Regulation No. 13-H
|Name:||Regulation No. 13-H|
|Description:||Passenger Car Braking.|
|Official Title:||Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of: Passenger Cars with Regard to Braking.|
|Country:||ECE - United Nations|
|Date of Issue:||1998-06-19|
|Amendment Level:||00 Series, Supplement 16|
|Number of Pages:||101|
|Vehicle Types:||Car, Component, Light Truck|
|Subject Categories:||Prior Versions|
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June 22, 2015
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.05.98
Corr. 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Corr. 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Corr. 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Corr. 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Supplement 1 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.12.00
Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 20.02.02
Corr. 1 to Supplement 2 to the 00 series of amendments
Supplement 3 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 04.04.05
Supplement 4 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.06.07
Supplement 5 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.11.07
Corr. 1 of 17.09.09 to Revision 1
Supplement 6 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 15.10.08
Supplement 7 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 22.07.09
Corr. 1 of 17.09.09 to Supplement 7 to Revision 1
Supplement 8 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09
Supplement 9 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 17.03.10
Corr. 1 to Supplement 9 to the 00 series of amendments
Supplement 10 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.12.10
Supplement 11 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 30.01.11
Corr. 1 of 16.11.11 to Revision 2
Corr. 2 of 14.03.12 to Revision 2
Supplement 12 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 28.10.11
Supplement 13 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 13.04.12
Supplement 14 to the 00 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 27.01.13
Corr. 3 of 11.09.13 to Revision 2
REGULATION NO. 13-H
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
3. Application for Approval
7. Modification of Vehicle Type or Braking System and Extension of Approval
8. Conformity of Production
9. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
10. Production Definitively Discontinued
11. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Responsible for Conducting Approval Tests, and of
Type Approval Authorities
12. Transitional Provisions
Appendix – List of vehicle data for the purpose of Regulation No. 90 approvals
− Arrangements of Approval Marks
− Braking Tests and Performance of Braking Systems
Appendix − Procedure for monitoring the state of battery charge
− Provisions Relating to Energy Sources and Energy Storage Devices (Energy
REGULATION NO. 13-H
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF
PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO BRAKING
1.1. This Regulation applies to the braking of vehicles of Category M and N .
1.2. This Regulation does not cover:
1.2.1. Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25km/h;
1.2.2. Vehicles fitted for invalid drivers.
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking.
2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects
2.2.1. The maximum mass, as defined in Paragraph 2.11. below;
2.2.2. The distribution of mass among the axles;
2.2.3. The maximum design speed;
2.2.4. A different type of braking equipment, with more particular reference to the presence or
otherwise of equipment for braking a trailer or any presence of electric braking system;
2.2.5. The engine type;
2.2.6. The number and ratios of gears;
2.2.7. The final drive ratios;
2.2.8. The tyre dimensions.
2.9. "Progressive and graduated braking" means braking during which, within the normal
operating range of the device, and during actuation of the brakes (see Paragraph 2.16.
2.9.1. The driver can at any moment increase or decrease the braking force by acting on the
2.9.2. The braking force varies proportionally as the action on the control (monotonic function);
2.9.3. The braking force can be easily regulated with sufficient precision.
2.10. "Laden vehicle" means, except where otherwise stated, a vehicle so laden as to attain its
2.11. "Maximum mass" means the maximum mass stated by the vehicle manufacturer to be
technically permissible (this mass may be higher than the "permissible maximum mass" laid
down by the national administration).
2.12. "The distribution of mass among the axles" means the distribution of the effect of the
gravity on the mass of the vehicle and/or its contents among the axles.
2.13. "Wheel/axle load" means the vertical static reaction (force) of the road surface in the
contact area on the wheel/wheels of the axle.
2.14. "Maximum stationary wheel/axle load" means the stationary wheel/axle load achieved
under the condition of the laden vehicle.
2.15. "Hydraulic braking equipment with stored energy" means a braking equipment where
energy is supplied by a hydraulic fluid under pressure, stored in one or more accumulator(s)
fed from one or more pressure pump(s), each fitted with a means of limiting the pressure to
a maximum value. This value shall be specified by the manufacturer.
2.16. "Actuation" means both application and release of the control.
2.17. "Electric regenerative braking" means a braking system which, during deceleration,
provides for the conversion of vehicle kinetic energy into electrical energy;
2.17.1. "Electric regenerative braking control" means a device which modulates the action of the
electric regenerative braking system;
2.17.2. "Electric regenerative braking system of Category A" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is not part of the service braking system;
2.17.3. "Electric regenerative braking system of Category B" means an electric regenerative
braking system which is part of the service braking system;
2.17.4. "Electric state of charge" means the instantaneous ratio of electric quantity of energy
stored in the traction battery relative to the maximum quantity of electric energy which could
be stored in this battery;
2.17.5. "Traction battery" means an assembly of accumulators constituting the storage of energy
used for powering the traction motor(s) of the vehicle.
2.26. "Lateral acceleration" means the component of the acceleration vector of a point in the
vehicle perpendicular to the vehicle x axis (longitudinal) and parallel to the road plane.
2.27. "Oversteer" means a condition in which the vehicle's yaw rate is greater than the yaw rate
that would occur at the vehicle's speed as a result of the Ackerman steer angle.
2.28. "Side-slip or side-slip angle" means the arctangent of the ratio of the lateral velocity to the
longitudinal velocity of the centre of gravity of the vehicle.
2.29. "Understeer" means a condition in which the vehicle's yaw rate is less than the yaw rate
that would occur at the vehicle's speed as a result of the Ackerman steer angle.
2.30. "Yaw rate" means the rate of change of the vehicle's heading angle measured in
degrees/second of rotation about a vertical axis through the vehicle's centre of gravity.
2.31. "Peak braking coefficient (PBC)": means the measure of tyre to road surface friction
based on the maximum deceleration of a rolling tyre.
2.32. "Common space" means an area on which more than one tell-tale, indicator, identification
symbol, or other message may be displayed but not simultaneously.
2.33. "Static stability factor" means one-half the track width of a vehicle divided by the height of
its center of gravity, also expressed as SSF = T/2H, where: T = track width (for vehicles with
more than one track width the average is used; for axles with dual wheels, the outer wheels
are used when calculating "T") and H = height of the center of gravity of the vehicle.
2.34. "Brake Assist System (BAS)" means a function of the braking system that deduces an
emergency braking event from a characteristic of the driver's brake demand and, under
Assists the driver to deliver the maximum achievable braking rate; or
Is sufficient to cause full cycling of the Anti-lock Braking System.
2.34.1. "Category A Brake Assist System" means a system which detects an emergency braking
condition based primarily on the brake pedal force applied by the driver;
2.34.2. "Category B Brake Assist System" means a system which detects an emergency braking
condition based primarily on the brake pedal speed applied by the driver;
2.35. "Identification Code" identifies the brake discs or brake drums covered by the braking
system approval according to this regulation. It contains at least the manufacturer's trade
name or trademark and an identification number.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the
approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation,
an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the Letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country
which has granted approval , and of
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the Letter "R", a dash and the approval number
to the right of the circle prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.4.3. In the case of a vehicle complying with the Electronic Stability Control and Brake Assist
System requirements of Annex 9 to this Regulation, the additional Letters "ESC" shall be
placed immediately to the right of the Letter 'R' mentioned in Paragraph 4.4.2. above.
4.4.4. In the case of vehicles complying with the Vehicle Stability Function requirements of
Annex 21 to Regulation No. 13 and the Brake Assist System requirements of Annex 9 to this
Regulation, the additional Letters "VSF" shall be placed immediately to the right of the
Letter 'R' mentioned in Paragraph 4.4.2. above.
4.5. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations,
annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this
Regulation, the symbol prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above, need not be repeated; in such
a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the
regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted
approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol
prescribed in Paragraph 4.4.1. above.
4.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.7. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.
4.8. Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.
5.1.1. Braking Equipment
126.96.36.199. The braking equipment shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to enable the vehicle
in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the
provisions of this Regulation.
188.8.131.52. In particular, the braking equipment shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be
able to resist the corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed.
184.108.40.206. Brake linings shall not contain asbestos.
220.127.116.11. The effectiveness of the braking equipment shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or
electrical fields. (This shall be demonstrated by compliance with Regulation No. 10,
02 series of amendments.)
18.104.22.168. It shall be possible to verify, in a frequent and simple way, the correct operational status of
those complex electronic systems which have control over braking. If special information is
needed, this shall be made freely available.
22.214.171.124.1. Where the operational status is indicated to the driver by warning signals, as specified in
this Regulation, it shall be possible at a periodic technical inspection to confirm the correct
operational status by visual observation of the warning signals following a power-on.
126.96.36.199.2. At the time of type approval, the means implemented to protect against simple unauthorized
modification of the operation to the verification means chosen by the manufacturer
(e.g. warning signal) shall be confidentially outlined. Alternatively, this protection
requirement is fulfilled when a secondary means of checking the correct operational status
188.8.131.52. It shall be possible to generate maximum braking forces under static conditions on a rolling
road or roller brake tester.
5.2. Characteristics of Braking Systems
5.2.1. The set of braking systems with which a vehicle is equipped shall satisfy the requirements
laid down for service, secondary and parking braking systems.
5.2.2. The systems providing service, secondary and parking braking may have common
components so long as they fulfil the following conditions:
184.108.40.206. There shall be at least two controls, independent of each other and readily accessible to the
driver from his normal driving position. Every brake control shall be designed such that it
returns to the fully off position when released. This requirement shall not apply to a parking
brake control when it is mechanically locked in an applied position;
220.127.116.11. The control of the service braking system shall be independent of the control of the parking
18.104.22.168. The effectiveness of the linkage between the control of the service braking system and the
different components of the transmission systems shall not be liable to diminish after a
certain period of use;
22.214.171.124. The parking braking system shall be so designed that it can be actuated when the vehicle is
in motion. This requirement may be met by the actuation of the vehicle's service braking
system, even partially, by means of an auxiliary control;
126.96.36.199. Without prejudice to the requirements of Paragraph 188.8.131.52. of this Regulation, the service
braking system and the parking braking system may use common components in their
transmission(s), provided that in the event of a failure in any part of the transmission(s) the
requirements for secondary braking are still ensured;
184.108.40.206. In the event of breakage of any component other than the brakes (as defined in
Paragraph 2.6. above) and the components referred to in Paragraph 220.127.116.11. below, or of
any other failure of the service braking system (malfunction, partial or total exhaustion of an
energy reserve), that part of the service braking system which is not affected by the failure,
shall be able to bring the vehicle to a halt in the conditions prescribed for secondary braking;
18.104.22.168. Furthermore, storage devices located down-circuit of this device shall be such that in the
case of a failure in the energy supply after four full-stroke actuations of the service brake
control, under the conditions prescribed in Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation, it is
still possible to halt the vehicle at the fifth application, with the degree of effectiveness
prescribed for secondary braking.
22.214.171.124. However, for hydraulic braking systems with stored energy, these provisions can be
considered to be met provided that the requirements of Paragraph 1.3. of Annex 4 to this
Regulation, are satisfied.
5.2.5. The requirements of Paragraphs 5.2.2., 5.2.3. and 5.2.4. above shall be met without the use
of any automatic device of a kind such that its ineffectiveness might pass unnoticed through
the fact that parts normally in a position of rest come into action only in the event of failure in
the braking system.
5.2.6. The service braking system shall act on all wheels of the vehicle and shall distribute its
action appropriately among the axles.
5.2.7. In the case of vehicles equipped with electric regenerative braking systems of Category B,
the braking input from other sources of braking, may be suitably phased to allow the electric
regenerative braking system alone to be applied, provided that both the following conditions
126.96.36.199. Intrinsic variations in the torque output of the electrical regenerative braking system (e.g. as
a result of changes in the electric state of charge in the traction batteries) are automatically
compensated by appropriate variation in the phasing relationship as long as the
requirements of one of the following annexes to this Regulation are satisfied:
Annex 3, Paragraph 1.3.2., or
Annex 6, Paragraph 5.3. (including the case with the electric motor engaged), and
Wherever necessary, to ensure that braking rate 3/ remains related to the driver's braking
demand, having regard to the available tyre/road adhesion, braking shall automatically be
caused to act on all wheels of the vehicle.
5.2.8. The action of the service braking system shall be distributed between the wheels of one and
the same axle symmetrically in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.
Compensation and functions, such as anti-lock, which may cause deviations from this
symmetrical distribution shall be declared.
188.8.131.52. Compensation by the electric control transmission for deterioration or defect within the
braking system shall be indicated to the driver by means of the yellow warning signal
specified in Paragraph 184.108.40.206.2. below. This requirement shall apply for all conditions of
loading when compensation exceeds the following limits:
220.127.116.11. Checking the wear of the service brake friction components
18.104.22.168.1. It shall be possible to easily assess this wear on service brake linings from the outside or
underside of the vehicle, without the removal of the wheels, by the provision of appropriate
inspection holes or by some other means. This may be achieved by utilizing simple standard
workshop tools or common inspection equipment for vehicles.
Alternatively, a sensing device per wheel (twin wheels are considered as a single wheel),
which will warn the driver at his driving position when lining replacement is necessary, is
acceptable. In the case of an optical warning, the yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraph 22.214.171.124.2. below may be used.
126.96.36.199.2. Assessment of the wear condition of the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums may only
be performed by direct measurement of the actual component or examination of any brake
disc or drum wear indicators, which may necessitate some level of disassembly. Therefore,
at the time of type approval, the vehicle manufacturer shall define the following:
The method by which wear of the friction surfaces of drums and discs may be
assessed, including the level of disassembly required and the tools and process
required to achieve this.
Information defining the maximum acceptable wear limit at the point at which
replacement becomes necessary.
This information shall be made freely available, e.g. vehicle handbook or electronic data
5.2.12. In hydraulic-transmission braking systems, the filling ports of the fluid reservoirs shall be
readily accessible; in addition, the receptacles containing the reserve fluid shall be so
designed and constructed that the level of the reserve fluid can be easily checked without
the receptacles having to be opened, and the minimum total reservoir capacity is equivalent
to the fluid displacement resulting when all the wheel cylinders or calliper pistons serviced
by the reservoirs move from a new lining, fully retracted position to a fully worn, fully applied
position. If these latter conditions are not fulfilled, the red warning signal specified in
Paragraph 188.8.131.52.1. below shall draw the driver's attention to any fall in the level of
reserve fluid liable to cause a failure of the braking system.
5.2.13. The type of fluid to be used in hydraulic transmission braking systems shall be identified by
the symbol in accordance with Figure 1 or 2 of Standard ISO 9128:2006 and the appropriate
DOT marking (e.g. DOT 3). The symbol and the marking shall be affixed in a visible position
in indelible form within 100mm of the filling ports of the fluid reservoirs; additional
information may be provided by the manufacturer.
5.2.17. In the case of a motor vehicle equipped to tow a trailer with electric service brakes, the
following requirements shall be met:
184.108.40.206. The power supply (generator and battery) of the motor vehicle shall have a sufficient
capacity to provide the current for an electric braking system. With the engine running at the
idling speed recommended by the manufacturer and all electrical devices supplied by the
manufacturer as standard equipment of the vehicle switched on, the voltage in the electrical
lines shall at maximum current consumption of the electrical braking system (15A) not fall
below the value of 9.6V measured at the connection. The electrical lines shall not be
capable of short circuiting even when overloaded;
220.127.116.11. In the event of a failure in the motor vehicle's service braking system, where that system
consists of at least two independent units, the unit or units not affected by the failure shall
be capable of partially or fully actuating the brakes of the trailer;
18.104.22.168. The use of the stop-lamp switch and circuit for actuating the electrical braking system is
permissible only if the actuating line is connected in parallel with the stop-lamp and the
existing stop-lamp switch and circuit are capable of taking the extra load.
5.2.18. Additional requirements for vehicles equipped with electric regenerative braking systems.
22.214.171.124. Vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A.
126.96.36.199.1. The electric regenerative braking shall only be activated by the accelerator control and/or
the gear neutral position.
188.8.131.52. Vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category B.
184.108.40.206.1. It must not be possible to disconnect, partially or totally, one part of the service braking
system other than by automatic means. This should not be construed as a departure from
the requirements of Paragraph 5.2.10. above;
220.127.116.11.2. The service braking system shall have only one control device;
18.104.22.168.3. The service braking system shall not be adversely affected by the disengagement of the
motor(s) or by the gear ratio used;
22.214.171.124.4. If the operation of the electric component of braking is ensured by a relation established
between information coming from the control of the service brake and the braking force to
the wheels which of it results, a failure of this relation leading to the non-respect of the
prescriptions of distribution of braking among the axles (Annex 5 or 6, which is applicable)
shall be warned to the driver by an optical warning signal at the latest when the control is
actuated and having to remain lit as long as this defect exists and that the switch of
"contact" is in the position "Go".
126.96.36.199. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of either category, all the
relevant prescriptions shall apply except Paragraph 188.8.131.52.1. above. In this case, the
electric regenerative braking may be actuated by the accelerator control and/or the gear
neutral position. Additionally, the action on the service braking control shall not reduce the
above braking effect generated by the release of the accelerator control.
184.108.40.206. The operation of the electric braking shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electric
220.127.116.11. After the ignition/start switch which controls the electrical energy for the braking equipment
has been switched off and/or the key removed, it shall remain possible to apply the parking
braking system, whereas releasing shall be prevented.
5.2.20. Special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control
18.104.22.168. With the parking brake released, the service braking system shall be able to fulfil the
With the propulsion system on/off control in the "On" ("Run") position, generate a
static total braking force at least equivalent to that required by the Type-0 test for
service braking performance as prescribed in Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 3 to this
During the first 60s after the propulsion system on/off control has been deactivated to
the "Off" or "Lock" position and/or the ignition key has been removed, three brake
applications shall generate a static total braking force at least equivalent to that
required by the Type-0 test for service braking performance as prescribed in
Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 3 to this Regulation, and
After the period mentioned above, or as from the fourth brake application within the
60s period, whichever occurs first, generate a static total braking force at least
equivalent to that required by the Type-0 test for secondary braking performance as
prescribed in Paragraph 2.2. of Annex 3 to this Regulation.
It should be understood that sufficient energy is available in the energy transmission of the
service braking system.
22.214.171.124. In the case of a single temporary failure (<40ms) within the electric control transmission,
excluding its energy supply, (e.g. non-transmitted signal or data error) there shall be no
distinguishable effect on the service braking performance.
126.96.36.199. A failure within the electric control transmission , not including its energy reserve, that
affects the function and performance of systems addressed in this Regulation shall be
indicated to the driver by the red or yellow warning signal specified in
Paragraphs 188.8.131.52.1. and 184.108.40.206.2. below, respectively, as appropriate. When the
prescribed service braking performance can no longer be achieved (red warning signal),
failures resulting from a loss of electrical continuity (e.g. breakage, disconnection) shall be
signalled to the driver as soon as they occur, and the prescribed secondary braking
performance shall be fulfilled by operating the service braking control in accordance with
Paragraph 2.2. of Annex 3 to this Regulation.
220.127.116.11. In the event of a failure of the energy source of the electric control transmission, starting
from the nominal value of the energy level, the full control range of the service braking
system shall be guaranteed after twenty consecutive full stroke actuations of the service
braking control. During the test, the braking control shall be fully applied for 20s and
released for 5s on each actuation. It should be understood that during the above test
sufficient energy is available in the energy transmission to ensure full actuation of the
service braking system. This requirement shall not be construed as a departure from the
requirements of Annex 4.
18.104.22.168. Except where stated otherwise:
22.214.171.124.1. A specified failure or defect shall be signalled to the driver by the above-mentioned warning
signal(s) not later than on actuation of the relevant braking control;
126.96.36.199.2. The warning signal(s) shall remain displayed as long as the failure/defect persists and the
ignition (start) switch is in the "On" (run) position; and
188.8.131.52.3. The warning signal shall be constant (not flashing).
184.108.40.206. The warning signal(s) mentioned above shall light up when the electrical equipment of the
vehicle (and the braking system) is energised. With the vehicle stationary, the braking
system shall verify that none of the specified failures or defects are present before
extinguishing the signals. Specified failures or defects which should activate the warning
signals mentioned above, but which are not detected under static conditions, shall be stored
upon detection and be displayed at start-up and at all times when the ignition (start) switch
is in the "On" (run) position, as long as the failure or defect persists.
220.127.116.11. Non specified failures (or defects), or other information concerning the brakes and/or
running gear of the power-driven vehicle, may be indicated by the yellow signal specified in
Paragraph 18.104.22.168.2. above, provided that all the following conditions are fulfilled:
22.214.171.124.1. The vehicle is stationary;
126.96.36.199.2. After the braking equipment is first energised and the signal has indicated that, following the
procedures detailed in Paragraph 188.8.131.52. above, no specified failures (or defects) have
been identified; and
184.108.40.206.3. Non-specified faults or other information shall be indicated only by the flashing of the
warning signal. However, the warning signal shall be extinguished by the time when the
vehicle first exceeds 10km/h.
5.2.22. Generation of a braking signal to illuminate stop lamps.
220.127.116.11. Activation of the service braking system by the driver shall generate a signal that will be
used to illuminate the stop lamps.
18.104.22.168. Activation of the service braking system by "automatically commanded braking" shall
generate the signal mentioned above. However, when the retardation generated is less than
0.7m/s , the signal may be suppressed .
22.214.171.124. Activation of part of the service braking system by "selective braking" shall not generate the
signal mentioned above .
Braking tests which the vehicles submitted for approval are required to undergo, and the
braking performance required, are described in Annex 3 to this Regulation.
7. MODIFICATION OF VEHICLE TYPE OR BRAKING SYSTEM AND EXTENSION OF
7.1. Every modification of the vehicle type or of its braking system shall be notified to the Type
Approval Authority which approved the vehicle type. That Authority may then either:
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and
that in any case the vehicle still meets the requirements; or
7.1.2. Require a further report from the Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests.
7.2. Notice of confirmation, extension, or refusal of approval shall be communicated by the
procedure specified in Paragraph 4.3. above, to the Parties to the Agreement which apply
7.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series of
numbers to each communication form drawn up for such an extension.
8. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) with the following requirements:
8.1. A vehicle approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type
approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraph 5. above.
8.2. The Type Approval Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the
conformity control methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of
these verifications shall be once every two years.
9. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be
withdrawn if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with.
9.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval
it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying
this Regulation by means of a copy of the communication form conforming to the model in
Annex 1 to this Regulation.
10. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in
accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type Approval Authority which
granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that Authority shall inform
thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of copies of a
communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
(Maximum format: A 4 (210 × 297mm)
Name of administration:
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a vehicle type with regard to braking, pursuant to Regulation No. 13-H.
Approval No ........................................ Extension No. ................................
1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ................................................................................................
2. Vehicle type: ....................................................................................................................................
3. Manufacturer's name and address: .................................................................................................
4. If applicable, name and address of the manufacturer's representative: .........................................
5. Mass of vehicle: ..............................................................................................................................
5.1. Maximum mass of vehicle: ..............................................................................................................
5.2. Minimum mass of vehicle: ...............................................................................................................
6. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): ......................................................................
7. Make and type of brake linings, discs and drums:
7.1. Brake linings
7.1.1. Brake linings tested to all relevant prescriptions of Annex 3: .........................................................
16.1. Type-0 tests: ...................................................................................................................................
Engine disconnected ......................................................................................................................
Service braking (laden) ..................................................................................................................
Service braking (unladen) ..............................................................................................................
Secondary braking (laden) .............................................................................................................
Secondary braking (unladen) .........................................................................................................
16.2. Type-0 tests: ...................................................................................................................................
Engine connected ..........................................................................................................................
Service braking (laden) ..................................................................................................................
Service braking (unladen) ..............................................................................................................
(In accordance with Paragraph 2.1.1.B of Annex 3) ......................................................................
16.3. Type-I tests: ....................................................................................................................................
Preliminary snubs (to determine pedal force) ................................................................................
Hot performance (1st stop) ............................................................................................................
Hot performance (2nd stop) ...........................................................................................................
Recovery performance ...................................................................................................................
16.4. Dynamic parking brake performance .............................................................................................
17. Result of the Annex 5 performance tests ........................................................................................
18. Vehicle is/is not equipped to tow a trailer with electrical braking systems.
19. Vehicle is/is not equipped with an anti-lock system.
19.1. The vehicle fulfils the requirement of Annex 6: Yes/No
19.2. Category of anti-lock system: Category 1/2/3
20. Adequate documentation according to Annex 8 was supplied in respect of the following
system(s): ............................................................................................... Yes/No/Not applicable
21. The vehicle is equipped with an ESC system .............................................................. Yes / No
If yes: The ESC system has been tested according to and fulfils the requirements of Part A of
Annex 9 ........................................................................................................................ Yes / No
or: The vehicle stability function has been tested according to and fulfils the requirements of
Annex 21 to Regulation No. 13 .................................................................................... Yes / No
The vehicle is / is not
fitted with a Brake Assist System meeting the requirements of Part B of
ANNEX 1 – APPENDIX
LIST OF VEHICLE DATA FOR THE PURPOSE OF REGULATION No. 90 APPROVALS
Description of the vehicle type .......................................................................................................
Trade name or mark of the vehicle, if available .............................................................................
Vehicle category .............................................................................................................................
Vehicle type according to Regulation No. 13-H approval ..............................................................
Models or trade names of vehicles constituting the vehicle type, if available ................................
Manufacturer’s name and address ................................................................................................
Make and type of brake linings, discs and drums:
Brake linings tested to all relevant prescriptions of Annex 3 .........................................................
Alternative brake linings tested in Annex 7: ...................................................................................
Brake disc and drums
Identification code of brake discs covered by the braking system approval: .................................
Identification code of brake drums covered by the braking system approval: ...............................
Minimum mass of vehicle ...............................................................................................................
Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value) ......................................................................
Maximum mass of vehicle ..............................................................................................................
Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value) ......................................................................
Maximum vehicle speed .................................................................................................................
Tyre and wheel dimensions ...........................................................................................................
Brake circuit configuration (e.g. front/rear or diagonal split) ..........................................................
Declaration of which is the secondary braking system ..................................................................
Specifications of brake valves (if applicable) .................................................................................
Adjustment specifications of the load sensing valve ......................................................................
Setting of pressure valve ................................................................................................................
Designed brake force distribution ...................................................................................................
ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS
(See Paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to
braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No. 13-H under approval
number 002439. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in
accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 13-H in its original form. The additional marking
"ESC" indicates that the vehicle meets the Electronic Stability Control and Brake Assist System
requirements of Annex 9 to this Regulation.
(See Paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation)
a = 8mm min.
The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved
in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation Nos. 13-H and 24 . (In the case of the latter
Regulation the corrected absorption coefficient is 1.30m ). The approval numbers indicate that, at the
dates when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No. 13-H was in its original form and
Regulation No. 24 included the 02 series of amendments.
1.2.4. The road shall have a surface affording good adhesion, unless specified otherwise in the
1.2.5. The tests shall be performed when there is no wind liable to affect the results;
1.2.6. At the start of the tests, the tyres shall be cold and at the pressure prescribed for the load
actually borne by the wheels when the vehicle is stationary;
1.2.7. The prescribed performance shall be obtained without locking of the wheels at speeds
exceeding 15km/h, without deviation of the vehicle from a 3.5m wide lane, without
exceeding a yaw angle of 15° and without abnormal vibrations;
1.2.8. For vehicles powered completely or partially by an electric motor (or motors), permanently
connected to the wheels, all tests shall be carried out with these motor(s) connected;
1.2.9. For vehicles as described in Paragraph 1.2.8. above, fitted with an electric regenerative
braking system of Category A, behaviour tests shall be carried out on a track with a low
adhesion coefficient (as defined in Paragraph 5.2.2. of Annex 6) at a speed equal to 80% of
the maximum speed but not exceeding 120km/h, to check that stability is retained.
126.96.36.199. Moreover, for vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category A,
transient conditions as gear changes or accelerator control release shall not affect the
behaviour of the vehicle in condition described in Paragraph 1.2.9. above;
1.2.10. In the tests provided in Paragraphs 1.2.9. and 188.8.131.52. above wheel locking is not allowed.
However, steering correction is permitted if the angular rotation of the steering control is
within 120° during the initial 2s and not more than 240° in all;
1.2.11. For a vehicle with electrically actuated service brakes powered from traction batteries (or an
auxiliary battery) which receive(s) energy only from an independent external charging
system, these batteries shall, during braking performance testing, be at an average of not
more than 5% above that state of charge at which the brake failure warning prescribed in
Paragraph 184.108.40.206. of this Regulation is required to be given.
If this warning is given, the batteries may receive some recharge during the tests, to keep
them in the required state of charge range.
1.3. Behaviour of the Vehicle during Braking
1.3.1. In braking tests, and in particular in those at high speed, the general behaviour of the
vehicle during braking shall be checked.
1.3.2. Behaviour of the vehicle during braking on a road on which adhesion is reduced shall meet
the relevant requirements of Annex 5 and/or Annex 6 to this Regulation.
220.127.116.11. In the case of a braking system according to Paragraph 5.2.7. of this Regulation where the
braking for a particular axle (or axles) is comprised of more than one source of braking
torque, and any individual source can be varied with respect to the other(s), the vehicle shall
satisfy the requirements of Annex 5, or alternatively, Annex 6 under all relationships
permitted by its control Strategy .
1.4.2. Type-0 test with engine disconnected, service braking in accordance with
Paragraph 2.1.1.(A) of this Annex.
The test shall be carried out at the speed prescribed, the figures prescribed in this
connection being subject to a certain margin of tolerance. The minimum performance
prescribed must be attained.
1.4.3. Type-0 test with engine connected, service braking in accordance with Paragraph 2.1.1.(B)
of this Annex.
18.104.22.168. The test shall be carried out with the engine connected, from the speed prescribed in
Paragraph 2.1.1.(B) of this Annex. The minimum performance prescribed shall be attained.
This test is not run if the maximum speed of the vehicle is ≤125km/h.
22.214.171.124. The maximum practical performance figures shall be measured, and the behaviour of the
vehicle shall be in accordance with Paragraph 1.3.2. of this Annex. However, if the
maximum speed of the vehicle is greater than 200km/h, the test speed shall be 160km/h.
1.5. Type-I Test (Fade and Recovery Test)
1.5.1. Heating Procedure
126.96.36.199. The service brakes of all vehicles shall be tested by successively applying and releasing the
brakes a number of times, the vehicle being laden, in the conditions shown in the table
0.5 v 45 15
v = initial speed, at beginning of braking
v = speed at end of braking
v = maximum speed of the vehicle
n = number of brake applications
duration of a braking cycle: time elapsing between the initiation of one brake
application and the initiation of the next.
188.8.131.52. If the characteristics of the vehicle make it impossible to abide by the duration prescribed for
∆t, the duration may be increased; in any event, in addition to the time necessary for braking
and accelerating the vehicle, a period of 10s shall be allowed in each cycle for stabilizing the
speed v .
184.108.40.206. In the case of a vehicle which satisfies the 60% requirement specified in Paragraph 220.127.116.11.
of this Annex, but which cannot comply with the 75% requirement of Paragraph 18.104.22.168. of
this Annex, a further hot performance test may be carried out using a control force not
exceeding that specified in Paragraph 2. of this Annex. The results of both tests shall be
entered in the report.
1.5.3. Recovery Procedure
Immediately after the hot performance test, make four stops from 50km/h with the engine
connected, at a mean deceleration of 3m/s . Allow an interval of 1.5km between the start of
successive stops. Immediately after each stop, accelerate at maximum rate to 50km/h and
maintain that speed until making the next stop.
22.214.171.124. Vehicles equipped with an electrical regenerative braking system of Category B may have
their batteries re-charged or replaced by a charged set, in order to complete the recovery
The procedures may be conducted without a regenerative braking component.
1.5.4. Recovery Performance
At the end of the recovery procedure, the recovery performance of the service braking
system shall be measured in the same conditions as for the Type-0 test with the engine
disconnected (the temperature conditions may be different), using a mean force on the
control, which is not more than the mean control force used in the corresponding Type-0
This recovery performance shall not be less than 70%, nor more than 150%, of the figure
recorded in the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected.
126.96.36.199. For vehicles equipped with an electrical regenerative braking system of Category B, the
recovery test shall be made with no regenerative braking component, i.e. under the
conditions of Paragraph 1.5.4. above.
After the further reconditioning of the linings, a second repeat Type-0 test shall be made
from the same speed and with no electric regenerative braking contribution as in the
recovery test with the engine/motors disconnected, and comparison shall be made between
these test results.
The recovery performance shall not be less than 70%, nor more than 150% of the figure
recorded in this final repeat Type-0 test.
2.2. Secondary Braking System
2.2.1. The performance of the secondary braking system shall be tested by the Type-0 test with
the engine disconnected from an initial vehicle speed of 100km/h and a force applied to the
service brake control not less than 6.5daN and not exceeding 50daN.
2.2.2. The secondary braking system shall give a stopping distance not exceeding the following
0.1v + 0.0158v (m)
and a mean fully developed deceleration not less than 2.44m/s (corresponding to the
second term of the above formula).
2.2.3. The secondary braking effectiveness test shall be conducted by simulating the actual failure
conditions in the service braking system.
2.2.4. For vehicles employing electric regenerative braking systems, the braking performance shall
additionally be checked under the two following failure conditions:
188.8.131.52. For a total failure of the electric component of the service braking output.
184.108.40.206. In the case where the failure condition causes the electric component to deliver its
maximum braking force.
2.3. Parking Braking System
2.3.1. The parking braking system shall be capable of holding the laden vehicle stationary on a
20% up or down gradient.
2.3.2. On vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized, the parking braking system of the
motor vehicle shall be capable of holding the combination of vehicles stationary on a 12%
up or down gradient.
2.3.3. If the control device is manual, the force applied to it must not exceed 40daN.
2.3.4. If it is a foot control device, the force exerted on the control must not exceed 50daN.
2.3.5. A parking braking system which has to be actuated several times before it attains the
prescribed performance is admissible.
2.3.6. To check compliance with the requirement specified in Paragraph 220.127.116.11. of this
Regulation, a Type-0 test shall be carried out, with the engine disconnected, at an initial test
speed of 30km/h. The mean fully developed deceleration on application of the control of the
parking brake system and the deceleration immediately before the vehicle stops, shall not
be less than 1.5m/s . The test shall be carried out with the laden vehicle. The force exerted
on the braking control device shall not exceed the specified values.
ANNEX 3 − APPENDIX
PROCEDURE FOR MONITORING THE STATE OF BATTERY CHARGE
This procedure is applicable to vehicle batteries used for traction and regenerative braking.
The procedure requires the use of a bi-directional DC Watt-hour meter or a bi-directional
DC Ampere-hour meter.
1.1. If the batteries are new or have been subject to extended storage, they shall be cycled as
recommended by the manufacturer. A minimum 8hr soak period at ambient temperature
shall be allowed after completion of cycling.
1.2. A full charge shall be established using the manufacturer's recommended charging
1.3. When the braking tests of Paragraphs 1.2.11., 18.104.22.168.3., 22.214.171.124., 126.96.36.199. and 188.8.131.52. of
Annex 3 are conducted the watt-hours consumed by the traction motors and supplied by the
regenerative braking system shall be recorded as a running total which shall then be used to
determine the state of charge existing at the beginning or end of a particular test.
1.4. To replicate a level of state of charge in the batteries for comparative tests, such as those of
Paragraph 184.108.40.206. of Annex 3, the batteries shall be either recharged to that level or
charged to above that level and discharged into a fixed load at approximately constant
power until the required state of charge is reached. Alternatively, for vehicles with battery
powered electric traction only, the state of charge may be adjusted by running the vehicle.
Tests conducted with a battery partially charged at their start shall be commenced as soon
as possible after the desired state of charge has been reached.
1.3.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements:
220.127.116.11. With the energy source stationary or operating at a speed corresponding to the engine idling
speed, any transmission failure may be induced. Before inducing such a failure, the energy
storage device(s) shall be at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but not
exceeding the cut-in pressure;
18.104.22.168. The auxiliary equipment and its energy storage devices, if any, shall be isolated.
2. CAPACITY OF HYDRAULIC FLUID ENERGY SOURCES
2.1. The energy sources shall meet the requirements set out in the following Paragraphs.
22.214.171.124. "p " represents the maximum system operational pressure (cut-out pressure) in the energy
storage device(s) specified by the manufacturer.
126.96.36.199. "p " represents the pressure after four full-stroke actuations with the service brake control,
starting at p , without having fed the energy storage device(s).
188.8.131.52. "t" represents the time required for the pressure to rise from p to p in the energy storage
device(s) without application of the brake control.
2.1.2. Conditions of Measurement
184.108.40.206. During the tests to determine the time t, the feed rate of the energy source shall be that
obtained when the engine is running at the speed corresponding to its maximum power or at
the speed allowed by the over-speed governor.
220.127.116.11. During the test to determine the time t, energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment
shall not be isolated other than automatically.
2.1.3. Interpretation of Results
18.104.22.168. In the case of all vehicles, the time t shall not exceed 20s.
3. CHARACTERISTICS OF WARNING DEVICES
With the engine stationary and commencing at a pressure that may be specified by the
manufacturer but does not exceed the cut-in pressure, the warning device shall not operate
following two full-stroke actuations of the service brake control.
For all states of load of the vehicle, the adhesion utilization curve of the rear axle shall not
be situated above that for the front axle :
for all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8:
3.1.(B) For k values between 0.2 and 0.8 :
z ≥ 0.1 + 0.7 (k - 0.2) (see Diagram 1 of this Annex)
3.2. In order to verify the requirements of Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex, the manufacturer shall
provide the adhesion utilization curves for the front and rear axles calculated by the
+ z × × P × g
− z × × P × g
The curves shall be plotted for both the following load conditions:
3.2.1. Unladen, in running order with the driver on board;
3.2.2. Laden; where provision is made for several possibilities of load distribution, the one whereby
the front axle is the most heavily laden shall be the one considered;
3.2.3. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of Category B, where the
electric regenerative braking capacity is influenced by the electric state of charge, the
curves shall be plotted by taking account of the electric braking component under the
minimal and maximum conditions of delivered braking force. This requirement is not
applicable if the vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock device which controls the wheels
connected to the electric braking then the requirements of Annex 6 to this Regulation shall
6. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
6.1. When checking vehicles for conformity of production, the Technical Services should follow
the same procedures as for type-approval.
6.2. The requirements shall also be the same as for type-approval, except that in the test
described in Paragraph 5.2.(a)(ii) of this Annex, the rear axle curve shall lie below the
Line z = 0.9k for all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8 (instead of meeting the requirement
in Paragraph 3.1.(A) (see Diagram 2).
Data to be recorded: The following information shall be automatically recorded in
phase continuously throughout each test run such that values of the variables can be
cross referenced in real time:
Instantaneous vehicle braking rate (e.g. by differentiation of vehicle speed);
Brake pedal force (or hydraulic line pressure);
Angular velocity at each wheel.
Each test run shall be repeated once to confirm the wheel lockup sequence: if one of
these two results indicates a failure to comply, then a third test run under the same
conditions will be decisive.
4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
Both rear wheels shall not reach a locked condition prior to both front wheels being
locked – at vehicle braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8.
If, when tested to the procedure specified above, and at vehicle braking rates
between 0.15 and 0.8 the vehicle meets one of the following criteria, then it passes
this wheel lockup sequence requirement:
No wheels lock;
Both wheels on the front axle and one or no wheels on the rear axle lock;
Both axles simultaneously lock.
If wheel lockup commences at a braking rate less than 0.15 and more than 0.8 then
the test is invalid and should be repeated on a different road surface.
If, either laden or unladen, at a braking rate between 0.15 and 0.8 both wheels on the
rear axle and one or no wheels on the front axle lock, then it fails the wheel lockup
sequence test. In this latter case, the vehicle shall be submitted to the 'torque wheels'
test procedure to determine the objective brake factors for calculation of the adhesion
Sample rate: All data acquisition and recording equipment shall support a minimum
sample rate of 40Hz on all channels.
Determination of front versus rear brake pressure: Determine the front versus rear
brake pressure relationship over the entire range of line pressures. Unless the vehicle
has a variable brake proportioning system, this determination is made by static tests.
If the vehicle has a variable brake proportioning system, dynamic tests are run with
the vehicle both laden and unladen. Fifteen snubs from 50km/h are made for each of
the two load conditions, using the same initial conditions specified in this Appendix.
4. DATA REDUCTION
The data from each brake application prescribed in Paragraph 3.(e) above is filtered
using a five-point, on-centre moving average for each data channel.
For each brake application prescribed in Paragraph 3.(e) above, determine the slope
(brake factor) and pressure axis intercept (brake hold-off pressure) of the linear least
squares equation best describing the measured torque output at each braked wheel
as a function of measured line pressure applied at the same wheel. Only torque
output values obtained from data collected when the vehicle deceleration is within the
range of 0.15g to 0.80g are used in the regression analysis.
Average the results of Paragraph (b) above to calculate the average brake factor and
brake hold-off pressure for all brake applications for the front axle.
Average the results of Paragraph (b) above to calculate the average brake factor and
brake hold-off pressure for all brake applications for the rear axle.
Using the relationship between front and rear brake line pressure determined in
Paragraph 3.(i) above and the dynamic tyre rolling radius, calculate the braking force
at each axle as a function of front brake line pressure.
Calculate the braking rate of the vehicle as a function of the front brake line pressure
using the following equation:
T + T
P × g
z = braking rate at a given front brake line pressure
T , T = braking forces at the front and rear axles respectively,
corresponding to the same front brake line pressure
P = vehicle mass
TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR VEHICLES FITTED WITH ANTI-LOCK SYSTEMS
1.1. This Annex defines the required braking performance for road vehicles fitted with anti-lock
1.2. The anti-lock systems known at present comprise a sensor or sensors, a controller or
controllers and a modulator or modulators. Any device of a different design which may be
introduced in the future, or where an anti-lock braking function is integrated into another
system, shall be deemed to be an anti-lock braking system within the meaning of this Annex
and Annex 5 to this Regulation, if it provides performance equal to that prescribed by this
2.1. An "anti-lock system" is a part of a service braking system which automatically controls
the degree of slip, in the direction of rotation of the wheel(s), on one or more wheels of the
vehicle during braking.
2.2. "Sensor" means a component designed to identify and transmit to the controller the
conditions of rotation of the wheel(s) or the dynamic conditions of the vehicle.
2.3. "Controller" means a component designed to evaluate the data transmitted by the
sensor(s) and to transmit a signal to the modulator.
2.4. "Modulator" means a component designed to vary the braking force(s) in accordance with
the signal received from the controller.
2.5. "Directly controlled wheel" means a wheel whose braking force is modulated according to
data provided at least by its own sensor .
2.6. "Indirectly controlled wheel" means a wheel whose braking force is modulated according
to data provided by the sensor(s) of other wheel(s) .
2.7. "Full cycling" means that the anti-lock system is repeatedly modulating the brake force to
prevent the directly controlled wheels from locking. Brake applications where modulation
only occurs once during the stop shall not be considered to meet this definition.
4.2. In the event of a single electrical functional failure which only affects the anti-lock function,
as indicated by the above-mentioned yellow warning signal, the subsequent service braking
performance shall not be less than 80% of the prescribed performance according to the
Type-0 test with the engine disconnected. This corresponds to a stopping distance of 0.1v +
0.0075v (m) and a mean fully developed deceleration of 5.15m/s .
4.3. The operation of the anti-lock system shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or
electrical fields . (This shall be demonstrated by compliance with Regulation No. 10,
02 series of amendments).
A manual device may not be provided to disconnect or change the control mode
5. SPECIAL PROVISIONS
5.1. Energy Consumption
Vehicles equipped with anti-lock systems shall maintain their performance when the service
braking control device is fully applied for long periods. Compliance with this requirement
shall be verified by means of the following tests:
5.1.1. Test Procedure
22.214.171.124. The initial energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the
manufacturer. This level shall be at least such as to ensure the efficiency prescribed for
service braking when the vehicle is laden. The energy storage device(s) for pneumatic
auxiliary equipment shall be isolated.
126.96.36.199. From an initial speed of not less than 50km/h, on a surface with a coefficient of adhesion of
0.3 or less, the brakes of the laden vehicle shall be fully applied for a time t, during which
time the energy consumed by the indirectly controlled wheels shall be taken into
consideration and all directly controlled wheels shall remain under control of the anti-lock
188.8.131.52. The vehicle's engine shall then be stopped or the supply to the energy transmission storage
device(s) cut off.
184.108.40.206. The service braking control shall then be fully actuated four times in succession with the
220.127.116.11. When the brakes are applied for the fifth time, it shall be possible to brake the vehicle with at
least the performance prescribed for secondary braking of the laden vehicle.
5.2.4. The utilization of adhesion by the anti-lock system shall be checked on complete vehicles
equipped with anti-lock systems of Categories 1 or 2. In the case of vehicles equipped with
Category 3 anti-lock systems, only the axle(s) with at least one directly controlled wheel
must satisfy this requirement.
5.2.5. The condition ε ≥ 0.75 shall be checked with the vehicle both laden and unladen .
The laden test on the high adhesion surface may be omitted if the prescribed force on the
control device does not achieve full cycling of the anti-lock system.
For the unladen test, the control force may be increased up to 100daN if no cycling is
achieved with its full force value . If 100daN is insufficient to make the system cycle, then
this test may be omitted.
5.3. Additional Checks
The following additional checks shall be carried out with the engine disconnected, with the
vehicle laden and unladen:
5.3.1. The wheels directly controlled by an anti-lock system shall not lock when the full force is
suddenly applied on the control device, on the road surfaces specified in Paragraph 5.2.2. of
this Annex, at an initial speed of v = 40km/h and at a high initial speed v = 0.8v
5.3.2. When an axle passes from a high-adhesion surface (k ) to a low-adhesion surface (k ),
where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, with the full force applied on the control device, the directly
controlled wheels shall not lock. The running speed and the instant of applying the brakes
shall be so calculated that, with the anti-lock system fully cycling on the
high-adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other is made at high and at
low speed, under the conditions laid down in Paragraph 5.3.1. ;
5.3.3. When a vehicle passes from a low-adhesion surface (k ) to a high-adhesion surface (k )
where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, with the full force applied on the control device, the
deceleration of the vehicle shall rise to the appropriate high value within a reasonable time
and the vehicle shall not deviate from its initial course. The running speed and the instant of
applying the brake shall be so calculated that, with the anti-lock system fully cycling on the
low-adhesion surface, the passage from one surface to the other occurs at approximately
5.3.4. The provisions of this Paragraph shall only apply to vehicles equipped with anti-lock
systems of Categories 1 or 2. When the right and left wheels of the vehicle are situated on
surfaces with differing coefficients of adhesion (k and k ), where k ≥0.5 and k /k ≥2, the
directly controlled wheels shall not lock when the full force is suddenly applied on the
control device at a speed of 50km/h;
ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX 1
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
TABLE: SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS
the adhesion utilised of the vehicle: quotient of the maximum braking rate with the
anti-lock system operative (z ) and the coefficient of adhesion (k)
the ε - value measured on axle i (in the case of a motor vehicle with a Category 3 anti-lock
the ε - value on the high-adhesion surface
the ε - value on the low-adhesion surface
normal reaction of road surface under dynamic conditions with the anti-lock system
on axle i in case of power-driven vehicles
normal reaction of road surface on axle i under static conditions
total normal static reaction of road surface on all wheels of power-driven vehicle
total normal static reaction of road surface on the unbraked and non-driven axles of the
total normal static reaction of road surface on the unbraked and driven axles of the
+ 0.015 F
acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s )
height of centre of gravity specified by the manufacturer and agreed by the Technical
Service conducting the approval test
coefficient of adhesion between tyre and road
k-factor of one front axle
k-value determined on the high-adhesion surface
k-value determined on axle i for a vehicle with a Category 3 anti-lock system
k-value determined on the low-adhesion surface
value of adhesion for 100% slip
k-factor of the power-driven vehicle
maximum value of the curve "adhesion versus slip"
k-factor of one rear axle
mass of individual vehicle (kg)
ratio of k
ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX 2
UTILISATION OF ADHESION
1. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
1.1. Determination of the Coefficient of Adhesion (k)
1.1.1. The coefficient of adhesion (k) shall be determined as the quotient of the maximum braking
forces without locking the wheels and the corresponding dynamic load on the axle being
1.1.2. The brakes shall be applied on only one axle of the vehicle under test, at an initial speed of
50km/h. The braking forces shall be distributed between the wheels of the axle to reach
maximum performance. The anti-lock system shall be disconnected, or inoperative, between
40km/h and 20km/h.
1.1.3. A number of tests at increments of line pressure shall be carried out to determine the
maximum braking rate of the vehicle (z ). During each test, a constant input force shall be
maintained and the braking rate will be determined by reference to the time taken (t) for the
speed to reduce from 40km/h to 20km/h using the formula:
z is the maximum value of z; t is in seconds.
18.104.22.168. Wheel lock may occur below 20km/h.
22.214.171.124. Starting from the minimum measured value of t, called t , then select three values of
t comprised within t and 1.05 t and calculate their arithmetical mean value t ,
If it is demonstrated that for practical reasons the three values defined above cannot be
obtained, then the minimum time t may be utilized. However, the requirements of
Paragraph 1.3. shall still apply.
1.1.4. The braking forces shall be calculated from the measured braking rate and the rolling
resistance of the unbraked axle which is equal to 0.015 and 0.010 of the static axle load for
a driven axle and a non-driven axle, respectively.
1.1.5. The dynamic load on the axle shall be that given by the formulae in Annex 5 to this
1.1.6. The value of k shall be rounded to three decimal places.
1.1.7. Then, the test will be repeated for the other axle(s) as defined in Paragraphs 1.1.1. to 1.1.6.
1.2.6. In the case of a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock system of Category 3, the value of z will
be measured on each axle which has at least one directly controlled wheel. For example, for
a two-axle rear-wheel drive vehicle with an anti-lock system acting only on the rear axle (2),
the adhesion utilized (ε) is given by:
× P × g −
− × z
× P × g)
This calculation shall be made for each axle having at least one directly controlled wheel.
1.3. If ε > 1.00, the measurements of coefficients of adhesion shall be repeated. A tolerance of
10% is accepted.
ANNEX 6 - APPENDIX 4
METHOD OF SELECTION OF THE LOW ADHESION SURFACE
1. Details of the coefficient of adhesion of the surface selected, as defined in
Paragraph 126.96.36.199. of this Annex, shall be given to the Technical Service.
1.1. These data shall include a curve of the coefficient of adhesion versus slip (from 0 to 100%
slip) for a speed of approximately 40km/h.
1.1.1. The maximum value of the curve will represent k and the value at 100% slip will
represent k .
1.1.2. The Ratio R shall be determined as the quotient of the k and k .
1.1.3. The value of R shall be rounded to one decimal place.
1.1.4. The surface to be used must have a ratio R between 1.0 and 2.0 .
2. Prior to the tests, the Technical Service shall ensure that the selected surface meets the
specified requirements and shall be informed of the following:
Test method to determine R,
Type of vehicle,
Axle load and tyres (different loads and different tyres have to be tested and the results
shown to the Technical Service which will decide if they are representative for the vehicle to
2.1. The value of R shall be mentioned in the test report.
The calibration of the surface has to be carried out at least once a year with a representative
vehicle to verify the stability of R.
3. TEST CONDITIONS
3.1. The dynamometer shall be set as close as possible, with ±5% tolerance, to the rotary inertia
equivalent to that part of the total inertia of the vehicle braked by the appropriate wheel(s)
according to the following formula:
I = M R
I = rotational inertia (kgm )
R = dynamic tyre rolling radius (m)
that part of the maximum mass of the vehicle braked by the appropriate wheel(s).
In the case of a single-ended dynamometer, this part shall be calculated from the
design braking distribution when deceleration corresponds to the appropriate
value given in Row (A) of the table under Paragraph 2.1.1. of Annex 3 to this
3.2. The initial rotational speed of the inertia dynamometer shall correspond to the linear speed
of the vehicle as prescribed in Row (A) of the table under Paragraph 2.1.1. of Annex 3 to
this Regulation and shall be based on the dynamic rolling radius of the tyre.
3.3. Brake linings shall be at least 80% bedded and shall not have exceeded a temperature of
180°C during the bedding procedure, or alternatively, at the vehicle manufacturer's request,
be bedded in accordance with his recommendations.
3.4. Cooling air may be used, flowing over the brake in a direction perpendicular to its axis of
rotation. The velocity of the cooling air flowing over the brake shall be not greater than
10km/h. The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature.
4. TEST PROCEDURE
4.1. Five sample sets of the brake lining shall be subjected to the comparison test; they shall be
compared with five sets of linings conforming to the original components identified in the
information document concerning the first approval of the vehicle type concerned.
4.2. Brake lining equivalence shall be based on a comparison of the results achieved using the
test procedures prescribed in this Annex and in accordance with the following requirements.
4.3. Type-O Cold Performance Test
4.3.1. Three brake applications shall be made when the initial temperature is below 100°C. The
temperature shall be measured in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 188.8.131.52. of
4.3.2. Brake applications shall be made from an initial rotational speed equivalent to that given in
Row (A) of the table under Paragraph 2.1.1. of Annex 3 to this Regulation, and the brake
shall be applied to achieve a mean torque equivalent to the deceleration prescribed in that
Paragraph. In addition, tests shall also be carried out at several rotational speeds, the
lowest being equivalent to 30% of the maximum speed of the vehicle and the highest being
equivalent to 80% of that speed.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS TO BE APPLIED TO THE SAFETY ASPECTS
OF COMPLEX ELECTRONIC VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS
This Annex defines the special requirements for documentation, fault strategy and
verification with respect to the safety aspects of Complex Electronic Vehicle Control
Systems (definition 2.3. below) as far as this Regulation is concerned.
This Annex may also be called, by special paragraphs in this Regulation, for safety related
functions which are controlled by electronic system(s).
This Annex does not specify the performance criteria for "The System" but covers the
methodology applied to the design process and the information which shall be disclosed to
the Technical Service, for type approval purposes.
This information shall show that "The System" respects, under normal and fault conditions,
all the appropriate performance requirements specified elsewhere in this Regulation.
For the purposes of this Annex,
2.1. "Safety concept" is a description of the measures designed into the system, for example
within the electronic units, so as to address system integrity and thereby ensure safe
operation even in the event of an electrical failure.
The possibility of a fall-back to partial operation or even to a back-up system for vital vehicle
functions may be a part of the safety concept.
2.2. "Electronic control system" means a combination of units, designed to cooperate in the
production of the stated vehicle control function by electronic data processing.
Such systems, often controlled by software, are built from discrete functional components
such as sensors, electronic control units and actuators and connected by transmission links.
They may include mechanical, electro-pneumatic or electro-hydraulic elements.
"The System", referred to herein, is the one for which type approval is being sought.
2.3. "Complex electronic vehicle control systems" are those electronic control systems
which are subject to a hierarchy of control in which a controlled function may be over-ridden
by a higher level electronic control system/function.
A function which is over-ridden becomes part of the complex system.
2.4. "Higher-level control" systems/functions are those which employ additional processing
and/or sensing provisions to modify vehicle behaviour by commanding variations in the
normal function(s) of the vehicle control system.
This allows complex systems to automatically change their objectives with a priority which
depends on the sensed circumstances.
3.2. Description of the Functions of "The System"
A description shall be provided which gives a simple explanation of all the control functions
of "The System" and the methods employed to achieve the objectives, including a statement
of the mechanism(s) by which control is exercised.
3.2.1. A list of all input and sensed variables shall be provided and the working range of these
3.2.2. A list of all output variables which are controlled by "The System" shall be provided and an
indication given, in each case, of whether the control is direct or via another vehicle system.
The range of control (Paragraph 2.7. above) exercised on each such variable shall be
3.2.3. Limits defining the boundaries of functional operation (Paragraph 2.8. above) shall be stated
where appropriate to system performance.
3.3. System Layout and Schematics
3.3.1. Inventory of Components
A list shall be provided, collating all the units of "The System" and mentioning the other
vehicle systems which are needed to achieve the control function in question.
An outline schematic showing these units in combination, shall be provided with both the
equipment distribution and the interconnections made clear.
3.3.2. Functions of the Units
The function of each unit of "The System" shall be outlined and the signals linking it with
other Units or with other vehicle systems shall be shown. This may be provided by a
labelled block diagram or other schematic, or by a description aided by such a diagram.
Interconnections within "The System" shall be shown by a circuit diagram for the electrical
transmission links, by an optical-fiber diagram for optical links, by a piping diagram for
pneumatic or hydraulic transmission equipment and by a simplified diagrammatic layout for
3.3.4. Signal Flow and Priorities
There shall be a clear correspondence between these transmission links and the signals
carried between units.
Priorities of signals on multiplexed data paths shall be stated, wherever priority may be an
issue affecting performance or safety as far as this Regulation is concerned.
184.108.40.206. If the chosen provision selects the removal of the higher level function, all the corresponding
output control signals associated with this function shall be inhibited, and in such a manner
as to limit the transition disturbance.
3.4.4. The documentation shall be supported, by an analysis which shows, in overall terms, how
the system will behave on the occurrence of any one of those specified faults which will
have a bearing on vehicle control performance or safety.
This may be based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), a Fault Tree Analysis
(FTA) or any similar process appropriate to system safety considerations.
The chosen analytical approach(es) shall be established and maintained by the
manufacturer and shall be made open for inspection by the Technical Service at the time of
the type approval.
220.127.116.11. This documentation shall itemise the parameters being monitored and shall set out, for each
fault condition of the type defined in Paragraph 3.4.4. above, the warning signal to be given
to the driver and/or to service/technical inspection personnel.
4. VERIFICATION AND TEST
4.1. The functional operation of "The System", as laid out in the documents required in
Paragraph 3., shall be tested as follows:
4.1.1. Verification of the Function of "The System"
As the means of establishing the normal operational levels, verification of the performance
of the vehicle system under non-fault conditions shall be conducted against the
manufacturer's basic benchmark specification unless this is subject to a specified
performance test as part of the approval procedure of this or another Regulation.
4.1.2. Verification of the Safety Concept of Paragraph 3.4. of this Annex
The reaction of "The System" shall, at the discretion of the type approval authority, be
checked under the influence of a failure in any individual unit by applying corresponding
output signals to electrical units or mechanical elements in order to simulate the effects of
internal faults within the unit.
The verification results shall correspond with the documented summary of the failure
analysis, to a level of overall effect such that the safety concept and execution are
confirmed as being adequate.
3. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
During each test performed under the test conditions of Paragraph 4. and the test procedure
of Paragraph 5.9., the vehicle with the ESC system engaged shall satisfy the directional
stability criteria of Paragraphs 3.1. and 3.2., and it shall satisfy the responsiveness criterion
of Paragraph 3.3. during each of those tests conducted with a commanded steering wheel
angle of 5A or greater but limited as per Paragraph 5.9.4., where A is the steering wheel
angle computed in Paragraph 5.6.1.
Where a vehicle has been physically tested in accordance with Paragraph 4., the
compliance of versions or variants of that same vehicle type may be demonstrated by a
computer simulation, which respects the test conditions of Paragraph 4. and the test
procedure of Paragraph 5.9. The use of the simulator is defined in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.1. The yaw rate measured 1s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input (time T + 1
in Figure 1) shall not exceed 35% of the first peak value of yaw rate recorded after the
steering wheel angle changes sign (between first and second peaks) ( Ψ in Figure 1)
during the same test run.
Steering Wheel Position and Yaw Velocity Information Used to Assess Lateral Stability
3.4.2. The ESC malfunction tell-tale need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.
3.4.3. The requirement of Paragraph 18.104.22.168. does not apply to tell-tales shown in a common
3.4.4. The manufacturer may use the ESC malfunction tell-tale in a flashing mode to indicate ESC
intervention and/or the intervention of ESC-related systems (as listed in Paragraph 22.214.171.124.).
3.5. ESC Off and Other System Controls
The manufacturer may include an "ESC Off" control, which shall be illuminated when the
vehicle's headlamps are activated, and which has a purpose to place the ESC system in a
mode in which it will no longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 3., 3.1.,
3.2. and 3.3. Manufacturers may also provide controls for other systems that have an
ancillary effect upon ESC operation. Controls of either kind that place the ESC system in a
mode in which it may no longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 3., 3.1.,
3.2. and 3.3. are permitted, provided that the system also meets the requirements of
Paragraphs 3.5.1., 3.5.2. and 3.5.3.
3.5.1. The vehicle's ESC system shall always return to the manufacturer's original default mode
that satisfies the requirements of Paragraphs 2. and 3. at the initiation of each new ignition
cycle, regardless of what mode the driver had previously selected. However, the vehicle's
ESC system need not return to a mode that satisfies the requirements of Paragraphs 3.
through 3.3. at the initiation of each new ignition cycle if:
126.96.36.199. The vehicle is in a four-wheel drive configuration which has the effect of locking the drive
gears at the front and rear axles together and providing an additional gear reduction
between the engine speed and vehicle speed of at least 1.6, selected by the driver for
low-speed, off-road driving; or
188.8.131.52. The vehicle is in a four-wheel drive configuration selected by the driver that is designed for
operation at higher speeds on snow-, sand-, or dirt-packed roads and that has the effect of
locking the drive gears at the front and rear axles together, provided that in this mode the
vehicle meets the stability performance requirements of Paragraphs 3.1. and 3.2. under the
test conditions specified in Paragraph 4. However, if the system has more than one ESC
mode that satisfies the requirements of Paragraphs 3.1. and 3.2. within the drive
configuration selected for the previous ignition cycle, the ESC shall return to the
manufacturer's original default ESC mode for that drive configuration at the initiation of each
new ignition cycle.
3.5.2. A control, whose only purpose is to place the ESC system in a mode in which it will no
longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 3., 3.1., 3.2. and 3.3., shall fulfil
the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.
3.5.3. A control for an ESC system whose purpose is to place the ESC system in different modes,
at least one of which may no longer satisfy the performance requirements of Paragraphs 3.,
3.1., 3.2., and 3.3., shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.
Alternatively, in the case where the ESC system mode is controlled by a multi-functional
control, the driver display shall identify clearly to the driver the control position for this mode
using the "off" symbol for electronic stability control system as defined in Regulation
3.7.2. A brief written explanation sufficient to describe the ESC system's basic operational
characteristics. This explanation shall include the outline description of the system's
capability to apply braking torques at each wheel and how the system modifies propulsion
torque during ESC system activation, and show that the vehicle yaw rate is directly
determined even under the conditions where no wheel speed information is available. The
explanation shall also specify the vehicle speed range and the driving phases (acceleration,
deceleration, coasting, during activation of the ABS or traction control) under which the ESC
system can activate.
3.7.3. Logic diagram. This diagram supports the explanation provided under Paragraph 3.7.2.
3.7.4. Understeer information. An outline description of the pertinent inputs to the computer that
control ESC system hardware and how they are used to limit vehicle understeer.
4. TEST CONDITIONS
4.1. Ambient Conditions
4.1.1. The ambient temperature is between 0°C and 45°C.
4.1.2. The maximum wind speed is no greater than 10m/s for vehicles with SSF >1.25, and 5m/s
for vehicles with SSF ≤1.25.
4.2. Road Test Surface
4.2.1. Tests are conducted on a dry, uniform, solid-paved surface. Surfaces with irregularities and
undulations, such as dips and large cracks, are unsuitable.
4.2.2. The road test surface has a nominal peak braking coefficient (PBC) of 0.9, unless
otherwise specified, when measured using either:
184.108.40.206. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1136 standard reference test tyre,
in accordance with ASTM Method E1337-90, at a speed of 40mph; or
220.127.116.11. The k-test method specified in Appendix 2 to Annex 6 of this Regulation.
4.2.3. The test surface has a consistent slope between level and 1%.
4.3. Vehicle Conditions
4.3.1. The ESC system is enabled for all testing.
4.3.2. Vehicle mass. The vehicle is loaded with the fuel tank filled to at least 90% of capacity, and
a total interior load of 168kg comprised of the test driver, approximately 59kg of test
equipment (automated steering machine, data acquisition system and the power supply for
the steering machine), and ballast as required to make up for any shortfall in the weight of
test drivers and test equipment. Where required, ballast shall be placed on the floor behind
the passenger front seat or if necessary in the front passenger foot well area. All ballast
shall be secured in a way that prevents it from becoming dislodged during testing.
5.4. Brake Conditioning
Condition the vehicle brakes in the manner described in Paragraphs 5.4.1. to 5.4.4.
5.4.1. Ten stops are performed from a speed of 56km/h, with an average deceleration of
5.4.2. Immediately following the series of ten 56km/h stops, three additional stops are performed
from 72km/h at higher deceleration.
5.4.3. When executing the stops in Paragraph 5.4.2., sufficient force is applied to the brake pedal
to bring the vehicle's antilock braking system (ABS) into operation for a majority of each
5.4.4. Following completion of the final stop in 5.4.2., the vehicle is driven at a speed of 72km/h for
5min to cool the brakes.
5.5. Tyre Conditioning
Condition the tyres using the procedure of Paragraphs 5.5.1. to 5.5.3. to wear away mould
sheen and achieve operating temperature immediately before beginning the test runs of
Paragraphs 5.6. and 5.9.
5.5.1. The test vehicle is driven around a circle 30m in diameter at a speed that produces a lateral
acceleration of approximately 0.5 to 0.6g for three clockwise laps followed by three
5.5.2. Using a sinusoidal steering pattern at a frequency of 1Hz, a peak steering wheel angle
amplitude corresponding to a peak lateral acceleration of 0.5 to 0.6g, and a vehicle speed of
56km/h, the vehicle is driven through four passes performing 10 cycles of sinusoidal
steering during each pass.
5.5.3. The steering wheel angle amplitude of the final cycle of the final pass shall be twice that of
the other cycles. The maximum time permitted between each of the laps and passes is
5.6. Slowly Increasing Steer Procedure
The vehicle is subjected to two series of runs of the slowly increasing steer test using a
constant vehicle speed of 80 ± 2km/h and a steering pattern that increases by 13.5°/s until a
lateral acceleration of approximately 0.5g is obtained. Three repetitions are performed for
each test series. One series uses anticlockwise steering, and the other series uses
clockwise steering. The maximum time permitted between each test run is 5min.
5.6.1. From the slowly increasing steer tests, the quantity "A" is determined. "A" is the steering
wheel angle in degrees that produces a steady state lateral acceleration (corrected using
the methods specified in Paragraph 5.11.3.) of 0.3g for the test vehicle. Utilizing linear
regression, A is calculated, to the nearest 0.1°, from each of the six slowly increasing steer
tests. The absolute value of the six A values calculated is averaged and rounded to the
nearest 0.1° to produce the final quantity, A, used below.
5.10. ESC Malfunction Detection
5.10.1. Simulate one or more ESC malfunction(s) by disconnecting the power source to any ESC
component, or disconnecting any electrical connection between ESC components (with the
vehicle power off). When simulating an ESC malfunction, the electrical connections for the
tell-tale lamp(s) and/or optional ESC system control(s) are not to be disconnected.
5.10.2. With the vehicle initially stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off"
position, switch the ignition locking system to the "Start" position and start the engine. Drive
the vehicle forward to obtain a vehicle speed of 48 ± 8km/h. 30s, at the latest, after the
engine has been started and within the next 2min at this speed, conduct at least one left and
one right smooth turning manoeuvre without losing directional stability and one brake
application. Verify that the ESC malfunction indicator illuminates in accordance with
Paragraph 3.4. by the end of these manoeuvres.
5.10.3. Stop the vehicle, switch the ignition locking system to the "Off" or "Lock" position. After a
5min period, switch the vehicle's ignition locking system to the "Start" position and start the
engine. Verify that the ESC malfunction indicator again illuminates to signal a malfunction
and remains illuminated as long as the engine is running or until the fault is corrected.
5.10.4. Switch the ignition locking system to the "Off" or "Lock" position. Restore the ESC system to
normal operation, switch the ignition system to the "Start" position and start the engine. Reperform
the manoeuvre described in Paragraph 5.10.2. and verify that the tell-tale has
extinguished within this time or immediately afterwards.
5.11. Post Data Processing – Calculations for Performance Metrics
Yaw rate and lateral displacement measurements and calculations shall be processed
utilizing the techniques specified in Paragraphs 5.11.1. to 5.11.8.
5.11.1. Raw steering wheel angle data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a
cut-off frequency of 10Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing
static pre-test data.
5.11.2. Raw yaw rate data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a cut-off
frequency of 6Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing static
5.11.3. Raw lateral acceleration data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a
cut-off frequency of 6Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing
static pre-test data. The lateral acceleration data at the vehicle centre of gravity is
determined by removing the effects caused by vehicle body roll and by correcting for sensor
placement via the use of coordinate transformation. For data collection, the lateral
accelerometer shall be located as close as possible to the position of the vehicle's
longitudinal and lateral centres of gravity.
5.11.4. Steering wheel velocity is determined by differentiating the filtered steering wheel angle
data. The steering wheel velocity data is then filtered with a moving 0.1s running average
5.11.5. Lateral acceleration, yaw rate and steering wheel angle data channels are zeroed utilizing a
defined "zeroing range." The methods used to establish the zeroing range are defined in
Paragraphs 18.104.22.168. and 22.214.171.124.
B. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS TO BE APPLIED TO BRAKE ASSIST SYSTEMS, WHERE
The following requirements apply to vehicles fitted with Brake Assist Systems (BAS) as
defined in Paragraph 2.34. of this Regulation and declared in the Communication of
Annex 1, Paragraph 22. of this Regulation.
In addition to the requirements of this Annex, Brake Assist Systems shall also be subject to
any relevant requirements contained elsewhere within this Regulation.
In addition to the requirements of this Annex, vehicles with BAS shall also be equipped with
ABS in accordance with Annex 6.
1.1. General Performance Characteristics for Category "A" BAS Systems
When an emergency condition has been sensed by a relative high pedal force, the
additional pedal force to cause full cycling of the ABS shall be reduced compared to the
pedal force required without the BAS system in operation.
Compliance with this requirement is demonstrated if the provisions of Paragraphs 3.1. to
3.3. of this part of this Annex are met.
1.2. General Performance Characteristics for Category "B" BAS Systems
When an emergency condition has been sensed, at least by a very fast application of the
pedal, the BAS system shall raise the pressure to deliver the maximum achievable braking
rate or cause full cycling of the ABS.
Compliance with this requirement is demonstrated if the provisions of Paragraphs 4.1. to
4.3. of this part are met.
2. GENERAL TEST REQUIREMENTS
Whilst performing the tests described in Part B of this Annex, the following variables shall be
2.1.1. Brake pedal force, F ;
2.1.2. Vehicle velocity, v ;
2.1.3. Vehicle deceleration, a ;
2.1.4. Brake temperature, T ;
2.1.5. Brake pressure, P, where applicable;
2.1.6. Brake pedal speed, v , measured at the centre of the pedal plate or at a position on the
pedal mechanism where the displacement is proportional to the displacement at the centre
of the pedal plate allowing simple calibration of the measurement.
3. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF A CATEGORY "A" BAS
A Category "A" BAS shall meet the test requirements contained in Paragraphs 3.1. and 3.2.
3.1. Test 1: Reference test to determine F and a .
3.1.1. The reference values F and a shall be determined in accordance with the procedure
described in Appendix 4 to this Annex.
3.2. Test 2: For activation of BAS
3.2.1. Once an emergency braking condition has been detected, systems sensitive to pedal force
shall show a significant increase in the ratio of:
Brake line pressure to brake pedal force, where permitted by Paragraph 3.2.5.; or
Vehicle deceleration to brake pedal force.
3.2.2. The performance requirements for a Category "A" BAS are met if a specific brake
application characteristic can be defined that exhibits a decrease of between 40% and 80%
in required brake pedal force for (F - F ) compared to (F - F ).
3.2.3. F and a are threshold force and threshold deceleration as shown in Figure 1. The values
of F and a shall be supplied to the Technical Service at the time of submission of the
type-approval application. The value of a shall be between 3.5m/s and 5.0m/s .
Pedal Force Characteristic Needed in Order to Achieve
Maximum Deceleration with Category "A" BAS
3.3. Data Evaluation
The presence of a Category "A" BAS is proven if
F ≤ F ≤ F
F – F ≤ (F – F ) × 0.6
F – F ≥ (F – F ) × 0.2
4. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF A CATEGORY "B" BAS
A Category "B" BAS shall meet the test requirements contained within Paragraphs 4.1. and
4.2. of this part.
4.1. Test 1: Reference test to determine F and a .
4.1.1. The reference values F and a shall be determined in accordance with the procedure
described in Appendix 4 to this Annex.
4.2. Test 2: For activation of BAS
The vehicle shall be driven in a straight line at the test speed specified in Paragraph 2.4. of
this part. The driver shall apply the brake pedal quickly according to Figure 2, simulating
emergency braking so that BAS is activated and ABS is fully cycling.
In order to activate BAS the brake pedal shall be applied as specified by the car
manufacturer. The manufacturer shall notify the Technical Service of the required brake
pedal input at the time of submission of the application for type-approval. It shall be
demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Technical Service that the BAS activates under the
conditions specified by the manufacturer in accordance with Paragraph 22.1.2. or 22.1.3 of
After t = t + 0.8s and until the vehicle has slowed down to a speed of 15km/h, the brake
pedal force shall be maintained in a corridor between F and F , where
F is 0.7 F and F is 0.5 F .
The requirements are also considered to be met if, after t = t + 0.8s, the pedal force falls
below F provided the requirement of Paragraph 4.3. is fulfilled.
ANNEX 9 − APPENDIX 1
USE OF THE DYNAMIC STABILITY SIMULATION
The effectiveness of the electronic stability control system may be determined by computer simulation.
1. USE OF THE SIMULATION
1.1. The vehicle stability function shall be demonstrated by the vehicle manufacturer to the Type
Approval Authority or Technical Service by simulating the dynamic manoeuvres of
Paragraph 5.9 of Annex 9.
1.2. The simulation shall be a means whereby the vehicle stability performance shall be
(a) The yaw rate, 1s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input (time T + 1);
The yaw rate, 1.75s after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input;
The lateral displacement of the vehicle centre of gravity with respect to its initial straight
1.3. The simulation shall be carried out with a validated modelling and simulation tool and using the
dynamic manoeuvres of Paragraph 5.9 of Part A of Annex 9 under the test conditions of
Paragraph 4 of Annex 9.
The method by which the simulation tool is validated is given in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
2. VALIDATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL
2.1. The validity of the applied modelling and simulation tool shall be verified by means of
comparisons with practical vehicle tests. The tests utilised for the validation shall be the dynamic
manoeuvres of Paragraph 5.9. of Part A of Annex 9.
During the tests, the following motion variables, as appropriate, shall be recorded or calculated in
accordance with ISO 15037 Part 1:2005: General conditions for passenger cars or Part 2:2002:
General conditions for heavy vehicles and buses (depending on the vehicle category):
Steering-wheel angle (δH);
Longitudinal velocity (vX);
Sideslip angle (β) or lateral velocity (vY);(optional);
Longitudinal acceleration (aX); (optional);
Lateral acceleration (aY);
Yaw velocity (dψ/dt);
Roll velocity (dϕ/dt);
Pitch velocity (dθ /dt);
Roll angle (ϕ);
Pitch angle (θ).
2.2. The objective is to show that the simulated vehicle behaviour and operation of the vehicle
stability function is comparable with that seen in practical vehicle tests.
2.3. The simulator shall be deemed to be validated when its output is comparable to the practical test
results produced by a given vehicle type during the dynamic manoeuvres of Paragraph 5.9. of
Part A of Annex 9. The relationship of activation and sequence of the vehicle stability function in
the simulation and in the practical vehicle test shall be the means of making the comparison.
2.4. The physical parameters that are different between the reference vehicle and simulated vehicle
configurations shall be modified accordingly in the simulation.
2.5. A simulator test report shall be produced, a model of which is defined in Appendix 3 to this
Annex, and a copy attached to the vehicle approval report.
ANNEX 9 − APPENDIX 4
METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF F AND a
1.1. The brake pedal force F is the minimum pedal force that has to be applied for a given
vehicle in order to achieve maximum deceleration which indicates that ABS is fully cycling.
a is the deceleration for a given vehicle during ABS deceleration as defined in
Paragraph 1.7. below.
1.2. The brake pedal shall be applied slowly (without activating the BAS in the case of
Category B systems) providing a constant increase of deceleration until ABS is fully cycling
1.3. The full deceleration must be reached within the timeframe of 2.0 ± 0.5s. The deceleration
curve, recorded against time, must be within a corridor of ± 0.5s around the centre line of
the deceleration curve corridor. The example in Figure 3 has its origin at the time t crossing
the a line 2s. Once full deceleration has been achieved, the brake pedal shall be
operated so that the ABS continues fully cycling. The time of full activation of the ABS
system is defined as the time when pedal force F is achieved. The measurement shall be
within the corridor for variation of increase in deceleration (see Figure 3).
Deceleration Corridor for Determination of F and a
1. ANALOGUE DATA PROCESSING
ANNEX 9 − APPENDIX 5
DATA PROCESSING FOR THE BAS
(see Paragraph 2.2.3. of Part B of Annex 9)
The bandwidth of the entire, combined transducer/recording system shall be no less than
In order to execute the necessary filtering of signals, low-pass filters with order 4 or higher
shall be employed. The width of the pass band (from 0Hz to frequency f at -3dB) shall not
be less than 30Hz. Amplitude errors shall be less than ±0.5% in the relevant frequency
range of 0Hz to 30Hz. All analogue signals shall be processed with filters having sufficiently
similar phase characteristics to ensure that time delay differences due to filtering lie within
the required accuracy for time measurement.
Note: During analogue filtering of signals with different frequency contents, phase shifts
can occur. Therefore, a data processing method, as described in Paragraph 2. of
this Appendix, is preferable.
2. DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
2.1. General Consideration
Preparation of analogue signals includes consideration of filter amplitude attenuation and
sampling rate to avoid aliasing errors, and filter phase lags and time delays. Sampling and
digitising considerations include pre-sampling amplification of signals to minimize digitising
errors; number of bits per sample; number of samples per cycle; sample and hold amplifiers;
and time-wise spacing of samples. Considerations for additional phaseless digital filtering
include selection of pass bands and stop bands and the attenuation and allowable ripple in
each; and correction of filter phase lags. Each of these factors shall be considered in order
to achieve a relative overall data acquisition accuracy of ±0.5%.
2.3. Filter Phase Shifts and Time Delays for Anti-aliasing Filtering
Excessive analogue filtering shall be avoided, and all filters shall have sufficiently similar
phase characteristics to ensure that time delay differences are within the required accuracy
for the time measurement. Phase shifts are especially significant when measured variables
are multiplied together to form new variables, because while amplitudes multiply, phase
shifts and associated time delays add. Phase shifts and time delays are reduced by
increasing f . Whenever equations describing the pre-sampling filters are known, it is
practical to remove their phase shifts and time delays by simple algorithms performed in the
Note: In the frequency range in which the filter amplitude characteristics remain flat, the
phase shift Φ of a Butterworth filter can be approximated by
Φ = 81 × (f/f ) degrees for second order
Φ = 150 × (f/f ) degrees for fourth order
Φ = 294 × (f/f ) degrees for eighth order
The time delay for all filter orders is: t = (Φ/360) × (1/f )
2.4. Data Sampling and Digitising
At 30Hz the signal amplitude changes by up to 18%/ms. To limit dynamic errors caused by
changing analogue inputs to 0.1%, sampling or digitising time shall be less than 32µs. All
pairs or sets of data samples to be compared shall be taken simultaneously or over a
sufficiently short time period.
2.5. System Requirements
The data system shall have a resolution of 12 bits (±0.05%) or more and an accuracy of
±0.1% (2lbs). Anti-aliasing filters shall be of order 4 or higher and the relevant data range
f shall be 0Hz to 30Hz.
For fourth order filters the pass-band frequency f (from 0Hz to frequency f ) shall be greater
than 2.37 × f if phase errors are subsequently adjusted in digital data processing, and
greater than 5 × f otherwise. For fourth order filters the data sampling frequency f shall
be greater than 13.4 × f .