Rolling Resistance Correction Factor
The correction factor K for rolling resistance, in Kelvin (K ), may be determined based
on empirical data and approved by the responsible authority for the particular vehicle and
tyre test, or may be assumed to be as follows:
4.5.3. Wind Correction
K = 8.6 × 10 K
4.5.3.1. Wind Correction with Stationary Anemometry
4.5.3.1.1. A wind correction for the absolute wind speed alongside the test road, shall be made by
subtracting the difference that cannot be cancelled out by alternate runs from the constant
term f given in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex, or from c given in Paragraph 4.4.4. of
this Annex.
4.5.3.1.2. The wind correction resistance w for the coastdown method or w for the torque meter
method shall be calculated by the equations:

4.5.5. Road Load Curve Correction
4.5.5.1. The curve determined in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex shall be corrected to reference
conditions as follows:
where:
F* is the corrected road load, N;
f is the constant term, N;
F* = ((f – w – K ) + f v) × (1 + K (T – 20)) + K f v
f
is the coefficient of the first-order term, N (h/km);
f is the coefficient of the second-order term, N (h/km) ;
K
K
K
T
v
is the correction factor for rolling resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.2.of this
Annex;
is the test mass correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.4.of this Annex;
is the correction factor for air resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.1.of this Annex;
is the arithmetic average ambient atmospheric temperature, °C;
is vehicle velocity, km/h;
w is the wind resistance correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex, N.
The result of the calculation ((f – w – K ) × (1 + K × (T-20))) shall be used as the target
road load coefficient A in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting
described in Paragraph 8.1. of this Annex.
The result of the calculation (f × (1 + K × (T-20))) shall be used as the target road load
coefficient B in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting described in
Paragraph 8.1. of this Annex.
The result of the calculation (K × f ) shall be used as the target road load coefficient C in
the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting described in Paragraph 8.1. of this
Annex.

4.5.5.2.3. Target running resistance coefficients
The result of the calculation ((c – w – K ) × (1 + K x (T-20))) shall be used as the target
running resistance coefficient at in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting
described in Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex.
The result of the calculation (c × (1 + K × (T-20))) shall be used as the target running
resistance coefficient b in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting
described in Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex.
The result of the calculation (c × r) shall be used as the target running resistance
coefficient c in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting described in
Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex.
5. METHOD FOR THE CALCULATION OF ROAD LOAD OR RUNNING RESISTANCE
BASED ON VEHICLE PARAMETERS
5.1. Calculation of road load and running resistance for vehicles based on a representative
vehicle of a road load matrix family.
If the road load of the representative vehicle is determined according to a method
described in Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, the road load of an individual vehicle shall be
calculated according to Paragraph 5.1.1. of this Annex.
If the running resistance of the representative vehicle is determined according to the
method described in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex, the running resistance of an individual
vehicle shall be calculated according to Paragraph 5.1.2. of this Annex.
5.1.1. For the calculation of the road load of vehicles of a road load matrix family, the vehicle
parameters described in Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of this Annex and the road load coefficients of
the representative test vehicle determined in Paragraphs 4.3. of this Annex shall be used.
5.1.1.1. The road load force for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
F = f + (f × v) + (f × v )
F is the calculated road load force as a function of vehicle velocity, N;
f
is the constant road load coefficient, N, defined by the equation:
f = Max ((0.05 × f + 0.95 × (f × TM/TM + (RR – RR ) × 9.81 × TM));
(0.2 × f + 0.8 × (f × TM/TM + (RR – RR ) × 9.81 × TM)))
f
f
is the constant road load coefficient of the representative vehicle of the road load
matrix family, N;
is the first order road load coefficient and shall be set to zero;

c
is the second order running resistance coefficient, Nm·(h/km) , defined by the
equation:
c = r'/1.02 × Max ((0.05 × 1.02 × c /r' + 0.95 × 1.02 × c /r' × A /A );
(0.2 × 1.02 × c /r' + 0.8 × 1.02 × c /r’ × A /A ))
c
v
TM
TM
is the second order running resistance coefficient of the representative vehicle of
the road load matrix family, N·(h/km) ;
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
is the actual test mass of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
is the test mass of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
A is the frontal area of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ,
A is the frontal area of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ;
RR
RR
r'
is the tyre rolling resistance of the individual vehicle of the road load family,
kg/tonne;
is the tyre rolling resistance of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix
family, kg/tonne;
is the dynamic radius of the tyre on the chassis dynamometer obtained at
80km/h, m;
1.02 is an approximate coefficient compensating for drivetrain losses.
5.2. Calculation of the Default Road Load Based on Vehicle Parameters
5.2.1. As an alternative for determining road load with the coastdown or torque meter method, a
calculation method for default road load may be used.
For the calculation of a default road load based on vehicle parameters, several parameters
such as test mass, width and height of the vehicle shall be used. The default road load F
shall be calculated for the reference speed points.
5.2.2. The default road load force shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
F = f + f × v + f × v
F is the calculated default road load force as a function vehicle velocity, N;
f
is the constant road load coefficient, N, defined by the following equation:
f = 0.140 × TM
f
is the first order road load coefficient and shall be set to zero;

6.2.3. Measurement with the wind tunnel method according to Paragraphs 6.3. to 6.7. inclusive
of this Annex shall be performed on the same three vehicles as selected in
Paragraph 6.2.1. of this Annex and in the same conditions, and the resulting road load
coefficients, f , f and f , shall be determined.
If the manufacturer chooses to use one or more of the available alternative procedures
within the wind tunnel method (i.e. Paragraph 6.5.2.1. on preconditioning,
Paragraphs 6.5.2.2. and 6.5.2.3. on the procedure, and Paragraph 6.5.2.3.3. on
dynamometer setting), these procedures shall also be used also for the approval of the
facilities.
6.2.4. Approval Criteria
The facility or combination of facilities used shall be approved if both of the following two
criteria are fulfilled:
(a)
The difference in cycle energy, expressed as εk, between the wind tunnel method
and the coastdown method shall be within ±0.05 for each of the three vehicles, k,
according to the following equation:
ε
E
=
E
− 1
where:
ε
is the difference in cycle energy over a complete Class 3 WLTC for vehicle
k between the wind tunnel method and the coastdown method, percent;
E is the cycle energy over a complete Class 3 WLTC for vehicle k,
calculated with the road load derived from the wind tunnel method (WTM)
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, J;
E is the cycle energy over a complete Class 3 WLTC for vehicle k,
calculated with the road load derived from the coastdown method
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, J.; and
(b) The arithmetic average, x , of the three differences shall be within 0.02.
x =
ε
+ ε
3
+ ε
The facility may be used for road load determination for a maximum of two years after the
approval has been granted.
Each combination of roller chassis dynamometer or moving belt and wind tunnel shall be
approved separately.

6.5. Flat Belt Applied for the Wind Tunnel Method
6.5.1. Flat Belt Criteria
6.5.1.1. Description of the Flat Belt Test Bench
The wheels shall rotate on flat belts that do not change the rolling characteristics of the
wheels compared to those on the road. The measured forces in the x-direction shall
include the frictional forces in the drivetrain .
6.5.1.2. Vehicle Restraint System
The dynamometer shall be equipped with a centring device aligning the vehicle within a
tolerance of ±0.5° of rotation around the z-axis. The restraint system shall maintain the
centred drive wheel position throughout the coastdown runs of the road load determination
within the following limits:
6.5.1.2.1. Lateral position (y-axis)
The vehicle shall remain aligned in the y-direction and lateral movement shall be
minimised.
6.5.1.2.2. Front and rear position (x-axis)
6.5.1.2.3. Vertical force
Without prejudice to the requirement of Paragraph 6.5.1.2.1. of this Annex, both wheel
axes shall be within ±10mm of the belt’s lateral centre lines.
The restraint system shall be designed so as to impose no vertical force on the drive
wheels.
6.5.1.3. Accuracy of Measured Forces
Only the reaction force for turning the wheels shall be measured. No external forces shall
be included in the result (e.g. force of the cooling fan air, vehicle restraints, aerodynamic
reaction forces of the flat belt, dynamometer losses, etc.).
The force in the x-direction shall be measured with an accuracy of ±5N.
6.5.1.4. Flat Belt Speed Control
The belt speed shall be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.1km/h.
6.5.1.5. Flat Belt Surface
The flat belt surface shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that might cause tyre
slippage.

6.5.2.2.3. The reference speed shall be stabilised for at least 4s and for a maximum of 10s. The
measurement equipment shall ensure that the signal of the measured force is stabilised
after that period.
6.5.2.2.4. The force at each reference speed shall be measured for at least 6s while the vehicle
speed is kept constant. The resulting force for that reference speed point F shall be the
arithmetic average of the force during the measurement.
The steps in Paragraphs 6.5.2.2.2. to 6.5.2.2.4. of this Annex inclusive shall be repeated
for each reference speed.
6.5.2.3. Measurement procedure by Deceleration
6.5.2.3.1. Preconditioning and dynamometer setting shall be performed according to
Paragraph 6.5.2.1. of this Annex. Prior to each coastdown, the vehicle shall be driven at
the highest reference speed or, in the case that the alternative warm -up procedure is
used at 110% of the highest reference speed, for at least 1min. The vehicle shall be
subsequently accelerated to at least 10km/h above the highest reference speed and the
coastdown shall be started immediately.
6.5.2.3.2. The measurement shall be performed according to Paragraphs 4.3.1.3.1. to 4.3.1.4.4.
inclusive of this Annex. Coasting down in opposite directions is not required and the
equation used to calculate ∆t in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex shall not apply. The
measurement shall be stopped after two decelerations if the force of both coastdowns at
each reference speed point is within ±10, otherwise at least three coastdowns shall be
performed using the criteria set out in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2.
6.5.2.3.3. The force f at each reference speed v shall be calculated by removing the simulated
aerodynamic force:
f = f −
c
×
v
where:
f is the force determined according to the equation calculating F in
Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex at reference speed point j, N;
c
is the dynamometer set coefficient as defined in Paragraph 6.5.2.1. of this
Annex, N/(km/h) .
Alternatively, at the request of the manufacturer, c may be set to zero during the
coastdown and for calculating f .
6.5.2.4. Measurement Conditions
The vehicle shall be in the condition described in Paragraph 4.3.1.3.2. of this Annex.
During coastdown, the transmission shall be in neutral. Any movement of the steering
wheel shall be avoided as much as possible, and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.

6.6.2. Dynamometer Measurement
The measurement shall be performed as described in Paragraph 6.5.2. of this Annex.
6.6.3. Correction of the Chassis Dynamometer Roller Curve
The measured forces on the chassis dynamometer shall be corrected to a reference
equivalent to the road (flat surface) and the result shall be referred to as f .
f
=
f
× c1×
R
R
1
+ f
× c2 + 1
× (1
− c1)
where:
c1 is the tyre rolling resistance fraction of f ;
c2
is a chassis dynamometer specific radius correction factor;
f is the force calculated in Paragraph 6.5.2.3.3. for each reference speed j, N;
R is one-half of the nominal design tyre diameter, m;
R is the radius of the chassis dynamometer roller, m.
The manufacturer and responsible authority shall agree on the factors c1 and c2 to be
used, based on correlation test evidence provided by the manufacturer for the range of
tyre characteristics intended to be tested on the chassis dynamometer.
As an alternative the following conservative equation may be used:
f
=
f
×
R
R
1
× 0.2 + 1

6.7.3. Calculation of Road Load Values
The total road load as a sum of the results of Paragraphs 6.7.1 and 6.7.2. of this Annex
shall be calculated using the following equation:
F
= F
+ F
for all applicable reference speed points j, N;
For all calculated F , the coefficients f , f and f in the road load equation shall be
calculated with a least squares regression analysis and shall be used as the target
coefficients in Paragraph 8.1.1. of this Annex.
7. TRANSFERRING ROAD LOAD TO A CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
7.1. Preparation for Chassis Dynamometer Test
7.1.1. Laboratory Condition
7.1.1.1. Rollers
The chassis dynamometer roller(s) shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that
might cause tyre slippage. For chassis dynamometers with multiple rollers, the
dynamometer shall be run in the same coupled or uncoupled state as the subsequent
Type 1 test. Chassis dynamometer speed shall be measured from the roller coupled to the
power-absorption unit.
7.1.1.1.1. Tyre Slippage
Additional weight may be placed on or in the vehicle to eliminate tyre slippage. The
manufacturer shall perform the load setting on the chassis dynamometer with the
additional weight. The additional weight shall be present for both load setting and the
emissions and fuel consumption tests. The use of any additional weight shall be recorded.
7.1.1.2. Room Temperature
The laboratory atmospheric temperature shall be at a set point of 23°C and shall not
deviate by more than ±5°C during the test unless otherwise required by any subsequent
test.
7.2. Preparation of Chassis Dynamometer
7.2.1. Inertia Mass Setting
The equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer shall be set according to
Paragraph 2.5.3. of this Annex. If the chassis dynamometer is not capable to meet the
inertia setting exactly, the next higher inertia setting shall be applied with a maximum
increase of 10kg.

7.3.4. Vehicle Warm-up
7.3.4.1. The vehicle shall be warmed up with the applicable WLTC. In the case that the vehicle
was warmed up at 90% of the maximum speed of the next higher phase during the
procedure defined in Paragraph 4.2.4.1.2. of this Annex, this higher phase shall be added
to the applicable WLTC.
Table A4/6
Vehicle Warm-up
7.3.4.2. If the vehicle is already warmed up, the WLTC phase applied in Paragraph 7.3.4.1. of this
Annex, with the highest speed, shall be driven.
7.3.4.3. Alternative Warm-up Procedure
7.3.4.3.1. At the request of the vehicle manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority,
an alternative warm-up procedure may be used. The approved alternative warm-up
procedure may be used for vehicles within the same road load family and shall satisfy the
requirements outlined in Paragraphs 7.3.4.3.2. to 7.3.4.3.5. of this Annex inclusive.
7.3.4.3.2. At least one vehicle representing the road load family shall be selected.

The following are recommended coefficients to be used for the initial load setting:
(a)
(b)
A = 0.5 × A B = 0.2 × B , C = C for single-axis chassis dynamometers, or
A = 0.1 × A B = 0.2 × B , C = C for dual-axis chassis dynamometers, where A , B
and C are the target road load coefficients;
empirical values, such as those used for the setting for a similar type of vehicle.
8.1.2. Coastdown
8.1.3. Verification
For a chassis dynamometer of polygonal control, adequate load values at each reference
speed shall be set to the chassis dynamometer power absorption unit.
The coastdown test on the chassis dynamometer shall be performed with the procedure
given in Paragraphs 8.1.3.4.1. or in Paragraph 8.1.3.4.2. of this Annex and shall start no
later than 120s after completion of the warm-up procedure. Consecutive coastdown runs
shall be started immediately. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the
responsible authority, the time between the warm-up procedure and coastdowns using the
iterative method may be extended to ensure a proper vehicle setting for the coastdown.
The manufacturer shall provide the responsible authority with evidence for requiring
additional time and evidence that the chassis dynamometer load setting parameters
(e.g. coolant and/or oil temperature, force on a dynamometer) are not affected.
8.1.3.1. The target road load value shall be calculated using the target road load coefficient, A , B
and C for each reference speed, v :
where:
F = A + B v + C v
A, B and C are the target road load parameters f , f and f respectively;
F is the target road load at reference speed v , N;
v
is the j reference speed, km/h.
8.1.3.2. The measured road load shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
F
=
1
3.6
×
( TM + m )
2 × Δv
×
Δt
F is the measured road load for each reference speed v , N;
TM
M
is the test mass of the vehicle, kg;
is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to
Paragraph 2.5.1. of this Annex, kg;
∆t is the coastdown time corresponding to speed v , s.

8.1.3.4.2. Iterative Method
8.1.4. Adjustment
The calculated forces in the specified speed ranges shall either be within a tolerance of
±10N after a least squares regression of the forces for two consecutive coastdowns, or
additional coastdowns shall be performed after adjusting the chassis dynamometer load
setting according to Paragraph 8.1.4. of this Annex until the tolerance is satisfied..
The chassis dynamometer setting load shall be adjusted according to the following
equations:
F = F − F = F − F + F
=
=
( A + B v + C v ) − ( A + B v + C v ) − ( A + B v + C v )
( A + A − A ) + ( B + B − B ) + ( C + C − C ) v
Therefore:
A
= A
+ A
− A
B
= B
+ B
− B
C
= C
+ C
− C
where:
F is the initial chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F is the adjusted chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F is the adjustment road load equal to (F −F ), N;
F is the simulated road load at reference speed v , N;
F is the target road load at reference speed v , N;
A , B and C are the new chassis dynamometer setting coefficients.

8.2.3. Verification
8.2.3.1. The target running resistance (torque) curve shall be determined using the equation in
Paragraph 4.5.5.2.1. of this Annex and may be written as follows:
C = a + b × v + c × v
8.2.3.2. The simulated running resistance (torque) curve on the chassis dynamometer shall be
calculated according to the method described and the measurement precision specified in
Paragraph 4.4.3. of this Annex, and the running resistance (torque) curve determination as
described in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex with applicable corrections according to
Paragraph 4.5. of this Annex, all with the exception of measuring in opposite directions,
resulting in a simulated running resistance curve:
8.2.3.3. Adjustment
C = C + C × v + C × v
The simulated running resistance (torque) shall be within a tolerance of ±10N × r' from the
target running resistance at every speed reference point where r' is the dynamic radius of
the tyre in metres on the chassis dynamometer obtained at 80km/h.
If the tolerance at any reference speed does not satisfy the criterion of the method
described in this paragraph, the procedure specified in Paragraph 8.2.3.3. of this \annex
shall be used to adjust the chassis dynamometer load setting.
The chassis dynamometer load setting shall be adjusted using the following equation:
therefore:
=
( A + B v + C v )

= ⎨A

+
F F
F = F − = F − +
r' r'
( a + b v + c v ) ( a + b v + c v )
( a − a ) ⎫ ⎧ ( b − b ) ⎫ ⎧ ( c − c ) ⎫
B
v C
v
r'

⎬ + ⎨
⎭ ⎩
+
r'
r'


+
+ ⎨

F
r'
+
r'
r'


=
A
B
C
= A
= B
= C
a
+
b
+
c
+
− a
r'
− b
r'
− c
r'

8.2.4.1.2. The determined f , f , f values shall not be used for a chassis dynamometer setting or any
emission or range testing. They shall be used only in the following cases:
(a) Determination of downscaling, Paragraph 8. of Annex 1;
(b) Determination of gearshift points, Annex 2;
(c) interpolation of CO and fuel consumption, Paragraph 3.2.3 of Annex 7;
(d) calculation of results of electrified vehicles, Paragraph 4. in Annex 8.
8.2.4.2. Once the chassis dynamometer has been set within the specified tolerances, a vehicle
coastdown procedure shall be performed on the chassis dynamometer as outlined in
Paragraph 4.3.1.3. of this Annex. The coastdown times shall be recorded.
8.2.4.3. The road load F at reference speed v , N, shall be determined using the following
equation:
F
=
1
3.6
Δv
× (TM + m )×
Δt
where:
F is the road load at reference speed v , N;
TM
is the test mass of the vehicle, kg;
m is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to
Paragraph 2.5.1. of this Annex, kg;
∆v = 10km/h
∆t is the coastdown time corresponding to speed v , s.
8.2.4.4. The coefficients f , f and f in the road load equation shall be calculated with a least
squares regression analysis over the reference speed range.

(b)
For fans with circular fan, the outlet shall be divided into eight equal sectors by
vertical, horizontal and 45° lines. The measurement points shall lie on the radial
centre line of each sector (22.5°) at two-thirds of the outlet radius (as shown in
Figure A5/2).
Figure A5/2
Fan with Circular Outlet
These measurements shall be made with no vehicle or other obstruction in front of the fan.
The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall be located between 0 and
20cm from the air outlet.
1.1.3. The outlet of the fan shall have the following characteristics:
(a)
(b)
An area of at least 0.3m , and
A width/diameter of at least 0.8m.
1.1.4. The position of the fan shall be as follows:
(a)
(b)
Height of the lower edge above ground: approximately 20cm;
Distance from the front of the vehicle: approximately 30cm.
1.1.5. The height and lateral position of the cooling fan may be modified at the request of the
manufacturer and if considered appropriate by the responsible authority.
1.1.6. In the cases described in Paragraph 1.1.5. of this Annex, the position of the cooling fan
(height and distance) shall be recorded and shall be used for any subsequent testing.

2.3. Additional specific requirements for chassis dynamometers for vehicles to be tested in four
wheel drive (4WD) mode
2.3.1. The 4WD control system shall be designed such that the following requirements are
fulfilled when tested with a vehicle driven over the WLTC.
2.3.1.1. Road load simulation shall be applied such that operation in 4WD mode reproduces the
same proportioning of forces as would be encountered when driving the vehicle on a
smooth, dry, level road surface.
2.3.1.2. Upon initial installation and after major maintenance, the requirements of
Paragraph 2.3.1.2.1. of this annex and either Paragraph 2.3.1.2.2. or 2.3.1.2.3. of this
Annex shall be satisfied. The speed difference between the front and rear rollers is
assessed by applying a 1s moving average filter to roller speed data acquired at a
minimum frequency of 20Hz.
2.3.1.2.1. The difference in distance covered by the front and rear rollers shall be less than 0.2% of
the distance driven over the WLTC. The absolute number shall be integrated for the
calculation of the total difference in distance over the WLTC.
2.3.1.2.2. The difference in distance covered by the front and rear rollers shall be less than 0.1m in
any 200ms time period.
2.3.1.2.3. The speed difference of all roller speeds shall be within ±0.16km/h.
2.4. Chassis Dynamometer Calibration
2.4.1. Force Measurement System
The accuracy and linearity of the force transducer shall be at least ±10N for all measured
increments. This shall be verified upon initial installation, after major maintenance and
within 370 days before testing.
2.4.2. Dynamometer Parasitic Loss Calibration
The dynamometer's parasitic losses shall be measured and updated if any measured
value differs from the current loss curve by more than 9.0N. This shall be verified upon
initial installation, after major maintenance and within 35 days before testing.
2.4.3. Verification of Road Load Simulation without a Vehicle
The dynamometer performance shall be verified by performing an unloaded coastdown
test upon initial installation, after major maintenance, and within 7 days before testing. The
arithmetic average coastdown force error shall be less than 10N or 2%, whichever is
greater, at each reference point.

3.3. Specific Requirements
3.3.1. Connection to Vehicle Exhaust
3.3.1.1. The start of the connecting tube is the exit of the tailpipe. The end of the connecting tube
is the sample point, or first point of dilution.
For multiple tailpipe configurations where all the tailpipes are combined, the start of the
connecting tube shall be taken at the last joint of where all the tailpipes are combined. In
the case, the tube between the exit of the tailpipe and the start of the connecting tube may
or may not be insulated or heated.
3.3.1.2. The connecting tube between the vehicle and dilution system shall be designed so as to
minimize heat loss.
3.3.1.3. The connecting tube shall satisfy the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Be less than 3.6m long, or less than 6.1m long if heat-insulated. Its internal diameter
shall not exceed 105mm; the insulating materials shall have a thickness of at least
25mm and thermal conductivity shall not exceed 0.1W/m K at 400°C. Optionally,
the tube may be heated to a temperature above the dew point. This may be
assumed to be achieved if the tube is heated to 70°C;
Not cause the static pressure at the exhaust outlets on the vehicle being tested to
differ by more than ±0.75kPa at 50km/h, or more than ±1.25kPa for the duration of
the test from the static pressures recorded when nothing is connected to the vehicle
exhaust pipes. The pressure shall be measured in the exhaust outlet or in an
extension having the same diameter and as near as possible to the end of the
tailpipe. Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within
±0.25kPa may be used if a written request from a manufacturer to the responsible
authority substantiates the need for the closer tolerance;
No component of the connecting tube shall be of a material that might affect the
gaseous or solid composition of the exhaust gas. To avoid generation of any
particles from elastomer connectors, elastomers employed shall be as thermally
stable as possible and have minimum exposure to the exhaust gas. It is
recommended not to use elastomer connectors to bridge the connection between
the vehicle exhaust and the connecting tube.
3.3.2. Dilution Air Conditioning
3.3.2.1. The dilution air used for the primary dilution of the exhaust in the CVS tunnel shall pass
through a medium capable of reducing particles of the most penetrating particle size in the
filter material by ≤99.95%, or through a filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2009. This
represents the specification of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The dilution
air may optionally be charcoal scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It is
recommended that an additional coarse particle filter be situated before the HEPA filter
and after the charcoal scrubber, if used.
3.3.2.2. At the vehicle manufacturer's request, the dilution air may be sampled according to good
engineering practice to determine the tunnel contribution to background particulate and, if
applicable, particle levels, which can be subsequently subtracted from the values
measured in the diluted exhaust. See Paragraph 1.2.1.3. of Annex 6.

3.3.5. Volume Measurement in the Primary Dilution System
3.3.5.1. The method of measuring total dilute exhaust volume incorporated in the constant volume
sampler shall be such that measurement is accurate to ±2% under all operating
conditions. If the device cannot compensate for variations in the temperature of the
mixture of exhaust gases and dilution air at the measuring point, a heat exchanger shall be
used to maintain the temperature to within ±6°C of the specified operating temperature for
a PDP-CVS, ±11°C for a CFV CVS, ±6°C for a UFM CVS, and ±11°C for an SSV CVS.
3.3.5.2. If necessary, some form of protection for the volume measuring device may be used e.g. a
cyclone separator, bulk stream filter, etc.
3.3.5.3. A temperature sensor shall be installed immediately before the volume measuring device.
This temperature sensor shall have an accuracy and a precision of ±1°C and a response
time of 0.1s at 62% of a given temperature variation (value measured in silicone oil).
3.3.5.4. Measurement of the pressure difference from atmospheric pressure shall be taken
upstream from and, if necessary, downstream from the volume measuring device.
3.3.5.5. The pressure measurements shall have a precision and an accuracy of ±0.4kPa during the
test. See Table A5.5.
3.3.6. Recommended System Description
Figure A5/3 is a schematic drawing of exhaust dilution systems that meet the requirements
of this Annex.
The following components are recommended:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
A dilution air filter, which may be preheated if necessary. This filter shall consist of
the following filters in sequence: an optional activated charcoal filter (inlet side), and
a HEPA filter (outlet side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter
be situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The purpose
of the charcoal filter is to reduce and stabilize the hydrocarbon concentrations of
ambient emissions in the dilution air;
A connecting tube by which vehicle exhaust is admitted into a dilution tunnel;
An optional heat exchanger as described in Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of this Annex;
A mixing device in which exhaust gas and dilution air are mixed homogeneously,
and which may be located close to the vehicle so that the length of the connecting
tube is minimized;
A dilution tunnel from which particulate and, if applicable, particles are sampled;
Some form of protection for the measurement system may be used e.g. a cyclone
separator, bulk stream filter, etc.;
A suction device of sufficient capacity to handle the total volume of diluted exhaust
gas.

3.3.6.3. Subsonic Flow Venturi (SSV)
3.3.6.3.1. The use of an SSV (Figure A5.4) for a full-flow exhaust dilution system is based on the
principles of flow mechanics. The variable mixture flow rate of dilution and exhaust gas is
maintained at a subsonic velocity that is calculated from the physical dimensions of the
subsonic venturi and measurement of the absolute temperature (T) and pressure (P) at
the venturi inlet and the pressure in the throat of the venturi. Flow is continually monitored,
computed and integrated throughout the test.
3.3.6.3.2. An SSV shall measure the flow volume of the diluted exhaust gas.
3.3.6.4. Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM)
Figure A5/4
Schematic of a Subsonic Venturi Tube (SSV)
3.3.6.4.1. A UFM measures the velocity of the diluted exhaust gas in the CVS piping using the
principle of ultrasonic flow detection my means of a pair, or multiple pairs, of ultrasonic
transmitters/receivers mounted within the pipe as in Figure A5/5. The velocity of the
flowing gas is determined by the difference in time required for the ultrasonic signal to
travel from transmitter to receiver in the upstream direction and the downstream direction.
The gas velocity is converted to standard volumetric flow using a calibration factor for the
tube diameter with real time corrections for the diluted exhaust temperature and absolute
pressure.

3.4. CVS Calibration Procedure
3.4.1. General Requirements
3.4.1.1. The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow meter and a restricting
device and the intervals listed in Table A5.4. The flow through the system shall be
measured at various pressure readings and the control parameters of the system
measured and related to the flows. The flow metering device (e.g. calibrated venturi,
laminar flow element (LFE), calibrated turbine meter) shall be dynamic and suitable for the
high flow rate encountered in constant volume sampler testing. The device shall be of
certified accuracy traceable to an approved national or international standard.
3.4.1.2. The following Paragraphs describe methods for calibrating PDP, CFV, SSV and UFM
units, using a laminar flow meter, which gives the required accuracy, along with a
statistical check on the calibration validity.
3.4.2. Calibration of a Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
3.4.2.1. The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration and the
various parameters that are measured to establish the flow rate of the CVS pump. All the
parameters related to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters related
to the flow meter that is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flow rate (given
in m /min at pump inlet for the measured absolute pressure and temperature) shall be
subsequently plotted versus a correlation function that includes the relevant pump
parameters. The linear equation that relates the pump flow and the correlation function
shall be subsequently determined. In the case that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a
calibration for each range used shall be performed.
3.4.2.2. This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the
pump and flow meter parameters relating the flow rate at each point. The following
conditions shall be maintained to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration
curve:
3.4.2.2.1. The pump pressures shall be measured at tappings on the pump rather than at the
external piping on the pump inlet and outlet. Pressure taps that are mounted at the top
centre and bottom centre of the pump drive head plate are exposed to the actual pump
cavity pressures, and therefore reflect the absolute pressure differentials.
3.4.2.2.2. Temperature stability shall be maintained during the calibration. The laminar flow meter is
sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations that cause data points to be scattered. Gradual
changes of ±1°C in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of
several minutes.
3.4.2.2.3. All connections between the flow meter and the CVS pump shall be free of leakage.
3.4.2.3. During an exhaust emissions test, the measured pump parameters shall be used to
calculate the flow rate from the calibration equation.

3.4.2.5. After the system has been connected as shown in Figure A5/6. the variable restrictor shall
be set in the wide-open position and the CVS pump shall run for 20min before starting the
calibration.
3.4.2.5.1. The restrictor valve shall be reset to a more restricted condition in increments of pump
inlet depression (about 1kPa) that will yield a minimum of six data points for the total
calibration. The system shall be allowed to stabilize for 3min before the data acquisition is
repeated.
3.4.2.5.2. The air flow rate Q at each test point shall be calculated in standard m /min from the flow
meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.
3.4.2.5.3. The air flow rate shall be subsequently converted to pump flow V in m /rev at absolute
pump inlet temperature and pressure.
V
=
Q
n
T 101.
325kPa
× ×
273.
15k P
where:
V
Q
T
P
is the pump flow rate a T and P , m /rev;
is the air flow at 101.325kPa and 273.15K, (0°C), m /min;
is the pump inlet temperature, Kelvin (K);
is the absolute pump inlet pressure, kPa;
n is the pump speed, min .
3.4.2.5.4. To compensate for the interaction of pump speed pressure variations at the pump and the
pump slip rate, the correlation function x between the pump speed n, the pressure
differential from pump inlet to pump outlet and the absolute pump outlet pressure shall be
calculated using the following equation:
x
=
1
n
ΔP
P
where:
x
∆P
P
is the correlation function;
is the pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, kPa;
absolute outlet pressure (PPO + P ), kPa.
A linear least squares fit shall be performed to generate the calibration equations having
the following form:
V = D – M × x
n = A – B × ∆P
where B and M are the slopes and A and D are the intercepts of the lines.

3.4.3.3. The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure A5/7 and checked for leaks. Any leaks
between the flow-measuring device and the critical flow venturi will seriously affect the
accuracy of the calibration and shall therefore be prevented.
Figure A5/7
CFV Calibration Configuration
3.4.3.3.1. The variable-flow restrictor shall be set to the open position, the suction device shall be
started and the system stabilized. Data from all instruments shall be collected.
3.4.3.3.2. The flow restrictor shall be varied and at least eight readings across the critical flow range
of the venturi shall be made.
3.4.3.3.3. The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculation:
3.4.3.3.3.1. The air flow rate (Q ) at each test point shall be calculated from the flow meter data using
the manufacturer's prescribed method.
Values of the calibration coefficient shall be calculated for each test point:
where:
Q T
K =
P
Q
T
P
is the flow rate, m /min at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa;
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, Kelvin (K);
is the absolute pressure at the venturi inlet, kPa.

To determine the range of subsonic flow, shall be plotted as a function of Reynolds
number Re, at the SSV throat. The Reynolds number at the SSV throat shall be calculated
using the following equation:
Re = A
Q
×
d
× μ
where:
b × T
μ =
S + T
A
⎛ 1 ⎞⎛
min ⎞⎛
mm ⎞
is 25.55152 in SI, ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜
⎟ ;
⎝ m ⎠⎝
s ⎠⎝
m ⎠
Q
is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
d
is the diameter of the SSV throat, m;
µ
is the absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas, kg/ms;
b
is 1.458 × 10 (empirical constant), kg/ms K
;
S
is 110.4 (empirical constant), Kelvin (K).
3.4.4.2.2. Because Q is an input to the Re equation, the calculations shall be started with an initial
guess for Q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until Q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to at least 0.1%.
3.4.4.2.3. For a minimum of sixteen points in the region of subsonic flow, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured C
for each calibration point.
3.4.5. Calibration of an Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM)
3.4.5.1. The UFM shall be calibrated against a suitable reference flow meter.
3.4.5.2. The UFM shall be calibrated in the CVS configuration that will be used in the test cell
(diluted exhaust piping, suction device) and checked for leaks. See Figure A5/8.
3.4.5.3. A heater shall be installed to condition the calibration flow in the event that the UFM
system does not include a heat exchanger.
3.4.5.4. For each CVS flow setting that will be used, the calibration shall be performed at
temperatures from room temperature to the maximum that will be experienced during
vehicle testing.
3.4.5.5. The manufacturer's recommended procedure shall be followed for calibrating the
electronic portions (temperature (T) and pressure (P) sensors) of the UFM.

3.4.5.8. The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculations. The air
flow rate Q at each test point shall be calculated from the flow meter data using the
manufacturer's prescribed method.
Q
K =
Q
where:
Q
is the air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
Q is the air flow rate of the calibration flow meter at standard conditions
(101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
K
is the calibration coefficient.
For UFM systems without a heat exchanger, K shall be plotted as a function of T .
The maximum variation in K shall not exceed 0.3% of the arithmetic average K value of
all the measurements taken at the different temperatures.
3.5. System Verification Procedure
3.5.1. General Requirements
3.5.1.1. The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of an emissions gas compound into the system whilst it is
being operated under normal test conditions and subsequently analysing and calculating
the emission gas compounds according to the equations of Annex 7. The CFO
method described in Paragraph 3.5.1.1.1. of this Annex and the gravimetric method
described in Paragraph 3.5.1.1.2. of this Annex are both known to give sufficient accuracy.
The maximum permissible deviation between the quantity of gas introduced and the
quantity of gas measured is 2%.
3.5.1.1.1. Critical Flow Orifice (CFO) Method
The CFO method meters a constant flow of pure gas (CO, CO , or C H ) using a critical
flow orifice device.
3.5.1.1.1.1. A known mass of pure carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or propane gas shall be
introduced into the CVS system through the calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is
high enough, the flow rate q, which is restricted by means of the critical flow orifice, is
independent of orifice outlet pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as
in a normal exhaust emissions test and enough time shall be allowed for subsequent
analysis. The gas collected in the sample bag shall be analysed by the usual equipment
(Paragraph 4.1. of this Annex) and the results compared to the concentration of the known
gas samples. If deviations exceed 2%, the cause of the malfunction shall be determined
and corrected.

4.1.2.8. Any valve used to direct the exhaust gases shall be of a quick-adjustment, quick-acting
type.
4.1.2.9. Quick-fastening, gas-tight connections may be used between three-way valves and the
sample bags, the connections sealing themselves automatically on the bag side. Other
systems may be used for conveying the samples to the analyser (e.g., three-way stop
valves).
4.1.2.10. Sample Storage
4.1.2.10.1. The gas samples shall be collected in sample bags of sufficient capacity so as not to
impede the sample flow.
4.1.2.10.2. The bag material shall be such as to affect neither the measurements themselves nor the
chemical composition of the gas samples by more than ±2% after 30min (e.g., laminated
polyethylene/polyamide films, or fluorinated polyhydrocarbons).
4.1.3. Sampling Systems
4.1.3.1. Hydrocarbon Sampling System (Heated Flame Ionisation Detector, HFID)
4.1.3.1.1. The hydrocarbon sampling system shall consist of a heated sampling probe, line, filter and
pump. The sample shall be taken upstream of the heat exchanger (if fitted). The sampling
probe shall be installed at the same distance from the exhaust gas inlet as the particulate
sampling probe and, in such a way that neither interferes with samples taken by the other.
It shall have a minimum internal diameter of 4mm.
4.1.3.1.2. All heated parts shall be maintained at a temperature of 190°C ± 10°C by the heating
system.
4.1.3.1.3. The arithmetic average concentration of the measured hydrocarbons shall be determined
by integration of the second-by-second data divided by the phase or test duration.
4.1.3.1.4. The heated sampling line shall be fitted with a heated filter (F ) having a 99% efficiency for
particles ≥0.3μm to extract any solid particles from the continuous flow of gas required for
analysis.
4.1.3.1.5. The sampling system delay time (from the probe to the analyser inlet) shall be no more
than 4s.
4.1.3.1.6. The HFID shall be used with a constant mass flow (heat exchanger) system to ensure a
representative sample, unless compensation for varying CVS volume flow is made.
4.1.3.2. NO or NO Sampling System (where Applicable)
4.1.3.2.1. A continuous sample flow of diluted exhaust gas shall be supplied to the analyser.
4.1.3.2.2. The arithmetic average concentration of the NO or NO shall be determined by integration
of the second-by-second data divided by the phase or test duration.
4.1.3.2.3. The continuous NO or NO measurement shall be used with a constant flow (heat
exchanger) system to ensure a representative sample, unless compensation for varying
CVS volume flow is made.

4.1.4.8. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO ) Analysis (if Applicable)
4.1.4.8.1. Measurement of NO from continuously diluted exhausts
4.1.4.8.1.1. A CLA analyser may be used to measure the NO concentration continuously from diluted
exhaust.
4.1.4.8.1.2. The CLA analyser shall be calibrated (zero/calibrated) in the NO mode using the NO
certified concentration in the calibration gas cylinder with the NO converter bypassed (if
installed).
4.1.4.8.1.3. The NO concentration shall be determined by subtracting the NO concentration from the
NO concentration in the CVS sample bags.
4.1.4.8.2. Measurement of NO from continuously diluted exhausts
4.1.4.8.2.1. A specific NO analyser (NDUV, QCL) may be used to measure the NO concentration
continuously from diluted exhaust.
4.1.4.8.2.2. The analyser shall be calibrated (zeroed/calibrated) in the NO mode using the NO
certified concentration in the calibration gas cylinder.
4.1.4.9. Nitrous Oxide (N O) Analysis with GC ECD (if Applicable)
4.1.4.9.1. A gas chromatograph with an electron-capture detector (GC–ECD) may be used to
measure N O concentrations of diluted exhaust by batch sampling from exhaust and
ambient bags. Refer to Paragraph 7.2. of this Annex.
4.1.4.10. Nitrous Oxide (N O) analysis with IR-absorption spectrometry (if Applicable)
The analyser shall be a laser infrared spectrometer defined as modulated high resolution
narrow band infrared analyser. An NDIR or FTIR may also be used but water, CO and CO
interference shall be taken into consideration.
4.1.4.10.1. If the analyser shows interference to compounds present in the sample, this interference
shall be corrected. Analysers shall have combined interference within 0.0 ± 0.1ppm.
4.1.4.11. Hydrogen (H ) Analysis (if Applicable)
The analyser shall be of the sector field mass spectrometer type.

4.1.5.2.3. Pumps and flow controller to ensure constant uniform flow of diluted exhaust gas and
dilution air samples taken during the course of the test from sampling probes and flow of
the gas samples shall be such that, at the end of each test, the quantity of the samples is
sufficient for analysis.
4.1.5.2.4. Quick-acting valves to divert a constant flow of gas samples into the sample bags or to the
outside vent.
4.1.5.2.5. Gas-tight, quick-lock coupling elements between the quick-acting valves and the sample
bags. The coupling shall close automatically on the sampling-bag side. As an alternative,
other methods of transporting the samples to the analyser may be used
(three-way stopcocks, for instance).
4.1.5.2.6. Bags for collecting samples of the diluted exhaust gas and of the dilution air during the
test.
4.1.5.2.7. A sampling critical flow venturi to take proportional samples of the diluted exhaust gas
(CFV-CVS only).
4.1.5.3. Additional components required for hydrocarbon sampling using a heated flame ionization
detector (HFID) as shown in Figure A5/10.
4.1.5.3.1. Heated sample probe in the dilution tunnel located in the same vertical plane as the
particulate and, if applicable, particle sample probes.
4.1.5.3.2. Heated filter located after the sampling point and before the HFID.
4.1.5.3.3. Heated selection valves between the zero/calibration gas supplies and the HFID.
4.1.5.3.4. Means of integrating and recording instantaneous hydrocarbon concentrations.
4.1.5.3.5. Heated sampling lines and heated components from the heated probe to the HFID.
Figure A5/10
Components Required for Hydrocarbon Sampling using an HFID

4.2.1.2.4. The particulate sample shall be collected on a single filter mounted within a holder in the
sampled dilute exhaust gas flow.
4.2.1.2.5. All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the
filter holder that are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, shall be designed to
minimise deposition or alteration of the particulate. All parts shall be made of electrically
conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be
electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.
4.2.1.2.6. If it is not possible to compensate for variations in the flow rate, provision shall be made for
a heat exchanger and a temperature control device as specified in Paragraphs 3.3.5.1. or
3.3.6.4.2. of this Annex, so as to ensure that the flow rate in the system is constant and
the sampling rate accordingly proportional.
4.2.1.2.7. Temperatures required for the measurement of PM shall be measured with an accuracy of
±1°C and a response time (t – t ) of 15s or less.
4.2.1.2.8. The sample flow from the dilution tunnel shall be measured with an accuracy of ±2.5% of
reading or ±1.5% full scale, whichever is the least.
The accuracy specified above of the sample flow from the CVS tunnel is also applicable
where double dilution is used. Consequently, the measurement and control of the
secondary dilution air flow and diluted exhaust flow rates through the PM filter shall be of a
higher accuracy.
4.2.1.2.9. All data channels required for the measurement of PM shall be logged at a frequency of
1Hz or faster. Typically these would include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Diluted exhaust temperature at the particulate sampling filter;
Sampling flow rate;
Secondary dilution air flow rate (if secondary dilution is used);
Secondary dilution air temperature (if secondary dilution is used).
4.2.1.2.10. For double dilution systems, the accuracy of the diluted exhaust transferred from the
dilution tunnel, V , defined in Paragraph 3.3.2. of Annex 7 in the equation is not measured
directly but determined by differential flow measurement:
The accuracy of the flow meters used for the measurement and control of the double
diluted exhaust passing through the particulate sampling filters and for the
measurement/control of secondary dilution air shall be sufficient so that the differential
volume V shall meet the accuracy and proportional sampling requirements specified for
single dilution.
The requirement that no condensation of the exhaust gas occur in the CVS dilution tunnel,
diluted exhaust flow rate measurement system, CVS bag collection or analysis systems
shall also apply in the case that double dilution systems are used.

4.2.1.3. Specific Requirements
4.2.1.3.1. Sample Probe
4.2.1.3.1.1. The sample probe shall deliver the particle-size classification performance specified in
Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.4. of this Annex. It is recommended that this performance be
achieved by the use of a sharp-edged, open-ended probe facing directly into the direction
of flow plus a pre-classifier (cyclone impactor, etc.). An appropriate sample probe, such as
that indicated in Figure A5/11, may alternatively be used provided it achieves the
pre-classification performance specified in Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.4. of this Annex.
4.2.1.3.1.2. The sample probe shall be installed at least 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the
exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least 8mm.
If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sample probe, the flow
drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flows to avoid sampling artefacts.
If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and facing
directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced around the central
longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel, with a spacing between probes of at least 5cm.
4.2.1.3.1.3. The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at least five probe
diameters, but shall not exceed 2,000mm.
4.2.1.3.1.4. The pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) shall be located upstream of the filter
holder assembly. The pre-classifier 50% cut point particle diameter shall be between
2.5μm and 10μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling PM. The pre-classifier
shall allow at least 99% of the mass concentration of 1μm particles entering the
pre-classifier to pass through the exit of the pre-classifier at the volumetric flow rate
selected for sampling PM.
4.2.1.3.2. Particle Transfer Tube (PTT)
4.2.1.3.2.1. Any bends in the PTT shall be smooth and have the largest possible radii.
4.2.1.3.3. Secondary Dilution
4.2.1.3.3.1. As an option, the sample extracted from the CVS for the purpose of PM measurement
may be diluted at a second stage, subject to the following requirements:
4.2.1.3.3.1.1. Secondary dilution air shall be filtered through a medium capable of reducing particles in
the most penetrating particle size of the filter material by ≥99.95%, or through a HEPA
filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2009. The dilution air may optionally be charcoal
scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It is recommended that an additional
coarse particle filter be situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal scrubber, if
used.
4.2.1.3.3.1.2. The secondary dilution air should be injected into the PTT as close to the outlet of the
diluted exhaust from the dilution tunnel as possible.
4.2.1.3.3.1.3. The residence time from the point of secondary diluted air injection to the filter face shall
be at least 0.25s, but no longer than 5s.

4.2.2. Weighing Chamber or Room and Analytical Balance Specifications
4.2.2.1. Weighing Chamber or Room Conditions
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate sampling filters
are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained to within 22°C ± 2°C (22°C ± 1°C
if possible) during all filter conditioning and weighing.
Humidity shall be maintained at a dew point of less than 10.5°C and a relative
humidity of 45% ± 8%.
Limited deviations from weighing room temperature and humidity specifications
shall be permitted provided their total duration does not exceed 30min in any one
filter conditioning period.
The levels of ambient contaminants in the chamber (or room) environment that
would settle on the particulate sampling filters during their stabilisation shall be
minimised.
During the weighing operation no deviations from the specified conditions are
permitted.
4.2.2.2. Linear Response of an Analytical Balance
The analytical balance used to determine the filter weight shall meet the linearity
verification criteria of Table A5/1 applying a linear regression. This implies a precision of at
least 2μg and a resolution of at least 1μg (1 digit = 1μg). At least four equally-spaced
reference weights shall be tested. The zero value shall be within ±1μg.
Table A5/1
Analytical Balance Verification Criteria
Measurement system Intercept a Slope a Standard error SEE
Particulate Balance ≤1μg 0.99 – 1.01 ≤1% maximum ≥0.998
4.2.2.3. Elimination of Static Electricity Effects
Coefficient of
determination r
The effects of static electricity shall be nullified. This may be achieved by grounding the
balance through placement upon an antistatic mat and neutralization of the particulate
sampling filters prior to weighing using a polonium neutraliser or a device of similar effect.
Alternatively, nullification of static effects may be achieved through equalization of the
static charge.
4.2.2.4. Buoyancy Correction
The sample and reference filter weights shall be corrected for their buoyancy in air. The
buoyancy correction is a function of sampling filter density, air density and the density of
the balance calibration weight, and does not account for the buoyancy of the particulate
matter itself.

4.3. PN Emissions Measurement Equipment (if Applicable)
4.3.1. Specification
4.3.1.1. System Overview
4.3.1.1.1. The particle sampling system shall consist of a probe or sampling point extracting a
sample from a homogenously mixed flow in a dilution system, a volatile particle remover
(VPR) upstream of a particle number counter (PNC) and suitable transfer tubing.
See Figure A5/14.
4.3.1.1.2. It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (PCF) (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) be
located prior to the inlet of the VPR. The PCF 50% cut point particle diameter shall be
between 2.5μm and 10μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for particle sampling. The
PCF shall allow at least 99% of the mass concentration of 1μm particles entering the PCF
to pass through the exit of the PCF at the volumetric flow rate selected for particle
sampling.
A sample probe acting as an appropriate size-classification device, such as that shown in
Figure A5/11, is an acceptable alternative to the use of a PCF.
4.3.1.2. General Requirements
4.3.1.2.1. The particle sampling point shall be located within a dilution system. In the case that a
double dilution system is used, the particle sampling point shall be located within the
primary dilution system.
4.3.1.2.1.1. The sampling probe tip or PSP, and the PTT, together comprise the particle transfer
system PTS. The PTS conducts the sample from the dilution tunnel to the entrance of the
VPR. The PTS shall meet the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The sampling probe shall be installed at least 10 tunnel diameters downstream of
the exhaust gas inlet, facing upstream into the tunnel gas flow with its axis at the tip
parallel to that of the dilution tunnel;
The sampling probe shall be upstream of any conditioning device (e.g. heat
exchanger);
The sampling probe shall be positioned within the dilution tunnel so that the sample
is taken from a homogeneous diluent/exhaust mixture.
4.3.1.2.1.2. Sample gas drawn through the PTS shall meet the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
In the case that a full flow exhaust dilution system is used, it shall have a flow
Reynolds number, Re, lower than 1,700;
In the case that a double dilution system is used, it shall have a flow Reynolds
number Re lower than 1,700 in the PTT i.e. downstream of the sampling probe or
point;
Shall have a residence time ≤3s.

The particle concentration reduction factor at each particle size f (d ) shall be
calculated using the following equation:
N
f ( d ) =
N
( d )
( d )
where:
N (di)
is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of
diameter d ;
N
(di)
is the downstream particle number concentration for particles
of diameter d ;
d
is the particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100nm).
N (d ) and N (d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor at a given dilution
setting f shall be calculated using the following equation:
f
=
f
( 30nm) + f ( 50nm) + f ( 100nm)
3
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit;
(g)
(h)
Be designed according to good engineering practice to ensure particle
concentration reduction factors are stable across a test;
Also achieve >99.0% vaporization of 30nm tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH ) particles,
with an inlet concentration of ≥10,000 per cm , by means of heating and reduction
of partial pressures of the tetracontane.
4.3.1.3.4. The PNC shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Operate under full flow operating conditions;
Have a counting accuracy of ±10% across the range 1 per cm to the upper
threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC against a suitable traceable
standard. At concentrations below 100 per cm measurements averaged over
extended sampling periods may be required to demonstrate the accuracy of the
PNC with a high degree of statistical confidence;
Have a resolution of at least 0.1 particles per cm at concentrations below
100 per cm ;
Have a linear response to particle number concentrations over the full measurement
range in single particle count mode;
Have a data reporting frequency equal to or greater than a frequency of 0.5Hz;

4.3.1.4.1. Sampling System Description
Figure A5/14
A Recommended Particle Sampling System
4.3.1.4.1.1. The particle sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe tip or particle sampling
point in the dilution system, a PTT, a PCF, and VPR, upstream of the PNC unit.
4.3.1.4.1.2. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution (particle number diluters: PND and
PND ) and particle evaporation (evaporation tube, ET).
4.3.1.4.1.3. The sampling probe or sampling point for the test gas flow shall be arranged within the
dilution tunnel so that a representative sample gas flow is taken from a homogeneous
diluent/exhaust mixture.

Table A5/4
Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) Calibration Intervals
CVS
Interval
Criterion
CVS flow
After overhaul
±2%
Dilution flow
Yearly
±2%
Temperature sensor
Yearly
±1°C
Pressure sensor
Yearly
±0.4kPa
Injection check
Weekly
±2%
Table A5/5
Environmental Data Calibration Intervals
Climate Interval Criterion
Temperature Yearly ±1°C
Moisture dew Yearly ±5% RH
Ambient pressure Yearly ±0.4kPa
Cooling fan
After overhaul
According to Paragraph 1.1.1. of this
Annex
5.2. Analyser Calibration Procedures
5.2.1. Each analyser shall be calibrated as specified by the instrument manufacturer or at least
as often as specified in Table A5/3.
5.2.2. Each normally used operating range shall be linearized by the following procedure:
5.2.2.1. The analyser linearization curve shall be established by at least five calibration points
spaced as uniformly as possible. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas of the
highest concentration shall be not less than 80% of the full scale.
5.2.2.2. The calibration gas concentration required may be obtained by means of a gas divider,
diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air.
5.2.2.3. The linearization curve shall be calculated by the least squares method. If the resulting
polynomial degree is greater than 3, the number of calibration points shall be at least
equal to this polynomial degree plus 2.
5.2.2.4. The linearization curve shall not differ by more than ±2% from the nominal value of each
calibration gas.

5.4.3.2. Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and at
major service intervals thereafter. The test gases to be used and the recommended
response factors are:
Propylene and purified air: 0.90 Toluene and purified air: 0.90 These are relative to an R of 1.00 for propane and purified air.
5.5. NO Converter Efficiency Test Procedure
5.5.1. Using the test set up as shown in Figure A5/15 and the procedure described below, the
efficiency of converters for the conversion of NO into NO shall be tested by means of an
ozonator as follows:
5.5.1.1. The analyser shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following the
manufacturer's specifications using zero and calibration gas (the NO content of which shall
amount to approximately 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas
mixture shall be less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyser shall be in the
NO mode so that the calibration gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated
concentration shall be recorded.
5.5.1.2. Via a T-fitting, oxygen or synthetic air shall be added continuously to the calibration gas
flow until the concentration indicated is approximately 10% less than the indicated
calibration concentration given in Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex. The indicated
concentration (c) shall be recorded. The ozonator shall be kept deactivated throughout this
process.
5.5.1.3. The ozonator shall now be activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO
concentration down to 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex. The indicated concentration (d) shall be recorded.
5.5.1.4. The NO analyser shall be subsequently switched to the NO mode, whereby the gas
mixture (consisting of NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. The
indicated concentration (a) shall be recorded.

5.7. Calibration and Validation of the Particle Sampling System (if Applicable)
Examples of calibration/validation methods are available at:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/pmpFCP.html.
5.7.1. Calibration of the PNC
5.7.1.1. The responsible authority shall ensure the existence of a calibration certificate for the PNC
demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a 13-month period prior to the
emissions test. Between calibrations either the counting efficiency of the PNC shall be
monitored for deterioration or the PNC wick shall be routinely changed every six months.
See Figures A5/16 and A5/17. PNC counting efficiency may be monitored against a
reference PNC or against at least two other measurement PNCs. If the PNC reports
particle number concentrations within ±10% of the arithmetic average of the
concentrations from the reference PNC, or a group of two or more PNCs, the PNC shall
subsequently be considered stable, otherwise maintenance of the PNC is required. Where
the PNC is monitored against two or more other measurement PNCs, it is permitted to use
a reference vehicle running sequentially in different test cells each with its own PNC.
Figure A5/16
Nominal PNC Annual Sequence
Figure A5/17
Extended PNC Annual Sequence (in the case that a full PNC Calibration is Delayed)
5.7.1.2. The PNC shall also be recalibrated and a new calibration certificate issued following any
major maintenance.

The VPR shall be characterised for particle concentration reduction factor with solid
particles of 30, 50 and 100nm electrical mobility diameter. Particle concentration reduction
factors, f (d), for particles of 30nm and 50nm electrical mobility diameters shall be no more
than 30% and 20% higher respectively, and no more than 5% lower than that for particles
of 100nm electrical mobility diameter. For the purposes of validation, the arithmetic
average of the particle concentration reduction factor shall be within ±10% of the
arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor, f , determined during the
primary calibration of the VPR.
5.7.2.2. The test aerosol for these measurements shall be solid particles of 30, 50 and 100nm
electrical mobility diameter and a minimum concentration of 5,000 particles per cm at the
VPR inlet. As an option, a polydisperse aerosol with an electrical mobility median diameter
of 50nm may be used for validation. The test aerosol shall be thermally stable at the VPR
operating temperatures. Particle number concentrations shall be measured upstream and
downstream of the components.
The particle concentration reduction factor for each monodisperse particle size, f (d) shall
be calculated using the following equation:
N
f ( d ) =
N
( d )
( d )
where:
N (d )
is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter
d ;
N
(d )
is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of
diameter d ;
d
N (d ) and N
is the particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100nm).
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor f at a given dilution setting
shall be calculated using the following equation:
f
f
=
( 30nm) + f ( 50nm) + f ( 100nm)
3

6.1.2.3. Oxygen:
Purity: >99.5% vol. O ;
6.1.2.4. Hydrogen (and Mixture Containing Helium or Nitrogen):
Purity: ≤1ppm C1, ≤400ppm CO ;
6.1.2.5. Carbon Monoxide:
6.1.2.6. Propane:
Minimum purity 99.5%;
Minimum purity 99.5%.
6.2. Calibration Gases
6.2.1. The true concentration of a calibration gas shall be within ±1% of the stated value or as
given below.
Mixtures of gases having the following compositions shall be available with a bulk gas
specifications according to Paragraphs 6.1.2.1. or 6.1.2.2. of this Annex:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
C H in synthetic air (see Paragraph 6.1.2.2. of this Annex);
CO in nitrogen;
CO in nitrogen;
CH in synthetic air;
NO in nitrogen (the amount of NO contained in this calibration gas shall not exceed
5% of the NO content);
NO in nitrogen (tolerance ±2%) (if applicable);
N O in nitrogen (tolerance ±2% or 0.25ppm whichever is greater) (if applicable);
NH in nitrogen (tolerance ±3%) (if applicable);
C H OH in synthetic air or nitrogen (tolerance ±2%) (if applicable).

7.1.2.4. Measurement Cross Interference
7.1.2.41. The spectral resolution of the target wavelength shall be within 0.5 per cm in order to
minimize cross interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.
7.1.2.4.2. Analyser response shall not exceed ±2ppm at the maximum CO and H O concentration
expected during the vehicle test.
7.1.2.5. In order not to influence the results of the downstream measurements in the CVS system,
the amount of raw exhaust extracted for the NH measurement shall be limited. This may
be achieved by in-situ measurement, a low sample flow analyser, or the return of the NH
sample flow back to the CVS.
The maximum allowable NH sample flow not returned to the CVS shall be calculated by:
where:
0.005 × V
Flow_lost_ max =
DF
Flow_lost_max is the volume of sample not returned to the CVS, m ;
V is the volume of diluted exhaust per phase, m ;
DF is
the dilution factor.
If the unreturned volume of the NH sample flow exceeds the maximum allowable for any
phase of the test, the downstream measurements of the CVS are not valid and cannot be
considered. An additional test without the ammonia measurement must be performed.
If the extracted flow is returned to the CVS, an upper limit of 10 standard l/min shall apply.
If this limit is exceeded, an additional test is therefore necessary without the ammonia
measurement.
7.2. Sampling and analysis methods for N O
7.2.1. Gas Chromatographic Method
7.2.1.1. General Description
7.2.1.2. Sampling
Followed by gas chromatographic separation, N O shall be analysed by electron-capture
detector (ECD).
During each phase of the test, a gas sample shall be taken from the corresponding diluted
exhaust bag and dilution air bag for analysis. Alternatively, analysis of the dilution air bag
from Phase 1 or a single composite dilution background sample may be performed
assuming that the N O content of the dilution air is constant.

7.2.1.6. Linearity
7.2.1.6.1. A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed for the target
compound:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For new instruments;
After performing instrument modifications that could affect linearity; and
At least once per year.
7.2.1.6.2. The multipoint calibration shall consist of at least three concentrations, each above the
limit of detection LoD, distributed over the range of expected sample concentration.
7.2.1.6.3. Each concentration level shall be measured at least twice.
7.2.1.6.4. A linear least squares regression analysis shall be performed using concentration and
arithmetic average area counts to determine the regression correlation coefficient. The
regression correlation coefficient shall be greater than 0.995 in order to be considered
linear for one point calibrations.
If the weekly check of the instrument response indicates that the linearity may have
changed, a multipoint calibration shall be performed.
7.2.1.7. Quality Control
7.2.1.7.1. The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.2.1.7.2. A quality control standard shall be analysed within 24h before the analysis of the sample.
7.2.1.8. Limit of detection, limit of quantification
The detection limit shall be based on the noise measurement close to the retention time of
N O (reference DIN 32645, 01.11.2008):
Limit of Detection: LoD = avg.(noise) + 3 × std. dev.
where std. dev is considered to be equal to noise.
Limit of Quantification: LoQ = 3 × LoD
For the purpose of calculating the mass of N O, the concentration below LoD shall be
considered to be zero.
7.2.1.9. Interference Verification
Interference is any component present in the sample with a retention time similar to that of
the target compound described in this method. To reduce interference error, proof of
chemical identity may require periodic confirmations using an alternate method or
instrumentation.

7.3.1.2.2.4. Samples shall be refrigerated at a temperature below 5°C if immediate analysis is not
possible and shall be analysed within six days.
7.3.1.2.2.5. Good engineering practice shall be used for sample volume and handling.
7.3.1.3. Instrumentation and Apparatus
7.3.1.3.1. The sample may be injected directly into the GC or an appropriate pre-concentrator may
be used, in which case the pre-concentrator shall be used for all necessary verifications
and quality checks.
7.3.1.3.2. A GC column with an appropriate stationary phase of suitable length to achieve adequate
resolution of the C H OH peak shall be used for analysis. The column temperature profile
and carrier gas selection shall be taken into consideration when setting up the method
selected to achieve adequate C H OH peak resolution. The operator shall aim for baseline
separated peaks.
7.3.1.3.3. Good engineering judgment shall be used to zero the instrument and to correct for drift. An
example of good engineering judgement is given in Paragraph 7.2.1.3.5. of this Annex.
7.3.1.4. Reagents and Materials
Carrier gases shall have the following minimum purity:
Nitrogen: 99.998%.
Helium: 99.995%.
Hydrogen: 99.995%.
In the case that sampling is performed with impingers:
Liquid standards of C H OH in pure water: C H OH 100%, analysis grade.
7.3.1.5. Peak Integration Procedure
7.3.1.6. Linearity
The peak integration procedure shall be performed as in Paragraph 7.2.1.5. of this Annex.
A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.6. of this Annex
7.3.1.7. Quality Control
7.3.1.7.1. A nitrogen or air blank sample run shall be performed before running the calibration
standard.
A weekly blank sample run shall provide a check on contamination of the complete
system.
A blank sample run shall be performed within one week of the test.

7.3.2.3. Photo-acoustic Method
The photo-acoustic analyser shall be specifically designed for the measurement of ethanol
in terms of linearization against a traceable standard and also for the correction and/or
compensation of co-existing interfering gases.
7.3.2.3.1. Calibration shall be performed two times per year using span calibration gas (e.g., ethanol
in dry N ).
7.3.2.4. Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) Method
PTR-MS is a technique based on soft chemical ionization via proton transfer for the
detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
The choice of the reagent ions should be chosen specifically for the measurement of
ethanol e.g., hydronium (H3O+) and to minimize the measurement cross interference of
co-existing gases.
The system should be linearised against a traceable standard.
7.3.2.4.1. Calibration method
The analyser response should be periodically calibrated, at least once per month, using a
gas consisting of the target analyte of known concentration balanced by a mixture of the
coexisting gases at concentrations typically expected from the diluted exhaust sample
(e.g. N , O , H O).
7.3.2.5. Direct Gas Chromatography Method
Diluted exhaust shall be collected on a trap and injected into a chromatography column in
order to separate its component gases. Calibration of the trap shall be performed by
determining the linearity of the system within the range of the expected concentrations
from the diluted exhaust (including zero) and confirming the maximum concentration that
can be measured without over-charging and saturating the trap.
Ethanol is detected from the column by means of a photo-ionisation detector (PID) or
flame ionisation detector (FID).
The system shall be configured to perform specific measurement of ethanol from the
applicable WLTC phases.
The system shall be linearised against a traceable standard.
7.3.2.5.1 Calibration frequency
Calibrating shall be performed once per week or after maintenance. No compensation is
needed.

7.4.1.3. Instrumentation
A liquid auto-sampler and either a HPLC-UV or HPLC-DAD shall be used.
7.4.1.4. Reagents
The following reagents shall be used:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Acetonitrile, HPLC grade;
Water, HPLC grade;
2.4-DNPH, purified; unpurified DNPH shall be recrystallized twice from acetonitrile.
The recrystallized DNPH shall be checked for contaminants by injecting a diluted
solution of DNPH in contaminant free acetonitrile into the HPLC;
Carbonyl/2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone complexes may be sourced externally or
prepared in the laboratory. In-house standards shall be recrystallized at least three
times from 95%;
Sulphuric acid, or perchloric acid, analytical reagent grade;
DNPH-impregnated cartridges.
7.4.1.4.1. Stock solution and calibration standard
7.4.1.4.1.1. A stock calibration standard shall be prepared by diluting the target carbonyl/2.4-DNPH
complexes with acetonitrile. A typical stock calibration standard contains 3.0μg/ml of each
target carbonyl compound.
7.4.1.4.1.2. Stock calibration standards of other concentrations may also be used.
7.4.1.4.1.3. A calibration standard shall be prepared when required by diluting the stock calibration
solution, ensuring that the highest concentration of the standard is above the expected test
level.
7.4.1.4.2. Control standard
A quality control standard, containing all target carbonyls/2.4 DNPH complexes within the
typical concentration range of real samples, shall be analysed to monitor the precision of
the analysis of each target carbonyl.
7.4.1.4.2.1. The control standard may be sourced externally, prepared in the laboratory from a stock
solution different from the calibration standard, or prepared by batch mixing old samples.
The control standard shall be spiked with a stock solution of target compounds and stirred
for a minimum of 2h. If necessary, the solution shall be filtered using filter paper to remove
precipitation.

7.4.1.8.1.4. All peaks identified as target compounds that are equal to or exceed the maximum
allowable LoD must be recorded.
7.4.1.8.1.5. For the purpose of calculating the total mass of all species, the concentrations of the
compounds below the LoD are considered to be zero.
The final mass calculation shall be calculated according to the equation in
Paragraph 3.2.1.7. of Annex 7.
7.4.1.9. Interference Verification
To reduce interference error, proof of chemical identity may require periodic confirmations
using an alternate method and/or instrumentation, e.g., alternative HPLC columns or
mobile phase compositions
7.4.2. Alternative Methods for Sampling and Analysing Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde
7.4.2.1. Sampling
7.4.2.2. FTIR method
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken from the diluted exhaust and dilution
air bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
Frequency of calibration and calibration methods shall be adapted to each instrument for
the best practice and adhering to the quality control standards.
The FTIR analyser shall comply with the specifications in Paragraph 7.1.2.1. of this Annex.
The FTIR system shall be designed for the measurement of diluted exhaust gas directly
from the CVS system on a continuous basis and also from the CVS dilution air source, or
from the dilution air sample bags.
7.4.2.2.1. Measurement cross interference
The spectral resolution of the target wavelength shall be within 0.5 per cm in order to
minimize cross interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.
The FTIR shall be specifically optimised for the measurement of acetaldehyde and
formaldehyde in terms of linearization against a traceable standards and also for the
correction and/or compensation of co-existing interfering gases.

ANNEX 6
TYPE 1 TEST PROCEDURE AND TEST CONDITIONS
1. TEST PROCEDURES AND TEST CONDITIONS
1.1. Description of Tests
1.1.1. The Type 1 test is used to verify the emissions of gaseous compounds, particulate
matter, particle number (if applicable), CO mass emission, fuel consumption, electric
energy consumption and electric ranges over the applicable WLTP test cycle.
1.1.1.1. The tests shall be carried out according to the method described in Paragraph 1.2. of this
Annex or Paragraph 3. of Annex 8 for pure electric, hybrid electric and compressed
hydrogen fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Exhaust gases, particulate matter and particles (if
applicable) shall be sampled and analysed by the prescribed methods.
1.1.2. The number of tests shall be determined according to the flowchart in Figure A6/1. The
limit value is the maximum allowed value for the respective criteria pollutant as defined
by the Contracting Party.
1.1.2.1. The flowchart in Figure A6/1 shall be applicable only to the whole applicable WLTP test
cycle and not to single phases.
1.1.2.2. The test results shall be the values after the REESS energy change-based, K and other
regional corrections (if applicable) are applied.
1.1.2.3. Determination of total cycle values
1.1.2.3.1. If during any of the tests a criteria emissions limit is exceeded, the vehicle shall be
rejected.
1.1.2.3.2. Depending on the vehicle type, the manufacturer shall declare as applicable the total
cycle value of the CO mass emission, the electric energy consumption as well as PER
and AER according to Table A6/1.
1.1.2.3.3. The declared value of the electric energy consumption for OVC-HEVs under
charge-depleting operating condition shall not be determined according to Figure A6/1. It
shall be taken as the type approval value if the declared CO value is accepted as the
approval value. If that is not the case, the measured value of electric energy
consumption shall be taken as the type approval value. Evidence of a correlation
between declared CO mass emission and electric energy consumption shall be
submitted to the responsible authority in advance, if applicable.
1.1.2.3.4. If after the first test all criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A6/2 are fulfilled, all values
declared by the manufacturer shall be accepted as the type approval value. If any one of
the criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled, a second test shall be
performed with the same vehicle.

1.1.2.3.8. dCO2 , dCO2 and dCO2 determination.
1.1.2.3.8.1. Without prejudice to the requirement of paragraph 1.1.2.3.8.2., the Contracting Party
shall determine a value for dCO2 ranging from 0.990 to 1.020, a value for dCO2
ranging from 0.995 to 1.020, and a value for dCO2 ranging from 1.000 to 1.020 in the
Table A6/2.
1.1.2.3.8.2. If the charge depleting Type 1 test for OVC-HEVs consists of two or more applicable
WLTP test cycles and the dCO2x value is below 1.0, the dCO2x value shall be replaced
by 1.0.
Table A6/1
Applicable Rules for a Manufacturer’s Declared Values (Total Cycle Values)
Vehicle type
Vehicles tested
according to Annex 6
(ICE)
NOVC-FCHV
NOVC-HEV
OVC-HEV
CD
CS
M
(g/km)
FC
(kg/100km)
M
Paragraph 3. of
Annex 7
FC
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.1.
of Annex 8
M
Paragraph 4.1.1.
of Annex 8
M
Paragraph 4.1.2.
of Annex
M
Paragraph 4.1.1.
of Annex 8
PEV -
Electric energy
consumption
(Wh/km)
All electric
range/Pure Electric
Range
(km)
- -
- -
EC
Paragraph 4.3.1. of
Annex 8
AER
Paragraph 4.4.1.1.
of Annex 8
- -
EC
Paragraph 4.3.4.2.
of Annex 8
PER
Paragraph 4.4.2. of
Annex 8

Table A6/2
Criteria for Number of Tests
For ICE Vehicles, NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs Charge-Sustaining Type 1 Test.
Test
Judgement parameter
Criteria emission
MCO
Row 1 First test
First test results
≤Regulation limit × 0.9
≤Declared value × dCO2
Row 2 Second test
Arithmetic average of the first and
≤Regulation limit × 1.0 ≤Declared value × dCO2
second test results
Row 3 Third test
Arithmetic average of three test results
≤Regulation limit × 1.0 ≤Declared value × dCO2
For OVC-HEVs Charge-depleting Type 1 Test.
Test
Judgement parameter
Criteria
emissions
Row 1 First test
First test results
≤Regulation limit
× 0.9
Row 2 Second test Arithmetic average of the first and
second test results
Row 3 Third test Arithmetic average of three test
results
≤Regulation limit
× 1.0
≤Regulation limit
× 1.0
MCO
≤Declared value ×
dCO2
≤Declared value ×
dCO2
≤Declared value ×
dCO2
AER
≥Declared value ×
1.0
≥Declared value ×
1.0
≥Declared value ×
1.0
For PEVs
Test
Judgement parameter
Electric energy
consumption
PER
Row 1
First test
First test results
≤Declared value × 1.0
≥Declared value × 1.0
Row 2
Second test Arithmetic average of the first and second
≤Declared value × 1.0
≥Declared value × 1.0
test results
Row 3
Third test
Arithmetic average of three test results
≤Declared value × 1.0
≥Declared value × 1.0
For NOVC-FCHVs
Test
Judgement parameter
FC
Row 1
First test
First test results
≥Declared value × 1.0
Row 2
Second test
Arithmetic average of the first and second test results
≥Declared value × 1.0
Row 3
Third test
Arithmetic average of three test results
≥Declared value × 1.0

1.1.2.4.3. Phase-specific value for electric energy consumption, PER and AER
1.1.2.4.3.1. The phase-specific electric energy consumption and the phase-specific electric ranges
are calculated by taking the arithmetic average of the phase specific values of the test
result(s), without an adjustment factor.
1.2. Type 1 Test Conditions
1.2.1. Overview
1.2.1.1. The Type 1 test shall consist of prescribed sequences of dynamometer preparation,
fuelling, soaking, and operating conditions.
1.2.1.2. The Type 1 test shall consist of vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer on the
applicable WLTC for the interpolation family. A proportional part of the diluted exhaust
emissions shall be collected continuously for subsequent analysis using a constant
volume sampler.
1.2.1.3. Background concentrations shall be measured for all compounds for which dilute mass
emissions measurements are conducted. For exhaust emission testing, this requires
sampling and analysis of the dilution air.
1.2.1.3.1. Background Particulate Measurement
1.2.1.3.1.1. Where the manufacturer requests and the Contracting Party permits subtraction of either
dilution air or dilution tunnel background particulate mass from emissions
measurements, these background levels shall be determined according to the
procedures listed in Paragraphs 1.2.1.3.1.1.1 to 1.2.1.3.1.1.3. inclusive of this Annex.
1.2.1.3.1.1.1. The maximum permissible background correction shall be a mass on the filter equivalent
to 1mg/km at the flow rate of the test.
1.2.1.3.1.1.2. If the background exceeds this level, the default figure of 1mg/km shall be subtracted.
1.2.1.3.1.1.3. Where subtraction of the background contribution gives a negative result, the
background level shall be considered to be zero.
1.2.1.3.1.2. Dilution air background particulate mass level shall be determined by passing filtered
dilution air through the particulate background filter. This shall be drawn from a point
immediately downstream of the dilution air filters. Background levels in µg/m shall be
determined as a rolling arithmetic average of at least 14 measurements with at least one
measurement per week.
1.2.1.3.1.3. Dilution tunnel particulate matter background level shall be determined by passing
filtered dilution air through the particulate filter. This shall be drawn from the same point
as the particulate matter sample. Where secondary dilution is used for the test, the
secondary dilution system shall be active for the purposes of background measurement.
One measurement may be performed on the day of test, either prior to or after the test.

1.2.2.2.1.2. The specific humidity H of either the air in the test cell or the intake air of the engine shall
be such that:
5.5 ≤H ≤12.2 (g H O/kg dry air)
1.2.2.2.1.3. Humidity shall be measured continuously at a minimum frequency of 1Hz.
1.2.2.2.2. Soak Area
1.2.3. Test Vehicle
1.2.3.1. General
The soak area shall have a temperature set point of 23°C and the tolerance of the actual
value shall be within ±3°C on a 5min running arithmetic average and shall not show a
systematic deviation from the set point. The temperature shall be measured continuously
at a minimum frequency of 1Hz.
The test vehicle shall conform in all its components with the production series, or, if the
vehicle is different from the production series, a full description shall be recorded. In
selecting the test vehicle, the manufacturer and responsible authority shall agree which
vehicle model is representative for the interpolation vehicle family.
For the measurement of emissions, the road load as determined with test vehicle H shall
be applied. In the case of a road load matrix family, for the measurement of emissions,
the road load as calculated for vehicle H according to Paragraph 5.1. of Annex 4 shall
be applied.
If at the request of the manufacturer the interpolation method is used (see
Paragraph 3.2.3.2. of Annex 7), an additional measurement of emissions shall be
performed with the road load as determined with test vehicle L. Tests on both vehicles H
and L should be performed with the same test vehicle and shall be tested with the
shortest final transmission ratio within the interpolation family. In the case of a road load
matrix family, an additional measurement of emissions shall be performed with the road
load as calculated for vehicle L according to Paragraph 5.1. of Annex 4.
1.2.3.2. CO Interpolation Range
1.2.3.3. Run-in
The interpolation method shall only be used if the difference in CO between test
vehicles L and H is between a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 30g/km or 20% of the
CO emissions from vehicle H, whichever value is the lower.
At the request of the manufacturer, and with approval of the responsible authority, the
interpolation line may be extrapolated to a maximum of 30g/km above the CO emission
of vehicle H and/or below the CO emission of vehicle L. This extension is valid only
within the absolute boundaries of the interpolation range.
The vehicle shall be presented in good technical condition. It shall have been run-in and
driven between 3,000 and 15,000km before the test. The engine, transmission and
vehicle shall be run-in in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

1.2.5. Preliminary Testing Cycles
1.2.5.1. Preliminary testing cycles may be carried out if requested by the manufacturer to follow
the speed trace within the prescribed limits.
1.2.6. Test Vehicle Pre-conditioning
1.2.6.1. The fuel tank (or fuel tanks) shall be filled with the specified test fuel. If the existing fuel in
the fuel tank (or fuel tanks) does not meet the specifications contained in
Paragraph 1.2.4.6. of this Annex, the existing fuel shall be drained prior to the fuel fill.
The evaporative emission control system shall neither be abnormally purged nor
abnormally loaded.
1.2.6.2. REESSs Charging
Before the pre-conditioning test cycle, the REESSs shall be fully charged. At the request
of the manufacturer, charging may be omitted before pre-conditioning. The REESSs
shall not be charged again before official testing.
1.2.6.3. The test vehicle shall be moved to the test cell and the operations listed in
Paragraphs 1.2.6.3.1. to 1.2.6.3.9. inclusive shall be performed.
1.2.6.3.1. The test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer
and operated through the applicable WLTCs. The vehicle need not be cold, and may be
used to set the dynamometer load.
1.2.6.3.2. The dynamometer load shall be set according to Paragraphs 7. and 8. of Annex 4.
1.2.6.3.3. During pre-conditioning, the test cell temperature shall be the same as defined for the
Type 1 test (Paragraph 1.2.2.2.1. of this Annex).
1.2.6.3.4. The drive-wheel tyre pressure shall be set in accordance with Paragraph 1.2.4.5. of this
Annex.
1.2.6.3.5. Between the tests on the first gaseous reference fuel and the second gaseous reference
fuel, for vehicles with positive ignition-engine fuelled with LPG or NG/biomethane or so
equipped that they can be fuelled with either petrol or LPG or NG/biomethane, the
vehicle shall be pre-conditioned again before the test on the second reference fuel.
1.2.6.3.6. For pre-conditioning, the applicable WLTC shall be driven. Starting the engine and
driving shall be performed according to Paragraph 1.2.6.4. of this Annex.
The dynamometer shall be set according to Annex 4.
1.2.6.3.7. At the request of the manufacturer or responsible authority, additional WLTCs may be
performed in order to bring the vehicle and its control systems to a stabilized condition.
1.2.6.3.8. The extent of such additional pre-conditioning shall be recorded by the responsible
authority.

1.2.6.5.2. Automatic Shift Transmission
1.2.6.5.2.1. Vehicles equipped with automatic shift transmissions shall be tested in the predominant
mode. The accelerator control shall be used in such a way as to accurately follow the
speed trace.
1.2.6.5.2.2. Vehicles equipped with automatic shift transmissions with driver-selectable modes shall
fulfill the limits of criteria emissions in all automatic shift modes used for forward driving.
The manufacturer shall give appropriate evidence to the responsible authority. On the
basis of technical evidence provided by the manufacturer and with the agreement of the
responsible authority, the dedicated driver-selectable modes for very special limited
purposes shall not be considered (e.g. maintenance mode, crawler mode).
1.2.6.5.2.3. The manufacturer shall give evidence to the responsible authority of the existence of a
mode that fulfils the requirements of Paragraph 3.5.9. of this GTR. With the agreement of
the responsible authority, the predominant mode may be used as the only mode for the
determination of criteria emissions, CO emissions, and fuel consumption.
Notwithstanding the existence of a predominant mode, the criteria emission limits shall
be fulfilled in all considered automatic shift modes used for forward driving as described
in Paragraph 1.2.6.5.2.2. of this Annex.
1.2.6.5.2.4. If the vehicle has no predominant mode or the requested predominant mode is not
agreed by the responsible authority as a predominant mode, the vehicle shall be tested
in the best case mode and worst case mode for criteria emissions, CO emissions, and
fuel consumption. Best and worst case modes shall be identified by the evidence
provided on the CO emissions and fuel consumption in all modes. CO emissions and
fuel consumption shall be the arithmetic average of the test results in both modes. Test
results for both modes shall be recorded. Notwithstanding the usage of the best and
worst case modes for testing, the criteria emission limits shall be fulfilled in all automatic
shift modes in consideration used for forward driving as described in
Paragraph 1.2.6.5.2.2. of this Annex.
1.2.6.5.2.5. The tolerances given in Paragraph 1.2.6.6. of the Annex shall apply.
After initial engagement, the selector shall not be operated at any time during the test.
Initial engagement shall be done 1s before beginning the first acceleration.
1.2.6.5.2.6. Vehicles with an automatic transmission with a manual mode shall be tested according
Paragraph 1.2.6.5.2. of this Annex.
1.2.6.6. Speed Trace Tolerances
The following tolerances shall be permitted between the actual vehicle speed and the
prescribed speed of the applicable test cycles. The tolerances shall not be shown to the
driver:
(a)
(b)
Upper limit 2.0km/h higher than the highest point of the trace within ±1.0s of the
given point in time;
Lower limit 2.0km/h lower than the lowest point of the trace within ±1.0s of the
given time.
See Figure A6/2.

1.2.6.8. Decelerations
1.2.6.8.1. During decelerations of the cycle, the driver shall deactivate the accelerator control but
shall not manually disengage the clutch until the point specified in Paragraph 4. (c) of
Annex 2.
1.2.6.8.1.1. If the vehicle decelerates faster than prescribed by the speed trace, the accelerator
control shall be operated such that the vehicle accurately follows the speed trace.
1.2.6.8.1.2. If the vehicle decelerates too slowly to follow the intended deceleration, the brakes shall
be applied such that it is possible to accurately follow the speed trace.
1.2.6.9. Unexpected Engine Stop
1.2.6.9.1. If the engine stops unexpectedly, the pre-conditioning or Type 1 test shall be declared
void.
1.2.6.10. After completion of the cycle, the engine shall be switched off. The vehicle shall not be
restarted until the beginning of the test for which the vehicle has been pre-conditioned.
1.2.7. Soaking
1.2.7.1. After pre-conditioning, and before testing, the test vehicle shall be kept in an area with
ambient conditions as specified in Paragraph 1.2.2.2.2. of this Annex
1.2.7.2. The vehicle shall be soaked for a minimum of 6h and a maximum of 36h with the engine
compartment cover opened or closed. If not excluded by specific provisions for a
particular vehicle, cooling may be accomplished by forced cooling down to the set point
temperature. If cooling is accelerated by fans, the fans shall be placed so that the
maximum cooling of the drive train, engine and exhaust after-treatment system is
achieved in a homogeneous manner.
1.2.8. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Test (Type 1 Test)
1.2.8.1. The test cell temperature at the start of the test shall be 23°C ± 3°C measured at
minimum frequency of 1Hz. The engine oil temperature and coolant temperature, if any,
shall be within ±2°C of the set point of 23°C.
1.2.8.2. The test vehicle shall be pushed onto a dynamometer.
1.2.8.2.1. The drive wheels of the vehicle shall be placed on the dynamometer without starting the
engine.
1.2.8.2.2. The drive-wheel tyre pressures shall be set in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph 1.2.6.4.5. of this Annex.
1.2.8.2.3. The engine compartment cover shall be closed.
1.2.8.2.4. An exhaust connecting tube shall be attached to the vehicle tailpipe(s) immediately
before starting the engine.

1.2.10. Sampling for PM Determination
1.2.10.1. The steps described in Paragraph .2.10.1.1. to 1.2.10.1.2.3. inclusive of this Annex shall
be taken prior to each test.
1.2.10.1.1. Filter Selection
1.2.10.1.1.1. A single particulate sample filter without back-up shall be employed for the complete
applicable WLTC. In order to accommodate regional cycle variations, a single filter may
be employed for the first three phases and a separate filter for the fourth phase.
1.2.10.1.2. Filter Preparation
1.2.10.1.2.1. At least 1h before the test, the filter shall be placed in a petri dish protecting against dust
contamination and allowing air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber for
stabilization.
At the end of the stabilization period, the filter shall be weighed and its weight shall be
recorded. The filter shall subsequently be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter
holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the
weighing chamber.
The filter shall be returned to the stabilization room within 1h after the test and shall be
conditioned for at least 1h before weighing.
1.2.10.1.2.2. The particulate sample filter shall be carefully installed into the filter holder. The filter
shall be handled only with forceps or tongs. Rough or abrasive filter handling will result in
erroneous weight determination. The filter holder assembly shall be placed in a sample
line through which there is no flow.
1.2.10.1.2.3. It is recommended that the microbalance be checked at the start of each weighing
session within 24h of the sample weighing by weighing one reference item of
approximately 100mg. This item shall be weighed three times and the arithmetic average
result recorded. If the arithmetic average result of the weighings is ±5μg of the result
from the previous weighing session, the weighing session and balance are considered
valid.
1.2.11. PN Sampling (if Applicable)
1.2.11.1. The steps described in Paragraphs 1.2.11.1.1. to 1.2.11.1.2. inclusive of this Annex shall
be taken prior to each test:
1.2.11.1.1. The particle specific dilution system and measurement equipment shall be started and
made ready for sampling;
1.2.11.1.2. The correct function of the PNC and VPR elements of the particle sampling system shall
be confirmed according to the procedures listed in Paragraphs 1.2.11.1.1. to 1.2.11.1.2.
inclusive of this Annex.
1.2.11.1.2.1. A leak check, using a filter of appropriate performance attached to the inlet of the entire
PN measurement system. VPR and PNC shall report a measured concentration of less
than 0.5 particles per cm .

1.2.14. Post-test Procedures
1.2.14.1. Gas Analyser Check
1.2.14.1.1. Zero and calibration gas reading of the analysers used for continuous diluted
measurement shall be checked. The test shall be considered acceptable if the difference
between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2% of the calibration gas value.
1.2.14.2. Bag Analysis
1.2.14.2.1. Exhaust gases and dilution air contained in the bags shall be analysed as soon as
possible. Exhaust gases in any event, be analysed not later than 30min after the end of
the cycle phase.
The gas reactivity time for compounds in the bag shall be taken into consideration.
1.2.14.2.2. As soon as practical prior to analysis, the analyser range to be used for each compound
shall be set to zero with the appropriate zero gas.
1.2.14.2.3. The calibration curves of the analysers shall be set by means of calibration gases of
nominal concentrations of 70 to 100% of the range.
1.2.14.2.4. The zero analysers settings of the analysers shall be subsequently rechecked: if any
reading differs by more than 2% of the range from that set in Paragraph 1.2.14.2.2. of
this Annex, the procedure shall be repeated for that analyser.
1.2.14.2.5. The samples shall be subsequently analysed.
1.2.14.2.6. After the analysis, zero and calibration points shall be rechecked using the same gases.
The test shall be considered acceptable if the difference is less than 2% of the calibration
gas value.
1.2.14.2.7. The flow rates and pressures of the various gases through analysers shall be the same
as those used during calibration of the analysers.
1.2.14.2.8. The content of each of the compounds measured shall be recorded after stabilization of
the measuring device.
1.2.14.2.9. The mass and number of all emissions, where applicable, shall be calculated according
to Annex 7.
1.2.14.2.10. Calibrations and checks shall be performed either:
(a) Before and after each bag pair analysis; or
(b)
Before and after the complete test.
In case (b), calibrations and checks shall be performed on all analysers for all ranges
used during the test.
In both cases, (a) and (b), the same analyser range shall be used for the corresponding
ambient air and exhaust bags.

ANNEX 6 – APPENDIX 1
EMISSIONS TEST PROCEDURE FOR ALL VEHICLES
EQUIPPED WITH PERIODICALLY REGENERATING SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
1.1. This Appendix defines the specific provisions regarding testing a vehicle equipped with
periodically regenerating systems as defined in Paragraph 3.8.1. of this GTR.
Upon request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a
manufacturer may develop an alternative procedure to demonstrate its equivalency,
including filter temperature, loading quantity and distance driven. This may be done on
an engine bench or on a chassis dynamometer.
Alternatively to carrying out the test procedures defined in this Appendix, a fixed K value
of 1.05 may be used for CO and fuel consumption.
1.2. During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards need not apply. If a
periodic regeneration occurs at least once per Type 1 test and has already occurred at
least once during vehicle preparation, it does not require a special test procedure. This
Appendix does not apply.
1.3. The provisions of this appendix shall apply for the purposes of PM measurements only
and not PN measurements.
1.4. At the request of the manufacturer, and with approval of the responsible authority, the
test procedure specific to periodically regenerating systems will not apply to a
regenerative device if the manufacturer provides data demonstrating that, during cycles
where regeneration occurs, emissions remain below the emissions limits applied by the
Contracting Party for the relevant vehicle category.
1.5. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High2 phase may be excluded for
determining the regenerative factor K for Class 2 vehicles.
1.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High3 phase may be excluded for
determining the regenerative factor K for Class 3 vehicles.
2. TEST PROCEDURE
The test vehicle shall be capable of inhibiting or permitting the regeneration process
provided that this operation has no effect on original engine calibrations. Prevention of
regeneration is only permitted during loading of the regeneration system and during the
pre-conditioning cycles. It is not permitted during the measurement of emissions during
the regeneration phase. The emission test shall be carried out with the unchanged
original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) control unit. At the request of the manufacturer
and with approval of the authority, an "engineering control unit" which has no effect on
original engine calibrations can be used during K determination.

2.2.6. The emission values during regeneration M for each compound shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 3. in this Appendix. The number of applicable test cycles
measured for complete regeneration shall be recorded.
3. CALCULATIONS
3.1. Calculation of the exhaust and CO emissions, and fuel consumption of a single
regenerative system
M
n
M′
for n ≥ 1
= ∑ 1
M
d
M′
for d ≥
M
M
=
= ∑ d
× D + M
D +
× d
where for each compound considered:
M'
M'
M
M
M
n
d
D
are the mass emissions of compound over test cycle without regeneration, g/km;
are the mass emissions of compound over test cycle during regeneration, g/km
(if d >1, the first WLTC test shall be run cold and subsequent cycles hot);
are the mean mass emissions of compound without regeneration, g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of compound during regeneration, g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of compound g/km;
is the number of test cycles, between cycles where regenerative events occur,
during which emissions measurements on Type 1 WLTCs are made, ≥1;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles required for regeneration;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles between two cycles where
regeneration events occur.

3.2. Calculation of exhaust and CO emissions, and fuel consumption of multiple periodic
regenerating systems
The following shall be calculated for:
(a)
(b)
one Type operation cycle for criteria emissions and
for each individual phase for CO emission and fuel consumption
M
n
M′
= ∑ 1
for n
≥ 1
M
d
M′
for d ≥
= ∑ ∑
M
=
∑ M × D
D
M
=
∑ M × d

d
M
M
=
×


D
+ M ×
( D + d )

d
M
=

( M × D + M × d )

( D + d )
K factor:
M
K =
M
K offset: K = M – M

Figure A6.App1/2
Parameters Measured During Emissions Test During and
Between Cycles where Regeneration Occurs (Schematic Example)
The calculation of K for multiple periodic regenerating systems is only possible after a
certain number of regeneration events for each system.
After performing the complete procedure (A to B, see Figure A6.App1/2), the original
starting condition A should be reached again.

2.2. Vehicle On-board Data
2.2.1. Alternatively, the REESS current shall be determined using vehicle-based data. In order
to use this measurement method, the following information shall be accessible from the
test vehicle:
(a)
(b)
Integrated charging balance value since last ignition run in Ah;
Integrated on-board data charging balance value calculated at a minimum sample
frequency of 5Hz;
(c) The charging balance value via an OBD connector as described in SAE J1962.
2.2.2. The accuracy of the vehicle on-board battery REESS and discharging data shall be
demonstrated by the manufacturer to the responsible authority.
The manufacturer may create a REESS monitoring vehicle family to prove that the
vehicle on-board REESS charging and discharging data are correct. The accuracy of the
data shall be demonstrated on a representative vehicle.
The following family criteria shall be valid:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Identical combustion processes (i.e. positive ignition, compression ignition,
two-stroke, four-stroke;
Identical charge and/or recuperation strategy (software REESS data module);
On-board data availability;
Identical charging balance measured by REESS data module;
Identical on-board charging balance simulation.
3. REESS ENERGY CHANGE-BASED CORRECTION PROCEDURE
3.1. Measurement of the REESS current shall start at the same time as the test starts and
shall end immediately after the vehicle has driven the complete driving cycle.
3.2. The electricity balance Q measured in the electric power supply system, shall be used as
a measure of the difference in the REESS energy content at the end of the cycle
compared to the beginning of the cycle. The electricity balance shall be determined for
the total WLTC for the applicable vehicle class.
3.3. Separate values of Q shall be logged over the cycle phases required to be driven for
the applicable vehicle class.

3.4.4. The correction may be omitted and uncorrected values may be used if:
(a) ∆E is positive (corresponding to REESS charging) and the correction
Criterion c calculated according to Paragraph 3.4.1. of this annex is greater than
the applicable tolerance according to Table A6.App2/2;
(b)
the manufacturer can prove to the responsible authority by measurement that
there is no relation between ∆E
and CO mass emission and ∆E
and
fuel consumption respectively.
Table A6.App2/1
Energy Content of Fuel
Fuel Petrol Diesel
Content
Ethanol/Biodiesel, %
E0 E5 E10 E15 E22 E85 E100 B0 B5 B7 B20 B100
Heat value (kWh/l) 8.92 8.78 8.64 8.50 8.30 6.41 5.95 9.85 9.80 9.79 9.67 8.90
Table A6.App2/2
RCB Correction Criteria
Cycle low + medium) low + medium + high
low + medium + high
+ extra high
Correction Criterion c 0.015 0.01 0.005
4. APPLYING THE CORRECTION FUNCTION
4.1. To apply the correction function, the electric energy change ∆E of a period j of all
REESSs shall be calculated from the measured current and the nominal voltage:
ΔE
= ∑ ΔE
where:
∆E is the electric energy change of REESS i during the considered period j, Wh;
and:
1
ΔE = × U ×

I(
t )
3,600
dt

0.0036 is the conversion factor from Wh to MJ;
η is the efficiency of the alternator according to paragraph 4.4. of this
appendix;
Willans is the combustion process specific Willans factor as defined in Table
A6.App2/3, gCO2/MJ;
4.5.1. The CO values of each phase and the total cycle shall be corrected as follows:
where
M = M - ∆M
M = M - ∆M
∆M is the result from Paragraph 4.5. of this Annex for a period j, g/km.
4.6. For the correction of CO emission, g/km, the Willans factors in Table A6.App2/2 shall be
used.
Table A6.App2/3
Willans Factors
Positive ignition
Compression
ignition
Petrol (E0)
Petrol (E5)
Petrol (E10)
CNG (G20)
LPG
E85
Diesel (B0)
Diesel (B5)
Diesel (B7)
Naturally
aspirated
Pressurecharged
l/MJ
0.0733
0.0778
gCO /MJ
175
186
l/MJ
0.0744
0.0789
gCO /MJ
174
185
l/MJ
0.0756
0.0803
gCO /MJ
174
184
M /MJ
0.0719
0.0764
gCO /MJ
129
137
l/MJ
0.0950
0.101
gCO /MJ
155
164
l/MJ
0.102
0.108
gCO /MJ
169
179
l/MJ
0.0611
0.0611
gCO /MJ
161
161
l/MJ
0.0611
0.0611
gCO /MJ
161
161
l/MJ
0.0611
0.0611
gCO /MJ
161
161

Table A7/1
Procedure for Calculating Final Test Results
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Annex 6
Raw test results
Mass emissions Annex 7, Paragraphs
3. to 3.2.2. inclusive
Output step 1
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
Calculation of combined cycle values:
M
Σ
=
M
Σ
× d
d
M
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km.
1
2
M
where:
Σ
=
M
Σ
d
× d
M
are the emission results over
the total cycle;
d
are the driven distances of
the cycle phases, p.
Output step 1
and 2
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
RCB correction Annex 6, Appendix 2
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
3
Output step 2
and 3
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Emissions test procedure for all
vehicles equipped with periodically
regenerating systems, K .
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
4a
Annex 6, Appendix 1.
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
and
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
Additive offset or multiplicative factor to
be used according to K determination.
If K is not applicable:
M = M
M = M

Step 8
Source Input Process Output Step No.
For each of the test
vehicles H and L:
M
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
If a test vehicle L was tested in addition
to a test vehicle H, the resulting criteria
emission values of L and H shall be the
arithmetic average and are referred to
as M .
At request of a contracting party, the
averaging of the criteria emissions may
be omitted and the values of H and L
remain separated.
Otherwise, if no vehicle L was tested,
M = M
Mi,c, g/km;
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
FC , l/100km;
FC , l/100km;
and if a vehicle L
was tested:
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
9
"interpolation
family result"
Final criteria
emission
result
For CO and FC, the values derived in
step 8 shall be used, and CO values
shall be rounded to two decimal
places, and FC values shall be
rounded to three decimal places.
Step 9
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
FC
, l/100km;
FC
, l/100km;
and if a vehicle L
was tested:
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
Fuel consumption and CO
calculations for individual vehicles in an
CO interpolation family.
Annex 7, 3.2.3.
CO emissions must be expressed in
grams per kilometre (g/km) rounded to
the nearest whole number;
FC values shall be rounded to one
decimal place, expressed in (l/100km).
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
10
"result of an
individual
vehicle"
Final CO and
FC result
2. DETERMINATION OF DILUTED EXHAUST GAS VOLUME
2.1. Volume calculation for a variable dilution device capable of operating at a constant or
variable flow rate.
2.1.1. The volumetric flow shall be measured continuously. The total volume shall be measured
for the duration of the test.
2.2. Volume calculation for a variable dilution device using a positive displacement pump
2.2.1. The volume shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
V = V × N
V
V
N
is the volume of the diluted gas, in litres per test (prior to correction);
is the volume of gas delivered by the positive displacement pump in testing
conditions, litres per pump revolution;
is the number of revolutions per test.

for NG/biomethane (CH )
ρ = 0.716g/l
for ethanol (E85) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.934g/l
Formaldehyde (if applicable)
ρ = 1.34
Acetaldehyde (if applicable)
ρ = 1.96
Ethanol (if applicable)
ρ = 2.05
Nitrogen oxides (NO )
Nitrogen dioxide (NO ) (if applicable)
Nitrous oxide (N O) (if applicable)
ρ = 2.05g/l
ρ = 2.05g/l
ρ = 1.964g/l
The density for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total hydrocarbons at
273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa, and is fuel-dependent.
The density for propane mass calculations (see Paragraph 3.5. in Annex 5) is 1.967 g/l
at standard conditions.
If a fuel type is not listed in this Paragraph, the density of that fuel shall be calculated
using the equation given in Paragraph 3.1.3. of this annex.
3.1.3. The general equation for the calculation of total hydrocarbon density for each reference
fuel with an mean composition of CXHYOZ is as follows:
ρ
MW
=
H
+ ×MW
C
V
O
+ ×MW
C
where:
ρ is the density of total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbons, g/l;
MW is the molar mass of carbon (12.011g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of hydrogen (1.008g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of oxygen (15.999g/mol);
V
is the molar volume of an ideal gas at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa
(22.413l/mol);
H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio for a specific fuel C H O ;
O/C is the oxygen to carbon ratio for a specific fuel C H O .

3.2.1.1.1. The dilution factor DF shall be calculated using the equation for the concerned fuel:
13.4
DF = for petrol (E0, E5 and B0)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
DF =
C
+
13.
5
( C + C ) × 10
for petrol (E0)
13.5
DF = for diesel (B5 and B7)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
11.9
DF = for LPG
C +
( C + C ) × 10
9.5
DF = for NG/biomethane
C +
( C + C ) × 10
12.5
DF = for ethanol (E85)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
DF =
C

C
35.
03
+ C
× 10
for hydrogen
With respect to the equation for hydrogen:
C is the concentration of H O in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample
bag, % volume;
C is the concentration of H O in the dilution air, % volume;
C is the concentration of H in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample
bag, ppm.
If a fuel type is not listed in this Paragraph, the DF for that fuel shall be calculated using
the equations in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.2. of this Annex.
If the manufacturer uses a DF that covers several phases, it shall calculate a DF using
the mean concentration of gaseous compounds for the phases concerned.

3.2.1.1.3.2. For methane measurement using an NMC-FID, the calculation of NMHC depends on the
calibration gas/method used for the zero/calibration adjustment.
The FID used for the THC measurement (without NMC) shall be calibrated with
propane/air in the normal manner.
For the calibration of the FID in series with an NMC, the following methods are permitted:
(a)
(b)
The calibration gas consisting of propane/air bypasses the NMC;
The calibration gas consisting of methane/air passes through the NMC.
It is highly recommended to calibrate the methane FID with methane/air through the
NMC.
In case (a), the concentration of CH and NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equation:
C
C
C
=
C
=
( ) − C ( ) × ( 1 − E )
r × ( E − E )
× 1 − E
( ) ( ) ( )
E − E
− C
If r <1.05, it may be omitted from the equation above for C .
In case (b), the concentration of CH and NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equation:
C
C
C
=
C
=
( ) × r × ( 1 − E ) − C ( ) × ( 1 − E )
r × ( E − E )
( ) × ( 1 − E ) − C ( ) × r × ( 1 − E )
E − E
where:
C is the HC concentration with sample gas flowing through the NMC, ppm C;
C is the HC concentration with sample gas bypassing the NMC, ppm C;
r
E
E
is the methane response factor as determined per Paragraph 5.4.3.2 of
Annex 5;
is the methane efficiency as determined per Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.3.1. of
this Annex;
is the ethane efficiency as determined per Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.3.2. of this
Annex.
If r <1.05, it may be omitted in the equations for case (b) above for C and C .

3.2.1.1.3.4. If the methane FID is calibrated through the cutter, E shall be 0.
The equation to calculate C in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in the Annex becomes:
C = C
The equation to calculate CNMHC in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in the Annex
becomes:
C = C – C × r
The density used for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total
hydrocarbons at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa and is fuel-dependent.
3.2.1.1.4. Flow Weighted Arithmetic Average Concentration Calculation
The following calculation method shall only be applied for CVS systems that are not
equipped with a heat exchanger or for CVS systems with a heat exchanger that do not
comply with Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of Annex 5.
When the CVS flow rate q over the test varies by more than ±3% of the arithmetic
average flow rate, a flow weighted arithmetic average shall be used for all continuous
diluted measurements including PN:
where:
() i × Δt
C()
i
∑ q
×
C =
V
C
is the flow-weighted arithmetic average concentration;
q (i) is the CVS flow rate at time t = i × ∆t, m /min;
C(i)
∆t
is the concentration at time t = i × ∆t, ppm;
sampling interval;
V total CVS volume, m .

3.2.1.3.1.3. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bag. A
correction shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.1.3.2. NO Concentrations (if Applicable)
3.2.1.3.2.1. Determination NO concentration from direct diluted measurement
3.2.1.3.2.2. NO concentrations shall be calculated from the integrated NO analyser reading,
corrected for varying flow if necessary.
3.2.1.3.2.3. The arithmetic average NO concentration shall be calculated using the following
equation:
C
= ∫
C
t − t
⋅ dt
where:

C
C dt is the integral of the recording of the continuous dilute NO analyser over
the test (t -t );
is the concentration of NO measured in the diluted exhaust, ppm.
3.2.1.3.2.4. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bags.
Correction is carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.1.4. N O Concentration (if Applicable)
For measurements using a GC-ECD, the N O concentration shall be calculated using the
following equations:
where:
C = PeakArea × Rf
C
is the concentration of N O, ppm;
and:
Rf
c
=
PeakArea

3.2.1.8. Determining the Mass of Ethanol, Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde (if Applicable)
As an alternative to measuring the concentrations of ethanol, acetyldehyde and
formaldehyde, the MEAF for ethanol petrol blends with less than 25% ethanol by volume
may be calculated using the following equation:
where:
M = (0.0302 + 0.0071 × (percentage of ethanol)) × M
M is the mass emission of EAF per test, g/km;
MN is the mass emission of NMHC per test, g/km;
percentage of alcohol
is the volume percentage of ethanol in the test fuel.
3.2.2. Determination of the HC Mass Emissions from Compression-ignition Engines
3.2.2.1. To calculate HC mass emission for compression-ignition engines, the arithmetic average
HC concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
C
∫ C dt
=
t − t
where:

C dt is the integral of the recording of the heated FID over the test (t to t );
C
is the concentration of HC measured in the diluted exhaust in ppm of and is
substituted for in all relevant equations.
3.2.2.1.1. Dilution air concentration of HC shall be determined from the dilution air bags. Correction
shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.3. Fuel Consumption and CO Calculations for Individual Vehicles in an Interpolation Family
3.2.3.1. Fuel Consumption and CO Emissions without Using the Interpolation Method
The CO value, as calculated in Paragraph 3.2.1. of this Annex and fuel consumption, as
calculated according to Paragraph 6. of this Annex, shall be attributed to all individual
vehicles in the interpolation family and the interpolation method shall not be applicable.
3.2.3.2. Fuel Consumption and CO Emissions Using the Interpolation Method
The CO emissions and the fuel consumption for each individual vehicle in the
interpolation family may be calculated according to the interpolation method outlined in
Paragraphs 3.2.3.2.1. to 3.2.3.2.5. inclusive of this Annex.

3.2.3.2.2.3. Aerodynamic drag of an individual vehicle
The aerodynamic drag shall be measured for each of the drag-influencing items of
optional equipment and body shapes in a wind tunnel fulfilling the requirements of
Paragraph 3.2. of Annex 4 verified by the responsible authority.
At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, an
alternative method (e.g. simulation, wind tunnel not fulfilling the criterion in Annex 4) may
be used to determine ∆(C × A ) if the following criteria are fulfilled:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The alternative determination method shall fulfil an accuracy for ∆(C × A ) of
±0.015 m and additionally, in the case that simulation is used, the Computational
Fluid Dynamics method should be validated in detail, so that the actual air flow
patterns around the body, including magnitudes of flow velocities, forces, or
pressures, are shown to match the validation test results;
The alternative method shall be used only for those aerodynamic-influencing parts
(e.g. wheels, body shapes, cooling system) for which equivalency was
demonstrated;
Evidence of equivalency shall be shown in advance to the responsible authority for
each road load family in the case that a mathematical method is used or every
four years in the case that a measurement method is used, and in any case shall
be based on wind tunnel measurements fulfilling the criteria of this GTR;
(d) If the ∆(C × A ) of an option is more than double than that with the option for
which the evidence was given, aerodynamic drag shall not be determined with the
alternative method; and
(e)
In the case that a simulation model is changed, a revalidation shall be necessary.
∆(C ×A )
is the difference in the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient times
frontal area of test vehicle H compared to test vehicle L and shall be
recorded, m .
∆(C ×A ) is the difference in the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient times
frontal area between an individual vehicle and test vehicle L due to options
and body shapes on the vehicle that differ from those of test vehicle L, m ;
These differences in aerodynamic drag, ∆(C ×A ), shall be determined with an accuracy
of 0.015m .

Applying the least squares regression method in the range of the reference speed points,
adjusted road load coefficients f and f shall be determined for F (v) with the linear
coefficient f set to f . The road load coefficients f , f and f for an individual
vehicle in the interpolation family shall be calculated using the following equations:
f
= f
− Δf
or, if ( TM RR − TM × RR ) = 0,
×
( TM × RR − TM × RR )
( TM × RR − TM × RR )
× the equation for f0 below shall apply:
f
= f
− Δf
f = f
f
= f
− Δf
×
( Δ[ C × A ] − Δ[ C × A ] )
( Δ[ C × A ] )
or, if Δ ( C × A ) LH = 0,
the equation for F below shall apply:
f
= f
− Δf
where:
Δ f
= f
− f
Δ f
= f
− f
In the case of a road load matrix family, the road load coefficients f , f and f for an
individual vehicle shall be calculated according to the equations in Paragraph 5.1.2. of
Annex 4.
3.2.3.2.3. Calculation of cycle energy demand
The cycle energy demand of the applicable WLTC, E , and the energy demand for all
applicable cycle phases E , shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of this Annex, for the following sets k of road load coefficients and masses:
k = 1: f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(test vehicle L)
k = 2 : f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(test vehicle H)
k = 3 : f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(an individual vehicle in the interpolation family)

3.2.4.1. Determination of Fuel Consumption and CO Emissions of Vehicles L and H
The mass of CO emissions M of vehicles L and H shall be determined according
to the calculations in Paragraph 3.2.1. of this Annex for the individual cycle phases p of
the applicable WLTC and are referred to as table M and M respectively.
Fuel consumption for individual cycle phases of the applicable WLTC shall be
determined according to Paragraph 6. of this Annex and are referred to as FC and
FC
respectively.
3.2.4.1.1. Road load calculation for an individual vehicle
The road load force shall be calculated according to the procedure described in
Paragraph 5.1. of Annex 4.
3.2.4.1.1.1. Mass of an individual vehicle
The test masses of vehicles H and L selected according to Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of
Annex 4 shall be used as input.
TM , in kg, shall be the test mass of the individual vehicle according to the definition of
test mass in Paragraph 3.2.25. of II. text of the global technical regulation.
If the same test mass is used for vehicles L and H , the value of TM shall be set to
the mass of vehicle HM for the road load matrix family method.
3.2.4.1.1.2. Rolling resistance of an individual vehicle
The rolling resistance values for vehicle L , RR , and vehicle H , RR , selected under
Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of Annex 4 shall be used as input.
If the tyres on the front and rear axles of vehicle L or H have different rolling resistance
values, the weighted mean of the rolling resistances shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
RR = RR × mp + RR × (1 − mp )
RR is the rolling resistance of the front axle tyres, kg/tonne;
RR is the rolling resistance of the rear axle tyres, kg/tonne;
mp is the proportion of the vehicle mass on the front axle;
x
represents vehicle L, H or an individual vehicle.
For the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle, the value of the rolling resistance RR shall
be set to the class value of the applicable tyre rolling resistance class according to
Table A4/1of Annex 4.
If the tyres on the front and the rear axles have different rolling resistance class values,
the weighted mean shall be used calculated with the equation in this Paragraph.

3.3.1.1. Where correction for the background particulate mass from the dilution system has been
used, this shall be determined in accordance with Paragraph 1.2.1.3.1. of Annex 6. In
this case, particulate mass (mg/km) shall be calculated using the following equations:
⎪⎧
PM = ⎨
⎪⎩
P
V

− ⎢
⎢⎣
P
V
⎛ × ⎜1


1
DF
⎞⎤⎪⎫
⎟⎥⎬
×
⎠⎥⎦
⎪⎭
( V + V )
in the case that the exhaust gases are vented outside the tunnel;
and:
⎪⎧
P ⎡ P ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤⎪⎫
PM = ⎨ − ⎢ × ⎜1
− ⎟⎥⎬
×
V V DF
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
⎝ ⎠⎥⎦
⎪⎭
in the case that the exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
where:
d
( V )
d
V
P
DF
is the volume of tunnel air flowing through the background particulate filter under
standard conditions;
is the particulate mass from the dilution air, or the dilution tunnel background air,
as determined by the one of the methods described in Paragraph 1.2.1.3.1. of
Annex 6;
is the dilution factor determined in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.1. of this Annex.
Where application of a background correction results in a negative result, it shall be
considered to be zero mg/km.
3.3.2. Calculation of PM using the Double Dilution Method
where:
V = V – V
V
is the volume of diluted exhaust gas flowing through the particulate sample filter
under standard conditions;
V is the volume of the double diluted exhaust gas passing through the particulate
sampling filters under standard conditions;
V is the volume of the secondary dilution air under standard conditions.

C
shall be calculated from the following equation:
C =

n
C
where:
C
n
is a discrete measurement of particle number concentration in the diluted gas
exhaust from the PNC; particles per cm and corrected for coincidence;
is the total number of discrete particle number concentration measurements made
during the applicable test cycle and shall be calculated using the following
equation:
n = t × f
where:
t is the time duration of the applicable test cycle, s;
f
is the data logging frequency of the particle counter, Hz.
5. CALCULATION OF CYCLE ENERGY DEMAND
Unless otherwise specified, the calculation shall be based on the target speed trace
given in discrete time sample points.
For the calculation, each time sample point shall be interpreted as a time period. Unless
otherwise specified, the duration ∆t of these periods shall be 1s.
The total energy demand E for the whole cycle or a specific cycle phase shall be
calculated by summing E over the corresponding cycle time between t and t
according to the following equation:
E = ∑ E
where:
E = F × d if F > 0
E = 0 if F ≤ 0

6. CALCULATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION
6.1. The fuel characteristics required for the calculation of fuel consumption values shall be
taken from Annex 3 to this GTR.
6.2. The fuel consumption values shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using the results of step 6 for criteria emissions
and step 7 for CO of Table 7/1.
6.2.1. The general equation in Paragraph 6.12. using H/C and O/C ratios shall be used for the
calculation of fuel consumption.
6.2.2. For all Equations in Paragraph 6. of this Annex:
FC
is the fuel consumption of a specific fuel, l/100km (or m per 100km in the case of
natural gas or kg/100km in the case of hydrogen);
H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of a specific fuel C H O ;
O/C is the oxygen to carbon ratio of a specific fuel C H O ;
MW is the molar mass of carbon (12.011g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of hydrogen (1.008g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of oxygen (15.999g/mol);
ρ is the test fuel density, kg/l. For gaseous fuels, fuel density at 15°C;
HC
CO
are the emissions of hydrocarbon, g/km;
are the emissions of carbon monoxide, g/km;
CO are the emissions of carbon dioxide, g/km;
H O are the emissions of water, g/km;
H
p
p
are the emissions of hydrogen, g/km;
is the gas pressure in the fuel tank before the applicable test cycle, Pa;
is the gas pressure in the fuel tank after the applicable test cycle, Pa;
T is the gas temperature in the fuel tank before the applicable test cycle, K;
T is the gas temperature in the fuel tank after the applicable test cycle, K;
Z is the compressibility factor of the gaseous fuel at p and T ;
Z is the compressibility factor of the gaseous fuel at p and T ;
V is the interior volume of the gaseous fuel tank, m ;
d
is the theoretical length of the applicable phase or cycle, km.

6.9. For a vehicle with a compression engine fuelled with diesel (B5)
⎛ 0.
1163 ⎞
FC = ⎜
⎟ ×
. ×
⎝ ρ ⎠
[( 0.
860 × HC) + ( 0.
429 × CO) + ( 0 273 CO )]
6.10. For a vehicle with a compression engine fuelled with diesel (B7)
⎛ 0.
1165 ⎞
FC = ⎜
⎟ ×
. ×
⎝ ρ ⎠
[( 0.
858 × HC) + ( 0.
429 × CO) + ( 0 273 CO )]
6.11. For a vehicle with a positive ignition engine fuelled with ethanol (E85)
⎛ 0.
1743 ⎞
FC = ⎜
⎟ ×
. ×
⎝ ρ ⎠
[( 0.
574 × HC) + ( 0.
429 × CO) + ( 0 273 CO )]
6.12. Fuel consumption for any test fuel may be calculated using the following equation:
MW
FC =
H
+ ×MW
C
MW × ρ
O
+ ×MW
C
×10


× ⎜

MW

MW
H
+ ×MW
C
O
+ ×MWO
C
MW
×HC +
MW
× CO + MW MW


× CO ⎟


6.13. Fuel consumption for a vehicle with a positive ignition engine fuelled by hydrogen:
V
FC = 0.024 ×
d

×


1
Z
p
×
T
-
1
Z
p
×
T



With approval of the responsible authority and for vehicles fuelled either with gaseous or
liquid hydrogen, the manufacturer may choose to calculate fuel consumption using either
the equation for FC below or a method using a standard protocol such as SAE J2572.
FC = 0.1 × (0.1119 × H O + H )

7. CALCULATION OF DRIVE TRACE INDICES
7.1. General Requirement
The prescribed speed between time points in Tables A1/1 to A1/12 shall be determined
by a linear interpolation method at a frequency of 10Hz.
In the case that the accelerator control is fully activated, the prescribed speed shall be
used instead of the actual vehicle speed for drive trace index calculations during such
periods of operation.
7.2. Calculation of Drive Trace Indices
The following indices shall be calculated according to SAE J2951 (Revised JAN2014):
(a) ER : Energy Rating
(b) DR : Distance Rating
(c) EER : Energy Economy Rating
(d) ASCR : Absolute Speed Change Rating
(e) IWR : Inertial Work Rating
(f)
RMSSE : Root Mean Squared Speed Error

1.3. Units and Precision of Final Test
Units and their precision for the communication of the final results shall follow the
indications given in Table A8/2. For the purpose of calculation in Paragraph 4. of this
Annex, the unrounded values shall apply.
Table A8/2
Units and Precision of Final Test Results
Parameter Units Communication of test final test result
PER
, PER
, AER
AER
, EAER
,
EAER
, R
, R
km
Rounded to nearest whole number
FC , FC , FC for HEVs l/100km Rounded to the first place of decimal
FC for FCHVs kg/100km Rounded to the second place of decimal
M , M , M ,weighted g/km Rounded to the nearest whole number
EC , EC , EC , EC ,weighted Wh/km Rounded to the nearest whole number
E kWh Rounded to the first place of decimal
1.4. Vehicle Classification
All OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, PEVs and NOVC-FCHVs shall be classified as Class 3
vehicles. The applicable test cycle for the Type 1 test procedure shall be determined
according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex based on the corresponding reference test
cycle as described in Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex.
1.4.1. Reference Test Cycle
1.4.1.1. The reference test cycle for Class 3a vehicles is specified in Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 1.
1.4.1.2. For PEVs, the downscaling procedure, according to Paragraphs 8.2.3. and 8.3. of
Annex 1, may be applied on the test cycles according to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 1 by
replacing the rated power with peak power. In such a case, the downscaled cycle is the
reference test cycle.
1.4.2. Applicable Test Cycle
1.4.2.1. Applicable WLTP Test Cycle
The reference test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex shall be the
applicable WLTP test cycle (WLTC) for the Type 1 test procedure.
In the case that paragraph 9. of Annex 1 is applied based on the reference test cycle as
described in Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex, this modified test cycle shall be the
applicable WLTP test cycle (WLTC) for the Type 1 test procedure.

3.1.1.5. For OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, gaseous emission compounds, shall be sampled and
analysed for each individual test phase. It is permitted to omit the phase analysis for
phases where no combustion engine starts to consume fuel.
3.1.1.6. If applicable, particle number shall be analysed for each individual phase and particulate
matter emission shall be analysed for each applicable test cycle.
3.1.2. Forced cooling as described in Paragraph 1.2.7.2. of Annex 6 shall apply only for the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test for OVC-HEVs according to Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex
and for testing NOVC-HEVs according to Paragraph 3.3. of this Annex.
3.2. OVC-HEVs
3.2.1. Vehicles shall be tested under charge-depleting operating condition (CD condition
condition) and charge-sustaining operating condition (CS condition).
3.2.2. Vehicles may be tested according to four possible test sequences:
3.2.2.1. Option 1: charge-depleting Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1
test.
3.2.2.2. Option 2: charge-sustaining Type 1 test with a subsequent charge-depleting Type 1 test.
3.2.2.3. Option 3: charge-depleting Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1
test.
3.2.2.4. Option 4: charge-sustaining Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-depleting Type 1
test.

of this GTR.
3.2.4.2.2. Selection of a driver-selectable mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-depleting
Type 1 test shall be selected according to Paragraph 2. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.2.4.3. Charge-depleting Type 1 Test Procedure
3.2.4.3.1. The charge-depleting Type 1 test procedure shall consist of a number of consecutive
cycles, each followed by a soak period of no more than 30min until charge-sustaining
operating condition is achieved.
3.2.4.3.2. During soaking between individual applicable test cycles, the powertrain shall be
deactivated and the REESS shall not be recharged from an external electric energy
source. The instrumentation for measuring the electric current of all REESSs and for
determining the electric voltage of all REESSs according to Appendix 3 to this Annex
shall not be turned off between test cycle phases. In the case of ampere-hour meter
measurement, the integration shall remain active throughout the entire test until the test
is concluded.
Restarting after soak, the vehicle shall be operated in the required driver-selectable
mode according to Paragraph 3.2.4.2.2. of this Annex.
3.2.4.3.3. In deviation from Paragraph 5.3.1. of Annex 5 and without prejudice to
Paragraph 5.3.1.2. of Annex 5, analysers may be calibrated and zero checked before
and after the charge-depleting Type 1 test.
3.2.4.4. End of the Charge-depleting Type 1 Test
The end of the charge-depleting Type 1 test is considered to have been reached when
the break-off criterion according to Paragraph 3.2.4.5. of this Annex is reached for the
first time. The number of applicable WLTP test cycles up to and including the one where
the break-off criterion was reached for the first time is set to n + 1.
The applicable WLTP test cycle n is defined as the transition cycle.
The applicable WLTP test cycle n + 1 is defined to be the confirmation cycle.
For vehicles without a charge-sustaining capability over the complete applicable WLTP
test cycle, the end of the charge-depleting Type 1 test is reached by an indication on a
standard on-board instrument panel to stop the vehicle, or when the vehicle deviates
from the prescribed driving tolerance for 4 consecutive seconds or more. The accelerator
control shall be deactivated and the vehicle shall be braked to standstill within 60s.

3.2.5. Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test with no Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 1 Test
(Option 2)
The test sequence according to Option 2, as described in Paragraphs 3.2.5.1. to
3.2.5.3.3. inclusive of this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge
profile, are shown in Figure A8.App1/2 in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.5.1. Pre-conditioning and Soaking
The vehicle shall be prepared according to the procedures in Paragraph 2.1. of
Appendix 4 to this Annex.
3.2.5.2. Test Conditions
3.2.5.2.1. Tests shall be carried out with the vehicle operated in charge-sustaining operating
condition as defined in Paragraph 3.3.6. of this GTR.
3.2.5.2.2. Selection of a driver-selectable mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test shall be selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.2.5.3. Type 1 Test Procedure
3.2.5.3.1. Vehicles shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedures described in Annex 6.
3.2.5.3.2. If required, CO mass emission shall be corrected according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.
3.2.5.3.3. The test according to Paragraph 3.2.5.3.1. of this Annex shall fulfil the applicable criteria
emission limits according to Paragraph 1.1.2. of Annex 6.
3.2.6. Charge-depleting Type 1 Test with Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test
(Option 3)
The test sequence according to Option 3, as described in Paragraphs 3.2.6.1. to 3.2.6.3.
inclusive of this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are
shown in Figure A8.App1/3 in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.6.1. For the charge-depleting Type 1 test, the procedure described in Paragraphs 3.2.4.1. to
3.2.4.5. inclusive as well as Paragraph 3.2.4.7. of this Annex shall be followed.
3.2.6.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-sustaining Type 1 test described in
Paragraphs 3.2.5.1. to 3.2.5.3. inclusive of this Annex shall be followed.
(Paragraphs 2.1.1 to 2.1.2 inclusive of Appendix 4, to this Annex shall not apply.

3.3.2. Test Conditions
3.3.2.1. Vehicles shall be tested under charge-sustaining operating conditions as defined in
Paragraph 3.3.6. of this GTR.
3.3.2.2. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
3.3.3. Type 1 Test
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test shall be selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.3.3.1. Vehicles shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.3.3.2. If required, the CO mass emission results shall be corrected according to Appendix 2 to
this Annex.
3.3.3.3. The charge-sustaining Type 1 test shall fulfil the applicable exhaust emission limits
according to Paragraph 1.1.2. of Annex 6.
3.4. PEVs
3.4.1. General Requirements
The test procedure to determine the pure electric range and electric energy consumption
shall be selected according to the estimated pure electric range (PER) of the test vehicle
from Table A8/3. In the case that the interpolation approach is applied, the applicable
test procedure shall be selected according to the PER of vehicle H within the specific
interpolation family.
Table A8/3
Procedures to Determine Pure Electric Range and Electric Energy Consumption

3.4.4.2.
3.4.4.2.1.
Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure
Speed
trace
The shortened Type 1 test procedure consists of two dynamic segments (DS
and DS )
combined with two t constant speed segments (CSS and
Figure
A8/2.
CSS ) as
shown in
The dynamic segments DS and DS are used to determine the energy consumption for
the applicable WLTP test cycle.
The constant speed segmentss CSS and CSS are intended to reduce test duration by
depleting the REESS more rapidly than the
consecutive cycle Typee 1 test procedure.
3.4.4.2.1. 1. Dynamic segments
Figure A8/2
Shortenedd Type 1 Test Procedure Speed Trace
Each dynamic segment DS and DS consists of an applicable WLTP test cycle
according to Paragraph 1.4.2. 1. followed by an applicable WLTP city test cycle according
to Paragraph 1.4.2.2.

3.4.4.2.1.3. Breaks
Breaks for the driver and/or operator are permitted only in the constant speed segments
as prescribed in Table A8/4.
Distance driven (km)
Table A8/4
Breaks for the Driver and/or Test Operator
Maximum total break (min)
Up to 100 10
Up to 150 20
Up to 200 30
Up to 300 60
More than 300
Shall be based on the manufacturer’s recommendation
Note: During a break, the powertrain shall be switched off.
3.4.4.2.2. REESS current and voltage measurement
From the beginning of the test until the break-off criterion is reached, the electric current
of all REESSs and the electric voltage of all REESSs shall be determined according to
Appendix 3 to this Annex.
3.4.4.2.3. Break-off criterion
The break-off criterion is reached when the vehicle exceeds the prescribed driving
tolerance as specified in Paragraph 1.2.6.6. of Annex 6 for 4 consecutive seconds or
more in the second constant speed segment CSS . The accelerator control shall be
deactivated. The vehicle shall be braked to a standstill within 60s.
3.4.4.3. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.4.4.3.1. After coming to a standstill according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex for the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure and in Paragraph 3.4.4.2.3. of this Annex for
the shortened Type 1 test procedure, the vehicle shall be connected to the mains within
120min.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in
Paragraph 3.1.3. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.4.4.3.2. The energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and the
mains, shall measure the recharged electric energy EAC delivered from the mains as
well as its duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the
end-of-charge criterion, as defined in Paragraph 3.4. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is
reached.

For the purpose of this table, the following nomenclature within the equations and results
is used:
c
p
complete applicable test cycle;
every applicable cycle phase;
i applicable criteria emission component (except CO );
CS
charge-sustaining
CO CO mass emission.
Table A8/5
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Gaseous Emission Values
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Annex 6 Raw test results Charge-sustaining mass emissions
Output from
step No. 1 of
this table.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Annex 7, Paragraphs 3. to 3.2.2.
inclusive
Calculation of combined chargesustaining
cycle values:
M
Σ
=
M
Σ
d
× d
M
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km.
1
2
M
where:
Σ
=
M
Σ
d
× d
M is the charge-sustaining mass
emission result over the total cycle;
M is the charge-sustaining
CO mass emission result over the
total cycle;
d are the driven distances of the
cycle phases p.
Output from
steps Nos. 1
and 2 of this
Table.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
REESS electric energy change
correction
Annex 8, Paragraph 4.1.1.2. to
4.1.1.5. inclusive
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
3

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output from
step No. 5 of
this table.
Output from
step No. 6 of
this table.
Output from
steps No. 6
and 7 of this
table.
For every test:
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M , g/km
M
M
M
Averaging of tests and declared value
according to Paragraphs 1.1.2. to
1.1.2.3. inclusive of Annex 6.
, g/km; Alignment of phase values. Annex 6,
, g/km; Paragraph 1.1.2.4.
, g/km.
and:
For each of the test
vehicles H and L:
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
M =M
If in addition to a test vehicle H a test
vehicle L was also tested, the
resulting criteria emission values of L
and H shall be the average and are
referred to as M
At the request of a Contracting Party,
the averaging of the criteria emissions
may be omitted and the values for
vehicle H and L remain separated.
Otherwise, if no vehicle L was tested,
M = M
For CO the values derived in step 8
of this Table shall be used.
M
M
M
M
M
M
g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km;
M , g/km; M ,
g/km; M , g/km;
and if a vehicle L was
tested:
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
6
"M results of
a Type 1 test
for a test
vehicle"
7
"M
results of a
Type 1 test for
a test vehicle"
8
"interpolation
family result"
final criteria
emission result
CO values shall be rounded to two
decimal places.
Output from
step No. 8 of
this table.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
and if a vehicle L was
tested:
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
CO mass emission calculation
according to Paragraph 4.5.4.1. of this
Annex for individual vehicles in an
interpolation family.
CO values shall be rounded
according to Table A8/2.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
9
"result of an
individual
vehicle"
final CO result
4.1.1.2. In the case that the correction according to Paragraph 1.1.4. of Appendix 2 to this Annex
was not applied, the following charge-sustaining CO mass emission shall be used:
where:
M = M
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
M
is the non-balanced charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km.

4.1.1.5. In the case that phase-specific CO mass emission correction coefficients have been
determined, the phase-specific CO mass emission shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
M = M − K × EC
M
M
EC
is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of phase p of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
is the non-balanced CO mass emission of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, determined according to
Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km;
is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type
1 test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient according to
Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex, (g/km)/(Wh/km);
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.1.2. Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission MCO2,CD shall be
calculated using the following equation:
MC
=

( UF ×M )

UF
where:
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
UF
j
k
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
is the index number of the phase considered;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation approach is applied, k shall be the number of phases
driven up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L n .

4.1.3.2. The utility factor-weighted particle number emission shall be calculated using the
following equation:
PN
=
∑( UF ×PN ) + ⎜1-

∑UF





×PN

where:
PN
UF
PN
is the utility factor-weighted particle number emission, particles per kilometre;
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
is the particle number emission during phase j determined according to
Paragraph 4. of Annex 7 for the charge-depleting Type 1 test, particles per
km;
PN
is the particle number emission determined according to Paragraph 4.1.1. of
this Annex for the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, particles per kilometre;
j
k
is the index number of the phase considered;
is the number of phases driven until the end of transition cycle n according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
4.1.3.3. The utility factor-weighted particulate matter emission shall be calculated using the
following equation:
PM
=
( UF ×PM )
∑ + ⎜1-

∑UF





×PM

where:
PM is the utility factor-weighted particulate matter emission, mg/km;
UF
PM
is the utility factor of cycle c according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
is the charge-depleting particulate matter emission during cycle c determined
according to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 7 for the charge-depleting Type 1 test,
mg/km;
PM
is the particulate matter emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Paragraph 4.1.1. of this Annex, mg/km;
c
n
is the index number of the cycle considered;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven until the end of the
transition cycle n according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.

For the purpose of this table, the following nomenclature within the equations and results
is used:
c
p
CS
complete applicable test cycle;
every applicable cycle phase;
charge-sustaining
Table A8/7
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for NOVC-FCHVs
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Appendix 7 of this
Annex.
Output from step
No. 1 of this table.
Non-balanced
charge-sustaining
fuel consumption
FC
FC
kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
Charge-sustaining fuel consumption
according to Paragraph 2.2.6. of
Appendix 7 to this Annex
(phase-specific values only, if
required by the Contracting Party
according to Paragraph 2.2.7. of
Appendix 7 to this Annex)
REESS electric energy change
correction
FC
FC
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
1
2
Annex 8, Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.2. to
4.2.1.2.5. inclusive of this Annex
Output from step
No. 2 of this table.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
Placeholder for additional
corrections, if applicable.
Otherwise:
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
3
"result of a single
test"
FC
= FC
FC
= FC
Output from step
No. 3 of this table.
For every test:
FC
, kg/100km;
FC
, kg/100km;
Averaging of tests and declared
value according to Paragraphs
1.1.2. to 1.1.2.3. inclusive of
Annex 6.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
4
Output from step
No. 4 of this table.
FC
FC
FC ,
kg/100km
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
Alignment of phase values.
Annex 6, Paragraph 1.1.2.4.
And:
FC = FC
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
5
"FCCS results of
a Type 1 test for
a test vehicle"

4.2.1.2.4. In the case that phase-specific fuel consumption correction coefficients have not been
determined, the phase-specific fuel consumption shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step
No. 1, kg/100km;
EC is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K
p
is the fuel consumption correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.2.1.2.5. In the case that phase-specific fuel consumption correction coefficients have been
determined, the phase-specific fuel consumption shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type
1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step No.
1, kg/100km;
EC is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K
p
is the fuel consumption correction coefficient for the correction of the phase p
according to Paragraph 2.3.1.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex,
(kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.

4.2.3. Utility Factor-weighted Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted fuel consumption from the charge-depleting and chargesustaining
Type 1 test shall be calculated using the following equation:
FC
=

( UF ×FC ) +

1- UF

⎜ ∑ ⎟ × FC ⎠

where:
is the utility factor-weighted fuel consumption, l/100km;
UF
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
FC
is the fuel consumption of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test,
determined according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, l/100km;
FC
is the fuel consumption determined according to Table A8/6, step No. 1,
l/100km;
j
k
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation approach is applied, k shall be the number of phases
driven up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L n .
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, an individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family, nvehind, is lower than the transition cycle
number driven by vehicle L, n , the confirmation cycle of vehicle H and, if applicable,
an individual vehicle shall be included in the calculation. The fuel consumption of each
phase of the confirmation cycle shall then be corrected to an electric energy
consumption of zero EC = 0 by using the fuel consumption correction coefficient
according to Appendix 2 of this Annex.

4.3.1. Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption Based on the
Recharged Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains shall be calculated using the following
equation:
EC
=

( UF ×EC )

UF
where:
EC
UF
EC
is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption
based on the recharged electric energy from the mains, Wh/km;
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
is the electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric energy from
the mains of phase j, Wh/km;
and
EC
= EC
×
E
∑ ΔER
where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption based on the REESS depletion of phase j of
the charge-depleting Test 1 according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains determined according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.6. of this Annex, Wh;
∆E is the electric energy change of all REESSs of phase j according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh;
j
k
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle
L, n , according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.

4.3.3.2. Determination of Phase-specific Electric Energy Consumption
The phase-specific electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric energy
from the mains and the phase-specific equivalent all-electric range shall be calculated
using the following equation:
EC
E
=
EAER
where:
EC
is the phase-specific electric energy consumption based on the recharged
electric energy from the mains and the equivalent all-electric range, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.2.4.6.
of this Annex, Wh;
EAER is the phase-specific equivalent all-electric range according to
Paragraph 4.4.4.2. of this Annex, km.
4.3.4. Electric Energy Consumption of PEVs
At the option of the Contracting Party, the determination of EC according to
Paragraph 4.3.4.2. of this Annex may be excluded.
4.3.4.1. The electric energy consumption determined in this Paragraph shall be calculated only if
the vehicle was able to follow the applicable test cycle within the speed trace tolerances
according to Paragraph 1.2.6.6. of Annex 6 during the entire considered period.
4.3.4.2. Electric Energy Consumption Determination of the Applicable WLTP Test Cycle
The electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range shall be calculated
using the following equation:
EC
E
=
PER
where:
EC is the electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on
the recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for the
applicable WLTP test cycle, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3.
of this Annex, Wh;
PER is the pure electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle as calculated
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. or Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this Annex,
depending on the PEV test procedure that must be used, km.

4.4. Calculation of Electric Ranges
At the option of the Contracting Party, the determination of AER , PER and the
calculation of EAER may be excluded.
4.4.1. All-electric Ranges AER and AER for OVC-HEVs
4.4.1.1. All-electric Range AER
The all-electric range AER for OVC-HEVs shall be determined from the charge-depleting
Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex as part of the Option 1 test
sequence and is referenced in Paragraph 3.2.6.1. of this Annex as part of the Option 3
test sequence by driving the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2.1.
of this Annex. The AER is defined as the distance driven from the beginning of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test to the point in time where the combustion engine starts
consuming fuel.
4.4.1.2. All-electric Range City AER
4.4.1.2.1. The all-electric range city AER for OVC-HEVs shall be determined from the
charge-depleting Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex as part of the
Option 1 test sequence and is referenced in Paragraph 3.2.6.1. of this Annex as part of
the Option 3 test sequence by driving the applicable WLTP city test cycle according to
Paragraph 1.4.2.2. of this Annex. The AER is defined as the distance driven from the
beginning of the charge-depleting Type 1 test to the point in time where the combustion
engine starts consuming fuel.
4.4.1.2.2. As an alternative to Paragraph 4.4.1.2.1. of this Annex, the all-electric range city AER
may be determined from the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by driving the applicable WLTP test cycles according to
Paragraph 1.4.2.1. of this Annex. In that case, the charge-depleting Type 1 test by
driving the applicable WLTP city test cycle shall be omitted and the all-electric range city
AER shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
AER
UBE
=
EC
UBE is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by
driving applicable WLTP test cycles until the point in time where the combustion
engine starts consuming fuel, Wh;
EC is the weighted electric energy consumption of the pure electrically driven
applicable WLTP city test cycles of the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycle(s),
Wh/km;

4.4.2. Pure Electric Range for PEVs
The ranges determined in this Paragraph shall only be calculated if the vehicle was able
to follow the applicable WLTP test cycle within the speed trace tolerances according to
Paragraph 1.2.6.6. of Annex 6 during the entire considered period.
4.4.2.1. Determination of the Pure Electric Ranges when the Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure is
Applied
4.4.2.1.1. The pure-electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle PERWLTC for PEVs shall be
calculated from the shortened Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of this
Annex using the following equations:
PER
UBE
=
EC
where:
UBE
EC
is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure until the break-off criterion as defined in
Paragraph 3.4.4.2.3. of this Annex is reached, Wh;
is the weighted electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test
cycle of DS and DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure Type 1 test,
Wh/km;
and
UBE
= Α E
+ ΔE
+ ΔE
+ ΔE
where:
Α E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during DS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during DS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during CSS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during CSS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;

and
EC
=

EC
× K
where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP city test cycle
where the first applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 1,
the second applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 2, the
first applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 3 and the
second applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 4 of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex,
Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP city test cycle where the first
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 1, the second
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 2, the first
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 3 and the second
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 4,
and
K
ΔE
=
UBE
and K
1- K
=
3
for j = 2…4
where:
∆E is the energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable WLTP city
test cycle of DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.1.3. The phase-specific pure electric-range PER for PEVs shall be calculated from the
Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of this Annex by using the following
equations:
P ER
UBE
=
EC
where:
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this
Annex, Wh;
EC
is the weighted electric energy consumption for each individual phase of
DS and DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;

4.4.2.2. Determination of the Pure Electric Ranges when the Consecutive Cycle Type 1 Test
Procedure is Applied
4.4.2.2.1. The pure electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle PER for PEVs shall be
calculated from the Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of this Annex using
the following equations:
where:
P ER
UBE
=
EC
UBE
is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure until the break-off criterion according
to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex is reached, Wh;
EC is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle
determined from completely driven applicable WLTP test cycles of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;
and
UBE
= ∑ ΔE
where:
∆E
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during phase j of the consecutive
cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
j
k
is the index number of the phase;
is the number of phases driven from the beginning up to and including the
phase where the break-off criterion is reached;
and
EC
=

EC
× K
where:
EC is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle j of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle j of the consecutive
cycle Type 1 test procedure;
j
is the index number of the applicable WLTP test cycle;
n is the whole number of complete applicable WLTP test cycles driven;

and
K
ΔE
=
UBE
and K
=
1 - K
n
− 1
for j = 2…n
where:
∆E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable
WLTP city test cycle of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.2.3. The phase-specific pure electric-range PER for PEVs shall be calculated from the
Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of this Annex using the following
equations:
P ER
UBE
=
EC
where:
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this
Annex, Wh;
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the considered phase p determined
from completely driven phases p of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test
procedure, Wh/km;
and
EC
=

EC
× K
where:
EC
is the j electric energy consumption for the considered phase p of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K
is the j weighting factor for the considered phase p of the consecutive cycle
Type 1 test procedure;
j is the index number of the considered phase p;
n
is the whole number of complete WLTC phases p driven;

and
M
=

( M × d )

d
where:
M is the arithmetic average charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
d
j
k
is the distance driven in phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle n
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4 of this Annex.
4.4.4.2. Determination of the Phase-specific Equivalent all-electric Range
The phase-specific equivalent all-electric range shall be calculated using the following
equation:
EAER
⎛ M
= ⎜

- MC
M
⎞ ∑ E

Δ
×

EC
where:
EAER is the phase-specific equivalent all-electric range for the considered phase p,
km;
M is the phase-specific CO mass emission from the charge-sustaining Type 1
test for the considered phase p according to Table A8/5, step No. 7, g/km;
∆E
are the electric energy changes of all REESSs during the considered phase j,
Wh;
EC is the electric energy consumption over the considered phase p based on the
REESS depletion, Wh/km;
j
k
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle n
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4 of this Annex;

4.4.5. Actual Charge-depleting Range for OVC-HEVs
The actual charge-depleting range shall be calculated using the following equation:
R
=

d
⎛ M
+ ⎜

M
- M
- M

⎟ × d

where:
R is the actual charge-depleting range, km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission according to Table A8/5, step
No. 7, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission of the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average CO mass emission of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test from the beginning up to and including the applicable WLTP
test cycle (n-1), g/km;
d
d
c
n
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle c of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven including the
transition cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex;

The linearity criterion for vehicle M shall be considered fulfilled if the difference between
the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of vehicle M derived from the measurement
and the interpolated charge-sustaining CO mass emission between vehicle L and H is
below 1g/km. If this difference is greater, the linearity criterion shall be considered to be
fulfilled if this difference is 3g/km or 3% of the interpolated charge-sustaining CO mass
emission for vehicle M, whichever is smaller.
If the linearity criterion is fulfilled, the interpolation between vehicle L and H shall be
applicable for all individual vehicles within the interpolation family.
If the linearity criterion is not fulfilled, the interpolation family shall be split into two
sub-families for vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles L and M, and
vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles M and H.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles L and M, each
parameter of vehicle H that is necessary for the interpolation of individual OVC-HEV and
NOVC-HEV values, shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of vehicle M.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles M and H, each
parameter of vehicle L that is necessary for the interpolation of individual cycle values
shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of vehicle M.
4.5.2. Calculation of Energy Demand per Period
The energy demand E and distance driven d per period p applicable for individual
vehicles in the interpolation family shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, for the sets k of road load coefficients and masses according to
Paragraph 3.2.3.2.3. of Annex 7.
4.5.3. Calculation of the Interpolation Coefficient Kint,p
The interpolation coefficient Kint,p per period shall be calculated for each considered
period p using the following equation:
K
E
=
E
- E
- E
where:
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
E is the energy demand for the considered period for vehicle L according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
E is the energy demand for the considered period for vehicle H according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
E is the energy demand for the considered period for the individual vehicle according
to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable test cycle.

4.5.4.3. Individual Utility Factor-weighted CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
where:
M = M + K × (M − M )
M is the utility factor-weighted CO2 mass emission for an individual vehicle,
g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO2 mass emission for vehicle L, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO2 mass emission for vehicle H, g/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.5. Interpolation of the Fuel Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.5.1. Individual Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle shall be calculated
using the following equation:
where:
FC = FC + K × (FC − FC )
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle of the
considered period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 3, l/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle L of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, l/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle H of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, l/100km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for
period p;
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test
cycle.
The considered periods shall be the low-phase, mid-phase, high-phase, extra
high-phase, and the applicable WLTP cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party
requests to exclude the extra high-phase, this phase value shall be omitted.

4.5.6. Interpolation of Electric Energy Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.6.1. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption Based
on the Recharged Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
an individual vehicle, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle L, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.6.2. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Electric Energy Consumption Based on the Recharged
Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC
EC
EC
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for an individual vehicle,
Wh/km;
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle L, Wh/km;
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable test cycle.

is fulfilled, the all-electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
AER = AER + K × (AER − AER )
AER is the all-electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for phase p;
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable
WLTP test cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra
high-phase, this phase value shall be omitted.
If the criterion defined in this Paragraph is not fulfilled, the AER determined for vehicle H
is applicable to all vehicles within the interpolation family.
4.5.7.2. Individual Pure Electric Range for PEVs
The pure electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
PER = PER + K × (PER − PER )
PER is the pure electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p,
km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for phase p;
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the low-phase, mid-phase, high-phase, extra highphase,
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable WLTP test cycle. In the
case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra high-phase, this phase
value shall be omitted.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 1
REESS STATE OF CHARGE PROFILE
1. TEST SEQUENCES AND REESS PROFILES: OVC-HEVS, CHARGE-DEPLETING
AND CHARGE-SUSTAINING TEST
1.1. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 1:
Charge-depleting type 1 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1 test
(A8.App1/1).
Figure A8.App1/1
OVC-HEVs, Charge-depleting Type 1 Test

1.3. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 3:
Charge-depleting Type 1 test with subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1 test
(A8.App1/3).
Figure A8.App1/3
OVC-HEVs, Charge-depleting Type 1 Test with
Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test

2. TEST SEQUENCE NOVC-HEVS AND NOVC-FCHVS
Charge-sustaining Type 1 test
Figure A8.App1/5
NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs, Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test
3. TEST SEQUENCES PEV
3.1. Consecutive Cycles Procedure
Figure A8.App1/6
Consecutive Cycles Test Sequence PEV

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 2
REESS ENERGY CHANGE-BASED CORRECTION PROCEDURE
This Appendix describes the procedure to correct the charge-sustaining Type 1 test CO mass emission
for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs, and the fuel consumption for NOVC-FCHVs as a function of the
electric energy change of all REESSs.
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Applicability of this Appendix
1.1.1. The phase-specific fuel consumption for NOVC-FCHVs, and the CO mass emission for
NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs shall be corrected.
1.1.2. In the case that a correction of fuel consumption for NOVC-FCHVs or a correction of CO
mass emission for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs measured over the whole cycle
according to Paragraph 1.1.3. or Paragraph 1.1.4. of this Appendix is applied,
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex shall be used to calculate the charge-sustaining REESS
energy change ∆E of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test. The considered period j
used in Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex is defined by the charge-sustaining Type 1 test.
1.1.3. The correction shall be applied if ∆E is negative which corresponds to REESS
discharging and the correction criterion c calculated in Paragraph 1.2. is greater than the
applicable tolerance according to Table A8.App2/1.
1.1.4. The correction may be omitted and uncorrected values may be used if:
(a) ∆E is positive which corresponds to REESS charging and the correction
criterion c calculated in Paragraph 1.2. is greater than the applicable tolerance
according to Table A8.App2/1;
(b)
(c)
the correction criterion c calculated in Paragraph 1.2. is smaller than the
applicable tolerance according to Table A8.App2/1;
the manufacturer can prove to the responsible authority by measurement that
there is no relation between ∆E and charge-sustaining CO mass emission
and ∆E and fuel consumption respectively.

1.2.2. Charge-sustaining Fuel Energy for NOVC-FCHVs
The charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel for NOVC-FCHVs shall be
calculated using the following equation:
E
1
= ×121×FC
0.36
× d
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel of the
applicable WLTP test cycle of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, Wh;
121 is the lower heating value of hydrogen, MJ/kg;
FC
is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the chargesustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, determined
according to Table A8/7, step No.1, kg/100km;
d is the distance driven over the corresponding applicable WLTP test cycle, km;
1
0.36
conversion factor to Wh.
Applicable Type 1 test
cycle
Table A8.App2/1
Correction Criteria
Low + Medium
Low + Medium +
High
Low + Medium +
High + Extra High
Correction criterion ratio c 0.015 0.01 0.005
2. CALCULATION OF CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS
2.1. The CO2 mass emission correction coefficient K , the fuel consumption correction
coefficients K , as well as, if required by the manufacturer, the phase-specific
correction coefficients K and K shall be developed based on the applicable
charge-sustaining Type 1 test cycles.
In the case that vehicle H was tested for the development of the correction coefficient for
CO mass emission for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs, the coefficient may be applied
within the interpolation family.
2.2. The correction coefficients shall be determined from a set of charge-sustaining Type 1
tests according to Paragraph 3. of this Appendix. The number of tests performed by the
manufacturer shall be equal to or greater than five.
The manufacturer may request to set the state of charge of the REESS prior to the test
according to the manufacturer’s recommendation and as described in Paragraph 3. of
this Appendix. This practice shall only be used for the purpose of achieving a chargesustaining
Type 1 test with opposite sign of the ∆E and with approval of the
responsible authority.

2.3. Calculation of Correction Coefficients K and K
2.3.1. Determination of the Fuel Consumption Correction Coefficient K
For NOVC-FCHVs, the fuel consumption correction coefficient K , determined by
driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined using the following equation:
K
=

( EC - EC ) × ( FC - FC
)
∑ EC - EC
where:
K
EC
is the fuel consumption correction coefficient, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km
EC is the mean charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of n tests based
on the REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of test n, not corrected for the
energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step No. 1, kg/100km;
FC is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of n
tests based on the fuel consumption, not corrected for the energy balance,
according to the equation below, kg/100km;
n
is the index number of the considered test;
n is the total number of tests;
and:
1
EC = ×
n

EC
and:
1
FC = ×
n

FC

2.3.2. Determination of CO Mass Emission Correction Coefficient K
For OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs, the CO mass emission correction coefficient K ,
determined by driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined by the following
equation:
K
=
( EC - EC ) × ( M
M
)
∑ ( EC - EC )
∑ ×
where:
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient, (g/km)/(Wh/km);
EC
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix, Wh/km;
EC is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining electric energy
consumption of n tests based on the REESS depletion according to
Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix, Wh/km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of test n, not corrected for the
energy balance, calculated according Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of
nCS tests based on the CO mass emission, not corrected for the energy
balance, according to the equation below, g/km;
n
nCS
is the index number of the considered test;
is the total number of tests;
and:
MCO2,CS,nb,avg=1nCS×ΣMCO2,CS,nb,nnCSn=1
The CO mass emission correction coefficient shall be rounded to four significant figures.
The statistical significance of the CO mass emission correction coefficient shall be
evaluated by the responsible authority.
2.3.2.1. It is permitted to apply the CO mass emission correction coefficient developed from
tests over the whole applicable WLTP test cycle for the correction of each individual
phase.
2.3.2.2. Without prejudice to the requirements of Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix, at the request
of the manufacturer upon approval of the responsible authority, separate CO mass
emission correction coefficients K for each individual phase may be developed.
In this case, the same criteria as described in Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix shall be
fulfilled in each individual phase and the procedure described in Paragraph 2.3.2. of this
Appendix shall be applied for each individual phase to determine phase-specific
correction coefficients.

3.1.1.3. Test Procedure
3.1.1.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected
according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.1.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex
shall be driven.
3.1.1.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.1.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2 of this Appendix consisting of Paragraph 3.1.1.1. to
Paragraph 3.1.1.3. inclusive of this Appendix.
3.1.2. Option 2 Test Sequence
3.1.2.1. Preconditioning
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 2.1.1. or
Paragraph 2.1.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex.
3.1.2.2. REESS Adjustment
After preconditioning, soaking according to Paragraph 2.1.3. of Appendix 4 to this Annex
shall be omitted and a break, during which the REESS is permitted to be adjusted, shall
be set to a maximum duration of 60min. A similar break shall be applied in advance of
each test. Immediately after the end of this break, the requirements of
Paragraph 3.1.2.3. of this Appendix shall be applied.
Upon request of the manufacturer, an additional warm-up procedure may be conducted
in advance of the REESS adjustment to ensure similar starting conditions for the
correction coefficient determination. If the manufacturer requests this additional warm-up
procedure, the identical warm-up procedure shall be applied repeatedly within the test
sequence.
3.1.2.3. Test Procedure
3.1.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected
according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex
shall be driven.
3.1.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.2.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of
the correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive
sequences required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of
Paragraphs 3.1.2.2. and 3.1.2.3. of this Appendix.

3.2.1.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.2.1.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of
the correction coefficients, the test can be followed by a number of consecutive
sequences required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of
Paragraph 3.2.1.1. to Paragraph 3.2.1.3. inclusive of this Appendix.
3.2.2. Option 2 Test Sequence
3.2.2.1. Preconditioning
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 3.3.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.2.2. REESS Adjustment
After preconditioning, the soaking according to Paragraph 3.3.1.2. of this Annex shall be
omitted and a break, during which the REESS is permitted to be adjusted, shall be set to
a maximum duration of 60 minutes. A similar break shall be applied in advance of each
test. Immediately after the end of this break, the requirements of Paragraph 3.2.2.3. of
this Appendix shall be applied.
Upon request of the manufacturer, an additional warm-up procedure may be conducted
in advance of the REESS adjustment to ensure similar starting conditions for the
correction coefficient determination. If the manufacturer requests this additional warm-up
procedure, the identical warm-up procedure shall be applied repeatedly within the test
sequence.
3.2.2.3. Test Procedure
3.2.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected
according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.2.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex
shall be driven.
3.2.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.2.2.3.4. To get a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test can be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraphs 3.2.2.2.
and 3.2.2.3. of this Appendix.

2.1.3. The current transducer output shall be sampled with a minimum frequency of 20Hz. The
measured current shall be integrated over time, yielding the measured value of Q,
expressed in ampere-hours Ah. The integration may be done in the current
measurement system.
2.2. Vehicle on-board REESS Current Data
As an alternative to Paragraph 2.1. of this Appendix, the manufacturer may use the onboard
current measurement data. The accuracy of these data shall be demonstrated to
the responsible authority.
3. REESS VOLTAGE
3.1. External REESS Voltage Measurement
During the tests described in Paragraph 3. of this annex, the REESS voltage shall be
measured with the equipment and accuracy requirements specified in Paragraph 1.1. of
this annex. To measure the REESS voltage using external measuring equipment, the
manufacturers shall support the responsible authority by providing REESS voltage
measurement points.
3.2. Nominal REESS Voltage
For NOVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-HEVs, instead of using the measured
REESS voltage according to Paragraph 3.1. of this Appendix, the nominal voltage of the
REESS determined according to DIN EN 60050-482 may be used.
3.3. Vehicle on-board REESS Voltage Data
As an alternative to Paragraph 3.1. and 3.2. of this appendix, the manufacturer may use
the on-board voltage measurement data. The accuracy of these data shall be
demonstrated to the responsible authority.

2.2.3. Application of a Normal Charge
2.2.3.1. The REESS shall be charged at an ambient temperature as specified in
Paragraph 1.2.2.2.2. of Annex 6 either with:
(a)
(b)
The on-board charger if fitted; or
An external charger recommended by the manufacturer using the charging pattern
prescribed for normal charging.
The procedure in this Paragraph excludes all types of special charges that could be
automatically or manually initiated, e.g. equalization charges or servicing charges. The
manufacturer shall declare that, during the test, a special charge procedure has not
occurred.
2.2.3.2. End of Charge Criterion
The end-of-charge criterion is reached when the on-board or external instruments
indicate that the REESS is fully charged.
3. PEV PRE-CONDITIONING
3.1. Initial Charging of the REESS
Initial charging of the REESS consists of discharging the REESS and applying a normal
charge.
3.1.1. Discharging the REESS
The discharge procedure shall be performed according to the manufacturer’s
recommendation. The manufacturer shall guarantee that the REESS is as fully depleted
as is possible by the discharge procedure.
3.1.2. Application of a Normal Charge
The REESS shall be charged according to Paragraph 2.2.3.1. of this Appendix.

Table A8.App5/1
Parameters for the Regional Determination of Fractional UFs
Parameter
Europe
Japan
USA (fleet)
USA (individual)
d
800km
400km
399.9mi
400mi
C1
26.25
11.9
10.52
13.1
C2
-38.94
-32.5
-7.282
-18.7
C3
-631.05
89.5
-26.37
5.22
C4
5964.83
-134
79.08
8.15
C5
-25095
98.9
-77.36
3.53
C6
60380.2
-29.1
26.07
-1.34
C7
-87517
NA
NA
-4.01
C8
75513.8
NA
NA
-3.9
C9
-35749
NA
NA
-1.15
C10
7154.94
NA
NA
3.88

2.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 2.1. and Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9 of Annex 1:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle under charge-depleting operating conditions, this mode shall
be selected.
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow
the modified reference test cycle under charge-depleting operating condition, the
mode with the highest electric energy consumption shall be selected.
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test
cycle under charge-depleting operating condition, the mode or modes with the
highest cycle energy demand shall be identified and the mode with the highest
electric energy consumption shall be selected.
At the option of the contracting party, the reference test cycle can be replaced by
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected.

3.2. If there is no predominant mode or if there is a predominant mode but this mode does
not enable the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle under charge-sustaining
operating condition, the mode for the test shall be selected according to the following
conditions:
(a)
(b)
If this is a single mode, this mode shall be selected;
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle, it shall be at the
option of the manufacturer either to select the worst case mode or to select both
best case mode and worst case mode and average the test results arithmetically.
3.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 3.1. and Paragraph 3.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9. of Annex 1:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, this mode shall
be selected.
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow
the modified reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, the
worst case mode of these modes shall be selected.
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test
cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, the mode or modes with the
highest cycle energy demand shall be identified and the worst case mode shall be
selected.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle can be replaced by
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the worst case mode shall be selected.

4.2. If there is no predominant mode or if there is a predominant mode but this mode does
not enable the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the test shall be performed by
using a mode that enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle.
(a)
(b)
If this is a single mode, this mode shall be selected.
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle, the most
electric energy consuming mode of those shall be selected.
4.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 4.1. and Paragraph 4.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9. of Annex 1. The resulting test cycle shall be named
as the applicable WLTP test cycle:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle, this mode shall be selected;
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow
the modified reference test cycle, the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected;
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test
cycle, the mode or modes with the highest cycle energy demand shall be identified
and the mode with the highest electric energy consumption shall be selected;
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle may be replaced by
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected.

ANNEX 8 - APPENDIX 7
FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF COMPRESSED
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL HYBRID VEHICLES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Fuel consumption shall be measured using the gravimetric method in accordance with
Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, fuel
consumption may be measured using either the pressure method or the flow method. In
this case, the manufacturer shall provide technical evidence that the method yields
equivalent results. The pressure and flow methods are described in ISO 23828.
2. GRAVIMETRIC METHOD
Fuel consumption shall be calculated by measuring the mass of the fuel tank before and
after the test.
2.1. Equipment and Setting
2.1.1. An example of the instrumentation is shown in Figure A8.App7/1. One or more offvehicle
tanks shall be used to measure the fuel consumption. The off-vehicle tank(s)
shall be connected to the vehicle fuel line between the original fuel tank and the fuel cell
system.
2.1.2. For preconditioning, the originally installed tank or an external source of hydrogen may
be used.
2.1.3. The refuelling pressure shall be adjusted to the manufacturer’s recommended value.
2.1.4. Difference of the gas supply pressures in lines shall be minimized when the lines are
switched.
In the case that influence of pressure difference is expected, the manufacturer and
responsibility authority shall agree whether correction is necessary or not.
2.1.5. Precision Balance
2.1.5.1. The precision balance used for fuel consumption measurement shall meet the
specification of
Table A8.App7/1
Analytical Balance Verification Criteria
Measurement system Resolution (readability) Precision (repeatability)
Precision balance 0.01g maximum 0.02 maximum

2.2.4. The off-vehicle tank shall be removed from the line.
2.2.5. The mass of the tank after the test shall be measured.
2.2.6. The non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption FC from the measured mass
before and after the test shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
g - g
FC = × 100
d
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption measured during the
test, kg/100km;
g
g
d
is the mass of the tank at the start of the test, kg;
is the mass of the tank at the end of the test, kg;
is the distance driven during the test, km.
2.2.7. If required by a Contracting Party and without prejudice to the requirements of
Paragraph 2.1. of this Appendix, separate fuel consumption FC for each individual
phase shall be calculated in accordance to Paragraph 2.2. The test procedure shall be
conducted with off-vehicle tanks and connections to the vehicle fuel line which are
individually prepared for each phase.

Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure.