vehicle, vehicles, mass, means, fuel, common, definitions, category, emissions, gtrs, technical, regulations, categories, group, maximum, equipment, passenger, sulphur, seating, japan, annex, devices, dimensions, meeting, positions, quality, passengers, number, tasks, united, global, contracting, iso, states, engine, capacity, commercial, special, defined, draft, resolution, america, definition, agreed, weight, exceeding, proposal, parties, standard, parts
June 19, 2012
ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE
INLAND TRANSPORT COMMITTEE
SPECIAL RESOLUTION No. 1
CONCERNING THE COMMON DEFINITIONS OF VEHICLE
CATEGORIES, MASSES AND DIMENSIONS (S.R. 1)
dated May 9, 2007
dated June 19, 2012
THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE 1998 AGREEMENT
DESIRING to establish global technical regulations ensuring high levels of safety, environmental
protection, energy efficiency and anti-theft performance of Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts
which can be fitted and/or be used on Wheeled Vehicles,
BEARING IN MIND that an Agreement concerning the establishing of global technical regulations for
wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles was
opened for signature at Geneva on June 25, 1998,
BEARING IN MIND that global technical regulations will facilitate the trade of wheeled vehicles,
equipment and parts with harmonized performance requirements among the Contracting Parties,
BEARING IN MIND that the Executive Committee (AC.3) of the 1998 Agreement has decided to have the
set of common definitions as Special Resolution 1 (S.R. 1),
BEARING IN MIND that this S.R. 1 setting forth common definitions to be used in the global technical
regulations is necessary for the development of the global technical regulations,
BEARING IN MIND that this resolution shall not alter the regulations of Contracting Parties unless so
adopted by the Contracting Party.
RECOMMENDS the Working Parties, in drafting prospective global technical regulations, to use the
harmonized definitions for vehicle categories, masses and dimensions contained in this S.R. 1.
1. Summarized Comparison of Vehicle Categories between Japan, Europe and the United States of
Categories Japan Europe United States of America
Passenger Car Passengers of 10 or less
Passengers of 9 or less
Passengers of 10 or less
(MPV: truck chassis or
Passengers of 11 or more
Passengers of 10 or more
M :GVM ≤5t
M :GVM >5t
Passengers of 11 or
("designed and constructed
for the carriage of goods")
N :GVM ≤3.5t
N :GVM ≤ 35t−12t
N :GVM >12t
* Each country has
("carrying load or
Summarized Comparison of Definitions of Gross Vehicle Weight / Masses
Europe and the United States of America
Equipment Japan Europe
United States of
uninstalled installed installed
uninstalled installed installed
Oil/Water Full Full Full
Fuel 100% 90% 100%
Passenger weight/mass 55kg/person 75 kg/person 68 kg/person
Gross Vehicle Weight/Mass
VW: Vehicle Weight
n: Passenger Number
PL : Pay Load
There was support for a proposal to categorise vehicles as passenger vehicles and commercial
vehicles, the passenger vehicles being further classified into passenger cars, small buses, and
large buses according to their Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) (buses being 3.5t or over), while
commercial vehicles were classified as small, medium, and large commercial vehicles according to
their (GVW). There was also support for a plan to categorise vehicles into passenger cars and
commercial vehicles by number of passengers, commercial vehicles being further categorised into
small commercial vehicles and large commercial vehicles by (GVW). Similarly, there was support
to categorise commercial vehicles as small, medium and large according to their (GVW).
Additionally, there were comments that vehicles should not be defined by categories but only
according to their parameter characters, details being defined by individual gtrs.
These comments were discussed and it was agreed to recommend that vehicles will be defined
based on minimum necessary requirements; these categories are passenger car, bus, and
commercial vehicle, with the commercial vehicle category further divided into the sub-categories of
small, medium and large commercial vehicles. This recommendation was based on the Resolution
on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3). In addition, it was planned that the two proposed drafts
on the common definitions of vehicle categories, weight, and dimensions would be combined by
In order to advance discussion on the combined draft proposal prior to the fourth Common Tasks
Group meeting, a preliminary meeting was conducted in Ottawa on April 4, 2002. Prior to this
meeting, copies of the combined draft proposal were distributed to the members, and comments
The action taken in response to major comments are listed as follows:
There was a proposal to clarify the purpose of the Common Tasks, define "special-purpose
vehicles" as another category, and define "pay mass" more clearly. A provision to define
"special-purpose vehicles" in individual regulations of the Contracting Parties was inserted.
Another comment was to define "unladen mass" more clearly and clarify where to define Gross
Vehicle Mass (GVM) and Gross Technical Mass (GTM). Additionally, GTM was further defined.
The draft was amended to that effect.
There were also comments with regard to the definition of seating positions. It was agreed to
recommend that all seating positions supported by a seat anchorage be used to determine vehicle
There was a proposal to make a further inquiry about the naming of categories and how to define
the number of passengers in a mathematical formula. As for the names of categories, the
proposed names were agreed to be recommended for adoption due to a lack of more appropriate
ones. A formula to calculate the number of passengers was not agreed on.
A proposal was made to clarify the definitions of weights and sizes. The draft was revised to that
2) Breakpoints in Category 2
Discussions were aimed at unifying the breakpoint of 3.5t under the 1958 Agreement and
the 3.9/4.5 (8500/10000lbs) tons in the United States of America regulations, but the
Common Tasks Group failed to provide technical rationales for realizing the necessary
unification. It was therefore agreed to recommend that breakpoints be established on the
basis of technical rationales when gtrs are formulated. To prevent the number of
breakpoints from increasing excessively, it is suggested that future breakpoint(s) be
selected from 3.5 or 4.5t for safety regulations and from 3.5 or 3.9t for environmental
regulations. Furthermore, it was agreed to recommend that if a common breakpoint is
adopted in a number of gtrs, this breakpoint may be established as a formal common
breakpoint in the gtr on Vehicle Definitions.
3) Power driven vehicles with two or three wheels
The maximum speed for the vehicles was tentatively recommended at 50km/h. In addition, a
note would be appended to this decision that "the European Union has entered a study
reservation on the maximum speed of Category 3-1 vehicles". Other pending issues
concerning two-wheeled vehicles were resolved.
Summary: As a result, the Common Tasks Group agreed to recommend the Special
Resolution on Vehicle Definitions. Although editorial comments were presented and the
draft was accordingly modified, the wording of the draft basically remained to respect the
recommendation reached by the Common Tasks Group. Any issues that may be brought in
the future concerning the draft shall be discussed in a new setup.
Japan submitted the proposal TRANS/WP.29/2003/17 to the one-hundred-and-twenty-ninth
session of WP.29 as the proposal of the draft gtr, followed by the United States of America
proposal TRANS/2003/WP29/2003/51. Taking into consideration the United States of
America proposal, Japan at the eighth session of the Executive Committee (AC.3) of the
1998 Agreement, proposed that the draft gtr should have the administrative status of the
Resolution. AC.3 agreed on the proposed principal and decided that GRSG should prepare
the technical work.
Under these circumstances, Japan proposed TRANS/WP.29/2003/17/Rev.1 to the
one-hundred-and-thirty-first session of WP.29. Furthermore, TRANS/WP.29/GRSG/2003/10
was revised based on TRANS/WP.29/2003/17/Rev.1. GRSG, at its eighty-fifth session,
adopted with some modification TRANS/WP.29/GRSG/2003/10/Rev.1 and submitted
TRANS/WP.29/2004/25 to WP.29 and AC.3.
AC.3, at its eleventh session, studied these documents and decided that the proposal
(TRANS/WP.29/2004/25) would be considered as Special Resolution No. 1 (S.R.1). The
new title of the resolution is "Special Resolution No. 1 concerning common definitions of
vehicle categories, masses and dimensions (S.R.1)", to be resolved under the 1998
Agreement concerning the establishing of Global Technical Regulations for wheeled
vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles. The
representative of Japan volunteered to prepare a revised document for WP.29 and AC.3,
hoping it would be approved as S.R.1.
3. SPECIFIC PROVISIONS
3.1. References in gtrs to general definitions shall be in accordance with Annex 1.
3.2. References in gtrs to categories of vehicles shall be in accordance with Annex 2.
3.3. References in gtrs to masses of vehicles shall be in accordance with Annex 3.
3.4. References in gtrs to dimensions of vehicles shall be in accordance with Annex 4.
3.5. References in gtrs to minimum market fuel quality parameters shall be in accordance with
CATEGORISATION OF VEHICLES
For the purpose of gtrs, vehicles shall be classified on the basis of their design and construction features.
1. POWER DRIVEN VEHICLES WITH FOUR OR MORE WHEELS
1.1. "Category 1 vehicle" means a power driven vehicle with four or more wheels designed and
constructed primarily for the carriage of (a) person(s).
1.1.1. "Category 1-1 vehicle" means a Category 1 vehicle comprising not more than eight seating
positions in addition to the driver's seating position. A Category 1-1 vehicle cannot have
1.1.2. "Category 1-2 vehicle" means a Category 1 vehicle designed for the carriage of more than
eight passengers, whether seated or standing, in addition to the driver.
1.2. "Category 2 vehicle" means a power driven vehicle with four or more wheels designed and
constructed primarily for the carriage of goods. This category shall also include:
i) tractive units
chassis designed specifically to be equipped with special equipment.
1.3. To determine whether a vehicle is to be regarded as a Category 1 vehicle or a Category 2
vehicle for the application of gtrs, the following shall apply in cases where it is not immediately
apparent whether a vehicle is a Category 1 or 2 vehicle:
1.3.1. If a vehicle meets all of the following conditions:
P - (M + N × 68) > N x 68,
N ≤ 6 and
Pay mass as defined in Paragraph 7 of Annex 3 exceeds 150 kg for the vehicle, as configured
with the maximum mass of factory fitted optional equipment,
the vehicle shall be deemed to be a Category 2 vehicle.
In all other cases, the vehicle shall be deemed to be a Category 1 vehicle.
P = Gross vehicle mass as defined in Paragraph 4 of Annex 3.
M = Mass in running order as defined in Paragraph 3 of Annex 3.
N = Maximum number of simultaneous seating and standing positions excluding the driver
For the purpose of global technical regulations:
1. All masses shall be expressed in kilograms (kg).
2. "Unladen Vehicle Mass" means the nominal mass of a complete vehicle as determined by the
2.1. Mass of the vehicle with bodywork and all factory fitted equipment, electrical and auxiliary
equipment for normal operation of vehicle, including liquids, tools, fire extinguisher, standard spare
parts, chocks and spare wheel, if fitted.
2.2. The fuel tank shall be filled to at least 90% of rated capacity and the other liquid containing
systems (except those for used water) to 100% of the capacity specified by the manufacturer.
3. "Mass in running order" means the nominal mass of a vehicle as determined by the following
Sum of unladen vehicle mass and driver's mass. The driver's mass is applied in accordance with
Paragraph 6.1. below.
In the case of Category 1-2 vehicles, additional crewmembers for which seating positions are
provided shall be included, their mass being equal to, and incorporated in the same way as, that of
4. "Gross vehicle mass" of a vehicle means the maximum mass of the fully laden solo vehicle,
based on its construction and design performances, as declared by the manufacturer. This shall
be less than or equal to the sum of the maximum axles' (group of axles) capacity.
5. "Gross Train Mass" of a power driven vehicle means the technically permissible maximum mass
of the laden vehicle combination, as declared by the manufacturer of the towing vehicle.
6. Occupant mass
6.1. "Driver Mass" means the nominal mass of a driver that shall be 75kg (subdivided into 68kg
occupant mass at the seat and 7kg luggage mass in accordance with ISO Standard 2416–1992).
6.2. "Passenger mass" means the nominal mass of a passenger that shall be 68kg except:
in the case of Category 1-1 vehicle, where each passenger must additionally have 7kg provision
for luggage which shall be located in the luggage compartment(s) in accordance with
ISO Standard 2416–1992.
in the case of Category 1-2 vehicles not designed to carry standing passengers, where each
passenger must have 3kg additional provision for hand baggage.
7. "Pay mass" means the goods-carrying capacity of the vehicle which is the figure obtained by
subtracting the unladen vehicle mass and the driver and passenger masses from the gross vehicle
All Dimensions shall be determined with the vehicle at its unladen vehicle mass
For the purpose of global technical regulations:
1. VEHICLE LENGTH
1.1. "Structural length" means a dimension which is measured according to ISO Standard 612-1978,
Term No 6.1. In addition to the provisions of that standard, when measuring the vehicle structural
length the following devices shall not be taken into account:
wiper and washer devices,
front or rear marker-plates,
customs sealing devices and their protection,
devices for securing the load restraint(s)/cover(s) and their protection,
lighting and light signalling devices,
mirrors or other devices for indirect vision,
length stops for demountable bodies,
access steps and hand-holds,
ram rubbers and similar equipment,
lifting platforms, access ramps and similar equipment in running order, not exceeding
coupling and recovery towing devices for power driven vehicles,
trolleybus current collection devices in their elevated and retracted positions,
external sun visors,
1.2. "Overall length" means a dimension so as to take the devices mentioned in Paragraph 1.1. into
7. "Rear overhang" means the distance between the vertical plane passing through the centres of
the rearmost wheels and the rearmost point of the vehicle, taking into consideration the towing
attachment, if fitted, registration number plate, etc., and any parts rigidly attached to the vehicle,
according to ISO Standard 612-1978, Term No. 6.7.
4.3. The parameters given are in respect of Euro 2, 3, 4 vehicle technology levels. Further revisions to
this guideline will be required in the future to keep the guideline updated with technical
4.4. This document includes only Euro standards but it should be noted that applicable standards in
other countries such as Japan and the United States also have comparable standards that require
minimum fuel quality requirements. Please consult with local officials to determine the appropriate
5. FUEL QUALITY TO ENABLE EMISSIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
5.1. Gasoline Quality
For Euro 2 For Euro 3 For Euro 4 Test method
EN ISO 20846
EN ISO 20884
addition, with a
addition, with a
addition, with a
5.2. Diesel fuel quality
Diesel fuel parameters For Euro 2 For Euro 3 For Euro 4 Test method
EN ISO 20846
EN ISO 20884
Ash (% m/m) ≤0.01 ≤0.01 ≤0.01 EN ISO 6245
Total Contamination (mg/kg) ≤24 ≤24 ≤24 EN 12662
ANNEX 5 – APPENDIX 2
1.1. Sulphur naturally occurs in crude oil. Sulphur poisons or reduces the effectiveness of emission
control technologies for diesel vehicles, resulting in increased vehicle emissions of carbon
monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxide (NO ) and particulate matter (PM). Sulphur in
diesel fuel can have a significant effect on emission system durability, as well as on engine life. As
sulphur levels decrease, engine life can improve as a result of lower corrosion and wear of the
engine's components. Additive technology is frequently used to ensure adequate fuel lubricity as
the sulphur levels are reduced.
1.2. The efficiency of exhaust emissions control systems is generally reduced by sulphur and some
emissions control technologies can be irreversibly damaged through blockage by sulphates. The
impact of sulphur on particulate emissions is well understood and known to be important. Fuel
sulphur is oxidised during combustion to form SO , which is the primary sulphur compound emitted
from the engine.
1.3. For vehicles that are not equipped with oxidation catalysts, the conversion of SO into sulphates is
limited. However, in catalyst-equipped vehicles, the conversion of SO to sulphates (SO )
dramatically increases. The sulphates and associated water coalesce around the carbon core of
exhaust particulates, which increases the mass of the particulate matter (PM). Thus, higher fuel
sulphur levels can have a significant impact on the measured PM emissions. This can significantly
increase the PM emitted from the vehicle and have a significant impact on the efficiency and
durability of the vehicle’s after-treatment system.
1.4. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) allow vehicles to achieve very low particulate emissions levels and
DPFs are widely applied to meet stringent emissions requirements. Especially in DPF systems that
are catalytically-regenerated, the fuel sulphur can reduce the performance and durability of the
DPF system. Sulphates can also gradually block the filter, causing the back-pressure over the filter
to rise, and thus negatively affect the performance and durability of the filter.
2.1. Fuel and lubricant derived ash can contribute to coking on injector nozzles and will have a
significant effect on the life of DPFs. Ash-forming metals can be present in fuel additives, lubricant
additives or as a by-product of the refining process.
2.2. Metallic ash constituents are incombustible, so when they are present in the fuel, they remain in
the exhaust and become trapped within the DPF. Thus, the presence of ash-forming materials in
the fuel will lead to a premature increase in backpressure and vehicle operability problems. Nonfuel
solutions have not been found to be satisfactory. Larger filters would reduce backpressure
build-up but otherwise would be unnecessary and may be infeasible (for example, in smaller
vehicles). Increased in-use maintenance or, in extreme cases, replacing the DPF may not be
allowed in some markets.
ANNEX 5 – APPENDIX 3
1. Some problems encountered by vehicles from fuel quality can be caused by adulteration of the
fuel in the fuel distribution system, after the fuel has left the refinery gate. Failure to invest in
adequate pipeline and storage facilities and failure to maintain the equipment can lead to volatility
losses, fuel leakage, and contamination by particulates and water. These, in turn, can lead to
many of the vehicle problems mentioned previously. Poor maintenance practices at the service
station, such as too infrequent replacement of fuel dispenser filters or "dipping" of tanks to check
for water, can magnify these problems, including corrosion problems within vehicles. CEN has
issued a useful guideline document on good practice for fuel housekeeping: CEN TR/15367 .