Automated Driving Reference Document

Name:Automated Driving Reference Document
Description:Automated (Autonomous) Driving - Definitions and General Principles.
Official Title:Reference Document with Definitions of Automated Driving under WP.29 and the General Principles for Developing a UN Regulation on Automated Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2018-04-23
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:14
Vehicle Types:Agricultural Tractor, Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Braking, Controls and Displays, Electrical and Electronic, General, Miscellaneous, Steering, Wheels and Tyres, Type Approval and Certification
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Keywords:

driver, system, monitor, driving, activities, perform, secondary, detection, oedr, control, vehicle, response, request, object, event, longitudinal, level, time, lateral, monitoring, case, odd, automated, braking, provision, regulatory, task, environment, immediately, tasks, transition, defined, steering, sae, dynamic, return, ref, full, ensure, requirements, execute, emergency, conditions, vehicles, takeover, function, human, deactivation, activation, acsf

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/WP.29/1140
REFERENCE DOCUMENT WITH DEFINITIONS OF AUTOMATED
DRIVING UNDER WP.29 AND THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR
DEVELOPING A UN REGULATION ON AUTOMATED VEHICLES (*)
Prepared by the experts from Informal Working Group (IWG) on
Intelligent Transport Systems / Automated Driving (ITS/AD)
ADOPTED BY
THE WORLD FORUM FOR HARMONIZATION OF VEHICLE REGULATIONS WP.29
AT THE 174 SESSION IN MARCH 2018

Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the driver.
The driver may not perform secondary activities
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the system
The driver may perform secondary activities
Monitor by Driver
Monitor by
Driver (a)
Monitor by
Driver (b)
Monitor by System
(Return to Driver Control on
System Request)
Monitor by System Full
Time under defined use
case
Monitor by System only
Ref. SAE Level
(J3016)
1 2 3 4 5
Outline of
Classification
System takes care of longitudinal
or lateral control.
Monitoring by the driver.
The system takes care of both
longitudinal and lateral control.
Monitoring by driver necessary
because the system is not able to
detect all the situations in the ODD.
The driver shall be able to intervene
at any time.
The system is able to cope with
all dynamic driving tasks within
its Operational Design Domain
(ODD) or will otherwise
transition to the driver offering
sufficient lead time (driver is
fallback).
The system drives and monitors
(specific to the ODD) the
environment.
The system detects system
limits and issues a transition
demand if these are reached.
The system is able to cope
with any situations in the ODD
(fallback included).
The driver is not necessarily
needed during the specific
use-case, e.g. Valet
Parking/Campus Shuttle.
The system may however
request a takeover if the ODD
boundaries are reached (e.g.
motorway exit).
The system is able to cope
with any situations on all road
types, speed ranges and
environmental conditions.
No driver necessary.
Vehicle Tasks
1. Execute either longitudinal
(acceleration/ braking) or
lateral (steering) dynamic
driving tasks when activated
The system is not able to
detect all the situations in the
ODD.
1. Execute longitudinal
(accelerating, braking) and
lateral (steering) dynamic
driving tasks when activated.
The system is not able to detect
all situations in the ODDs.
1. Execute longitudinal
(accelerating/braking) and
lateral (steering) portions of
the dynamic driving task
when activated. Shall
monitor the driving
environment for operational
decisions when activated.
1. Execute longitudinal
(accelerating/braking) and
lateral (steering) portions
of the dynamic driving
task when activated. Shall
monitor the driving
environment for any
decisions happening in
the ODD (for example
Emergency vehicles).
1. Monitor the driving
environment.

Ref. SAE Level
(J3016)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the driver.
The driver may not perform secondary activities
Monitor by Driver
Monitor by
Driver (a)
Monitor by
Driver (b)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the system
The driver may perform secondary activities
Monitor by System
(Return to Driver Control on
System Request)
Monitor by System Full
Time under defined use
case
Monitor by System only
1 2 3 4 5
Vehicle Tasks
(Continued)
4. A driver engagement detection
function (could be realized, for
example, as hands-on detection
or monitoring cameras to detect
the driver's head position and
eyelid movement etc.) could
evaluate the driver's
involvement in the monitoring
task and ability to intervene
immediately.
4. Driver availability
recognition shall be used to
ensure the driver is in the
position to take over when
requested by the system.
Potential technical solutions
range from detecting the
driver's manual operations
to monitoring cameras to
detect the driver's head
position and eyelid
movement.
4. Driver availability
recognition shall be used
to ensure the driver is in
the position to take over
when requested by
transition demand. This
can however be lighter
solutions than for Level 3
because the system is
able to transfer the vehicle
to a minimal risk condition
in the ODD.
4. System will transfer the
vehicle to a minimal risk
condition.
5. Emergency braking
measures must be
accomplished by the system
and not expected from the
driver (due to secondary
activities).
5. Emergency braking
measures must be
accomplished by the
system and not expected
from the driver (due to
secondary activities).

Ref. SAE Level
(J3016)
Driver Tasks
(Continued)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the driver.
The driver may not perform secondary activities
Monitor by Driver
Monitor by
Driver (a)
Monitor by
Driver (b)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the system
The driver may perform secondary activities
Monitor by System
(Return to Driver Control on
System Request)
Monitor by System Full
Time under defined use
case
Monitor by System only
1 2 3 4 5
4. The driver shall not perform
secondary activities which will
hamper him in intervening
immediately when required.
Consideration points on
development of vehicle
regulation
4. The driver shall not perform
secondary activities which will
hamper him in intervening
immediately when required.
1. Consider whether regulatory
provision for longitudinal
(accelerating, braking) and
lateral control (steering) are
necessary.
4. May turn his attention away
from the complete dynamic
driving task in the ODD but
can only perform secondary
activities with appropriate
reaction times. It would be
beneficial if the vehicle
displays were used for the
secondary activities.
1. Consider which regulatory
provision for longitudinal
(accelerating, braking) and
lateral control (steering) are
necessary including the
monitoring of the driving
environment.
4. May perform a wide
variety of secondary
activities in the ODD.
1. Consider which regulatory
provision for longitudinal
(accelerating, braking)
and lateral control
(steering) are necessary
including the monitoring of
the driving environment
for any decisions
happening in the use case
(for example Emergency
vehicles).
4. May perform a wide variety
of secondary activities
during the whole trip.
Note: Preliminary analysis
only- subject further
review.
1. Consider which regulatory
provision for longitudinal
(accelerating, braking) and
lateral control (steering) are
necessary including the
monitoring of the driving
environment for any
decisions (for example
Emergency vehicles).

Ref. SAE Level
(J3016)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the driver.
The driver may not perform secondary activities
Monitor by Driver
Monitor by
Driver (a)
Monitor by
Driver (b)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the system
The driver may perform secondary activities
Monitor by System
(Return to Driver Control on
System Request)
Monitor by System Full
Time under defined use
case
Monitor by System only
1 2 3 4 5
Consideration points on
development of vehicle
regulation
(Continued)
4. Consider the driver availability
recognition function to evaluate
the driver's involvement in the
monitoring task and ability to
intervene immediately. For
example, as hands-on detection
or monitoring cameras to detect
the driver's head position and
eyelid movement etc.
4. Consider regulatory
provision for driver
availability recognition is
used to ensure the driver is
in the position to take over
when requested by the
system.
5. Consider regulatory
provision for emergency
braking measures by the
system.
Examples of the necessary system performance requirements
4. Consider regulatory
provision for driver
availability recognition is
used to ensure the driver
is in the position to take
over when requested by
the system transition
demand at the end of the
ODD.
5. Consider regulatory
provision for emergency
braking measures by the
system.
4. Consider regulatory
provision for emergency
braking measures by the
system.
Override (e.g.
steering,
braking,
accelerating)
function by the
driver
Necessary in general
Unnecessary when driverless
mode. Otherwise necessary in
general. However the system
may momentarily delay
deactivation when immediate
human takeover could
compromise safety.
Unnecessary

Ref. SAE Level
(J3016)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the driver.
The driver may not perform secondary activities
Monitor by Driver
Monitor by
Driver (a)
Monitor by
Driver (b)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the system
The driver may perform secondary activities
Monitor by System
(Return to Driver Control on
System Request)
Monitor by System Full
Time under defined use
case
Monitor by System only
1 2 3 4 5
Examples of the necessary system performance requirements (cont.)
Aspects of
arrangement that
ensures the
driver's
resumption of
dynamic driving
tasks (transition
periods to the
driver, etc.)
Aspect of
transition
demand
procedure.
Not applicable
Consideration of the methods
used to reengage the driver
following system request
(including minimal risk
maneuver and cognitive
stimulation- if applicable the
vehicle infotainment system
showing non-driving relevant
content to be deactivated
automatically when transition
demand is issued).
System reliability Consideration shall be given to evaluation of the system reliability and redundancy as necessary.
Unnecessary when driverless
operation/use case but
Level 3 requirement when the
end of the ODD is reached.
Unnecessary

Ref. SAE Level
(J3016)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the driver.
The driver may not perform secondary activities
Monitor by Driver
Monitor by
Driver (a)
Monitor by
Driver (b)
Object and Event Detection and Response (OEDR) by the system
The driver may perform secondary activities
Monitor by System
(Return to Driver Control on
System Request)
Monitor by System Full
Time under defined use
case
Monitor by System only
1 2 3 4 5
Cyber-Security
Compatibility
with traffic law
(WP.1)
Examples of the necessary system performance requirements (cont.)
Necessary if the information communication in connected vehicles, etc. affects the vehicle control
Yes
Yes
Yes
Functionalities that include a human
driver, are in general allowed by the
road traffic conventions, but the
implementation in local traffic rules
is not harmonized. Driver might not
be able, for example, to perform
other activities than driving, thus
national traffic laws might need
amendments. Following principles
have been agreed upon in the WP.1
regarding side activities:
Principle 1: these activities do not
prevent the driver from responding
to demands from the vehicle
systems for taking over the driving
task, and
Principle 2: these activities are
consistent with the prescribed use
of the vehicle systems and their
defined functions.
Further consideration
necessary to reflect
driverless systems before
a conclusion can be
made.
Further consideration
necessary to reflect driverless
systems before a conclusion
can be made.

Automated (Autonomous) Driving - Definitions and General Principles.