Global Technical Regulation No. 2

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 2
Description:Motorcycle Emissions.
Official Title:Measurement Procedure for Two-wheeled Motorcycles Equipped with a Positive or Compression Ignition Engine with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollutants, CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2005-06-22
Amendment Level:Amendment 4 of February 3, 2020
Number of Pages:220
Vehicle Types:Motorcycle
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

vehicle, test, speed, engine, system, exhaust, air, vehicles, dynamometer, type, flow, mass, fuel, dilution, temperature, annex, paragraph, gas, table, filter, part, appendix, reference, sample, chassis, sampling, requirements, gear, cycle, maximum, emissions, pump, calibration, control, wmtc, concentration, particulate, unit, jis, pressure, time, measured, carbon, set, emission, calculated, device, resistance, coast-down, running

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.2/Amend.4
February 3, 2020
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 02
MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE FOR TWO-WHEELED MOTORCYCLES EQUIPPED WITH A
POSITIVE OR COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF
GASEOUS POLLUTANTS, CO EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON JUNE 22, 2005)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1
dated January 29, 2008
Corrigendum 1
dated September 9, 2009
Corrigendum 2
dated September 9, 2009
Amendment 2
dated October 28, 2011
Amendment 3
dated June 27, 2013
Amendment 4
dated February 3, 2020

4. Common appendixes
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
Appendix 9
Appendix 10
Appendix 11
Appendix 12
Appendix 13
Symbols and Abbreviations
Reference fuels
Test vehicle requirements for Test types I, II and VII
Classification of equivalent inertia mass and running resistance, applicable for
two-wheeled vehicles (table method)
Road tests of two-wheeled vehicles equipped with one wheel on the driven axle
for the determination of test bench settings
Chassis dynamometer system
Exhaust dilution system
Vehicle propulsion unit family with regard to environmental performance
demonstration tests
Information document containing the essential characteristics of the propulsion
units and the pollutant control systems
Template form to record coast down times
Template form to record chassis dynamometer settings
Driving cycles for the Type I test
Explanatory note on the gearshift procedure

This UN GTR amendment covers three test types related to tailpipe emissions:
1. Test Type I: Tailpipe emissions after cold start
To monitor the gaseous pollutant emissions a vehicle produces when in general use,
Test Type I defines a test procedure in a cold start and performing an appropriate
driving cycle in a chassis dynamometer which has been designed for that class of
vehicle, while taking into consideration the requirements of test repeatability and
reproducibility.
2. Test Type II: Tailpipe emissions at idle (PI engine) and free acceleration test (CI
engine)
To test low idle and high idle emissions referred to in road worthiness testing,
Test Type II defines a test procedure at two idle engine speeds for vehicles equipped
with PI engines to measure the emissions of CO and HC and a test procedure at free
acceleration for vehicles equipped with CI engines to measure opacity which is
indirectly representative of particulate matter emissions for CI vehicles.
3. Test Type VII: Energy efficiency, i.e. CO emissions and fuel consumption
To provide information required by consumers to judge the energy efficiency and
running costs and practicality of a vehicle, Test Type VII measures for publication and
inclusion in vehicle literature, the energy efficiency with respect to CO emissions and
fuel consumption.
The base UN GTR No. 2 builds on the work of the WMTC Informal Working Group
(IWG), its deliberations and conclusions, provided in the group's Technical Report
(ECE/TRANS/180/Add.2/Appendix 1) which produced its last amendment on the base
UN GTR in 2011. Amendment 4 to UN GTR No. 2 is based on the work of the
Informal Working Group on Environmental and Propulsion unit Performance
Requirements of light motor vehicles (EPPR), from now on referred to as L-EPPR
informal working group, which held its first meeting during the 65th GRPE in
January 2013 sponsored by the European Commission (EC).
B. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
The original work on the base UN GTR No. 2 started in May 2000 with the establishment of
the WMTC Informal Working Group. At the UNECE Working Party on Pollution and Energy
(GRPE) 45th session in January 2003, a formal proposal by Germany for the establishment
of a UN GTR was approved for presentation to the Executive Committee for the 1998
Agreement (AC.3). At its session on November 13, 2003, the proposal from Germany was
also approved as a UN GTR project by AC.3.
The base UN GTR No. 2 was approved by AC.3 in June 2005. Amendment 1 to the base
UN GTR No. 2 was approved by AC.3 in November 2007. The draft text of Amendment 2 to
UN GTR No. 2 on the introduction of performance requirements (limit values for pollutant
emissions for vehicles fitted with gasoline engines) was approved by GRPE in
January 2011, subject to final decisions concerning the format of the text by AC.3.

● EU:
Regulation (EU) No. 168/2013 was adopted in the course of 2013 as well as the
delegated act on environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements
Regulation (EU) No. 134/2014 (REPPR) in the beginning of 2014 setting out technical
provisions and environmental performance test procedures. Both regulations have
been amended by Regulation (EU) 2019/129 and by Regulations (EU) 2016/1824 and
2018/295 respectively.
● Indian Regulation:
MoSRT&H/CMVR/TAP-115/116, Central Motor Vehicle Rule No. 115 and AIS 137
Part 1
● Japanese Regulation:
– Road vehicle Act, Article 41 "Systems and Devices of Motor Vehicles";
– Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles, Article 31 "Emission Control Devices";
● United States of America Regulations:
– US-FTP Subpart F, Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles
– ISO standards:
– ISO 11486 (Motorcycles – Chassis dynamometer setting method);
– ISO 6460 (gas sampling and fuel consumption);
– ISO 4106 (Motorcycles – Engine test code – Net power);
Most of these regulations had been in existence for many years and the methods of
measurement varied significantly. The technical experts were familiar with these
requirements and discussed them in their working sessions. The L-EPPR Informal Working
Group therefore considered that to be able to determine a two-wheeled light motor vehicle's
real impact on the environment, in terms of its exhaust pollutant emissions and energy
efficiency, the test procedure and consequently the UN GTR No. 2 needs to represent
modern, real-world vehicle operation.
C.2. Technical References in Developing this Amendment 4 to UN GTR No. 2
For the development of Amendment 4 to UN GTR No. 2, the following legislation and
technical standards contained relevant applications of requirements for two-wheeled light
motor vehicles or transferable provisions for passenger cars:
Test Type I:
● UN (1998 agreement, light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles): WLTP (UN GTR 15),
UN S.R.1;
● UN (1958 agreement, light motor vehicles): UN Regulation 40, UN Regulation 47 and
UN R.E.3;

The third phase, involved the derivation of the test types contained within the UN GTR, and
consisted of a technical evaluation of the information collected in phases one and two.
Specifically, each test type was assessed and the following aspects considered:
● common international practices (existing harmonised practices);
● significant differences with respect to testing methods and procedures;
● the global technical feasibility;
● the likely cost and economic impact;
● the likely acceptability for all Contracting Parties;
● the effectiveness of each proposal at improving vehicle emission performance;
● the suitability of the testing procedures with regard to current and future powertrains
and technologies.
The order of the aspects presented above does not represent any ranking, the priority was
dependent on each of the specific areas analysed during the development of the UN GTR.
Where multiple options were left after the assessment of the factors listed above, further
iterative evaluation was undertaken by the Informal Working Group.
The fourth and final stage of the study involved a review of the proposed harmonised test
procedures by the EC, and following further discussion this feedback was incorporated and
a final set of iterations undertaken, which form the technical content of the EC's proposals to
revise and supplement UN GTR No. 2 and which were made available as working
documents to be discussed and agreed by the L-EPPR informal working group.
The outcome of this work was, among others, the development of a new proposal to amend
UN GTR No. 2 based on the consolidation of existing global legislation and up-to-date
technical provisions.
D. DISCUSSION OF THE ISSUES ADDRESSED BY THE UN GTR
Amendment 4 to UN GTR No. 2 brings together the tailpipe pollutant and CO emissions
related Test Types I, II and VII. This latter mentioned Test Type VII verifies the energy
efficiency of the light motor vehicle in terms of setting out a test procedure required to
determine the CO emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles equipped with a combustion
engine.
The process used to develop this UN GTR was based on reaching consensus in order to
allow this UN GTR to fulfil the requirements of different regions of the world.
The durability requirements (Test Type V) were outside the scope of the informal group's
mandate within the development of the Amendment 4 to UN GTR No. 2. However,
Contracting Parties were expressly permitted within this section to specify durability
requirements and/or useful life provisions in their national or regional legislation in relation to
the emission limits set out in this UN GTR. A new UN GTR on durability of pollution control
devices of two-wheeled light motor vehicles (Test Type V) will be formulated by the EPPR
IWG with harmonised test procedure and will use Amendment 4 to UN GTR No. 2 to verify
the tailpipe emissions.

II.
TEXT OF THE UN GTR
1. PURPOSE
1.1. This Regulation provides a worldwide-harmonized measurement method for the
determination of the levels of gaseous and particulate pollutant emissions at the tailpipe, the
emissions of carbon dioxide and the energy efficiency in terms of fuel consumption of
two-wheeled motor vehicles that are representative for real world vehicle operation
2. SCOPE
2.1. Two-wheeled motor vehicles equipped with a propulsion unit in accordance with Table 1:
Table 1
Scope with Regard to the Propulsion Unit and Fuel Type
Vehicle with PI engine (Petrol)
Vehicle with CI engine (Diesel)
Type I Test Yes Yes
Type I Test
particulate mass
Yes (only for Direct Injection)
Yes
Type II Test Yes Yes
Type VII Test Yes Yes
3. VEHICLE SUB-CLASSIFICATION
3.1. Figure 1 provides a graphical overview of the vehicle sub-classification in terms of engine
capacity and maximum vehicle speed if subject to the environmental test types indicated by
the (sub-) class numbers in the graph areas. The numerical values of the engine capacity
and maximum vehicle speed shall not be rounded up or down.

3.3. Class 1
Vehicles that fulfil the following specifications in Table 3 belong to Class 1
Table 3
Classification Criteria for Class 1 Two-wheeled Vehicles
50cm < Engine Capacity < 150cm and v ≤ 50km/h
Class 1
Or
3.4. Class 2
Engine Capacity < 150cm and 50km/h < v < 100km/h
Vehicles that fulfil the following specifications in Table 4 belong to Class 2 and shall be
sub-classified in:
Table 4
Sub-classification Criteria for Class 2 Two-wheeled Vehicles
Engine Capacity <150cm and 100km/h ≤v <115km/h
Sub-class 2-1
Or
3.5. Class 3
Engine Capacity ≥ 150cm and v < 115km/h
115km/h ≤ v < 130km/h Sub-class 2-2
Vehicles that fulfil the following specifications in Table 5 belong to Class 3 and shall be
sub-classified in:
Table 5
Sub-classification Criteria for Class 3 Two-wheeled Vehicles
130km/h ≤ v < 140km/h Sub-class 3-1
v ≥ 140km/h Sub-class 3-2
3.6. A Contracting Party may choose Class 0 vehicles to be excluded from the contracting
party's regulation

4.12. "Drive train control unit" means the on-board computer that partly or entirely controls the
drive train of the vehicle;
4.13. "Driver mass" means the nominal mass of a driver that shall be 75kg (subdivided into 68kg
occupant mass at the seat and 7kg luggage mass in accordance with ISO
Standard 2416-1992);
4.14. "Electronic throttle control" (ETC) means the control system consisting of sensing of
driver input via the accelerator pedal or handle, data processing by the control unit(s),
resulting actuation of the throttle and throttle position feedback to the control unit in order to
control the air charge to the combustion engine;
4.15. "Engine and vehicle characteristics": Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 1.1 of
Appendix 3 to Annex 4, the engine and vehicle characteristics as defined in Appendix 9 to
Annex 4 to this Regulation;
4.16. "Engine capacity" means:
(a)
(b)
for reciprocating piston engines, the nominal engine swept volume;
for rotary-piston (Wankel) engines, double the nominal engine swept volume;
4.17. "Engine control unit" means an on-board computer that partly or entirely controls the
engine(s) and all emission related devices/systems of the vehicle;
4.18. "Equivalent inertia" determined in relation to the reference mass as defined in
Paragraph 4.36 to this Regulation;
4.19. "Exhaust emissions" means emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter from
the tailpipe;
4.20. "Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system" means a part of the exhaust gas flow led back
to the combustion chamber of an engine in order to lower the combustion temperature;
4.21. "Forced Induction System" is the process of delivering compressed air/air-fuel mixture to
the intake of an internal combustion engine;
4.21.1. "Super-charger" means an intake air/air fuel mixture compressor run by any means other
than engine exhaust and used for forced induction of a combustion engine, thereby
increasing propulsion unit performance;
4.21.2. "Turbocharger" means an exhaust gas turbine-powered centrifugal compressor boosting
the amount of air charge into the combustion engine, thereby increasing the propulsion unit
performance;
4.22. "Fuel consumption" means the amount of fuel consumed, calculated by the carbon
balance method:
4.23. "Gaseous pollutants" means carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO ) expressed
in terms of nitrogen dioxide (NO ) equivalence, and hydrocarbons (HC), assuming a ratio of:
C H for petrol,
C H for diesel fuel.

4.38. "Sensor" means a converter that measures a physical quantity or state and converts it into
an electric signal that is used as input to a control unit;
4.39. "Stop-start system" means automatic stop and start of the propulsion unit;
4.40. "Tailpipe emissions" means the emission of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter at
the tailpipe of the vehicle;
4.41. "Unladen mass" (m ) means the nominal mass of a complete vehicle as determined by the
following criteria:
Mass of the vehicle with bodywork and all factory fitted equipment, electrical and auxiliary
equipment for normal operation of vehicle, including liquids, tools, fire extinguisher, standard
spare parts, chocks and spare wheel, if fitted.
The fuel tank shall be filled to at least 90% of rated capacity and the other liquid containing
systems to 100% of the capacity specified by the manufacturer.
4.42. "Useful life" means the relevant period of distance and/or time over which compliance with
the relevant gaseous and particulate emission limits has to be assured.
5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1. The manufacturer shall equip two-wheeled vehicles in the scope of this UN GTR with
systems, components and separate technical units affecting the environmental performance
of a vehicle that are designed, constructed and assembled so as to enable the vehicle in
normal use and maintained according to the prescriptions of the manufacturer to comply
with the detailed technical requirements and testing procedures of this UN GTR during its
useful life, as defined by the Contracting Party, including when installed in the vehicle.
5.2. Any strategy that "optimises" the powertrain of the vehicle running the relevant test cycles in
an advantageous way, reducing tailpipe emissions and running significantly differently under
real-world conditions differently than under emission test laboratory conditions, is
considered a defeat strategy and is prohibited, unless the manufacturer has documented
and declared it to the satisfaction of the responsible authority.
5.2.1. An element of design shall not be considered a defeat device if any of the following
conditions is met:
5.2.1.1. the need for the device is justified in terms of protecting the engine against damage or
accident and ensuring safe operation of the vehicle;
5.2.1.2. the device does not function beyond the requirements of engine starting;
5.2.1.3. the operating conditions are included to a substantial extent in the test procedures for
verifying if the vehicle complies with this UN GTR
5.3. The environmental performance type-approval regarding Test Types I, II and VII shall
extend to different vehicle variants, versions and propulsion unit types and families,
provided that the vehicle version, propulsion unit or pollution-control system parameters
specified in Appendix 8 to Annex 4 are identical or remain within the prescribed and
declared tolerances in that Annex.

7.3. Alternative Performance Requirements
The gaseous emissions for each class of vehicle set out in Section 3 of this UN GTR,
obtained when tested in accordance with the applicable test cycle specified in Appendix 12
to Annex 4, shall not exceed the pollutant emission limit values specified in Table 7, as per
the Alternate chosen by the Contracting Party.
Table 7
Alternate Performance Requirements
Sub-
Class
Limits (mg/km) for PI Engines
CO THC (HC) NO THC+NO (HC+NO )
Alt A Alt B Alt C Alt A Alt B Alt C Alt A Alt B Alt C Alt A Alt B Alt C
1 1.403 1.140 2.620 NA 380 750 390 70 170 790 NA NA
2-1 1.403 1.140 2.620 NA 380 750 390 70 170 790 NA NA
2-2 1.970 1.140 2.620 NA 380 750 340 70 170 670 NA NA
3 1.970 1.140 2.620 NA 170 330 200 90 220 400 NA NA
Notes:
7.4. In Tables 6 and 7, THC (HC) refers to total hydrocarbon measured by FID (Flame Ionization
Detector).

Table A1/1
Applicable Parts of WMTC as Specified in Appendix 12 to Annex 4,
Vehicle Sub classification
Class 0 subdivided in:
Applicable Parts of WMTC as specified in Appendix 12
to Annex 4
Sub-class 0-1 part 1, RST25 in cold condition, followed by part 1,
RST25 in warm condition
Sub-class 0-2 part 1, RST45 in cold condition, followed by part 1,
RST45 in warm condition
Class 1
Class 2 subdivide in:
Sub-class 2-1
Sub-class 2-2
Class 3 subdivided in:
Sub-class 3-1
Sub-class 3-2
3.3. Specification of the Reference Fuel
part 1, reduced vehicle speed in cold condition, followed
by part 1, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition
part 1, reduced vehicle speed in cold condition, followed
by part 2, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition
part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm
condition
part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm
condition, followed by part 3, reduced vehicle speed in
warm condition
part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm
condition, followed by part 3, in warm condition
The appropriate reference fuels as specified in Appendix 2 to Annex 4 shall be used
for conducting Test Type I.
Principal norms for Type I test shall be those of Table A4.App2/2, or Table A4.App2/4
reference fuel for petrol vehicles, and Table A4.App2/6 for Diesel vehicles. For
alternate norms, regional reference fuels used for Type I test by Contracting Parties
may be used as indicated in Table A1/2.

3.4.2.5.3. The blower outlet shall have a cross-section area of at least 0.4m and the bottom of
the blower outlet shall be between 5 and 20cm above floor level. The blower outlet
shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, between 30 and 45cm in
front of its front wheel. The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall
be located at between 0 and 20cm from the air outlet.
3.4.2.6. The detailed requirements regarding the chassis dynamometer are listed in
Appendix 6 to Annex 4.
3.4.3. Exhaust Gas Measurement System
3.4.3.1. The gas-collection device shall be a closed-type device that can collect all exhaust
gases at the vehicle exhaust outlets on condition that it satisfies the backpressure
condition of ± 1.225kPa (125mm H O). An open system may be used instead if it is
confirmed that all the exhaust gases are collected. The gas collection shall be such
that there is no condensation which could appreciably modify the nature of exhaust
gases at the test temperature. An example of a gas-collection device is illustrated in
Figure A1/1a and Figure A1/1b:
Schematic Diagram for the Representative Closed Type CVS System with PDP
Key
1
exhaust gas
P
positive displacement pump
2
dilution air
P , P sampling pumps
3
dilution air filter
R , R flowmeters
4
dilution tunnel
S , S sampling bags
5
heating exchanger
S , S sampling probes
6
diversion valve
T
temperature gauge
7
motor
V , V valves
8
continuous sampling probe
to HFID; special sampling line when HFID is used.
CT
revolution counter
to atmosphere.
F , F filters
g , g pressure gauges
to exhaust pump.
to analysing system.
to PM; special sampling line when PM is used.

Schematic Diagram for the Representative Open Type CVS System with CFV
Key
1
motorcycle exhaust pipes
F , F
filters
2
dilution tunnel
P , P sampling pumps
3
diversion valve
R , R flowmeters
4
continuous sampling probe
S , S sampling bags
5
sampling venturi
S , S sampling probes
6
main critical flow venturi
T
temperature gauge
7
blower
V , V valves
8
calculator
to HFID; special sampling line when HFID is used.
9
integrator
to atmosphere.
10
pressure gauge
to exhaust pump.
11
cyclone
to analysing system.
to PM; special sampling line when PM is used.
to PN; special sampling line when PN is used.
Figure A1/1b
An Example of Open-type System for Sampling Gases and Measuring their Volume
3.4.3.2. A connecting tube shall be placed between the device and the exhaust gas sampling
system. This tube and the device shall be made of stainless steel, or of some other
material which does not affect the composition of the gases collected and which
withstands the temperature of these gases.
3.4.3.3. Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
3.4.3.3.1. A positive displacement pump (PDP) full flow exhaust dilution system satisfies the
requirements of this Annex by metering the flow of gas through the pump at constant
temperature and pressure. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions
made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional sample is
achieved by sampling with pump, flow meter and flow control valve at a constant flow
rate.

3.4.3.9. A revolution counter shall be used to count the revolutions of the positive
displacement pump throughout the test.
Note 2:
Note 3:
Note 4:
Attention shall be paid to the connecting method and the material or
configuration of the connecting parts, because each section (e.g. the
adapter and the coupler) of the sampling system can become very hot. If
the measurement cannot be performed normally due to heat damage to
the sampling system, an auxiliary cooling device may be used as long as
the exhaust gases are not affected.
With open type devices, there is a risk of incomplete gas collection and
gas leakage into the test cell. There shall be no leakage throughout the
sampling period.
If a constant volume sampler (CVS) flow rate is used throughout the test
cycle that includes low and high vehicle speeds all in one (i.e. part 1, 2
and 3 cycles), special attention shall be paid to the higher risk of water
condensation in the high vehicle speed range.
3.4.3.10. Particulate Mass Emissions Measurement Equipment
3.4.3.10.1. Specification
3.4.3.10.1.1. System Overview
3.4.3.10.1.1.1. The particulate sampling unit shall consist of a sampling probe (PSP) located in the
dilution tunnel, a particle transfer tube (PTT), a filter holder(s) (FH), pump(s), flow rate
regulators and measuring units. See Figure A1/2 and Figure A1/3.
3.4.3.10.1.1.2. A particle size pre-classifier (PCF) (e.g. cyclone or impactor) may be used. In such
case, it is recommended that it is employed upstream of the filter holder. However, a
sampling probe, acting as an appropriate size classification device such as that
shown in Figure A1/4, is acceptable.
3.4.3.10.1.2. General Requirements
3.4.3.10.1.2.1. The sampling probe for the test gas flow for particulates shall be so arranged within
the dilution tunnel that a representative sample gas flow can be taken from the
homogeneous air/exhaust mixture and shall be upstream of a heat exchanger (if any).
3.4.3.10.1.2.2. The particulate sample flow rate shall be proportional to the total mass flow of diluted
exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel to within a tolerance of ± 5% of the particulate
sample flow rate. The verification of the proportionality of the PM sampling should be
made during the commissioning of the system and as required by the responsible
authority.
3.4.3.10.1.2.3. The sampled dilute exhaust gas shall be maintained at a temperature above 20°C
(293.15K) and below 52°C (325.15K) within 20cm upstream or downstream of the
particulate filter face. Heating or insulation of components of the PM sampling system
to achieve this is permissible. In the event that the 52°C limit is exceeded during a
test where periodic regeneration event does not occur, the CVS flow rate should be
increased or double dilution should be applied (assuming that the CVS flow rate is
already sufficient so as not to cause condensation within the CVS, sample bags or
analytical system).

3.4.3.10.1.2.9. The accuracy of the flow meters used for the measurement and control of the double
diluted exhaust passing through the particulate collection filters and for the
measurement/control of secondary dilution air shall be sufficient so that the
differential volume shall meet the accuracy and proportional sampling requirements
specified for single dilution. The requirement that no condensation of the exhaust gas
should occur in the CVS dilution tunnel, diluted exhaust flow rate measurement
system, CVS bag collection or analysis systems shall also apply in the case of double
dilution systems.
3.4.3.10.1.2.10. Each flow meter used in a particulate sampling and double dilution system shall be
subjected to a linearity verification as required by the instrument manufacturer.
Figure A1/2
Particulate Sampling Filter

3.4.3.10.1.3.1.2. The sample probe shall be installed at least 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the
exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least 8mm.
If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sample probe, the flow
drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flows to avoid sampling
artefacts.
If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and facing
directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced around the central
longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel, with the spacing between probes at least 5cm.
3.4.3.10.1.3.1.3. The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at least five probe
diameters, but shall not exceed 2,000mm.
3.4.3.10.1.3.1.4. The pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) shall be located upstream of the filter
holder assembly. The pre-classifier 50% cut point particle diameter shall be between
2.5μm and 10μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particulate mass
emissions. The pre-classifier shall allow at least 99% of the mass concentration of
1μm particles entering the pre-classifier to pass through the exit of the pre-classifier at
the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling PM.
3.4.3.10.1.3.1.5. Particle Transfer Tube (PTT)
3.4.3.10.1.3.1.5.1. Any bends in the PTT shall be smooth and have the largest possible radii.
3.4.3.10.1.3.1.6. Secondary Dilution
3.4.3.10.1.3.1.6.1. As an option, the sample extracted from the CVS for the purpose of PM measurement
may be diluted at a second stage, subject to the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Secondary dilution air shall be filtered through a medium capable of reducing
particles in the most penetrating particle size of the filter material by ≥99.95%,
or through a HEPA filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2009. The dilution air
may optionally be charcoal scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It
is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the
HEPA filter and after the charcoal scrubber, if used.
The secondary dilution air should be injected into the PTT as close to the outlet
of the diluted exhaust from the dilution tunnel as possible.
The residence time from the point of secondary diluted air injection to the filter
face shall be at least 0.25s, but no longer than 5s.
If the double diluted PM sample is returned to the CVS, the location of the
sample return shall be selected so that it does not interfere with the extraction
of other samples from the CVS.

3.4.3.10.1.3.4. Weighing Chamber (or Room) and Analytical Balance Specifications
3.4.3.10.1.3.4.1. Weighing Chamber (or Room) Conditions
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are
conditioned and weighed shall be maintained to within 22°C ± 2°C, 22°C ± 1°C
if possible (295.15K ± 2K, 295.15K ± 1K if possible) during all filter conditioning
and weighing.
Humidity shall be maintained to a dew point of less than 10.5°C (283.65K) and
a relative humidity of 45% ± 8%.
Limited deviations from weighing temperature and humidity specifications will
be allowed provided their total duration does not exceed 30min in any one filter
conditioning period.
The levels of ambient contaminants in the chamber (or room) environment that
would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilization shall be
minimised.
During the weighing operation, no deviations from the specified conditions are
permitted.
3.4.3.10.1.3.4.1.1. Linear Response of an Analytical Balance
The analytical balance used to determine the filter weight shall meet the linearity
verification criterion of Table A1/3 below. This implies a precision (standard deviation)
of at least 2μg and a resolution of at least 1μg. 1 digit = 1μg). At least four
equally-spaced reference weights shall be tested. The zero value shall be within
± 1μg.
Table A1/3
Analytical Balance Verification Criteria
Measurement
system
Intercept, b
Slope, m
Standard error SEE
Coefficient of
determination, r
PM Balance ≤1% max 0.99 – 1.01 ≤1% max ≥0.998
3.4.3.10.1.3.4.2. Buoyancy Correction
The sample and reference filter weights shall be corrected for their buoyancy in air.
The buoyancy correction is a function of sampling filter density, air density and the
density of the balance calibration weight, and does not account for the buoyancy of
the PM itself.
If the density of the filter material is not known, the following densities shall be used:
(a) PTFE coated glass fiber filter: 2,300kg/m ;
(b) PTFE membrane filter: 2,144kg/m ;
(c) PTFE membrane filter with polymethyl pentene support ring: 920kg/m .

3.4.3.10.1.4. Recommended System Description
Figure A1/5 is a schematic drawing of the recommended particulate sampling system.
Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformity with
this figure is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves,
solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and
coordinate the functions of component systems. Further components that are not
needed to maintain accuracy with other system configurations may be excluded if
their exclusion is based on good engineering judgment.
3.4.4. Driving Schedules
Figure A1/5
Particulate Sampling System
A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the full flow dilution tunnel (DT)
through the particulate sampling probe (PSP) and the particulate transfer tube (PTT)
by means of the pump (P). The sample is passed through the particle size
pre-classifier (PCF) and the filter holders (FH) that contain the particulate sampling
filters. The flow rate for sampling is set by the flow controller (FC).
3.4.4.1. Test Cycle WMTC
The WMTC test cycles (vehicle speed patterns vs. test time) for the Type I test
consist of up to three parts, as laid down in Appendix 12 to Annex 4. The applicable
part of WMTC for each sub category shall be as per Paragraph 3.2 of this section.

3.4.4.2.2. If the acceleration capability of the vehicle is not sufficient to carry out the
acceleration phases or if the maximum design speed of the vehicle is lower than the
prescribed cruising vehicle speed within the prescribed limits of tolerances, the
vehicle shall be driven with the throttle fully open until the desired vehicle speed is
reached or at the maximum design vehicle speed achievable with fully opened throttle
during the time that desired vehicle speed exceeds the maximum design vehicle
speed. In both cases, Paragraph 3.4.4.2.1 is not applicable. The test cycle shall be
carried on normally when desired vehicle speed is again lower than the maximum
design speed of the vehicle.
3.4.4.2.3. If the period of deceleration is shorter than that prescribed for the corresponding
phase, due to the vehicle characteristics, desired vehicle speed shall be restored by a
constant vehicle speed or idling period merging into succeeding constant vehicle
speed or idling operation. In such cases, Paragraph 3.4.4.2.1 is not applicable.
3.4.4.2.4. Apart from these exceptions, the deviations of the roller speed (from which the actual
vehicle speed is calculated) in comparison to the desired vehicle speed of the cycles
shall meet the requirements described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2.1. If not, the test results
shall not be used for further analysis and the test run shall be repeated.
3.4.5. Gearshift Prescriptions for the WMTC Prescribed for the Test Cycles set out in
Appendix 13 to Annex 4
3.4.5.1. Test Vehicles Equipped with an Automatic Transmission
3.4.5.1.1. Vehicles equipped with transfer cases, multiple sprockets, etc., shall be tested in the
configuration recommended by the manufacturer for street or highway use.
3.4.5.1.2. Idle modes shall be run with automatic transmissions in "Drive" and the wheels
braked. After initial engagement, the selector shall not be operated at any time during
the test.
3.4.5.1.3. Automatic transmissions shall shift automatically through the normal sequence of
gears. The torque converter clutch, if applicable, shall operate as under real-world
conditions.
3.4.5.1.4. The deceleration modes shall be run in gear using brakes or throttle as necessary to
maintain the desired vehicle speed.
3.4.5.2. Test Vehicles Equipped with a Semi-automatic Transmission
3.4.5.2.1. Vehicles equipped with semi-automatic transmissions shall be tested using the gears
normally employed for driving, and the gear shift used in accordance with the
instructions in the owner's manual.
3.4.5.2.2. Idle modes shall be run with semi-automatic transmissions in "Drive" and the wheels
braked. After initial engagement, the selector shall not be operated at any time during
the test.

m is the reference mass in kg
n is the idling engine speed in min
s
ndv
is the rated engine speed in min
is the ratio between engine speed in min and vehicle speed in km/h in gear
i-2
The downshift desired vehicle speed from gear 3 to gear 2 (v
using the following equation:
) shall be calculated
(4)
where:
P
is the rated power in kW
m is the reference mass in kg
n is the idling engine speed in min
s
ndv
is the rated engine speed in min
is the ratio between engine speed in min and vehicle speed in km/h in
gear 1.
The downshift desired vehicle speed from gear 2 to gear 1 (v
using the following equation:
) shall be calculated
(5)
where:
ndv
is the ratio between engine speed in min and vehicle speed in km/h in
gear 2.

Gear choice for deceleration or cruise phases:
gear 1, if v < v
gear 2, if v < v
gear 3, if v ≤ v < v
gear 4, if v ≤ v < v
gear 5, if v ≤ v < v
gear 6, if v ≥ v
The clutch shall be disengaged, if:
(a)
the vehicle speed drops below 10km/h, or
(b) the engine speed drops below n + 0.03 x (s - n );
(c)
there is a risk of engine stalling during cold-start phase.
3.4.5.3.1.3. Step 3 – Corrections According to Additional Requirements
3.4.5.3.1.3.1. The gear choice shall be modified according to the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
no gearshift at a transition from an acceleration phase to a deceleration phase.
The gear that was used for the last second of the acceleration phase shall be
kept for the following deceleration phase unless the vehicle speed drops below
a downshift desired vehicle speed;
no upshifts or downshifts by more than one gear, except from gear 2 to neutral
during decelerations down to stop;
upshifts or downshifts for up to 4s are replaced by the gear before, if the gears
before and after are identical, e.g. 2 3 3 3 2 shall be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2, and
4 3 3 3 3 4 shall be replaced by 4 4 4 4 4 4;
In the cases of consecutive circumstances, the gear used longer takes over,
e.g. 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 will be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3;
If used for the same time, a series of succeeding gears shall take precedence
over a series of preceding gears, e.g. 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 will be replaced by
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3;
(d)
no downshift during an acceleration phase.

3.4.6.1.2.2. If the reference mass m cannot be equalised to the flywheel equivalent inertia mass
m , to make the target running resistance force F* equal to the running resistance
force F (which is to be set to the chassis dynamometer), the corrected coast-down
time ΔT may be adjusted in accordance with the total mass ratio of the target
coast-down time ΔT in the following sequence:
(9)
F = F* (11)
(10)
with
(12)
where:
m may be measured or calculated, in kilograms, as appropriate. As an alternative,
m may be estimated as 4% of m.
For measurement accuracy, see Table A1/4
3.4.6.2. Running Resistance Force derived from a Running Resistance Table or On Road
Coast Down
3.4.6.2.1. The chassis dynamometer may be set by the use of the running resistance table
instead of the running resistance force obtained by the coast-down method. In this
table method, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by the reference mass (m )
regardless of particular vehicle characteristics.
Note 6:
Care shall be taken when applying this method to vehicles with
extraordinary characteristics.
3.4.6.2.2. The flywheel equivalent inertia mass m shall be the equivalent inertia mass m
specified in, Appendix 4, or Appendix 5 to Annex 4 where applicable. The chassis
dynamometer shall be set by the rolling resistance of the non-driven wheels (a) and
the aero drag coefficient (b) specified in Appendix 4 to Annex 4, or determined in
accordance with the procedures set out in Appendix 5 to Annex 4.

4. TEST PROCEDURES
4.1. Description of the Type I Test
The test vehicle shall be subjected, according to its category, to Test Type I
requirements as specified in this Paragraph 4 and comply with the requirements set
out in Appendix 3 to Annex 4.
4.1.1. Type I test (verifying the average emission of gaseous pollutants, PM for gasoline
direct injection and diesel vehicle, CO emissions and fuel consumption in a
characteristic driving cycle)
4.1.1.1. The test shall be carried out by the method described in Paragraph 4.2. The gases
shall be collected and analysed by the prescribed methods.
4.1.1.2. Number of Tests
4.1.1.2.1. The number of tests shall be determined as shown in Figure A1/7. R to R describe
the final measurement results for the first (No. 1) test to the third (No. 3) test and the
gaseous pollutant and PM. For carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption refer
Annex 3 for number of tests.
4.1.1.2.2. In each test, the masses of the carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides,
carbon dioxide and the fuel consumed during the test shall be determined. The mass
of particulate matter shall be determined only for vehicles equipped with a CI or a
direct injection PI combustion engine.

4.2. Type I Test
4.2.1. Introduction
Exhaust emissions may be sampled during preparation tests for Type I testing or
during verification tests for Test Types IV, VII or VIII but the results of these tests shall
not be used for the purpose of exhaust emission approval/certification to satisfy the
requirements set out in Paragraph 4.1.1.2.2.
4.2.1.1. The Type I test consists of prescribed sequences of dynamometer preparation,
fuelling, parking, and operating conditions.
4.2.1.2. The test is designed to determine hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, particulate matter mass emissions if applicable and fuel consumption
while simulating real-world operation. The test consists of engine start-ups and
vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer, through a specified driving cycle. A
proportional part of the diluted exhaust emissions is collected continuously for
subsequent analysis, using a CVS.
4.2.1.3. Except in cases of component malfunction or failure, all emission-control systems
installed on or incorporated in a tested vehicle shall be functioning during all
procedures.
4.2.1.4. Background concentrations are measured for all emission constituents for which
emissions measurements are taken. For exhaust testing, this requires sampling and
analysis of the dilution air.
4.2.1.5. Background Particulate Mass Measurement
The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing
filtered dilution air through the particulate filter. This shall be drawn from the same
point as the particulate matter sample, if a particulate mass measurement is
applicable according to Paragraph 4.1.1.2.2. One measurement may be performed
prior to or after the test. Particulate mass measurements may be corrected by
subtracting the background contribution from the dilution system. The permissible
background contribution shall be ≤1mg/km (or equivalent mass on the filter). If the
background contribution exceeds this level, the default figure of 1mg/km (or
equivalent mass on the filter) shall be used. Where subtraction of the background
contribution gives a negative result, the particulate mass result shall be considered to
be zero.
4.2.2. Dynamometer Settings and Verification
4.2.2.1. Test Vehicle Preparation
The test vehicle shall comply with the requirements set out in Annex 4.
4.2.2.1.1. The manufacturer shall provide additional fittings and adapters, as required to
accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tanks as installed on the
vehicle, and to provide for exhaust sample collection.
4.2.2.1.2. The tyre pressures shall be adjusted to the manufacturer's specifications to the
satisfaction of the technical service or so that the speed of the vehicle during the road
test and the vehicle speed obtained on the chassis dynamometer are equal.

4.2.2.2.3. Total Friction Loss
The total friction loss F (v ) at the reference vehicle speed v is calculated using the
following equation:
4.2.2.2.4. Calculation of Power-absorption Unit Force
The force F (v ) to be absorbed by the chassis dynamometer at the reference
vehicle speed v is calculated by subtracting F (v ) from the target running resistance
force F*(v ) as shown in the following equation:
F (v ) = F* (v ) � F (v ) (18)
4.2.2.2.5. Chassis Dynamometer Setting
Depending on its type, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by one of the methods
described in Paragraphs 4.2.2.2.5.1 to 4.2.2.2.5.4. The chosen setting shall be
applied to the pollutant and CO emission measurements as well as fuel consumption
laid down in Appendix 1 to Annex 3.
4.2.2.2.5.1. Chassis Dynamometer with Polygonal Function
In the case of a chassis dynamometer with polygonal function, in which the
absorption characteristics are determined by load values at several specified vehicle
speed points, at least three specified vehicle speeds, including the reference vehicle
speed, shall be chosen as the setting points. At each setting point, the chassis
dynamometer shall be set to the value F (v ) obtained in Paragraph 4.2.2.2.4.
4.2.2.2.5.2. Chassis Dynamometer with Coefficient Control
In the case of a chassis dynamometer with coefficient control, in which the absorption
characteristics are determined by given coefficients of a polynomial function, the
value of F (v) at each specified vehicle speed shall be calculated by the procedure
in Paragraph 4.2.2.2.
Assuming the load characteristics to be:
F (v) = a ● v + b ● v + c (19)
where:
the coefficients a, b and c shall be determined by the polynomial regression method.
The chassis dynamometer shall be set to the coefficients a, b and c obtained by the
polynomial regression method.
(17)

4.2.2.2.6. Dynamometer Settings Verification
4.2.2.2.6.1. Verification Test
Immediately after the initial setting, the coast-down time ∆t on the chassis
dynamometer corresponding to the reference vehicle speed (v ) shall be measured
by the procedure set out in Appendix 4 and Appendix 5 to Annex 4 for a vehicle
equipped with one wheel on the powered axle. The measurement shall be carried out
at least three times, and the mean coast-down time ∆t shall be calculated from the
results. The set running resistance force at the reference vehicle speed, F (v ) on the
chassis dynamometer is calculated by the following equation:
4.2.2.2.6.2. Calculation of Setting Error
The setting error ε is calculated by the following equation:
(27)
The chassis dynamometer shall be readjusted if the setting error does not satisfy the
following criteria:
ε ≤ 2% for v ≥ 50km/h
ε ≤ 3% for 30km/h ≤ v < 50km/h
ε ≤ 10% for v < 30km/h
The procedure in Paragraphs 4.2.2.2.6.1 to 4.2.2.2.6.2 shall be repeated until the
setting error satisfies the criteria. The chassis dynamometer setting and the observed
errors shall be recorded. Template record forms are provided in the template in
accordance with Appendix 11 to Annex 4.
4.2.2.3. Chassis Dynamometer Preparation, if Settings are Derived from a Running
Resistance Table
4.2.2.3.1. The Specified Vehicle Speed for the Chassis Dynamometer
The running resistance on the chassis dynamometer shall be verified at the specified
vehicle speed v. At least four specified vehicle speeds shall be verified. The range of
specified vehicle speed points (the interval between the maximum and minimum
points) shall extend either side of the reference vehicle speed or the reference vehicle
speed range, if there is more than one reference vehicle speed, by at least Δv, as
defined in Appendix 4 and Appendix 5 to Annex 4 for a vehicle equipped with one
wheel on the powered axle. The specified vehicle speed points, including the
reference vehicle speed points, shall be at regular intervals of no more than 20km/h
apart.
(28)

Table A1/5
Instrument Calibration Intervals
Instrument checks Interval Criteria
Gas analyser linearization
(calibration)
Every six months
± 2% reading
Mid span Every six months ± 2%
CO NDIR:
CO /H O interface
Monthly
-1 to 3ppm
NO converter check Monthly > 95%
CH cutter check Yearly 98% of Ethane
FID CH response Yearly See Paragraph 5.1.1.4.4
FID air/fuel flow
NO/NO NDUV:
H O, HC interference
Microgram balance
linearity
At major maintenance
At major maintenance
Yearly or at major
maintenance
According to instrument
manufacturer
According to instrument
manufacturer
See
Paragraph 3.4.3.10.1.3.4.1.1
Non-dispersive infrared absorption analysers shall be checked at the same intervals
using nitrogen/CO and nitrogen/CO mixtures in nominal concentrations equal to 10,
40, 60, 85 and 90% of full scale.
4.2.3.2. Each normally used operating range shall be linearized by the following procedure:
4.2.3.2.1. The analyser linearization curve shall be established by at least five calibration points
spaced as uniformly as possible. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas of
the highest concentration shall be not less than 80% of the full scale.
4.2.3.2.2. The calibration gas concentration required may be obtained by means of a gas
divider, diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air.
4.2.3.2.3. The linearization curve shall be calculated by the least squares method. If the
resulting polynomial degree is greater than 3, the number of calibration points shall be
at least equal to this polynomial degree plus 2.
4.2.3.2.4. The linearization curve shall not differ by more than ± 2% from the nominal value of
each calibration gas.

Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and
thereafter at major service intervals. The test gases to be used and the recommended
response factors are:
Methane and purified air:
1.00 < R < 1.15 or 1.00 < R < 1.05 for NG/
biomethane-fuelled vehicles
Propylene and purified air: 0.90 < R < 1.00
Toluene and purified air: 0.90 < R < 1.00
These are relative to a response factor (R ) of 1.00 for propane and purified air.
4.2.3.4.4. NO Converter Efficiency Test Procedure
4.2.3.4.4.1. Using the test set up as shown in Figure A1/8 and the procedure described below, the
efficiency of converters for the conversion of NO into NO shall be tested by means of
an ozonator as follows:
4.2.3.4.4.1.1. The analyser shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following the
manufacturer's specifications using zero and calibration gas (the NO content of which
shall amount to approximately 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration
of the gas mixture shall be less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyser
shall be in the NO mode so that the calibration gas does not pass through the
converter. The indicated concentration shall be recorded.
4.2.3.4.4.1.2. Via a T-fitting, oxygen or synthetic air shall be added continuously to the calibration
gas flow until the concentration indicated is approximately 10% less than the
indicated calibration concentration given in Paragraph 4.2.3.4.4.1.1 above. The
indicated concentration (c) shall be recorded. The ozonator shall be kept deactivated
throughout this process.
4.2.3.4.4.1.3. The ozonator shall now be activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO
concentration down to 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 4.2.3.4.4.1.1 of this Annex. The indicated concentration (d) shall be
recorded.
4.2.3.4.4.1.4. The NO analyser shall then be switched to the NO mode, whereby the gas mixture
(consisting of NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. The indicated
concentration (a) shall be recorded.
4.2.3.4.4.1.5. The ozonator shall now be deactivated. The mixture of gases described in
Paragraph 4.2.3.4.4.1.2 of this Annex shall pass through the converter into the
detector. The indicated concentration (b) shall be recorded.

4.2.3.5.1. Flow Meter Calibration
The approval authority shall check that a calibration certificate has been issued for
the flow meter demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a 12-month
period prior to the test, or since any repair or change which could influence
calibration.
4.2.3.5.2. Microbalance Calibration
The approval authority shall check that a calibration certificate has been issued for
the microbalance demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a
12-month period prior to the test.
4.2.3.5.3. Reference Filter Weighing
To determine the specific reference filter weights, at least two unused reference filters
shall be weighed within 8h of, but preferably at the same time as, the sample filter
weighing. Reference filters shall be of the same size and material as the sample filter.
If the specific weight of any reference filter changes by more than ± 5μg between
sample filter weighings, the sample filter and reference filters shall be reconditioned in
the weighing room and then reweighed.
This shall be based on a comparison of the specific weight of the reference filter and
the rolling average of that filter's specific weights.
The rolling average shall be calculated from the specific weights collected in the
period since the reference filters were placed in the weighing room. The averaging
period shall be between one day and 30 days.
Multiple reconditioning and re-weighings of the sample and reference filters are
permitted up to 80h after the measurement of gases from the emissions test.
If, within this period, more than half the reference filters meet the ± 5μg criterion, the
sample filter weighing can be considered valid.
If, at the end of this period, two reference filters are used and one filter fails to meet
the ± 5μg criterion, the sample filter weighing may be considered valid provided that
the sum of the absolute differences between specific and rolling averages from the
two reference filters is no more than 10μg.
If fewer than half of the reference filters meet the ± 5μg criterion, the sample filter
shall be discarded and the emissions test repeated. All reference filters shall be
discarded and replaced within 48h.
In all other cases, reference filters shall be replaced at least every 30 days and in
such a manner that no sample filter is weighed without comparison with a reference
filter that has been in the weighing room for at least one day.
If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in Paragraph 3.4.3.10.1.3.4 are not met
but the reference filter weighings meet the criteria listed in Paragraph 4.2.3.5.3, the
vehicle manufacturer has the option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding
the tests, fixing the weighing room control system and re-running the test.

4.2.4. Test Vehicle Preconditioning
4.2.4.1. The test vehicle shall be moved to the test area and the following operations
performed:
The fuel tanks shall be drained through the drains of the fuel tanks provided and
charged with the test fuel requirement as specified in Appendix 2 to Annex 4 to half
the capacity of the tanks.
The test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer
and operated through the applicable test cycle as specified for the vehicle (sub-)
category in Appendix 12 to Annex 4. The vehicle need not be cold, and may be used
to set dynamometer power.
4.2.4.2. Practice runs over the prescribed driving schedule may be performed at test points,
provided an emission sample is not taken, for the purpose of finding the minimum
throttle action to maintain the proper vehicle speed-time relationship, or to permit
sampling system adjustments.
4.2.4.3. Within 5min of completion of preconditioning, the test vehicle shall be removed from
the dynamometer and may be driven or pushed to the soak area to be parked. The
vehicle shall be stored for between 6 and 36h prior to the cold start Type I test or until
the engine oil temperature T or the coolant temperature T or the sparkplug
seat/gasket temperature T (only for air-cooled engine) equals the air temperature of
the soak area within 2°C.
4.2.4.4. For the purpose of measuring particulates, between 6 and 36h before testing, the
applicable test cycle set out in Appendix 12 to Annex 4 shall be conducted. The
technical details of the applicable test cycle are laid down in Appendix 12 to Annex 4
and the applicable test cycle shall also be used for vehicle pre-conditioning. Three
consecutive cycles shall be driven. The dynamometer setting shall be indicated as in
Paragraph 3.4.6.
4.2.4.5. At the request of the manufacturer, vehicles fitted with indirect injection
positive-ignition engines may be preconditioned with one Part One, one Part Two and
two Part Three driving cycles, if applicable, from the WMTC.
In a test facility where a test on a low particulate emitting vehicle could be
contaminated by residue from a previous test on a high particulate emitting vehicle, it
is recommended that, in order to pre-condition the sampling equipment, the low
particulate emitting vehicle undergo a 20min 120km/h steady state drive cycle or at
70% of the maximum design vehicle speed for vehicles not capable of attaining
120km/h followed by three consecutive Part Two or Part Three WMTC cycles, if
feasible.
After this preconditioning, and before testing, vehicles shall be kept in a room in which
the temperature remains relatively constant at 25 ± 5°C. This conditioning shall be
carried out for at least 6h and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if
any, are within ± 2.0°C of the temperature of the room.
If the manufacturer so requests, the test shall be carried out not later than 30h after
the vehicle has been run at its normal temperature.

4.2.5.2. Stalling
4.2.5.2.1. If the engine stalls during an idle period, it shall be restarted immediately and the test
continued. If it cannot be started soon enough to allow the vehicle to follow the next
acceleration as prescribed, the driving schedule indicator shall be stopped. When the
vehicle restarts, the driving schedule indicator shall be reactivated.
4.2.5.2.2. If the engine stalls during some operating mode other than idle, the driving schedule
indicator shall be stopped, the test vehicle restarted and accelerated to the vehicle
speed required at that point in the driving schedule, and the test continued. During
acceleration to this point, gearshifts shall be performed in accordance with
Paragraph 3.4.5.
4.2.5.2.3. If the test vehicle will not restart within 1min, the test shall be voided, the vehicle
removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken and the vehicle rescheduled
for test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken
shall be reported.
4.2.6. Drive Instructions
4.2.6.1. In case of multi-mode vehicles, the vehicle shall be tested in the worst case based on
the different tailpipe emissions. It may be in one mode or more than one mode. The
decision for the worst case will be based on the documentation provided by the
vehicle manufacturers and mutually agreed by the approval authority.
4.2.6.2. The test vehicle shall be driven with minimum throttle movement to maintain the
desired vehicle speed. No simultaneous use of brake and throttle shall be permitted.
4.2.6.3. If the test vehicle cannot accelerate at the specified rate, it shall be operated with the
throttle fully opened until the roller speed (actual vehicle speed) reaches the value
prescribed for that time in the driving schedule.
4.2.7. Dynamometer Test Runs
4.2.7.1. The complete dynamometer test consists of consecutive parts as described in
Appendix 12 to Annex 4.
4.2.7.2. The following steps shall be taken for each test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
place drive wheel of vehicle on dynamometer without starting engine;
activate vehicle cooling fan;
for all test vehicles, with the sample selector valves in the "standby" position,
connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air
sample collection systems;
start the CVS (if not already on), the sample pumps and the temperature
recorder. (The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler, if used, and
sample lines shall be preheated to their respective operating temperatures
before the test begins);

5. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
5.1. Type I Tests
5.1.1. Exhaust Emission Analysis
5.1.1.1. Analysis of the Samples Contained in the Bags
The analysis shall begin as soon as possible, and in any event not later than 20min
after the end of the tests, in order to determine:
(a)
(b)
the concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,
particulate matter if applicable and carbon dioxide in the sample of dilution air
contained in bag(s) B;
the concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon
dioxide and particulate matter if applicable in the sample of diluted exhaust
gases contained in bag(s) A.
5.1.1.2. Calibration of Analysers and Concentration Results
The analysis of the results has to be carried out in the following steps:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
prior to each sample analysis, the analyser range to be used for each pollutant
shall be set to zero with the appropriate zero gas;
the analysers are set to the calibration curves by means of span gases of
nominal concentrations of 70 to 100% of the range;
the analysers' zeroes are rechecked. If the reading differs by more than 2% of
range from that set in (b), the procedure is repeated;
the samples are analysed;
after the analysis, zero and span points are rechecked using the same gases. If
the readings are within 2% of those in point (c), the analysis is considered
acceptable;
at all paragraphs in this section the flow-rates and pressures of the various
gases shall be the same as those used during calibration of the analysers;
the figure adopted for the concentration of each pollutant measured in the
gases is that read off after stabilisation on the measuring device.
5.1.1.3. Measuring the Distance Covered
The distance (S) actually covered for a test part shall be calculated by multiplying the
number of revolutions read from the cumulative counter (see Paragraph 4.2.7) by the
circumference of the roller. This distance shall be expressed in km to three decimal
places.

where:
Q
=
flow-rate in m /min at 0°C and 101.3kPa;
T
=
temperature at the venturi inlet (K);
P
=
absolute pressure at the venturi inlet (kPa).
te = measuring time (s)
5.1.1.4.3. Hydrocarbons (HC)
The mass of unburned hydrocarbons emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the
test shall be calculated using the following formula:
where:
(32)
HC
is the mass of hydrocarbons emitted during the test part, in mg/km;
S is the distance defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.3;
V is the total volume, defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.1;
d is the density of the hydrocarbons at reference temperature and pressure (0°C
and 101.3kPa);
d
= 619x10 mg/m for petrol (E0) C H ;
= 631x10 mg/m for petrol (E5) C H O ;
= 646x10 mg/m for petrol (E10) C H O ;
= 619x10 mg/m for diesel (B0) C H
= 622x10 mg/m for diesel (B5/B7) C H O
HC
is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million (ppm) of
carbon equivalent (e.g. the concentration in propane multiplied by three),
corrected to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:

5.1.1.4.4.2. The mass of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle
during the test shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
(36)
NMHC
is the mass of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emitted during the test
part, in mg/km;
S is the distance defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.3;
V is the total volume, defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.1;
d is the density for NMHC which shall be equal to that of hydrocarbons at
reference temperature and pressure (0°C and 101.3kPa) and is
fuel-dependent;
NMHC
is the corrected concentration of the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in
ppm carbon equivalent.
5.1.1.4.4.3. For methane measurement using an NMC-FID, the calculation of NMHC depends on
the calibration gas/method used for the zero/calibration adjustment. The FID used for
the HC measurement (without NMC) shall be calibrated with propane/air in the normal
manner. For the calibration of the FID in series with an NMC, the following methods
are permitted:
(a)
(b)
The calibration gas consisting of propane/air bypasses the NMC;
The calibration gas consisting of methane/air passes through the NMC.
It is highly recommended to calibrate the methane FID with methane/air through the
NMC.
In case (a), the concentration of CH and NMHC shall be calculated using the
following equations:
(37)
(38)

(42)
where:
HC
is the concentration of HC expressed in parts per million (ppm), in the
sample of diluted gases bypassing the NMC, collected in bag(s) A;
HCH
is the concentration of HC expressed in parts per million (ppm), in the
sample of dilution air bypassing the NMC, collected in bag(s) B;
DiF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.9.
5.1.1.4.4.3.1. Conversion Efficiencies of the Non-methane Cutter (NMC)
The NMC is used for the removal of the non-methane hydrocarbons from the sample
gas by oxidizing all hydrocarbons except methane. Ideally, the conversion for
methane is 0%, and for the other hydrocarbons represented by ethane is 100%. For
the accurate measurement of NMHC, the two efficiencies shall be determined and
used for the calculation of the NMHC emission.
5.1.1.4.4.3.2. Methane Conversion Efficiency
The methane/air calibration gas shall be flowed to the FID through the NMC and
bypassing the NMC and the two concentrations recorded. The efficiency shall be
determined using the following equations:
(43)
where:
HC is the HC concentration with CH flowing through the NMC, ppm C;
HC is the HC concentration with CH bypassing the NMC, ppm C.

(48)
CO
is the concentration of carbon monoxide expressed in parts per million (ppm),
in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A;
CO is the concentration of carbon monoxide expressed in parts per million (ppm),
in the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B;
DiF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.9.
5.1.1.4.6. Nitrogen Oxides (NO )
The mass of nitrogen oxides emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the test
shall be calculated using the following formula:
where:
NO is the mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test part, in mg/km;
S is the distance defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.3;
V is the total volume defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.1;
dNO is the density of the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases, assuming that they
will be in the form of nitric oxide, dNO = 2.05106mg/m at reference
temperature and pressure (0°C and 101.3kPa);
NO is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million (ppm),
corrected to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:
(49)
where:
NO is the concentration of nitrogen oxides expressed in parts per million (ppm) of
nitrogen oxides, in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A;
NO is the concentration of nitrogen oxides expressed in parts per million (ppm) of
nitrogen oxides, in the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B;
DiF is the coefficient defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.9;
(50)
K
is the humidity correction factor, calculated using the following formula:

Where correction for the particulate background level from the dilution system has
been used, this shall be determined in accordance with Paragraph 4.2.1.5. In this
case, the particulate mass (mg/km) shall be calculated as follows:
where exhaust gases are vented outside the tunnel;
(55)
where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
where:
V
=
volume of tunnel air flowing through the background particulate filter
under standard conditions;
P = particulate mass collected by background filter;
DiF = dilution factor as determined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.9.
Where application of a background correction results in a negative particulate mass
(in mg/km), the result shall be considered to be zero mg/km particulate mass.
5.1.1.4.8. Carbon Dioxide (CO )
The mass of carbon dioxide emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the test shall
be calculated using the following formula:
(56)
where:
CO is the mass of carbon dioxide emitted during the test part, in g/km;
S is the distance defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.3;
V is the total volume defined in Paragraph 5.1.1.4.1;
d is the density of the carbon monoxide, d = 1.964103g/m at reference
temperature and pressure (0°C) and 101.3kPa);
(57)

In these equations:
C
=
concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the
sampling bag, expressed in percent by volume,
C
=
concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling
bag, expressed in ppm carbon equivalent,
C
=
concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling
bag, expressed in ppm,
5.1.1.5. Weighting of Type I Test Results
5.1.1.5.1. With repeated measurements (see Paragraph 4.1.1.2), the pollutant (mg/km), and
CO (g/km) emission results obtained by the calculation method described in
Paragraph 5.1.1 and fuel consumption determined according to Section B.4 are
averaged for each cycle part.
5.1.1.6. Weighting of WMTC Results
The (average) result of Part 1 or Part 1 reduced vehicle speed is called R1, the
(average) result of Part 2 or Part 2 reduced vehicle speed is called R2 and the
(average) result of Part 3 or Part 3 reduced vehicle speed is called R3. Using these
emission (mg/km) and fuel consumption (l/100km) results, the final result RF,
depending on the vehicle category as defined in Paragraph 3 of this Regulation, shall
be calculated using the following equations:
R = R ∙ w + R ∙ w (61)
R = R ∙ w + R ∙ w (62)
where:
w = weighting factor cold phase
w = weighting factor warm phase
R = R ∙ w + R ∙ w + R ∙ w (63)
where:
w = weighting factor phase n (n=1, 2 or 3)

(i)
(j)
recorder charts: identify zero point, span check, exhaust gas, and dilution air
sample traces;
test cell barometric pressure, ambient temperature and humidity;
Note 7:
A central laboratory barometer may be used; provided that
individual test cell barometric pressures are shown to be within
± 0.1% of the barometric pressure at the central barometer
location.
(k)
(l)
(m)
pressure of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air entering the CVS metering
device, the pressure increase across the device, and the temperature at the
inlet. The temperature shall be recorded continuously or digitally to determine
temperature variations;
the number of revolutions of the positive displacement pump accumulated
during each test phase while exhaust samples are being collected. The number
of standard cubic meters metered by a critical-flow venturi (CFV) during each
test phase would be the equivalent record for a CFV-CVS;
the humidity of the dilution air.
Note 8:
If conditioning columns are not used, this measurement can be
deleted. If the conditioning columns are used and the dilution air is
taken from the test cell, the ambient humidity can be used for this
measurement;
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)
the driving distance for each part of the test, calculated from the measured roll
or shaft revolutions;
the actual roller vehicle speed pattern for the test;
the gear use schedule for the test;
the emissions results of the Type I test for each part of the test and the total
weighted test results;
the second-by-second emission values of the Type I tests, if deemed
necessary;
(s) the emissions results of the Type II test (see Annex 2).

3.6. The Type II emission test shall be conducted immediately after the Type I emission test. In
any other event, if Type-II test is required to be conducted independently of Type-I test, the
vehicle shall be warmed up until one of the following conditions is satisfied:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
conditions at the end of Type 1 test or, if not feasible;
conditions according to ISO 17479 or, if not feasible;
lubricant temperature of at least 70°C; or
minimum of 600s of continuous driving under normal traffic conditions.
3.7. The exhaust outlets shall be provided with an air-tight extension, so that the sample probe
used to collect exhaust gases may be inserted at least 60cm into the exhaust outlet without
increasing the back pressure of more than 125mm H O and without disturbing operation of
the vehicle. This extension shall be so shaped as to avoid any appreciable dilution of
exhaust gases in the air at the location of the sample probe. Where a vehicle is equipped
with an exhaust system with multiple outlets, either these shall be joined to a common pipe
or the measured pollutants carbon monoxide content shall be collected from each of them
and an arithmetical average taken.
3.8. The emission test equipment and analysers to perform the Type II testing shall be regularly
calibrated and maintained. A flame ionisation detection or nondispersive infrared (NDIR)
analyser may be used for measuring hydrocarbons.
3.9. For vehicles equipped with a stop-start system, the manufacturer shall provide a Type II test
"service mode" that makes it possible to inspect the vehicle for this roadworthiness test on a
running fuel-consuming engine, in order to determine its performance in relation to the data
collected. Where this inspection requires a special procedure, this shall be detailed in the
service manual (or equivalent media). That special procedure shall not require the use of
special equipment other than that provided with the vehicle
4. TEST TYPE II – DESCRIPTION OF TEST PROCEDURE TO MEASURE TAILPIPE
EMISSIONS AT (INCREASED) IDLE AND FREE ACCELERATION
4.1. The possible positions of the adjustment components shall be limited by any of the
following:
4.1.1. The larger of the following two values:
(a)
(b)
the lowest idling engine speed which the engine can reach;
the engine speed recommended by the manufacturer, minus 100r/min;
4.1.2. The smallest of the following three values:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the highest rotation speed which the crankshaft of the engine can attain by activation
of the idling engine speed components;
the rotation speed recommended by the manufacturer, plus 250r/min;
the cut-in rotation speed of automatic clutches.

where:
C is the measured concentration of carbon monoxide, in vol. %;
C is the measured concentration of carbon dioxide, in vol. %;
C is the corrected concentration for carbon monoxide, in vol. %;
5.3. The C concentration (see Paragraph 5.1) shall be measured in accordance with the
formula in Paragraph 5.2 and does not need to be corrected if the total of the concentrations
measured (C + C ) is at least 15% for petrol.
6. FAIL CRITERIA TEST TYPE II FOR VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH A PI COMBUSTION
ENGINE
6.1. The test shall only be regarded as failed if the reported values exceed the limit values
prescribed in the regulation of the contracting parties.
7. TEST TYPE II – FREE ACCELERATION TEST PROCEDURE
7.1. The exhaust gas opacity shall be measured during free acceleration (no load from idle up to
cut-off engine speed) with gear lever in neutral and clutch engaged.
7.2. Vehicle preconditioning:
Vehicles may be tested without preconditioning although for safety reasons checks should
be made that the engine is warm and in a satisfactory mechanical condition. The following
precondition requirements shall apply:
7.2.1. The engine shall be fully warm, for instance the engine oil temperature measured by a
probe in the oil level dipstick tube to be at least 70°C, or normal operating temperature if
lower, or the engine block temperature measured by the level of infrared radiation to be at
least an equivalent temperature. If, owing to vehicle configuration, this measurement is
impractical, the establishment of the engine's normal operating temperature may be made
by other means for example by the operation of the engine cooling fan;
7.2.2. The exhaust system shall be purged by at least three free acceleration cycles or by an
equivalent method;
7.2.3. For vehicles equipped with continuously variable transmission (CVT) and automatic clutch,
the driven wheels may be lifted from the ground;
7.2.4. For engines with safety limits in the engine control (e.g. max. 1,500r/min without running
wheels or without gear), this maximum engine speed shall be reached.

ANNEX 3
TEST TYPE VII, ENERGY EFFICIENCY
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex sets out requirements with regard to energy efficiency of vehicles, in particular
with respect to the measurements of CO emissions and fuel consumption.
1.2. The requirements laid down in this Annex apply to the measurement of the emission of
carbon dioxide (CO ) and fuel consumption for vehicles equipped with associated
powertrain configurations:
1.3. A standardised method for measuring vehicles' energy efficiency (fuel consumption and
carbon dioxide emissions) is necessary to ensure that customers and users are supplied
with objective and precise information.
2. SPECIFICATION AND TESTS
2.1. General
The components liable to affect CO emissions and fuel consumption shall be so designed,
constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibrations to
which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this section. The test vehicles
shall be properly maintained and used.
2.2. Description of Tests for Vehicles Powered by a Combustion Engine Only
2.2.1. The emissions of CO and fuel consumption shall be measured according to the test
procedure described in Appendix 1 to this Annex. The test procedure, test fuel, conditioning
of vehicle, other requirements, etc., are to be followed for Type VII test same as for Type I
test described in Annex 1.
2.2.2. For CO emissions, the test results shall be expressed in grams per kilometre (g/km)
rounded to the nearest one decimal place.
2.2.3. Fuel consumption values shall be expressed in terms of both l/100km and also km/l and
their values shall be rounded off to two decimals and one decimal respectively. The values
shall be calculated according to Paragraph 1.4.3 of Appendix 1 to this Annex by the carbon
balance method, using the measured emissions of CO and the other carbon-related
emissions (CO and HC).
2.2.4. The appropriate reference fuels as set out in Appendix 2 to Annex 4 shall be used for
testing.
For the purpose of the calculation referred in Paragraph 2.2.3, the fuel consumption shall be
expressed in appropriate units and the following fuel characteristics shall be used:
(a)
density: measured on the test fuel according to ISO 3675:1998 or an equivalent
method. For petrol and diesel fuel, the density measured at 15°C and 101.3kPa shall
be used

3.2.2. The amendment shall be designated an "extension" when particulars recorded in the
information package have changed and any of the following occurs:
(a)
(b)
(c)
further inspections or tests are required;
any information on the approval certificate with the exception of its attachments, has
changed;
new requirements become applicable to the approved vehicle type or to the approved
system, component or separate technical unit.
In the event of an extension, the approval authority shall issue an updated approval
certificate denoted by an extension number, incremented in accordance with the number of
successive extensions already granted. That approval certificate shall clearly show the
reason for the extension and the date of re-issue.
3.3. The approval authority that grants the extension of the approval shall assign a serial number
for such an extension according to the procedure below:
3.3.1. Whenever amended pages or a consolidated, updated version are issued, the index to the
information package attached to the approval certificate shall be amended accordingly to
show the date of the most recent extension or revision, or the date of the most recent
consolidation of the updated version.
3.3.2. No amendment to the approval of a vehicle shall be required if the new requirements
referred to in Paragraph 3.2.2 (c) are, from a technical point of view, irrelevant to that type of
vehicle or concern categories of vehicle other than the category to which it belongs.
4. FOR CONTRACTING PARTIES APPLYING TYPE-APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS WITH
RESPECT TO CONDITIONS OF EXTENSION OF VEHICLE ENVIRONMENTAL
PERFORMANCE APPROVAL
4.1. Vehicles Powered by an Internal Combustion Engine Only
An approval may be extended to vehicles produced by the same manufacturer that are of
the same type or of a type that differs with regard to the following characteristics:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
reference mass;
maximum authorised mass.;
type of bodywork;
overall gear ratios;
engine equipment and accessories;
(f) engine speed versus vehicle speed in highest gear with an accuracy of +/- 5%.
Provided the CO emissions or fuel consumption as measured in Appendix 1 to this Annex
by the approval authority do not exceed the approval value by more than 4%.

1.4.3.2. for vehicles with a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel (B5):
FC = (0.1163/D) ((0.860 HC) + (0.429 CO) + (0.273 CO )); (2)
1.4.3.3. for vehicles with a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel (B7):
FC = (0.1165/D) ((0.858 HC) + (0.429 CO) + (0.273 CO )); (3)
1.4.3.4. for vehicles with a positive ignition engine fuelled with petrol (E0) :
FC = (0.1155/D) ((0.866 HC) + (0.429 CO) + (0.273 CO )); (4)
1.4.3.5. for vehicles with a positive ignition engine fuelled with petrol (E10):
FC = (0.1206/D) ((0.829 HC) + (0.429 CO) + (0.273 CO )); (5)
1.4.4. In these formulae:
FC
=
the fuel consumption in l/100km in the case of petrol, diesel or biodiesel, in
m /100km
HC = the measured emission of hydrocarbons in g/km
CO = the measured emission of carbon monoxide in g/km
CO =
the measured emission of carbon dioxide in g/km
D = the density of the test fuel.

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 1
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Table B.A4.App 1/1
Symbols used
Symbol Definition Unit
a Coefficient of polygonal function �
a Rolling resistance force of front wheel N
A NG/biomethane quantity within the H NG mixture % vol.
b Coefficient of polygonal function �
b Coefficient of aerodynamic function N/(km/h)
c Coefficient of polygonal function �
C Concentration of carbon monoxide ppm
CCO
Concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the
sampling bag
% vol.
C Corrected concentration of carbon monoxide % vol.
CO
CO
CO
Carbon dioxide concentration of diluted gas, corrected to take
account of diluent air
Carbon dioxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in
bag B
Carbon dioxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in
bag A
CO Mass of carbon dioxide emitted during the test part mg/km
CO
CO
CO
Carbon monoxide concentration of diluted gas, corrected to take
account of diluent air
Carbon monoxide concentration in the sample of diluent air, collected
in bag B
Carbon monoxide concentration in the sample of diluent air, collected
in bag A
CO Mass of carbon monoxide emitted during the test part mg/km
C Concentration of hydrogen in the diluted exhaust gas contained in
sampling bag
C Concentration of H O in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the
sampling bag
%
%
%
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
% vol.

Symbol Definition Unit
F*
Target running resistance force at reference vehicle speed on
chassis dynamometer
F*
Target running resistance force at specified vehicle speed on chassis
dynamometer
N
N
f* Corrected rolling resistance in the standard ambient condition N
f* Corrected coefficient of aerodynamic drag in the standard ambient
condition
N/(km/h)
F*
Target running resistance force at specified vehicle speed
N
f
Rolling resistance
N
f
Coefficient of aerodynamic drag
N/(km/h)
F
Set running resistance force on the chassis dynamometer
N
F Set running resistance force at the reference vehicle speed on the
chassis dynamometer
F Set running resistance force at the specified vehicle speed on the
chassis dynamometer
N
N
F
Total friction loss
N
F
Total friction loss at the reference vehicle speed
N
F
Running resistance force
N
F
Running resistance force at the reference vehicle speed
N
F
Braking force of the power absorbing unit
N
F Braking force of the power absorbing unit at the reference vehicle
speed
F Braking force of the power absorbing unit at the specified vehicle
speed
N
N
F Running resistance force obtained from the running resistance table N
H
Absolute humidity
g of water/kg of
dry air
HC
HC
HC
Concentration of diluted gases expressed in the carbon equivalent,
corrected to take account of diluent air
Concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in the carbon equivalent, in
the sample of diluent air collected in bag B
Concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in the carbon equivalent, in
the sample of diluent air collected in bag A
ppm
ppm
ppm

Symbol Definition Unit
ng Number of forward gears �
n Idling engine speed min
n_max_acc
Upshift engine speed from gear 1 to gear 2 during acceleration
phases
min
n_max_acc
Up shift engine speed from gear i to gear i+1 during acceleration
phases, i>1
n_min_acc Minimum engine speed for cruising or deceleration in gear 1 min
NO
NO
NO
Nitrogen oxide concentration of diluted gases, corrected to take
account of diluent air
Nitrogen oxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in
bag B
Nitrogen oxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in
bag A
NO Mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test part mg/km
p Standard ambient pressure kPa
p Ambient/Atmospheric pressure kPa
p Absolute pressure in balance environment
p Saturated pressure of water at the test temperature kPa
p Average under-pressure during the test part in the section of pump P kPa
p Mean ambient pressure during the test kPa
Pn Rated power kW
Q Electric energy balance Ah
ρ Standard relative ambient air volumetric mass mg/cm
ρ Density of air in balance environment mg/cm
ρ Density of calibration weight used to span balance mg/cm
ρ Density of PM sample medium (filter) with filter medium Teflon coated
glass fibre (e.g. TX40): ρ = 2.300kg/m
r(i) Gear ratio in gear i �
min
ppm
ppm
ppm
mg/cm
R Molar gas constant (8.314Jmol K ) Jmol K
R Response factor to calibrate HC analyser –
R
Final test result of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or
fuel consumption
mg/km
g/km, 1/100km

Symbol Definition Unit
v
vi
Vehicle speed at which the measurement of the coast-down time
ends
Specified vehicle speed selected for the coast-down time
measurement
km/h
km/h
w
Weighting factor of cycle Part 1 with cold start

w
Weighting factor of cycle Part 1 with warm condition

w
Weighting factor of cycle Part 2 with warm condition

w
Weighting factor of cycle Part 3 with warm condition


Fuel Property or Substance Name
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Sulphur content Wt ppm 10
Test method
JIS K2541-1
JIS K2541-2
JIS K2541-6
JIS K2541-7
Lead content not to be detected JIS K2255
Ethanol
Methanol
MTBE
Kerosene
not to be detected
not to be detected
not to be detected
not to be detected
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-5
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-5
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4

Fuel Property or Substance Name
Table A4.App2/3
Type: Petrol E0 (Nominal 100 RON)
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Test method
Research octane number, RON 99 101 JIS K2280
Motor octane number, MON 86 88 JIS K2280
Density g/cm 0.72 0.77 JIS K2249
Vapour pressure kPa 56 60 JIS K2258
Distillation:
– 10% distillation temperature K (°C) 318 (45) 328 (55) JIS K2254
– 50% distillation temperature K (°C) 363 (90) 373 (100) JIS K2254
– 90% distillation temperature K (°C) 413 (140) 443 (170) JIS K2254
– final boiling point K (°C) 488 (215) JIS K2254
– olefins % v/v 15 25
– aromatics % v/v 20 45
– benzene % v/v 1.0
Oxygen content
not to be detected
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
Existent gum mg/100ml 5 JIS K2261
Sulphur content Wt ppm 10
JIS K2541-1
JIS K2541-2
JIS K2541-6
JIS K2541-7
Lead content not to be detected JIS K2255

Limits
Parameter
Unit
Minimum
Maximum
Test method
Carbon/hydrogen ratio
report
Carbon/oxygen ratio
report
Induction period
minutes
480

EN ISO 7536
Oxygen content
% m/m
report
EN 1601
Existent gum
mg/ml

0.04
EN ISO 6246
Sulphur content
mg/kg

10
EN ISO 20846/EN ISO 20884
Copper corrosion

Class 1
EN ISO 2160
Lead content
mg/l

5
EN 237
Phosphorus content
mg/l

1.3
ASTM D 3231
Ethanol
% v/v
4.7
5.3
EN 1601/EN 13132

Parameter
Table A4.App2/6
Type: Diesel Fuel (B5)
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test method
Cetane number 52.0 54.0 EN ISO 5165
Density at 15°C kg/m 833 837 EN ISO 3675
Distillation:
� 50% point °C 245 – EN ISO 3405
� 95% °C 345 350 EN ISO 3405
� final boiling point °C – 370 EN ISO 3405
Flash point °C 55 – EN 22719
CFPP °C – -5 EN 116
Viscosity at 40°C mm /s 2.3 3.3 EN ISO 3104
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons % m/m 2.0 6.0 EN 12916
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10 EN ISO 20846/EN ISO 20884
Copper corrosion – Class 1 EN ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue (10% DR) % m/m – 0.2 EN ISO 10370
Ash content % m/m – 0.01 EN ISO 6245
Water content % m/m – 0.02 EN ISO 12937
Neutralisation (strong acid) number
mg
KOH/g
– 0.02 ASTM D 974
Oxidation stability mg/ml – 0.025 EN ISO 12205
Lubricity (HFRR wear scan diameter
at 60°C)
μm – 400 EN ISO 12156
Oxidation stability at 110°C h 20.0 EN 14112
FAME % v/v 4.5 5.5 EN 14078


ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 4
CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIVALENT INERTIA MASS AND RUNNING RESISTANCE, APPLICABLE
FOR TWO-WHEELED VEHICLES (TABLE METHOD)
1. The chassis dynamometer can be set using the running resistance table instead of the running
resistance force obtained by the coast-down methods set out in Appendix 5 or Appendix 6 to
Annex 4. In this table method, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by the reference mass
regardless of particular light motor vehicle characteristics.
2. The flywheel equivalent inertia mass mfi shall be the equivalent inertia mass mi specified in
Paragraph 3.4.6.1.2 of Annex 1. The chassis dynamometer shall be set by the rolling resistance of
front wheel "a" and the aerodynamic drag coefficient "b" specified in the following table.
Table A4.App4/1
Classification of Equivalent Inertia Mass and Running Resistance used for Two-wheeled Vehicles
Reference mass m
(kg)
Equivalent inertia mass
mi
(kg)
Rolling resistance of
front wheel a
(N)
Aero drag coefficient b
(N/(km/h) )
0 < m ≤ 25 20 1.8 0.0203
25 < m ≤ 35 30 2.6 0.0205
35 < m ≤ 45 40 3.5 0.0206
45 < m ≤ 55 50 4.4 0.0208
55 < m ≤ 65 60 5.3 0.0209
65 < m ≤ 75 70 6.8 0.0211
75 < m ≤ 85 80 7.0 0.0212
85 < m ≤ 95 90 7.9 0.0214
95 < m � 105 100 8.8 0.0215
105 < m � 115 110 9.7 0.0217
115 < m � 125 120 10.6 0.0218
125 < m � 135 130 11.4 0.0220
135 < m � 145 140 12.3 0.0221
145 < m � 155 150 13.2 0.0223
155 < m � 165 160 14.1 0.0224
165 < m � 175 170 15.0 0.0226
175 < m � 185 180 15.8 0.0227

Reference mass mref
(kg)
Equivalent inertia mass
mi
(kg)
Rolling resistance of
front wheel a
(N)
Aero drag coefficient b
(N/(km/h)2)
445 < m
� 455
450
39.6
0.0268
455 < m
� 465
460
40.5
0.0269
465 < m
� 475
470
41.4
0.0271
475 < m
� 485
480
42.2
0.0272
485 < m
� 495
490
43.1
0.0274
495 < m
� 505
500
44.0
0.0275
At every 10kg At every 10kg a = 0.088 � mi
b = 0.000015 � mi +
0.02

2.5. The relative air density when the vehicle is tested, calculated in accordance with the (1) shall
not differ by more than 7.5% from the air density under the standard conditions.
2.6. The relative air density, d , shall be calculated using the following formula:
where:
d is the reference relative air density at reference conditions (0.9197)
(1)
p
p
is the mean ambient pressure during the test, in kPa;
is the reference ambient pressure (101.3kPa);
T is the mean ambient temperature during test, in K;
T
is the reference ambient temperature 20°C.
3. CONDITION OF THE TEST VEHICLE
3.1. The test vehicle shall comply with the conditions described in Paragraph 1.1 of Appendix 6 to
Annex 4.
3.2. When installing the measuring instruments on the test vehicle, care shall be taken to minimise
their effects on the distribution of the load across the wheels. When installing the vehicle speed
sensor outside the vehicle, care shall be taken to minimise the additional aerodynamic loss.
3.3. Checks
The following checks shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications for
the use considered: wheels, wheel rims, tyres (make, type and pressure), front axle geometry,
brake adjustment (elimination of parasitic drag), lubrication of front and rear axles, adjustment
of the suspension and vehicle ground clearance, etc. Check that during freewheeling, there is
no electrical braking.
4. SPECIFIED COAST-DOWN VEHICLE SPEEDS
4.1. The coast-down times shall be measured between v and v as specified in Table A4.App5/1,
depending on the vehicle class as defined in Paragraph 3 of this Regulation.

5. MEASUREMENT OF COAST-DOWN TIME
5.1. After a warm-up period, the vehicle shall be accelerated to the coast-down starting vehicle
speed, at which point the coast-down measurement procedure shall be started.
5.2. Since shifting the transmission to neutral can be dangerous and complicated by the
construction of the vehicle, the coasting may be performed solely with the clutch disengaged.
Vehicles that have no means of cutting the transmitted engine power off prior to coasting may
be towed until they reach the coast-down starting vehicle speed. When the coast-down test is
reproduced on the chassis dynamometer, the drive train and clutch shall be in the same
condition as during the road test.
5.3. The vehicle steering shall be altered as little as possible and the brakes shall not be operated
until the end of the coast-down measurement period.
5.4. The first coast-down time Δt corresponding to the specified vehicle speed v shall be
measured as the time taken for the vehicle to decelerate from v + Δv to v - Δv.
5.5. The procedure described in Paragraphs 5.1 to 5.4 shall be repeated in the opposite direction to
measure the second coast-down time Δt .
5.6. The average Δt of the two coast-down times Δt and Δt shall be calculated using the following
equation:
5.7. At least four tests shall be performed and the average coast-down time ΔT calculated using the
following equation:
(2)
5.8. Tests shall be performed until the statistical accuracy P is equal to or less than 3% (P ≤ 3%).
The statistical accuracy P (as a percentage) is calculated using the following equation:
(3)
where:
(4)
t
s
is the coefficient given in Table A4.App5/2;
is the standard deviation given by the following formula:

6. DATA PROCESSING
6.1. Calculation of Running Resistance Force
6.1.1. The running resistance force F , in Newton, at the specified vehicle speed vj shall be calculated
using the following equation:
where:
m = reference mass (kg);
Δv = vehicle speed deviation (km/h);
Δt = calculated coast down time difference (s);
6.1.2. The running resistance force F shall be corrected in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.
6.2. Running Resistance Curve Fitting
The running resistance force F shall be calculated as follows:
6.2.1. The following equation shall be fitted to the data set of v and F obtained in Paragraphs 4 and
6.1 respectively by linear regression to determine the coefficients f and f ,
F = f + f � v (7)
6.2.2. The coefficients f and f thus determined shall be corrected to the standard ambient conditions
using the following equations:
(6)
(8)
where:
K shall be determined on the basis of the empirical data for the particular vehicle and tyre tests
or shall be assumed as follows, if the information is not available: K = 610 K .
6.3. Target Running Resistance Force F* for Chassis Dynamometer Setting
The target running resistance force F*(v ) on the chassis dynamometer at the reference vehicle
speed v , in Newton, is determined using the following equation:
(9)
(10)

1.2.4. In the case of a dynamometer with a fixed load curve, the accuracy of the load setting at
80km/h or of the load setting at the reference vehicle speeds (30km/h, respectively 15km/h)
referred to in Paragraph 1.1.3.1 for vehicles that cannot attain 80km/h, shall be ± 5%. In the
case of a dynamometer with adjustable load curve, the accuracy of matching dynamometer
load to road load shall be ± 5% for vehicle speeds > 20km/h and ± 10% for vehicle speeds
≤ 20km/h. Below this vehicle speed, dynamometer absorption shall be positive.
1.2.5. The total inertia of the rotating parts (including the simulated inertia where applicable) shall be
known and shall be within ± 10kg of the inertia class for the test.
1.2.6. The speed of the vehicle shall be measured by the speed of rotation of the roller (the front roller
in the case of a two-roller dynamometer from which the actual speed of the vehicle is
calculated). It shall be measured with an accuracy of ± 1km/h at vehicle speeds over 10km/h.
The distance actually driven by the vehicle shall be measured by the movement of rotation of
the roller (the front roller in the case of a two-roller dynamometer).
2. DYNAMOMETER CALIBRATION PROCEDURE
2.1. Introduction
This section describes the method to be used to determine the load absorbed by a
dynamometer brake. The load absorbed comprises the load absorbed by frictional effects and
the load absorbed by the power-absorption device. The dynamometer is brought into operation
beyond the range of test vehicle speeds. The device used for starting up the dynamometer is
then disconnected; the rotational speed of the driven roller decreases. The kinetic energy of the
rollers is dissipated by the power-absorption unit and by the frictional effects. This method
disregards variations in the roller's internal frictional effects caused by rollers with or without the
vehicle. The frictional effects of the rear roller shall be disregarded when the roller is free.
2.2. Calibration of the Load Indicator at 80km/h or of the Load Indicator referred to in
Paragraph 1.1.3.1 for Vehicles that Cannot Attain 80km/h
The following procedure shall be used for calibration of the load indicator to 80km/h or the
applicable load indicator referred to in Paragraph 1.1.3.1 for vehicles that cannot attain 80km/h,
as a function of the load absorbed (see also Figure A4.App6/1):
2.2.1. Measure the rotational speed of the roller if this has not already been done. A fifth wheel, a
revolution counter or some other method may be used.
2.2.2. Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method for starting up the
dynamometer.
2.2.3. Use the flywheel or any other system of inertia simulation for the particular inertia class to be
used.

2.2.11. Calculate the load absorbed using the formula:
(2)
where:
F = load absorbed (N);
m = equivalent inertia in kg (excluding the inertial effects of the free rear roller);
Δv = vehicle speed deviation in m/s (10km/h = 2.775m/s);
Δt
=
time taken by the roller to pass from 85km/h to 75km/h, or for vehicles that cannot
attain 80km/h from 35 – 25km/h, respectively from 20 – 10km/h, referred to in
Table A4.App5/2 of Annex 4, Appendix 5.
2.2.12. Figure A4.App6/2 shows the load indicated at 80km/h in terms of load absorbed at 80km/h.
Figure A4.App6/2
Load Indicated at 80km/h in Terms of Load Absorbed at 80km/h
2.2.13. The requirements laid down in Paragraphs 2.2.3 to 2.2.12 shall be repeated for all inertia
classes to be used.
2.3. Calibration of the Load Indicator at Other Vehicle Speeds
The procedures described in Paragraph 2.2 shall be repeated as often as necessary for the
chosen vehicle speeds.
2.4. Calibration of Force or Torque
The same procedure shall be used for force or torque calibration.

Note: An explanation of this formula with reference to dynamometers with mechanically
simulated inertia is appended.
Thus, total inertia is expressed as follows:
I = I + F / � (4)
where:
I
F

can be calculated or measured by traditional methods;
can be measured on the dynamometer;
can be calculated from the peripheral rotation speed of the rollers.
The total inertia (I) will be determined during an acceleration or deceleration test with values no
lower than those obtained on an operating cycle.
4.2.2. Specification for the Calculation of Total Inertia
The test and calculation methods shall make it possible to determine the total inertia I with a
relative error (ΔI/I) of less than ± 2%.
4.3. Specification
4.3.1. The mass of the simulated total inertia I shall remain the same as the theoretical value of the
equivalent inertia (see Appendix 4 to Annex 4) within the following limits:
4.3.1.1. ± 5% of the theoretical value for each instantaneous value;
4.3.1.2. ± 2% of the theoretical value for the average value calculated for each sequence of the cycle.
The limit specified in Paragraph 4.3.1.1 is brought to ± 50% for 1s when starting and, for
vehicles with manual transmission, for 2s during gear changes.
4.4. Verification Procedure
4.4.1. Verification is carried out during each test throughout the test cycles defined in Appendix 12 to
Annex 4.
4.4.2. However, if the requirements laid down in Paragraph 4.3 are met, with instantaneous
accelerations which are at least three times greater or smaller than the values obtained in the
sequences of the theoretical cycle, the verification described in Paragraph 4.4.1 will not be
necessary.

1.3. Specific Requirements
1.3.1. Connection to Vehicle Exhaust
The connecting tube between the vehicle exhaust outlets and the dilution system shall be as
short as possible and satisfy the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
the tube shall be less than 3.6m long, or less than 6.1m long if heat insulated. Its internal
diameter may not exceed 105mm;
it shall not cause the static pressure at the exhaust outlets on the test vehicle to differ by
more than ± 0.75kPa at 50km/h, or more than ± 1.25kPa for the whole duration of the
test, from the static pressures recorded when nothing is connected to the vehicle
exhaust outlets. The pressure shall be measured in the exhaust outlet or in an extension
having the same diameter, as near as possible to the end of the pipe. Sampling systems
capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ± 0.25kPa may be used if a written
request from a manufacturer to the technical service substantiates the need for the
closer tolerance;
it shall not change the nature of the exhaust gas;
any elastomeric connectors employed shall be as thermally stable as possible and have
minimum exposure to the exhaust gases.
1.3.2. Dilution Air Conditioning
The dilution air used for the primary dilution of the exhaust in the CVS tunnel shall be passed
through a medium capable of reducing particles in the most penetrating particle size of the filter
material by ≥ 99.95%, or through a filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:1998. This
represents the specification of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The dilution air
may be charcoal scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It is recommended that an
additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal
scrubber, if used. At the vehicle manufacturer's request, the dilution air may be sampled
according to good engineering practice to determine the tunnel contribution to background
particulate mass levels, which can then be subtracted from the values measured in the diluted
exhaust.
1.3.3. Dilution Tunnel
Provision shall be made for the vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air to be mixed. A mixing
orifice may be used. In order to minimise the effects on the conditions at the exhaust outlet and
to limit the drop in pressure inside the dilution-air conditioning device, if any, the pressure at the
mixing point shall not differ by more than ± 0.25kPa from atmospheric pressure. The
homogeneity of the mixture in any cross-section at the location of the sampling probe shall not
vary by more than ± 2% from the average of the values obtained for at least five points located
at equal intervals on the diameter of the gas stream. For particulate and particle emissions
sampling, a dilution tunnel shall be used which:
(a)
shall consist of a straight tube of electrically-conductive material, which shall be earthed;
(b) shall be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds number ≥ 4,000)
and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;
(c)
(d)
shall be at least 200mm in diameter;
may be insulated.

The positive displacement pump (PDP) full-flow dilution system satisfies the requirements of
this Annex by metering the flow of gas through the pump at constant temperature and
pressure. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions of the calibrated positive
displacement pump. The proportional sample is achieved by sampling with pump, flow meter
and flow control valve at a constant flow rate. The collecting equipment consists of:
1.4.1.1. A filter (refer to DAF in Figure A4.App7/1) for the dilution air shall be installed, which can be
preheated if necessary. This filter shall consist of the following filters in sequence: an optional
activated charcoal filter (inlet side) and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (outlet
side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA
filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The purpose of the charcoal filter is to reduce and
stabilise the hydrocarbon concentrations of ambient emissions in the dilution air;
1.4.1.2. A transfer tube (TT) by which vehicle exhaust is admitted into a dilution tunnel (DT) in which the
exhaust gas and dilution air are mixed homogeneously;
1.4.1.3. The positive displacement pump (PDP), producing a constant-volume flow of the air/
exhaust-gas mixture. The PDP revolutions, together with associated temperature and pressure
measurement, are used to determine the flow rate;
1.4.1.4. A heat exchanger (HE) of a capacity sufficient to ensure that throughout the test the
temperature of the air/exhaust-gas mixture measured at a point immediately upstream of the
positive displacement pump is within 6.0°C of the average operating temperature during the
test. This device shall not affect the pollutant concentrations of diluted gases taken off
afterwards for analysis.
1.4.1.5. A mixing chamber (MC) in which exhaust gas and air are mixed homogeneously and which
may be located close to the vehicle so that the length of the transfer tube (TT) is minimised.
Figure A4.App7/2
Critical-flow Venturi Dilution System

2.2. Calibration of the Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
2.2.1. The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration and the
various parameters that are measured to establish the flow-rate of the CVS pump. All the
parameters relating to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters relating to
the flow-meter which is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flow rate (given in
m /min at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) can then be plotted against a
correlation function that is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters. The linear
equation that relates the pump flow and the correlation function is then determined. If a CVS
has a multiple rotation speed drive, a calibration shall be performed for each range used.
2.2.2. This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the pump
and flow-meter parameters that relate to the flow rate at each point. Three conditions shall be
maintained to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration curve:
2.2.2.1. The pump pressures shall be measured at tappings on the pump rather than at the external
piping on the pump inlet and outlet. Pressure taps that are mounted at the top centre and
bottom centre of the pump drive head plate are exposed to the actual pump cavity pressures
and therefore reflect the absolute pressure differentials;
2.2.2.2. Temperature stability shall be maintained during the calibration. The laminar flow-meter is
sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations which cause the data points to be scattered. Gradual
changes of ± 1°C in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of several
minutes;
2.2.2.3. All connections between the flow-meter and the CVS pump shall be free of any leakage.
2.2.3. During an exhaust emission test, the measurement of these same pump parameters enables
the user to calculate the flow rate from the calibration equation.
2.2.4. Figure A4.App7/3 of this Appendix shows one possible test set-up. Variations are permissible,
provided that the technical service approves them as being of comparable accuracy. If the
set-up shown in Figure A4.App7/3 is used, the following data shall be found within the limits of
precision given:
Barometric pressure (corrected) (Pb) ± 0.03kPa
Ambient temperature (T) ± 0.2°C
Air temperature at LFE (ETI) ± 0.15°C
Pressure depression upstream of LFE (EPI) ± 0.01kPa
Pressure drop across the LFE matrix (EDP) ± 0.0015kPa
Air temperature at CVS pump inlet (PTI) ± 0.2°C
Air temperature at CVS pump outlet (PTO) ± 0.2°C
Pressure depression at CVS pump inlet (PPI) ± 0.22kPa
Pressure head at CVS pump outlet (PPO) ± 0.22kPa
Pump revolutions during test period (n) ± 1min
Elapsed time for period (minimum 250s) (t) ± 0.1s

2.2.9. To compensate for the interaction of pump rotation speed pressure variations at the pump and
the pump slip rate, the correlation function (x ) between the pump rotation speed (n), the
pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, and the absolute pump outlet pressure is
calculated as follows:
where:
x = correlation function;
ΔP = pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet (kPa);
P = absolute outlet pressure (PPO + Pb) (kPa).
2.2.9.1. A linear least-square fit is performed to generate the calibration equations which have the
formula:
V = D - M (x ) (3)
n = A - B (ΔP )
D , M, A and B are the slope-intercept constants describing the lines.
2.2.10. A CVS system that has multiple pump rotation speeds shall be calibrated on each rotation
speed used. The calibration curves generated for the ranges shall be approximately parallel
and the intercept values (D ) shall increase as the pump flow range decreases.
2.2.11. If the calibration has been performed carefully, the calculated values from the equation will be
within 0.5% of the measured value of V . Values of M will vary from one pump to another.
Calibration is performed at pump start-up and after major maintenance.
2.3. Calibration of the Critical-flow Venturi (CFV)
2.3.1. Calibration of the CFV is based on the flow equation for a critical-flow venturi:
(2)
(4)
where:
Q
=
flow;
K
=
calibration coefficient;
P
=
absolute pressure (kPa);
T
=
absolute temperature (K).

2.3.5. The variable-flow restrictor shall be set to the open position, the blower shall be started and the
system stabilised. Data from all instruments shall be recorded.
2.3.6. The flow restrictor shall be varied and at least eight readings shall be taken across the critical
flow range of the venturi.
2.3.7. The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculations. The air
flow-rate (Qs) at each test point is calculated from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's
prescribed method. Calculate values of the calibration coefficient (Kv) for each test point:
where:
Q = flow-rate in m /min at 0°C and 101.3kPa;
T = temperature at the venturi inlet (K);
P = absolute pressure at the venturi inlet (kPa).
Plot K as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For sonic flow, K will have a relatively constant
value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and K
decreases. The resultant K changes are not permissible. For a minimum of eight points in the
critical region, calculate an average K and the standard deviation. If the standard deviation
exceeds 0.3% of the average K , take corrective action.
3. SYSTEM VERIFICATION PROCEDURE
3.1. General Requirements
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined by
introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated as if
during a normal test and then analysing and calculating the pollutant mass according to the
formula in Paragraph 4, except that the density of propane shall be taken as 1.967g/l at
standard conditions. The two techniques described in Paragraphs 3.2 and 3.3 are known to
give sufficient accuracy. The maximum permissible deviation between the quantity of gas
introduced and the quantity of gas measured is 5%.
3.2. CFO Method
3.2.1. Metering a Constant Flow of Pure Gas (CO or C H ) using a Critical-flow Orifice Device
3.2.2. A known quantity of pure gas (CO or C3H8) is fed into the CVS system through the calibrated
critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow-rate (q), which is adjusted by means
of the critical-flow orifice, is independent of orifice outlet pressure (critical flow). If deviations
exceeding 5% occur, the cause of the malfunction shall be determined and corrected. The CVS
system is operated as in an exhaust emission test for about 5 to 10min. The gas collected in
the sampling bag is analysed by the usual equipment and the results compared to the
concentration of the gas samples which was known beforehand.
(5)

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 8
VEHICLE PROPULSION UNIT FAMILY WITH REGARD TO ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
DEMONSTRATION TESTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. In order to alleviate the test burden on manufacturers when demonstrating the environmental
performance of vehicles these may be grouped as a vehicle propulsion unit family. One or more
parent vehicles shall be selected from this group of vehicles by the manufacturer to the satisfaction
of the approval authority/certification authority that shall be used to demonstrate environmental
performance Test Types I, II and VII.
1.2. A light motor vehicle may continue to be regarded as belonging to the same vehicle propulsion unit
family provided that the vehicle variant, version, propulsion unit, pollution-control system listed in
Table B.5.8.-1 are identical or remain within the prescribed and declared tolerances.
1.3. Vehicle and Propulsion Unit Family Attribution with Regard to Environmental Tests
For the environmental Test Types I, II and VII a representative parent vehicle shall be selected
within the boundaries set by the classification criteria laid down in Paragraph 2.
2. CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA
Table B.5.8.-1
Classification Criteria Propulsion Unit Family with Regard to Test Types I, II and VII
Classification criteria description
1.
Vehicle
1.1.
category;
X
X
X
1.2.
sub-category;
X
X
X
1.3.
the inertia of a vehicle variant(s) or version(s) within two inertia
categories above or below the nominal inertia category;
X
X
1.4.
overall gear ratios (+/- 8%);
X
X
2.
Propulsion family characteristics
2.1.
number of cylinders of the combustion engine;
X
X
X
2.2.
engine capacity (+/- 2%) of the combustion engine;
X
X
X
2.3.
number and control (variable cam phasing or lift) of combustion engine
valves;
X
X
X
Test type I
Test type II
Test type VII

Classification criteria description
3.4.
Propulsion unit (not) equipped with periodically regenerating system;
X
X
X
3.4.1.
periodically regenerating system type;
X
X
X
3.4.2.
operation principle of periodically regenerating system;
X
X
X
3.5.
propulsion (not) equipped with selective catalytic converter reduction
(SCR) system;
X
X
X
3.5.1.
SCR system type;
X
X
X
3.5.2.
operation principle of periodically regenerating system;
X
X
X
3.6.
Propulsion unit (not) equipped with lean NO trap/absorber;
X
X
X
3.6.1.
lean NO trap/absorber type;
X
X
X
3.6.2.
operation principle of lean NO trap/absorber;
X
X
X
3.7.
Propulsion unit (not) equipped with a cold-start device or starting aid
device(s);
X
X
X
3.7.1.
cold-start or starting aid device type;
X
X
X
3.7.2.
operation principle of cold start or starting aid device(s);
X
X
X
3.7.3.
Activation time of cold-start or starting aid device(s) and/or duty cycle
(only limited time activated after cold start/continuous operation);
X
X
X
3.8.
propulsion unit (not) equipped with O sensor for fuel control;
X
X
X
3.8.1.
O sensor types;
X
X
X
3.8.2.
operation principle of O sensor (binary/wide range/other);
X
X
X
3.8.3.
O sensor interaction with closed-loop
(stoichiometry/lean or rich operation);
fuelling
system
X
X
X
3.9.
propulsion unit (not) equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
system;
X
X
X
3.9.1.
EGR system types;
X
X
X
3.9.2.
operation principle of EGR system (internal/external);
X
X
X
3.9.3.
maximum EGR rate (+/- 5%);
X
X
X
Test type I
Test type II
Test type VII
Note:
"X" in the following table means "applicable"

B. General Information Concerning Systems, Components or Separate Technical
Units
0.7. Make(s) (trade name(s) of manufacturer): ...........................................................................
0.8. Type: ....................................................................................................................................
0.8.1. Commercial name(s) (if available): ......................................................................................
0.8.2. Type-approval number(s) (if available): ...............................................................................
0.8.3. Type-approval(s) issued on (date, if available): ...................................................................
0.9. Company name and address of manufacturer: ...................................................................
0.9.1. Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plants: ....................................................................
0.9.2. Name and address of manufacturer's authorised representative, if any: ............................
0.10. Vehicle(s) for which the system/separate technical unit is intended for :
0.10.1. Type: ....................................................................................................................................
0.10.2. Variant: .................................................................................................................................
0.10.3. Version: ................................................................................................................................
0.10.4. Commercial name(s) (if available): ......................................................................................
0.10.5. Category, subcategory and sub-subcategory of vehicle: .....................................................
0.11. Type-approval marks for components and separate technical units: ..................................
0.11.1. Method of attachment: .........................................................................................................
0.11.2. Photographs and/or drawings of the location of the type-approval mark (completed
example with dimensions): ..................................................................................................
C. General Information Regarding Conformity of Production
0.12. Conformity of Production
0.12.1. Description of Overall Quality-assurance Management Systems
1. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS
1.1. Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: ..................................................
1.2. Scale drawing of the whole vehicle: .....................................................................................

2.2.4. Wheelbase: .................................................................................................................... mm
2.2.4.1. Wheelbase sidecar: ....................................................................................................... mm
2.2.5. Track Width
2.2.5.1. Track width front: ........................................................................................................... mm
2.2.5.2. Track width rear: ............................................................................................................ mm
3. GENERAL POWERTRAIN CHARACTERISTICS
3.1. Manufacturer of the Propulsion Unit
3.1.1. Combustion Engine
3.1.1.1. Manufacturer: .......................................................................................................................
3.1.1.2. Engine code (as marked on the engine or other means of identification): ..........................
3.1.1.3. Fuel identification marking (if available): ..............................................................................
3.1.1.4. Photographs and/or drawings of the location of the code(s) and/or type-approval
numbers (completed example with dimensions) : ............................................................
3.2. Combustion Engine
3.2.1. Specific Engine Information
3.2.1.1. Number of combustion engines: ..........................................................................................
3.2.1.2. Working principle: internal combustion engine (ICE)/positive ignition/compression
ignition/external combustion engine (ECE)/turbine/compressed air : ................................
3.2.1.3. Cycle: four-stroke/two-stroke/rotary/other: ...........................................................................
3.2.1.4. Cylinders
3.2.1.4.1. Number: ...............................................................................................................................
3.2.1.4.2. Arrangement: .......................................................................................................................
3.2.1.4.3. Bore: ............................................................................................................................... mm
3.2.1.4.4. Stroke: ............................................................................................................................ mm
3.2.1.4.5. Number and configuration of stators in the case of rotary-piston engine: ...........................
3.2.1.4.6. Volume of combustion chambers in the case of rotary-piston engine: .......................... cm
3.2.1.4.7. Firing order: ..........................................................................................................................
3.2.1.5. Engine capacity: ............................................................................................................. cm

3.2.4.5.
Fuel pressure and/or fuel flow regulator(s): yes/no
3.2.5.
Fuel Mass Metering and Control
3.2.5.1.
By carburettor(s): yes/no
3.2.5.1.1.
Operating principle and construction: ..................................................................................
3.2.5.1.2.
Maximum fuel-flow rate: ..................... g/s at maximum power and torque: ........................
3.2.5.1.3.
Carburettor(s) settings: ........................................................................................................
3.2.5.1.4.
Carburettor diffusers: ...........................................................................................................
3.2.5.1.5.
Carburettor fuel-level in float chamber: ................................................................................
3.2.5.1.5.1.
Carburettor mass of float: ....................................................................................................
3.2.5.1.6.
Carburettor cold-starting system: manual/automatic: yes/no
3.2.5.1.6.1.
Carburettor cold-starting system operating principle(s): ......................................................
3.2.5.1.7.
Mixture scavenging port: yes/no
3.2.5.1.7.1.
Mixture scavenging port dimensions: ..................................................................................
3.2.5.2.
By mechanically/hydraulically controlled fuel injection: yes/no
3.2.5.2.1.
Operation principle: ..............................................................................................................
3.2.5.2.2.
Mechanical/electronic adjustment of maximum fuel mass delivery: yes/no
3.2.5.3.
By electronically controlled fuel injection system: yes/no
3.2.5.3.1.
Operation principle: port injection/direct injection/pre-chamber/swirl chamber: ..................
3.2.5.3.2.
Fuel injector(s): single-/multi-point/direct injection/other (specify): ......................................
3.2.5.3.3.
Total and per cylinder amount of fuel injectors: ...................................................................
3.2.5.4.
Air-assisted fuel injector: yes/no: .........................................................................................
3.2.5.4.1.
Description and operating pressure of air-assist: ................................................................
3.2.5.5.
Cold start system: yes/no
3.2.5.5.1.
Description of cold start system: ..........................................................................................
3.2.5.6.
Auxiliary starting aid: yes/no

3.2.8. Air-mass Metering and Control
3.2.8.1. Brief description and schematic drawing of air-mass metering and control
system: .................................................................................................................................
3.2.8.2. Mechanical throttle body: yes/no
3.2.8.3. Electronic throttle control (ETC): yes/no
3.2.8.3.1. Schematic drawing of electronic throttle control: .................................................................
3.2.8.3.1.2. Description of ETC hardware redundancies regarding sensors/actuators/electric
power/ground/control electronics: ........................................................................................
3.2.9. Spark Delivery System and Control
3.2.9.1. Brief description and schematic drawing of spark delivery and control system: .................
3.2.9.1.1. Working principle: ................................................................................................................
3.2.9.1.2. Ignition advance curve or map at wide open throttle: ..........................................................
3.2.9.1.3. Static ignition timing: ..................................... ° before TDC at maximum torque and power
3.2.9.2. Ion sense capability: yes/no
3.2.9.3. Spark plugs:
3.2.9.3.1. Gap setting: .................................................................................................................... mm
3.2.9.4. Ignition coil(s):
3.2.9.4.1. Working principle: ................................................................................................................
3.2.9.4.2. Dwell angle and timing at wide open throttle: ......................................................................
3.2.10. Powertrain Cooling System and Control
3.2.10.1. Brief description and schematic drawing of powertrain cooling and control
system: .................................................................................................................................
3.2.10.2. Cooling system: liquid: yes/no
3.2.10.2.1. Maximum temperature at outlet: ...................................................................................... °C
3.2.10.2.2. Nominal setting of the engine temperature control mechanism: .........................................
3.2.10.2.3. Nature of liquid: ....................................................................................................................
3.2.10.2.4. Circulating pump(s): yes/no
3.2.10.2.4.1. Characteristics: ....................................................................................................................

3.2.12.6. Noise-reducing measures in the engine compartment and on the engine where relevant
for external noise: ................................................................................................................
3.2.12.7. Location of the exhaust outlet: .............................................................................................
3.2.12.8.
3.2.13. Other Electrical Systems and Control than those Intended for the Electrical Propulsion
Unit
3.2.13.1. Rated voltage: .......................................................................... V, positive/negative ground
3.2.13.2. Generator: yes/no
3.2.13.2.1. Nominal output: ............................................................................................................... VA
3.2.13.3. Battery(ies): yes/no
3.2.13.3.1. Capacity and other characteristics (mass,…): .....................................................................
3.3. Other Engines, Electric Motors or Combinations (Specific Information Concerning
the Parts of these Motors)
3.3.1. Cooling System (Temperatures Permitted by the Manufacturer)
3.3.1.1. Liquid cooling: ......................................................................................................................
3.3.1.1.1. Maximum temperature at outlet: ...................................................................................... °C
3.3.1.2. Air cooling: ...........................................................................................................................
3.3.1.2.1. Reference point: ...................................................................................................................
3.3.1.2.2. Maximum temperature at reference point: ....................................................................... °C
3.3.2. Lubrication System
3.3.2.1. Description of lubrication system: ........................................................................................
3.3.2.2. Location of oil reservoir (if any): ...........................................................................................
3.3.2.3. Feed system (pump/injection into induction system/mixed with the fuel, etc.): ...................
3.3.2.4. Lubricant mixed with the fuel: ..............................................................................................
3.3.2.4.1. Percentage: ..........................................................................................................................
3.3.2.5. Oil cooler: yes/no
3.3.2.5.1. Drawing(s): ...........................................................................................................................

3.4.4.1. Final drive ratio: ...................................................................................................................
3.4.4.2. Overall gear ratio in highest gear: ........................................................................................
4. GENERAL INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND PROPULSION
PERFORMANCE
4.0. General Information on Environmental and Propulsion Unit Performance
4.1. Tailpipe Emission-control System
4.1.1. Brief description and schematic drawing of the tailpipe emission-control system and its
control: .................................................................................................................................
4.1.2. Catalytic Converter
4.1.2.1. Configuration, number of catalytic converters and elements (information to be provided
for each separate unit): ........................................................................................................
4.1.2.2. Drawing with dimensions, shape and volume of the catalytic converter(s): ........................
4.1.2.3. Catalytic reaction: ................................................................................................................
4.1.2.4. Total charge of precious metals: ..........................................................................................
4.1.2.5. Relative concentration: ........................................................................................................
4.1.2.6. Substrate (structure and material): ......................................................................................
4.1.2.7. Cell density: .........................................................................................................................
4.1.2.8. Casing for the catalytic converter(s): ...................................................................................
4.1.2.9. Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distance in the exhaust
line): .....................................................................................................................................
4.1.2.10. Catalyst heat-shield: yes/no
4.1.2.11. Brief description and schematic drawing of the regeneration system/method of exhaust
after-treatment systems and its control system: ..................................................................
4.1.2.11.1. Normal operating temperature range: .............................................................................. °C
4.1.2.11.2. Consumable reagents: yes/no
4.1.2.11.3. Brief description and schematic drawing of the reagent flow (wet) system and its control
system: .................................................................................................................................
4.1.2.11.4. Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action: ..........................................
4.1.2.11.5. Normal operational temperature range of reagent: ......................................................... °C
4.1.2.11.6. Frequency of reagent refill: continuous/maintenance

4.1.7. Lean NO Trap
4.1.7.1. Operation principle of lean NO trap: ...................................................................................
4.1.8. Additional Tailpipe Emission-control Devices (if any not covered under another heading)
4.1.8.1. Working principle: ................................................................................................................
5. VEHICLE PROPULSION FAMILY
5.1. To define the vehicle propulsion unit family, the manufacturer shall submit the
information required for classification criteria set out in Paragraph 2 of Appendix 9 to
Annex 4, if not already provided in the information document.

ANNEX 4 – APPENDIX 11
TEMPLATE FORM TO RECORD CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER SETTINGS
Trade name: ....................................... Production number (Body): ....................................................
Date:…./…../….. Place of the test: ........................................ Name of recorder ............................
Test vehicle
speed
in km/h
Coast down time(s)
in s
Running resistance
in N
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Setting value Target value
Setting
error, in
%
Note
Curve fitting: F*= ... + ... v

1.2. WMTC, Cycle Part 1
Figure A4.App12/2
WMTC, Part 1
1.2.1. The characteristic desired vehicle speed versus test time of WMTC, cycle Part 1 is set out in
the following tables.




Table A4.App12/5
WMTC, Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 0 to 180s

Table A4.App12/6
WMTC, Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 181 to 360s

Table A4.App12/7
WMTC, Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 361 to 540s

Table A4.App12/8
WMTC, Cycle Part 1 for Vehicle Classes 2-2 and 3, 541 to 600s

Table A4.App12/9
WMTC, Cycle Part 2, Reduced Vehicle Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 0 to 180s

Table A4.App12/10
WMTC, Cycle Part 2, Reduced Vehicle Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 181 to 360 s

Table A4.App12/11
WMTC, Cycle Part 2, Reduced Vehicle Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 361 to 540s

Table A4.App12/12
WMTC, Cycle Part 2, Reduced Vehicle Speed for Vehicle Class 2-1, 541 to 600s




1.4. WMTC, Part 3
Figure A4.App12/4
WMTC, Part 3
1.4.1. The characteristic desired vehicle speed versus test time of WMTC, Part 3 is set out in the
following tables.




Table A4.App12/21
WMTC, Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 0 to 180s

Table A4.App12/22
WMTC, Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 181 to 360s

Table A4.App12/23
WMTC, Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 361 to 540s

Table A4.App12/24
WMTC, Cycle Part 3 for Vehicle Class 3-2, 541 to 600s
2. World Harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) for two-wheeled vehicles with an engine
displacement < 50cm and with a maximum design vehicle speed of 25km/h, 45km/h
respectively.
2.1. The WMTC to be used on the chassis dynamometer is depicted in the following graph for
vehicles equipped with an engine displacement < 50cm and with a maximum design vehicle
speed (25km/h, 45km/h respectively), which consists of one cold Phase 1 of the WMTC and one
warm Phase 1 of the WMTC.

2.3. Description of the WMTC for Vehicles with a Maximum Design Vehicle Speed (25km/h,
45km/h, Respectively) and a Low Engine Displacement (< 50cm )
Figure A4.App12/6
WMTC for Vehicles with a Maximum Design Vehicle Speed of 45km/h and 25km/h Low Engine
Displacement or Maximum Net or Continuous Rated Power
Note: The truncated desired vehicle speed trace limited to 25km/h is applicable for vehicles
with a limited maximum design vehicle speed of 25km/h. In case of vehicle with
maximum design speed of 50km/h, the vehicle shall be driven on WMTC up to maximum
speed of 50km/h.
2.3.1. The desired vehicle speed trace WMTC shown in Figure B.5.12.-6 is applicable for vehicles
with a maximum design vehicle speed (if applicable at 25km/h, at 45km/h or 50km/h) and a low
engine displacement (< 50cm ) and consists of the desired vehicle speed trace WMTC
Stage 1, Part 1 for Class 1 vehicles driven once cold followed by the same desired vehicle
speed trace driven with a warm propulsion unit. The WMTC for vehicles with a low maximum
design vehicle speed and low engine displacement or maximum net or continuous rated power
lasts 1,200s and consists of two equivalent parts to be carried out without interruption.
2.3.2. The characteristic driving conditions (idling, acceleration, steady vehicle speed, deceleration,
etc.) of the WMTC for vehicles with a maximum design vehicle speed (if applicable at 25km/h,
at 45km/h, or at 50km/h) and low engine displacement (< 50cm ) are set out in the following
paragraphs and tables.




Table A4.App12/29
WMTC, Part 1, Class 0-2, Applicable for Vehicles with a Maximum Design Vehicle Speed (where
Applicable Truncated at 45km/h & 50km/h, Respectively) and a Low Engine Displacement
(< 50cm ), Cold or Warm, 0 to 180s

Table A4.App12/30
WMTC, Part 1, Class 0-2, Applicable for Vehicles with a Maximum Design Vehicle Speed (where
Applicable Truncated at 45km/h & 50km/h, Respectively) and a Low Engine Displacement
(< 50cm ), Cold or Warm, 181 to 360s

Table A4.App12/31
WMTC, Part 1, Class 0-2, Applicable for Vehicles with a Maximum Design Vehicle Speed (where
Applicable Truncated at 45km/h & 50km/h, Respectively) and a Low Engine Displacement
(< 50cm ), Cold or Warm, 361 to 540s

Table A4.App12/32
WMTC, Part 1, Class 0-2, Applicable for Vehicles with a Maximum Design Vehicle Speed (where
Applicable Truncated at 45km/h & 50km/h, Respectively) and a Low Engine Displacement
(< 50cm ), Cold or Warm, 541 to 600s.

2.4. In order to find a balanced compromise between the three regions, a new approximation
function for normalised upshift engine speeds versus power-to-mass ratio was calculated as a
weighted average of the EU/USA curve (with 2/3 weighting) and the Japanese curve (with 1/3
weighting), resulting in the following equations for normalised upshift engine speeds:
Equation (1): Normalised upshift engine speed in 1st gear (gear 1)
P
n_max_acc (1) = (0.5753 � e ( �1.9
� )
m � 75
� 0.1) � (s � n ) + n (1)
Equation (2): Normalised upshift engine speed in gears > 1
P
n_max_acc (i) = (0.5753 � e ( �1.9
� ) ) � (s � n
m � 75
) + n
(2)
3.
CALCULATION EXAMPLE
3.1.
Figure A4.App13/1 shows an example of gearshift use for a small vehicle:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the lines in bold show the gear use for acceleration phases;
the dotted lines show the downshift points for deceleration phases;
in the cruising phases, the whole engine speed range between downshift engine speed
and upshift engine speed may be used.
Figure A4.App13/1
Example of a Gearshift Sketch for a Small Vehicle

Figure A4.App13/3
Example of a Gearshift Sketch. Gear Use During Deceleration and Cruise Phases
3.3. In order to allow the technical service more flexibility and to ensure driveability, the gearshift
regression functions should be considered as lower limits. Higher engine speeds are permitted
in any cycle phase.

5. CALCULATION EXAMPLE
5.1. An example of input data necessary for the calculation of shift engine speeds is shown in
Table A4.App13/2. The upshift engine speeds for acceleration phases for first gear and higher
gears are calculated using Equations (1) and (2). The denormalisation of engine speeds can be
performed using the equation n = n_norm x (s - n ) + n .
5.2. The downshift engine speeds for deceleration phases can be calculated using Equations (3)
and (4). The ndv values in Table A4.App13/2 can be used as gear ratios. These values can
also be used to calculate the corresponding vehicle speeds (vehicle shift speed in
gear i = engine shift speed in gear i/ndv ). The results are shown in Tables A4.App13/3 and
A4.App13/4.
5.3. Additional analyses and calculations were conducted to investigate whether these gearshift
algorithms could be simplified and, in particular, whether engine shift speeds could be replaced
by vehicle shift speeds. The analysis showed that vehicle speeds could not be brought in line
with the gearshift behaviour of the in-use data.
Table A4.App13/2
Input Data for the Calculation of Engine and Vehicle Shift Speeds
Item
Input Data
Engine capacity in cm
600
P in kW
72
m in kg
199
s in min
11,800
n
in min
1,150
ndv
133.66
ndv
94.91
ndv
76.16
ndv
65.69
ndv
58.85
ndv
54.04
pmr
in kW/t
262.8
Note:

Motorcycle Emissions.