Regulation No. 27-04
|Name:||Regulation No. 27-04|
|Official Title:||Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Advance-warning Triangles.|
|Country:||ECE - United Nations|
|Date of Issue:||2014-10-16|
|Amendment Level:||04 Series, Supplement 1|
|Number of Pages:||41|
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December 5, 2017
STATUS OF UNITED NATIONS REGULATION
UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF:
01 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 11.09.73
02 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 01.07.77
03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 03.03.85
Corr. 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Supplement 1 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 18.01.98
Corr. 1 to Revision 1 of the Regulation
Supplement 2 to the 03 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 24.10.09
04 Series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 09.10.14
Supplement 1 to the 04 series of amendments
Date of Entry into Force: 10.10.17
REGULATION NO. 27
UNIFORM PROVISIONS FOR THE APPROVAL OF ADVANCE-WARNING TRIANGLES
3. Application for Approval
6. General Specifications
7. Particular Specifications
8. Test Procedure
9. Modifications of the Advance-Warning Triangle Type and Extension of Approval
10. Conformity of Production
11. Penalties for Non-conformity of Production
12. Production Definitively Discontinued
13. Names and Addresses of Technical Services Conducting Approval Tests, and of Type Approval
14. Transitional Provisions
Arrangements of the Approval Mark.
Shape and Dimensions of the Advance Warning Triangle.
Determination of the Roughness of the Road Surface "Sandy Beach" Method.
Method for Measurement of the CIL of Retro-Reflecting Devices and fluorescent
Minimum Requirements for Conformity of Production Control Procedures
REGULATION NO. 27
UNIFORM PROVISIONS FOR THE APPROVAL OF ADVANCE-WARNING TRIANGLES
This Regulation applies to certain advance warning devices intended to be on board
vehicles and to be placed on the carriageway in order to signal, by day and at night, the
presence of a halted vehicle.
For the purposes of this Regulation,
2.1. "Advance warning triangle" means the device referred to in Paragraph 1 above, and in
the form of an equilateral triangle.
2.1.1. "Advance warning triangle of type 1" means advance warning triangle comprised of a
separate retro-reflecting device and separate fluorescent material;
2.1.2. "Advance warning triangle of type 2" means advance warning triangle comprised of a
single fluorescent retro-reflecting material.
2.2. "Type of triangle" means advance-warning triangles which do not differ in such essential
2.2.1. Trade name or mark;
Advance warning triangle bearing the same trade name or mark but produced by
different manufacturers are considered as being of different types;
Advance warning triangle produced by the same manufacturer differing only by the
trade name or mark may be considered to be of the same type.
2.2.2. the optical characteristics;
2.2.3. the distinctive geometrical and mechanical features of the design;
2.3. "Retro-reflecting device" means an assembly, ready for use, comprising one or more
retro-reflecting optical units;
2.4. "Front face of the triangle" means the face carrying the optical units;
2.5. "Axis of the advance-warning triangle" means the straight line which, perpendicular to
the front face of the triangle, passes through its centre;
2.6. "Fluorescent material" means a material which, either in the mass or at the surface, when
excited by daylight, exhibits the phenomenon of photo-luminescence ceasing rather shortly
5.1. If all the samples of a type of advance-warning triangle which are submitted in conformity
with the provisions of Paragraph 3. above meet the requirements of this Regulation,
approval shall be granted.
5.2. The approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present
04 corresponding to the 04 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments
incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the
time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number
to another type of advance warning triangle covered by this Regulation.
5.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a type of advance warning triangle pursuant to
this Regulation shall be communicated to the countries Parties to the Agreement which
apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this
Regulation accompanied by dimensional drawings (supplied by the applicant for approval) in
a format not exceeding A4 (210 x 297mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate
5.4. In addition to the markings prescribed in Paragraph 4.1. above, there shall be affixed, in the
space referred to in Paragraph 4.2. above, to every advance warning triangle and to its
protective cover conforming to a type approved under this Regulation,
5.4.1. An international approval mark consisting of:
18.104.22.168. a circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which
has granted approval;
22.214.171.124. the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R" and the approval number
prescribed in Paragraph 5.2. above. The figures and letters shall face the same way as the
5.5. The trade name or mark on the protective cover shall be visible from the outside.
5.6. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and indelible.
5.7. Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of the arrangement of the approval mark.
6. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
6.1. The advance warning triangle shall be open at the centre and shall comprise a red border
composed of an outer retro-reflecting strip and an inner fluorescent strip, the whole
supported at a certain height above the surface of the carriageway. The open centre and the
fluorescent and retro-reflecting strips shall be bounded by concentric equilateral triangular
contours. Alternatively, a fluorescent retro-reflecting material may be used (type 2)
6.2. Advance warning triangles shall be so made that in normal use (on the road and when
carried in the vehicle) they retain the prescribed characteristics and their satisfactory
functioning continues to be ensured.
7.1.2. Shape and Dimensions of the Support
126.96.36.199. The distance between the supporting surface and the lower side of the advance warning
triangle shall not exceed 300 mm.
7.1.3. The fluorescent retro-reflecting material shall be coloured in the mass, either in the
retro-reflective elements or as solid surface layer.
7.2. Colorimetric Specification
7.2.1. Retro-reflecting Devices
188.8.131.52. Retro-reflecting devices shall be made of material coloured red in the mass.
184.108.40.206. The testing of the colour for retro-reflecting device (night-time colour) shall be carried out
according to the method described in Annex 5, Paragraph 2.1. and the trichromatic coordinates
of the red reflected luminous flux shall be within the following limits:
7.2.2. Fluorescent Materials
Point 1 2 3 4
X 0.712 0.735 0.589 0.625
Y 0.258 0.265 0.376 0.375
220.127.116.11. The fluorescent materials shall either be coloured in the mass or take the form of separate
coatings applied to the surface of the triangle.
18.104.22.168. The testing of the colour of the fluorescent materials (daytime colour) of advance warning
triangle of type 1 or type 2 shall be carried out according to the method described in
Annex 5, Paragraph 2.2. and the colour of the material in new condition shall be within an
area of which the corner points are determined by the following coordinates:
Point 1 2 3 4
X 0.570 0.506 0.595 0.690
Y 0.430 0.404 0.315 0.310
22.214.171.124. The testing of the luminance factor of the fluorescent materials shall be carried out
according to the method described in Annex 5, Paragraph 3.
The luminance factor including the luminance by reflection and fluorescence shall be:
For advance warning triangle of type 1, not less than 30%; and
(b) For advance warning triangle of type 2, not less than 25%.
7.2.3. The largest measured trichromatic coordinate y value according to Paragraph 126.96.36.199.
(night time colour) shall be smaller or equal to the largest measured trichromatic coordinate
y value according to Paragraph 188.8.131.52. (day time colour).
10. CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement,
Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:
10.1. Advance-warning triangles shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved
under this Regulation
The compliance with the requirements set forth in Paragraphs 6., 7. and 8. above shall be
verified as follows:
10.1.1 In addition, the stability in time of the optical properties and colour of retro-reflecting optical
units of advance warning triangles conforming to an approved type and in use shall be
verified. In the event of a systematic deficiency of the retro-reflecting optical units of
advance warning triangles in use and conforming to an approved type, approval may be
withdrawn. A "systematic deficiency" shall be deemed to exist where an approved type of
advance-warning triangle fails to meet the requirements of Paragraph 6.2 of this Regulation.
10.1.2. The minimum requirements for Conformity of Production (CoP) control procedures set forth
in Annex 7 to this Regulation shall be complied with.
10.1.3. The minimum requirements for sampling by an inspector set forth in Annex 8 to this
Regulation shall be complied with.
10.2. The Type Approval Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the
conformity control methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of
these verifications shall be once every two years.
11. PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
11.1. The approval granted in respect of a type of advance warning triangle may be withdrawn if
the foregoing requirements are not complied with.
11.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it
has previously granted, it shall forthwith notify the other Contracting Parties applying this
Regulation thereof by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1
to this Regulation.
12. PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a device under this
Regulation, he shall inform thereof the Type Approval Authority which granted the approval.
Upon receiving the relevant communication that Authority shall inform the other Parties to
the Agreement which apply this Regulation thereof by means of a communication form
conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
13. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING APPROVAL
TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES
The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the
Secretariat of the United Nations the names and addresses of the Technical Services
conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to
which the forms certifying approval or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other
countries, are to be sent.
(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297mm))
Name of administration
PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED
of a type of advance warning triangle pursuant to Regulation No. 27
Approval No. ..................................................
Extension No. ................................
Trade name or mark of the advance warning triangle ...............................................................
Manufacturer's name .................................................................................................................
If applicable, name of manufacturer's representative ................................................................
Brief description of the advance warning triangle ......................................................................
Submitted for approval on ..........................................................................................................
Technical service conducting approval tests .............................................................................
Date of report issued by that Service .........................................................................................
Number of report issued by that Service ...................................................................................
ARRANGEMENTSS OF THE APPROVAL
a ≥ 8mm
An advance warning triangle bearing one of the approval marks shown above hass been approved in the
Netherlands (E4) under approval number 04216. The first two digits off the approval number indicate that
the approval was granted according to the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the
drawings show several possible embodiments
and are given by way of example. The Type
Approval Authorities shall avoid using Roman numerals for the approval, in order to prevent any
confusion with other symbols.
Test Device for Clearance to Ground
1.1. The applicant shall submit samples, as mentioned in Paragraphs 3.4. and 3.5. of this
Regulation, for approval.
1.2. After verification of the general specifications (Paragraph 6 of the Regulation) and the
specifications of shape and dimensions (Paragraph 7.1. of this Regulation), all samples shall
be subjected to the heat resistance test (Paragraph 7 below) and examined after at least one
hour of rest.
1.3. The CIL value of the four samples of the advance warning triangles submitted is measured at
an observation angle of 20' and at an illumination angle with the components V = 0°, H = ± 5°;
this test is carried out in accordance with the method described in Paragraph 4 below.
1.4. The same two samples with the smallest and the largest CIL value in the tests according to
Paragraph 1.3 above shall be subsequently subjected to the following tests:
1.4.1. Measurement of the values of the CIL in respect of the observation and illumination angles
referred to in Paragraphs 184.108.40.206. and 220.127.116.11. of this Regulation according to the method
described in Paragraph 4 below.
1.4.2. Testing of the colour of the retro-reflected light according to Paragraph 2.1. below on the
sample with the highest CIL concerned shall be examined.
1.4.3. Test of clearance to ground according to Paragraph 5 below.
1.4.4. Mechanical solidity test according to Paragraph 6 below.
1.5. One sample other than those referred to in Paragraph 1.4. above shall be subjected to the
1.5.1. Testing of resistance to penetration of water into the retro-reflecting device according to
Paragraph 11.1. below or if relevant, of the mirror-backed reverse side of the retro-reflecting
device, according to Paragraph 11.2. below.
1.6. The second sample, other than those referred to in Paragraph 1.4. above shall be subjected
to the following tests:
1.6.1. Water test according to Paragraph 8 below.
1.6.2. Testing of resistance to fuels according to Paragraph 9 below.
1.6.3. Test of stability against wind according to Paragraph 10 below.
3. DETERMINATION OF THE LUMINANCE FACTOR OF THE FLUORESCENT MATERIAL
3.1. For the determination of the luminance factor the sample shall be tested for advance warning
Type 1 with the same method as described in Paragraph 2.2.1 of this Annex and
Type 2 with the same method as described in Paragraph 2.2.2. of this Annex.
3.1.1. By putting the luminance L of the sample into relation to the luminance L of a perfect diffuser
whose luminance factor β is known under identical conditions of illumination and observation;
the luminance factor b of the sample then results from the formula:
3.1.2. When the colour of the fluorescent material has been colorimetrically determined in
compliance with Paragraph 2.2. above, from the ratio of the tristimulus value Y the sample
and the tristimulus value of the perfect diffuser Y ; in this case it is:
4. MEASUREMENT OF THE VALUE OF THE CIL OF RETRO-REFLECTING DEVICES
4.1. For this measurement it is assumed that the direction of illumination H = V = θ for the advance
warning triangle in its position of use is parallel to the base plane and vertical to the lower side
of the triangle, which in turn is parallel to the said base plane.
4.2. The measurement shall be performed by the method described in Annex 6 to this Regulation.
5. TEST OF CLEARANCE TO GROUND
5.1. The advance warning triangle shall be required to pass the following tests:
5.1.1. For this test, the apparatus shown in Annex 3, Figure 2, of this Regulation, which has the form
of an inverted hollow pyramid, shall be placed on a horizontal base plane.
5.1.2. The individual supports to the ground shall be placed one after another in the square hole σ of
the test apparatus. During the test of each support, it shall be required to find a position of the
test apparatus in relation to the advance warning triangle and its supporting device, which is
favourable for the triangle and which ensures that:
18.104.22.168. all supports are resting simultaneously on the base plane,
22.214.171.124. outside the area covered by the test apparatus, the distance between the base plane and
parts of the triangle as well as of the supporting device is at least 50mm (with the exception of
the supports proper).
10. TEST OF STABILITY AGAINST WIND
10.1. The advance warning triangle shall be set up in a wind tunnel, on a base measuring about
1.5m by 1.20m with a surface formed of abrasive material of the type P36 corresponding to
the FEPA specification 43-1-2006. This surface shall be characterised by its geometric
roughness, HS = 0.5 mm ± 0.05 mm, which shall be defined and determined by the so-called
"sandy beach" method according to Annex 4 of this Regulation.
To avoid a laminar boundary layer of the incident flow over the surface of the base, this base
shall have a splitter plate and shall be set up in such a way, that the flow is completely around
10.2. For the air flow the following conditions shall apply:
The air stream shall reach a dynamic pressure of 180Pa; and shall have a flow field
which shall be homogeneous and free of turbulence;
The dimension of the flow field shall be such, that horizontally to each corner and
vertical to the top of the advance warning triangle a clearance of at least 150mm to the
border line of this flow field shall exist;
The air stream (flow field) shall be parallel to the supporting surface, in a direction
which seems to be most unfavourable for the stability;
In the case of a closed wind tunnel, the area of the advance warning triangle shall be
not larger than 5% of the area cross-section of the closed wind tunnel.
10.3. When set up in this manner, the advance warning triangle shall be subjected for 3min to this
open air stream.
10.4. The advance warning triangle shall neither overturn nor shift. Slight shifting of the points of
contact with the road surface by not more than 5cm, however, shall be allowed.
10.5. The retro-reflecting triangular part of the device shall not rotate through more than 10° round
a horizontal axis or a vertical axis from its initial position. The rotation around the horizontal
axis or the vertical axis shall be determined by the aid of a virtual plane at the initial position of
the retro-reflecting triangular part of the device, which is orthogonal to the base and
orthogonal to the air stream.
11. TEST OF RESISTANCE OF THE RETRO-REFLECTING DEVICE OR FLUROESCENT
11.1. Test of Resistance to Penetration of Water
11.1.1. The triangle - collapsible triangles are to be assembled as for use - shall be immersed for
10min in water having a temperature of 50°C ± 5°C, with the highest point of the upper part of
the illuminating surface being about 20mm below the water surface. Immediately afterwards
this retro-reflecting device shall be immersed under the same conditions in water having a
temperature of 25°C ± 5°C.
11.1.2. After this test, no water shall have penetrated to the reflecting surface of the retro-reflecting
device. If a visual inspection clearly reveals the presence of water, the device has not passed
the test. Water or water vapour penetration into the edges of fluorescent retro-reflecting
materials shall not be deemed to indicate failure.
METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE CIL OF RETRO-REFLECTING DEVICES AND
FLUORESCENT RETRO-REFLECTING MATERIALS
Needed definitions are explained by Figures 1 to 4.
2. DIMENSIONAL AND PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE PHOTOMETRY OF
2.1. The CIE-angular system as shown in Figure 1 shall be used.
An adequate support (goniometer) is demonstrated in Figure 2.
2.2. The measuring distance shall be chosen in such an order that at least the limits for the
angles δ, γ and η given in Figure 4 are respected, but not lower than 10m or its optical
2.3. The illuminance at the retro-reflector.
The illuminance over the useful area of the retro-reflector, measured perpendicular to the
incident light shall be sufficiently uniform. A check on this condition requires a measuring
element, the sensitive area of which is not greater than one-tenth of the area to be
examined. The variation in the value of the illuminance shall then comply with the condition:
2.4. The colour temperature and the spectral distribution of the source.
The source used for illuminating the retro-reflector shall as faithfully as possible represent
the CIE illuminant A, both as regards colour temperature and spectral power distribution.
2.5. The photometer head (measuring element)
2.5.1. The photometer head shall be corrected to the spectral luminous efficiency for the CIE
standard photometric observer in photopic vision.
2.5.2. The device shall not show a perceptible change in local sensitivity within the area of its
aperture; otherwise suitable provisions shall be added, e.g. the application of a diffusing
window at a certain distance in front of the sensitive surface.
2.5.3. Experience has shown that non-linearity of photometer heads may be a problem with the
very small light quantities which are the rule in the photometry of retro-reflectors. A check at
comparable illuminance levels on the photometer head is recommended.
2.6. The Influence of a Regular Reflection
The amount and distribution of the regular reflection from the surface of the retro-reflector
depends on the flatness and the gloss of the surface. In general, regular reflection is best
avoided when the reference axis is placed so that the regular reflection is directed on the
opposite side of the source from the photometer head (for example with β = - 5°).
The CIE Co-Ordinate System
1: First Axis I: Illumination Axis α: Observation angle
2: Second Axis O: Observation Axis β , β : Entrance angles
R: Reference Axis ε: Rotation angle
The CIE angular system for specifying and measuring retro-reflectors. The first axis is perpendicular to
the plane containing the observation axis and the illumination axis. The second axis is perpendicular both
to the first axis and to the reference axis. All axes, angles, and directions of rotation are shown positive.
The principle fixed axis is the illumination axis.
The first axis is fixed perpendicular to the plane containing the observation and illumination
(c) The reference axis is fixed in the retro-reflector and moveable with β and β .
2.3. Nature of Sampling
Samples of advance warning triangles shall be selected at random from the production of a
uniform batch. A uniform batch means a set of advance warning triangles of the same type,
defined according to the production methods of the manufacturer.
The assessment shall in general cover series production from individual factories. However,
a manufacturer may group together records concerning the same type from several
factories, provided these operate under the same quality system and quality management.
2.4 Measured and Recorded Photometric Characteristics
The sampled advance warning triangle shall be subjected to photometric measurements at
the points and the chromaticity coordinates provided for in the Regulation.
2.5 Criteria Governing Acceptability
The manufacturer is responsible for carrying out a statistical study of the test results and for
defining, in agreement with the Type Approval Authority, criteria governing the acceptability
of his products in order to meet the specifications laid down for verification of conformity of
products in Paragraph 10.1. of this Regulation.
The criteria governing the acceptability shall be such that, with a confidence level of 95%,
the minimum probability of passing a spot check in accordance with Annex 8 (first sampling)
would be 0.95.
3. FIRST REPEATED SAMPLING
A sample of four advance-warning triangles is selected at random from stock manufactured
The first sample of two is marked C, the second sample of two is marked D.
3.1 The conformity of mass-produced advance-warning triangles shall not be contested if the
deviation of any specimen of samples C and D (all four advance-warning triangles) is not
more than 20%.
In the case that the deviation of both advance-warning triangles of sample C is not more
than 0%, the measurement can be closed.
3.2. The conformity of mass-produced advance-warning triangles shall be contested if the
deviation of at least:
3.2.1. One specimen of samples C or D is more than 20% but the deviation of all specimens of
these samples is not more than 30%.
The manufacturer shall be requested again to bring their production in line with the
A second repeated sampling according to Paragraph 4. below shall be carried out within two
months' time after the notification. The samples C and D shall be retained by the Technical
Service until the entire CoP process is finished.
3.2.2. One specimen of samples C and D is more than 30%.
In this case the approval shall be withdrawn and Paragraph 5. below shall be applied.
4. SECOND REPEATED SAMPLING
A sample of four advance-warning triangles, is selected at random from stock manufactured
The first sample of two is marked E, the second sample of two is marked F.
4.1. The conformity of mass-produced advance-warning triangles shall not be contested if the
deviation of any specimen of samples E and F (all four advance-warning triangles) is not
more than 20%
In the case that the deviation of both advance-warning triangles of sample E is not more
than 0%, the measurement can be closed.
4.2. The conformity of mass-produced advance-warning triangles shall be contested if the
deviation of at least one specimen of samples E or F is more than 20%.
In this case the approval shall be withdrawn and Paragraph 5. below shall be applied.
COLOUR FASTNESS TO ARTIFICIAL LIGHT XENON-ARC LAMP TEST
This annex specifies a method intended for determining the resistance of the colour of test
samples of all kinds and in all forms to the action of an artificial light source representative of
natural daylight (D65).
A specimen of the test samples to be tested is exposed to artificial light under prescribed
conditions, along with a blue wool reference as specified.
3. REFERENCE MATERIALS
The colour fastness ratings mentioned in this annex are obtained by comparison unexposed
with exposed specified blue wool references for verification of the radiation dose as a
required maximum contrast in this Regulation.
3.1. Blue wool references developed and produced in Europe are identified by the numerical
designation 1 to 8. These references are blue wool cloths dyed with the dyes listed in
Table 1. For the test procedure of this Regulation described by this annex, only the blue
wool references 5 and 7 will be applied as described in Table 1 below.
Dyes for Blue Wool References 5 and 7
Reference Dye (Colour Index designation)
5 Cl Acid Blue 47
7 Cl Solubilised Vat Blue 5
4. GREY SCALE
The grey scale for determining changes in colour of test samples in colour fastness tests. A
precise colorimetric specification of the scale is given in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
4.1. The use of the scale is described in Paragraph 2. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
Relative Spectral Irradiance Requirements for Window Glass Filters
Xenon-arc Devices used in this Standard.
used for the
Wavelength λ in nm
CIE No.85, Table 4 plus
window glass %
l < 300 0.29
300 ≤ λ ≤ 320 0.1 ≤1 2.8
320 < λ ≤ 360 23.8 33.1 35.5
360 < λ ≤400 62.4 66.0 76.2
5.3. Light Exposure Equivalents for Blue Wool Light Fastness References for Exposure
by a Xenon-arc Lamp
Blue Wool Reference
Blue wool reference
For colour change of step 4 on the grey scale
ANNEX 9 – APPENDIX 1
DEFINITION OF THE GREY SCALE
This section describes the grey scale for determining changes in colour of test samples in colour
fastness tests, and its use. A precise colorimetric specification of the scale is given as a permanent
record against which newly prepared working standards and standards that may have changed can be
1. The essential, or 5-step, scale consists of five pairs of non-glossy grey colour chips (or
swatches of grey cloth), which illustrate the perceived colour differences corresponding to
fastness ratings 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1. This essential scale may be augmented by the provision of
similar chips or swatches illustrating the perceived colour differences corresponding to the
half-step fastness ratings 4-5, 3-4, 2-3 and 1-2, such scales being termed 9-step scales.
The first member of each pair is neutral grey in colour and the second member of the pair
illustrating fastness rating 5 is identical with the first member. The second members of the
remaining pairs are increasingly lighter in colour so that each pair illustrates increasing
contrasts or perceived colour differences which are defined colorimetrically. The full
colorimetric specification is given below:
1.1. The chips or swatches shall be neutral grey in colour and shall be measured with a
spectrophotometer with the specular component included. The colorimetric data shall be
calculated using CIE standard colorimetric system for Illuminant D65;
1.2. The Y tristimulus value of the first member of each pair shall be 12 ± 1;
DESCRIPTION OF THE MEASUREMENT GEOMETRY FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE COLOUR AND
THE LUMINANCE FACTOR OF FLUORESCENT RETRO-REFLECTIVE MATERIALS
Micro-prismatic materials show the phenomenon of "flares" or "sparkles" (Note 1), which might influence
the measured results unless special precautions are taken. A reference method, using the wider
apertures of the CIE 45°a: 0° (or 0°:45°a) geometry is introduced in Paragraph 12. of Annex 5 to this
Ideally, the measurements shall be made using the CIE 45°a: 0° (or 0°:45°a), called the forty-five
annular/normal geometry (or the normal/ forty-five annular geometry) defined in CIE 15 (see
Paragraph 12. of Annex 5.) The measurement area shall be minimum 4.0cm².
For this geometry CIE 15 recommends that:
The sampling aperture be irradiated uniformly from all directions between two circular cones
with their axes normal to the sampling aperture and apices at the centre of the sampling
aperture, the smaller of the cones having a half angle of 40° and the larger of 50° ;
The receiver uniformly collects and evaluates all radiation reflected within a cone with its
axis on the normal to the sampling aperture, apex at the centre of the sampling aperture,
and a half angle of 5°.
The annular geometry can be approximated by the use of a number of light sources in a ring or a number
of fibre bundles illuminated by a single source and terminated in a ring to obtain the CIE 45°c: 0°
(circumferential/normal geometry) (Note 2, Note 3).
An alternative manner of approximation is to use a single light source, but rotate the sample during
measurement with a rotational speed that ensures that a number of revolutions takes place during the
exposure time interval for a measurement so that all wavelengths are given equal weight
(Note 2, Note 3).
In addition, the apertures of the light source and the receiver shall have sufficient dimensions in
proportion to distances to ensure a reasonable compliance with the above-mentioned recommendations.
"Flares" or "sparkles" are caused by characteristic paths of rays that enter and leave the
sheeting surface at different angles. A characteristic path will dominate by raising the
luminance factor value significantly and possibly distorting the chromaticity co-ordinates if it
is included within narrow beams of illumination and measurement. However, the average
contribution to the daylight reflection is normally small.
In practice the recommendations can be approximated only. The important issue is that the
annular principle is applied and that illumination and collection occur in directions forming
fairly large solid angles, as this will reduce the influence of the above-mentioned "sparkles"
of micro-prismatic materials and of other variations with the precise geometry shown by
some of these materials.
In spite of such precautions, the practical difficulties of establishing the annular geometry in
accordance with the recommendations introduce uncertainty of measurement.