Global Technical Regulation No. 15

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 15
Description:Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure.
Official Title:Global Technical Regulation No. 15 on Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2014-05-12
Amendment Level:Amendment 3 of February 1, 2018
Number of Pages:400
Vehicle Types:Car, Component, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.15/Amend.3
February 1, 2018
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum 15:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 15
WORLDWIDE HARMONIZED LIGHT VEHICLES TEST PROCEDURE
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 12, 2014)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1
dated March 8, 2017
Amendment 2
dated August 24, 2017
Amendment 3
dated Feburary 1, 2018

5. This version of the WLTP UN GTR, in particular, does not contain any specific test
requirements for dual fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles not based on a combination of an
internal combustion engine and an electric machine. Thus these vehicles are not included
in the scope of the WLTP UN GTR. Contracting Parties may, however, apply the
WLTP UN GTR provisions to such vehicles to the extent possible and complement them
by additional provisions, e.g. emission testing with different fuel grades and types, in
regional legislation.
B. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WLTP
6. In its November 2007 session, WP.29 decided to set up an informal WLTP group under
GRPE to prepare a road map for the development of WLTP. After various meetings and
intense discussions, WLTP presented in June 2009 a first road map consisting of three
phases, which was subsequently revised a number of times and contains the following
main tasks:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Phase 1 (2009 - 2015): development of the worldwide harmonized light duty driving
cycle and associated test procedure for the common measurement of criteria
compounds, CO , fuel and energy consumption;
Phase 2 (2014 - 2018): low temperature/high altitude test procedure, durability,
in-service conformity, technical requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD),
mobile air-conditioning (MAC) system energy efficiency, off-cycle/real driving
emissions;
Phase 3 (2018 - …): emission limit values and OBD threshold limits, definition of
reference fuels, comparison with regional requirements.
7. It should be noted that since the beginning of the WLTP process, the European Union had
a strong political objective set by its own legislation (Regulations (EC) No. 443/2009 and
No. 510/2011) to implement a new and more realistic test cycle by 2014, which was a
major political driving factor for setting the time frame of Phase 1.
8. For the work of Phase 1 the following working groups and subgroups were established:
(a)
Development of Harmonized Cycle (DHC): construction of a new Worldwide
Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC), i.e. the speed trace of the WLTP, based on statistical
analysis of real driving data.
The DHC group started working in September 2009, launched the collection of
driving data in 2010 and proposed a first version of the driving cycle by mid-2011,
which was revised a number of times to take into consideration technical issues
such as driveability and a better representation of driving conditions after a first
validation.

(iii)
Taskforces: for each specific topic that has to be integrated in the UN GTR, the
informal working group would designate a taskforce leader, who would work in a
group with interested stakeholders on developing a testing methodology and a
UN GTR text proposal.
An overview of the main topics that were addressed in Phase 1b and added to the
UN GTR is presented below:
(a)
Conventional ICE vehicles:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Normalisation methods and speed trace index;
Number of tests;
Wind tunnel as alternative method for road load determination;
Road load matrix family;
Interpolation family and road load family concept;
On-board anemometry and wind speed conditions;
Alternative vehicle warm-up procedure;
(viii) Calculation and interpolation of fuel consumption.
(b)
Electric and Hybrid-electric Vehicles (E-lab expert group):
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Fuel cell vehicle test procedure;
Shortened test procedure for PEV range test;
Phase-specific CO (fuel consumption) for Off-vehicle Charging Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (OVC-HEVs);
End of EV range criteria;
Interpolation method for OVC-HEVs and PEVs;
Utility factors;
Predominant mode / mode selection.
(c)
Alternative pollutants:
Measurement
method
for
ammonia,
ethanol,
formaldehyde
and
acetaldehyde.

D. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY, ANTICIPATED COSTS AND BENEFITS
16. In designing and validating the WLTP, strong emphasis has been put on its practicability,
which is ensured by a number of measures explained above.
17. While in general WLTP has been defined on the basis of the best technology available at
the moment of its drafting, the practical facilitation of WLTP procedures on a global scale
has been kept in mind as well. The latter had some impact e.g. on the definition of set
values and tolerances for several test parameters, such as the test temperature or
deviations from the speed trace. Also, facilities without the most recent technical
equipment should be able to perform WLTP certifications, leading to higher tolerances
than those which would have been required just by best performing facilities.
18. The replacement of a regional test cycle by WLTP initially will bear some costs for
vehicle manufacturers, technical services and authorities, at least considered on a local
scale, since some test equipment and procedures will have to be upgraded. However,
these costs should be limited since such upgrades are done regularly as adaptations to
the technical progress. Related costs would have to be quantified on a regional level
since they largely depend on the local conditions.
19. As pointed out in the technical rationale and justification, the principle of a globally
harmonized light duty vehicle test procedure offers potential cost reductions for vehicle
manufacturers. The design of vehicles can be better unified on a global scale and
administrative procedures may be simplified. The monetary quantification of these
benefits depends largely on the extent and timing of implementations of the WLTP in
regional legislation.
20. The WLTP provides a higher representation of real driving conditions when compared to
the previous regional driving cycles. Therefore, benefits are expected from the resulting
consumer information regarding fuel and energy consumption. In addition, a more
representative WLTP will set proper incentives for implementing those CO saving
vehicle technologies that are also the most effective in real driving. The effectiveness of
technology costs relative to the real driving CO savings will, therefore, be improved with
respect to existing, less representative driving cycles.

3.1.12. "Span" means to adjust an instrument so that it gives a proper response to a calibration
standard that represents between 75% and 100% of the maximum value in the instrument
range or expected range of use.
3.1.13. "Total hydrocarbons" (THC) means all volatile compounds measurable by a flame
ionization detector (FID).
3.1.14. "Verification" means to evaluate whether or not a measurement system's outputs agrees
with applied reference signals within one or more predetermined thresholds for acceptance.
3.1.15. "Zero gas" means a gas containing no analyte, which is used to set a zero response on an
analyser.
3.2. Road Load and Dynamometer Setting
Figure 1
Definition of Accuracy, Precision and Reference Value
3.2.1. "Aerodynamic drag" means the force opposing a vehicle's forward motion through air.
3.2.2. "Aerodynamic stagnation point" means the point on the surface of a vehicle where wind
velocity is equal to zero.
3.2.3. "Anemometer blockage" means the effect on the anemometer measurement due to the
presence of the vehicle where the apparent air speed is different than the vehicle speed
combined with wind speed relative to the ground.
3.2.4. "Constrained analysis" means the vehicle's frontal area and aerodynamic drag coefficient
have been independently determined and those values shall be used in the equation of
motion.

3.2.16. "Simulated running resistance" means the running resistance experienced by the vehicle
on the chassis dynamometer which is intended to reproduce the running resistance
measured on the road, and consists of the torque applied by the chassis dynamometer and
the torque resisting the vehicle while driving on the chassis dynamometer and is
approximated by the three coefficients of a second order polynomial.
3.2.17. "Stationary anemometry" means measurement of wind speed and direction with an
anemometer at a location and height above road level alongside the test road where the
most representative wind conditions will be experienced.
3.2.18. "Standard equipment" means the basic configuration of a vehicle which is equipped with
all the features that are required under the regulatory acts of the Contracting Party including
all features that are fitted without giving rise to any further specifications on configuration or
equipment level.
3.2.19. "Target road load" means the road load to be reproduced on the chassis dynamometer.
3.2.20. "Target running resistance" means the running resistance to be reproduced.
3.2.21. "Vehicle coastdown setting" means a system of operation enabling an accurate and
repeatable determination of road load and an accurate dynamometer setting.
3.2.22. "Wind correction" means correction of the effect of wind on road load based on input of
the stationary or on-board anemometry.
3.2.23. "Technically permissible maximum laden mass" means the maximum mass allocated to
a vehicle on the basis of its construction features and its design performances.
3.2.24. "Actual mass of the vehicle" means the mass in running order plus the mass of the fitted
optional equipment to an individual vehicle.
3.2.25. "Test mass of the vehicle" means the sum of the actual mass of the vehicle, 25kg and the
mass representative of the vehicle load.
3.2.26. "Mass representative of the vehicle load" means x% of the maximum vehicle load
where x is 15% for Category 1 vehicles and 28% for Category 2 vehicles.
3.2.27. "Technically permissible maximum laden mass of the combination" (MC) means the
maximum mass allocated to the combination of a motor vehicle and one or more trailers on
the basis of its construction features and its design performances or the maximum mass
allocated to the combination of a tractor unit and a semi-trailer.
3.2.28. "n/v ratio" means the engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed in a specific gear.
3.2.29. "Single roller dynamometer" means a dynamometer where each wheel on a vehicle's
axle is in contact with one roller.
3.2.30. "Twin-roller dynamometer" means a dynamometer where each wheel on a vehicle's axle
is in contact with two rollers.

3.3.10.3. "Form of energy" means (i) electrical energy, or (ii) mechanical energy, or (iii) chemical
energy (including fuels).
3.3.10.4. "Fuel storage system" means a propulsion energy storage system that stores chemical
energy as liquid or gaseous fuel.
3.3.11. "Equivalent all-electric range" (EAER) means that portion of the total charge-depleting
actual range (R ) attributable to the use of electricity from the REESS over the chargedepleting
range test.
3.3.12. "Hybrid electric vehicle" (HEV) means a hybrid vehicle where one of the propulsion
energy converters is an electric machine.
3.3.13. "Hybrid vehicle" (HV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing at least two
different categories of propulsion energy converters and at least two different categories of
propulsion energy storage systems.
3.3.14. "Net energy change" means the ratio of the REESS energy change divided by the cycle
energy demand of the test vehicle.
3.3.15. "Not off-vehicle charging hybrid electric vehicle" (NOVC-HEV) means a hybrid electric
vehicle that cannot be charged from an external source.
3.3.16. "Off-vehicle charging hybrid electric vehicle" (OVC-HEV) means a hybrid electric
vehicle that can be charged from an external source.
3.3.17. "Pure electric vehicle" (PEV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing
exclusively electric machines as propulsion energy converters and exclusively rechargeable
electric energy storage systems as propulsion energy storage systems.
3.3.18. "Fuel cell" means an energy converter transforming chemical energy (input) into electrical
energy (output) or vice versa.
3.3.19. "Fuel cell vehicle" (FCV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing
exclusively fuel cell(s) and electric machine(s) as propulsion energy converter(s).
3.3.20. "Fuel cell hybrid vehicle" (FCHV) means a fuel cell vehicle equipped with a powertrain
containing at least one fuel storage system and at least one rechargeable electric energy
storage system as propulsion energy storage systems.
3.4. Powertrain
3.4.1. "Powertrain" means the total combination in a vehicle, of propulsion energy storage
system(s), propulsion energy converter(s) and the drivetrain(s) providing the mechanical
energy at the wheels for the purpose of vehicle propulsion, plus peripheral devices.
3.4.2. "Auxiliary devices" means energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying
non-peripheral devices or systems which are installed in the vehicle for purposes other than
the propulsion of the vehicle and are therefore not considered to be part of the powertrain.
3.4.3. "Peripheral devices" means energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying devices,
where the energy is not primarily used for the purpose of vehicle propulsion, or other parts,
systems and control units, which are essential to the operation of the powertrain.

3.6. PM/PN
The term "particle" is conventionally used for the matter being characterised (measured) in
the airborne phase (suspended matter), and the term "particulate" for the deposited matter.
3.6.1. "Particle number emissions" (PN) means the total number of solid particles emitted from
the vehicle exhaust quantified according to the dilution, sampling and measurement
methods as specified in this UN GTR.
3.6.2. "Particulate matter emissions" (PM) means the mass of any particulate material from the
vehicle exhaust quantified according to the dilution, sampling and measurement methods as
specified in this UN GTR.
3.7. WLTC
3.7.1. "Rated engine power" (Prated) means maximum engine power in kW as per the
certification procedure based on current regional regulation. In the absence of a definition,
the rated engine power shall be declared by the manufacturer according to UN Regulation
No. 85.
3.7.2. "Maximum speed" (v ) means the maximum speed of a vehicle as defined by the
Contracting Party. In the absence of a definition, the maximum speed shall be declared by
the manufacturer according to UN Regulation No. 68.
3.8. Procedure
3.8.1. "Periodically regenerating system" means an exhaust emissions control device (e.g.
catalytic converter, particulate trap) that requires a periodical regeneration process in less
than 4,000km of normal vehicle operation.
4. ABBREVIATIONS
4.1. General Abbreviations
AC
CFV
CFO
CLD
CLA
CVS
DC
EAF
ECD
ET
Extra High
Extra High
FCHV
FCHV
FID
FSD
FTIR
GC
HEPA
HFID
Alternating current
Critical flow venturi
Critical flow orifice
Chemiluminescent detector
Chemiluminescent analyser
Constant volume sampler
Direct current
Sum of ethanol, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde
Electron capture detector
Evaporation tube
Class 2 WLTC extra high speed phase
Class 3 WLTC extra high speed phase
Fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Flame ionization detector
Full scale deflection
Fourier transform infrared analyser
Gas chromatograph
High efficiency particulate air (filter)
Heated flame ionization detector

4.2. Chemical Symbols and Abbreviations
C
CH
C H
C H OH
C H
CH CHO
CO
CO
DOP
H O
HCHO
NH
NMHC
NO
NO
NO
N O
THC
Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon
Methane
Ethane
Ethanol
Propane
Acetaldehyde
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Di-octylphthalate
Water
Formaldehyde
Ammonia
Non-methane hydrocarbons
Oxides of nitrogen
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Total hydrocarbons
5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1. The vehicle and its components liable to affect the emissions of gaseous compounds,
particulate matter and particle number shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as
to enable the vehicle in normal use and under normal conditions of use such as humidity,
rain, snow, heat, cold, sand, dirt, vibrations, wear, etc. to comply with the provisions of this
UN GTR during its useful life.
This shall include the security of all hoses, joints and connections used within the emission
control systems.
5.2. The test vehicle shall be representative in terms of its emissions-related components and
functionality of the intended production series to be covered by the approval. The
manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree which vehicle test model is
representative.
5.3. Vehicle Testing Condition
5.3.1. The types and amounts of lubricants and coolant for emissions testing shall be as specified
for normal vehicle operation by the manufacturer.
5.3.2. The type of fuel for emissions testing shall be as specified in Annex 3 to this UN GTR.
5.3.3. All emissions controlling systems shall be in working order.
5.3.4. The use of any defeat device is prohibited.
5.3.5. The engine shall be designed to avoid crankcase emissions.
5.3.6. The tyres used for emissions testing shall be as defined in Paragraph 2.4.5. of Annex 6 to
this UN GTR.

5.6. Interpolation Family
5.6.1. Interpolation Family for ICE Vehicles
5.6.1.1. Vehicles may be part of the same interpolation family in any of the following cases including
combinations of these cases:
(a) They belong to different vehicle classes as described in Paragraph 2. of Annex 1;
(b) They have different levels of downscaling as described in Paragraph 8. of Annex 1;
(c) They have different capped speeds as described in Paragraph 9. of Annex 1.
5.6.1.2. Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following vehicle/power-train/transmission
characteristics may be part of the same interpolation family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Type of internal combustion engine: fuel type, combustion type, engine displacement,
full-load characteristics, engine technology, and charging system and also other
engine subsystems or characteristics that have a non-negligible influence on CO
mass emission under WLTP conditions;
Operation strategy of all CO mass emission influencing components within the
powertrain;
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g. torque
rating, number of gears, number of clutches, etc.);
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement shall
be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the difference with
respect to the n/v ratios of the most commonly installed transmission type is within
8%;
Number of powered axles.
5.6.1.3. If an alternative parameter such as a higher n , as specified in Paragraph 2.(k) of
Annex 2, or ASM, as defined in Paragraph 3.4. of Annex 2 is used, this parameter shall be
the same within an interpolation family.

5.7. Road Load Family
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be part of
the same road load family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g. torque
rating, number of gears, number of clutches, etc.). At the request of the manufacturer
and with approval of the responsible authority, a transmission with lower power losses
may be included in the family;
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement shall
be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the difference with
respect to the transmission ratios of the most commonly installed transmission type is
within 25%;
Number of powered axles;
If at least one electric machine is coupled in the gearbox position neutral and the
vehicle is not equipped with a coastdown mode (Paragraph 4.2.1.8.5. of Annex 4)
such that the electric machine has no influence on the road load, the criteria from
Paragraph 5.6.2. (a) and Paragraph 5.6.3. (a) shall apply.
If there is a difference, apart from vehicle mass, rolling resistance and aerodynamics, that
has a non-negligible influence on road load, that vehicle shall not be considered to be part
of the family unless approved by the responsible authority.
5.8. Road Load Matrix Family
The road load matrix family may be applied for vehicles designed for a technically
permissible maximum laden mass ≥3,000kg.
Only vehicles which are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be part of
the same road load matrix family:
(a)
(b)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT);
Number of powered axles.
5.9. Periodically Regenerating Systems (K ) Family
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be part of
the same periodically regenerating systems family:
(a)
(b)
Type of internal combustion engine: fuel type, combustion type,
Periodically regenerating system (i.e. catalyst, particulate trap);
(i)
(ii)
Construction (i.e. type of enclosure, type of precious metal, type of substrate,
cell density);
Type and working principle;
(iii) Volume ±10%;
(iv)
Location (temperature ±100°C at second highest reference speed);
(c)
The test mass of each vehicle in the family shall be less than or equal to the test
mass of the vehicle used for the K demonstration test plus 250kg.

ANNEX 1
WORLDWIDE LIGHT-DUTY TEST CYCLES (WLTC)
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The cycle to be driven depends on the ratio of the test vehicle's rated power to mass in
running order minus 75kg, W/kg, and its maximum velocity, v .
The cycle resulting from the requirements described in this Annex shall be referred to in
other parts of the UN GTR as the "applicable cycle".
2. VEHICLE CLASSIFICATIONS
2.1. Class 1 vehicles have a power to mass in running order minus 75kg ratio P ≤22W/kg.
2.2. Class 2 vehicles have a power to mass in running order minus 75kg ratio >22 but ≤34W/kg.
2.3. Class 3 vehicles have a power to mass in running order minus 75kg ratio >34W/kg.
2.3.1. Class 3 vehicles are divided into 2 subclasses according to their maximum speed, v .
2.3.1.1. Class 3a vehicles with v < 120km/h.
2.3.1.2. Class 3b vehicles with v ≥ 120km/h.
2.3.2. All vehicles tested according to Annex 8 shall be considered to be Class 3 vehicles.
3. TEST CYCLES
3.1. Class 1 Cycle
3.1.1. A complete Class 1 cycle shall consist of a low phase (Low ), a medium phase (Medium )
and an additional low phase (Low ).
3.1.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/1 and Table A1/1.
3.1.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/2 and Table A1/2.
3.2. Class 2 Cycle
3.2.1. A complete Class 2 cycle shall consist of a low phase (Low ), a medium phase (Medium ), a
high phase (High ) and an extra high phase (Extra High ).
3.2.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/3 and Table A1/3.
3.2.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/4 and Table A1/4.
3.2.4. The High phase is described in Figure A1/5 and Table A1/5.
3.2.5. The Extra High phase is described in Figure A1/6 and Table A1/6.
3.2.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High phase may be excluded.

4. WLTC CLASS 1 CYCLE
Figure A1/1
WLTC, Class 1 Cycle, Phase Low
Figure A1/2
WLTC, Class 1 Cycle, Phase Medium

Table A1/1 (Cont'd)

Table A1/1 (Cont'd)

Table A1/2 (Cont'd)

5. WLTC CLASS 2 CYCLE
Figure A1/3
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Low
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Medium
Figure A1/4

Table A1/3
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Low

Table A1/3 (Cont'd)

Table A1/4
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Medium

Table A1/4 (Cont'd)

Table A1/5 (Cont'd)

Table A1/6
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Extra High

6. WLTC CLASS 3 CYCLE
Figure A1/7
WLTC, Class 3 Cycle, Phase Low
Figure A1/8
WLTC, Class 3a Cycle, Phase Medium

Figure A1/11
WLTC, Class 3b Cycle, Phase High
Figure A1/12
WLTC, Class 3 Cycle, Phase Extra High

Table A1/7 (Cont'd)

Table A1/7 (Cont'd)

Table A1/8 (Cont'd)

Table A1/9
WLTC, Class 3b Cycle, Phase Medium

Table A1/9 (Cont'd)

Table A1/10 (Cont'd)

Table A1/111
WLTC, Classs 3b Cycle, Phase High

Table A1/11 (Cont'd)

Table A1/12 (Cont'd)

8. CYCLE MODIFICATION
This paragraph shall not apply to OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs.
8.1. General Remarks
Driveability problems may occur for vehicles with power to mass ratios close to the
borderlines between Class 1 and Class 2, Class 2 and Class 3 vehicles or very low powered
vehicles in Class 1.
Since these problems are related mainly to cycle phases with a combination of high vehicle
speed and high accelerations rather than to the maximum speed of the cycle, the
downscaling procedure shall be applied to improve driveability.
8.2. This paragraph describes the method to modify the cycle profile using the downscaling
procedure.
8.2.1. Downscaling Procedure for Class 1 Vehicles
Figure A1/14 shows a downscaled medium speed phase of the Class 1 WLTC as an
example.
Figure A1/14
Downscaled Medium Speed Phase of the Class 1 WLTC

8.2.2. Downscaling Procedure for Class 2 Vehicles
Since the driveability problems are exclusively related to the extra high speed phases of the
Class 2 and Class 3 cycles, the downscaling is related to those time periods of the extra
high speed phases where the driveability problems are expected to occur
(see Figures A1/15 and A1/16).
Figure A1/15
Downscaled Extra High Speed Phase of the Class 2 WLTC
For the Class 2 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 1,520 and
second 1,742. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
a
=
v
− v
3.6
where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 1,520 and second 1,742.

8.2.3. Downscaling Procedure for Class 3 Vehicles
Figure A1/16 shows an example for a downscaled extra high speed phase of the Class 3
WLTC.
Figure A1/16
Downscaled Extra High Speed Phase of the Class 3 WLTC
For the Class 3 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 1,533 and
second 1,762. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
a
=
v
− v
3.6
where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 1,533 and second 1,762

The corresponding vehicle speed values v and acceleration values a are as follows:
v = 61.4km/h, a =0.22m/s for Class 1,
v = 109.9km/h, a = 0.36m/s for Class 2,
v = 111.9km/h, a = 0.50m/s for Class 3.
r shall be calculated using the following equation:
P
r =
P
The downscaling factor, f
, shall be calculated using the following equations:
if r < r , then f = 0
and no downscaling shall be applied.
if r ≥r , then f = a × r + b
The calculation parameter/coefficients, r , a and b , are as follows:
Class 1 r = 0.978, a = 0.680, b = –0.665
Class 2 r = 0.866, a = 0.606, b = –0.525
Class 3 r = 0.867, a = 0.588, b = –0.510.
The resulting f is mathematically rounded to three places of decimal and is applied only if
it exceeds 0.010.
The following data shall be recorded:
(a) f ;
(b) v ;
(c) distance driven, m.
The distance shall be calculated as the sum of v in km/h divided by 3.6 over the whole cycle
trace.

9.2. Calculation Steps
9.2.1. Determination of the Distance Difference per Cycle Phase
An interim capped speed cycle shall be derived by replacing all vehicle speed samples v
where v >v by v .
9.2.1.1. If v and the interim capped speed cycle d shall be calculated using the following
equation for both cycles:
where:
( v + v )


( ) ⎟ ⎞
d = ⎜ × t − t , for i = 591 to 1,022
⎝ 2 × 3.6

v is the maximum vehicle speed of the medium speed phase as listed in Table A1/2
for the Class 1 cycle, in Table A1/4 for the Class 2 cycle, in Table A1/8 for the Class 3a
cycle and in Table A1/9 for the Class 3b cycle.
9.2.1.2. If v < v , the distances of the high speed phases of the base cycle d and the
interim capped speed cycle d shall be calculated using the following equation for both
cycles:
( v + v )


( ) ⎟ ⎞
d = ⎜ × t − t , for i = 1,024 to 1,477
⎝ 2 × 3.6

v is the maximum vehicle speed of the high speed phase as listed in Table A1/5 for
the Class 2 cycle, in Table A1/10 for the Class 3a cycle and in Table A1/11 for the Class 3b
cycle.
9.2.1.3. The distances of the extra high speed phase of the base cycle d and the interim
capped speed cycle d shall be calculated applying the following equation to the extra
high speed phase of both cycles:
( v + v )


( ) ⎟ ⎞
d = ⎜ × t − t , for i = 1,479 to 1,800
⎝ 2 × 3.6

9.2.2. Determination of the time periods to be added to the interim capped speed cycle in order to
compensate for distance differences
In order to compensate for a difference in distance between the base cycle and the interim
capped speed cycle, corresponding time periods with v = v shall be added to the interim
capped speed cycle as described in Paragraphs9.2.2.1. to 9.2.2.3. inclusive of this Annex.

9.2.3.2. Class 2 and Class 3 Cycles
9.2.3.2.1. v The first part of the final capped speed cycle consists of the vehicle speed trace of the
interim capped speed cycle up to the last sample in the medium speed phase where
v = v . The time of this sample is referred to as t .
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n ).
The remaining part of the medium speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,022 + n )
In a next step, the first part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle up to
the last sample in the high speed phase where v = v shall be added. The time of this
sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as thigh, so that the time of this sample in
the final capped speed cycle is (t + n ).
Then, n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample
becomes (t + n + n ).
The remaining part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,477 + n + n ).
In a next step, the first part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle
up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time
of this sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this
sample in the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
+ n
).
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n + n + n ).
The remaining part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which
is identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,800 + n + n + n ).
The length of the final capped speed cycle is equivalent to the length of the base cycle
except for differences caused by the rounding process for n , n and n .

ANNEX 2
GEAR SELECTION AND SHIFT POINT DETERMINATION
FOR VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS
1. GENERAL APPROACH
1.1. The shifting procedures described in this Annex shall apply to vehicles equipped with
manual shift transmissions.
1.2. The prescribed gears and shifting points are based on the balance between the power
required to overcome driving resistance and acceleration, and the power provided by the
engine in all possible gears at a specific cycle phase.
1.3. The calculation to determine the gears to use shall be based on engine speeds and full load
power curves versus engine speed.
1.4. For vehicles equipped with a dual-range transmission (low and high), only the range
designed for normal on-road operation shall be considered for gear use determination.
1.5. The prescriptions for the clutch operation shall not be applied if the clutch is operated
automatically without the need of an engagement of disengagement of the driver.
1.6. This Annex shall not apply to vehicles tested according to Annex 8.
2. REQUIRED DATA AND PRECALCULATIONS
The following data are required and calculations shall be performed in order to determine
the gears to be used when driving the cycle on a chassis dynamometer:
(a) P , the maximum rated engine power as declared by the manufacturer, kW;
(b) n , the rated engine speed at which an engine develops its maximum power. If the
maximum power is developed over an engine speed range, n shall be the
minimum of this range, min ;
(c) n , idling speed, min
n shall be measured over a period of at least 1min at a sampling rate of at least
1Hz with the engine running in warm condition, the gear lever placed in neutral, and
the clutch engaged. The conditions for temperature, peripheral and auxiliary devices,
etc. shall be the same as described in the Annex 6 for the Type 1 test.
The value to be used in this Annex shall be the arithmetic average over the
measuring period, rounded or truncated to the nearest 10min .
(d)
ng, the number of forward gears;
The forward gears in the transmission range designed for normal on-road operation
shall be numbered in descending order of the ratio between engine speed in min
and vehicle speed in km/h. Gear 1 is the gear with the highest ratio, gear ng is the
gear with the lowest ratio. ng determines the number of forward gears.

(i) Determination of ng and v
ng , the gear in which the maximum vehicle speed is reached and shall be
determined as follows:
If v (ng) ≥ v (ng-1) and v (ng-1) ≥ v (ng-2), then:
ng = ng and v = v (ng).
If v (ng) < v (ng-1) and v (ng-1) ≥ v (ng-2), then:
ng = ng-1 and v = v (ng-1),
otherwise, ng = ng -2 and v = v (ng-2)
where:
v (ng) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power P in gear ng (see Figure A2/1a).
v (ng-1) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power P in the next lower gear (gear ng-1). See
Figure A2/1b.
v (ng-2) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power P in the gear ng-2.
Vehicle speed values rounded to one place of decimal shall be used for the
determination of v and ng .
The required road load power, kW, shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
v
stands for the vehicle speed specified above, km/h.
The available power at vehicle speed v
in gear ng, gear ng - 1 or gear ng – 2 may
be determined from the full load power curve, P
(n), by using the following
equations:
n
= (n/v) × v
(ng);
n
= (n/v)
× v
(ng-1)
n
= (n/v)
× v
(ng-2),
and by reducing the power values of the full load power curve by 10%

Figure A2/1a
An Example wheree ng is thee Highest Gear
Figure A2/1b
An Example where ng is the 2nd 2 Highest t Gear

(c)
For all other driving conditions:
n = 0.9 × n .
For n >2, n shall be determined by:
n = n + 0.125 × (n - n ).
The final result for n shall be rounded to the nearest integer. Example: 1,199.5
becomes 1,200, 1,199.4 becomes 1,199.
Higher values may be used if requested by the manufacturer. However, such higher
values shall not be used as the lower limit for the full load power curve according to
(h) above.
(l)
TM, test mass of the vehicle, kg.
3. CALCULATIONS OF REQUIRED POWER, ENGINE SPEEDS, AVAILABLE POWER,
AND POSSIBLE GEAR TO BE USED
3.1. Calculation of Required Power
For each second j of the cycle trace, the power required to overcome driving resistance and
to accelerate shall be calculated using the following equation:
P =
⎛ f × v + f × v + f × v ⎞ kr × a × v × TM

⎟ +
⎜ 3600
⎟ 3600


where:
P is the required power at second j, kW;
a
kr
is the vehicle acceleration at second j, m/s , and is calculated as follows
a =
3.6
( v − v )
× ( t − t )
is a factor taking the inertial resistances of the drivetrain during acceleration into
account and is set to 1.03.
;
3.2. Determination of Engine Speeds
For any v <1km/h, it shall be assumed that the vehicle is standing still and the engine speed
shall be set to n . The gear lever shall be placed in neutral with the clutch engaged except
1s before beginning an acceleration from standstill where first gear shall be selected with
the clutch disengaged.
For each v ≥1km/h of the cycle trace and each gear i, i = 1 to ng
shall be calculated using the following equation:
, the engine speed n
n = (n/v) × v

Table A2/1
n
Pwot
SM
ASM
P
min
kW
%
%
kW
700
6.3
10.0
20.0
4.4
1,000
15.7
10.0
20.0
11.0
1,500
32.3
10.0
15.0
24.2
1,800
56.6
10.0
10.0
45.3
1,900
59.7
10.0
5.0
50.8
2,000
62.9
10.0
0.0
56.6
3,000
94.3
10.0
0.0
84.9
4,000
125.7
10.0
0.0
113.2
5,000
157.2
10.0
0.0
141.5
5,700
179.2
10.0
0.0
161.3
5,800
180.1
10.0
0.0
162.1
6,000
174.7
10.0
0.0
157.3
6,200
169.0
10.0
0.0
152.1
6,400
164.3
10.0
0.0
147.8
6,600
156.4
10.0
0.0
140.8
3.5.
Determination of Possible Gears to be Used
The possible gears to be used shall be determined by the following conditions:
(a)
The conditions of Paragraph 3.3 of this Annex are fulfilled, and;
(b) If n ≥ minimum engine speed of the P curve (see Paragraph 2.(h) of this Annex),
P ≥P
The initial gear to be used for each second j of the cycle trace is the highest final possible
gear, i . When starting from standstill, only the first gear shall be used.
The lowest final possible gear if i .

(d) During a deceleration phase, gears with n >2 shall be used as long as the engine
speed does not drop below n .
If the duration of a gear sequence is only 1s, it shall be replaced by gear 0 and the
clutch shall be disengaged.
If the duration of a gear sequence is 2s, it shall be replaced by gear 0 for the 1
second and for the 2 second with the gear that follows after the 2s period. The
clutch shall be disengaged for the 1 second.
Example: A gear sequence 5, 4, 4, 2 shall be replaced by 5, 0, 2, 2.
This requirement shall only be applied if the gear that follows after the 2s period is
> 0.
(e)
Gear 2 shall be used during a deceleration phase within a short trip of the cycle as
long as the engine speed does not drop below (0.9 × n ).
If the engine speed drops below n
, the clutch shall be disengaged.
(f)
If the deceleration phase is the last part of a short trip shortly before a stop phase and
the first or second gear within the deceleration phase would only be used for up to 2s,
the gear lever shall be placed in neutral and the clutch shall be engaged.
(Examples: A gear sequence of 4, 0, 2, 2, 0 for the last 5s before a stop phase shall
be replaced by 4, 0, 0, 0, 0. A gear sequence of 4, 3, 3, 0 for the last 4s before a stop
phase shall be replaced by 4, 0, 0, 0.)
A downshift to first gear is not permitted during those deceleration phases.
(g)
No upshift to a higher gear at the transition from an acceleration or constant speed
phase to a deceleration phase shall be performed if the gear in the phase following
the deceleration phase is lower than the upshifted gear.
Example: If v ≤ v and v < v and gear i = 4 and gear i+1 = 5 and gear i+2 = 5,
then gear i+1 and gear i+2 shall be set to 4 if the gear for the phase following the
deceleration phase is gear 4 or lower. For all following cycle trace points with gear = 5
within the deceleration phase the gear shall also be set to 4. If the gear following the
deceleration phase is gear 5, the upshift shall be performed.
If there is an upshift during the transition and the initial deceleration phase by 2 gears,
an upshift by 1 gear shall be performed.
5. Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive of this Annex shall be applied sequentially, scanning the
complete cycle trace in each case. Since modifications to Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive
of this Annex may create new gear use sequences, these new gear sequences shall be
checked three times and modified if necessary.
In order to enable the assessment of the correctness of the calculation, the average gear for
v ≥1km/h, rounded to four places of decimal, shall be calculated and recorded.

3. LIQUID FUELS FOR POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES
3.1. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)
Table A3/1
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)

3.3. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)
Table A3/3
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)

3.5. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 95 RON, E5)
Table A3/5
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 95 RON, E5)

3.7. Ethanol (Nominal 95 RON, E85)
Table A3/7
Ethanol (Nominal 95 RON, E85)

4.2. NG/Biomethane
4.2.1. "G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
Table A3/9
"G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
4.2.2. "K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)
Table A3/10
"K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)

4.2.5. Hydrogen
Table A3/13
Hydrogen
Characteristics
Units
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test
method
Hydrogen purity % mole 98 100 ISO 14687-1
Total hydrocarbon μmol/mol 0 100 ISO 14687-1
Water μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
Oxygen μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
Argon μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
Nitrogen μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
CO μmol/mol 0 1 ISO 14687-1
Sulphur μmol/mol 0 2 ISO 14687-1
Permanent particulates ISO 14687-1

5.2. E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Table A3/15
E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)

5.4. E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B7)
Table A3/17
E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B7)

ANNEX 4
ROAD LOAD AND DYNAMOMETER SETTING
1. SCOPE
This Annex describes the determination of the road load of a test vehicle and the transfer
of that road load to a chassis dynamometer.
2. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1. For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3833 and in
Paragraph 3. of this UN GTR shall have primacy. Where definitions are not provided in
Paragraph 3. of this UN GTR, definitions given in ISO 3833:1977 "Road vehicles – Types
– Terms and Definitions" shall apply.
2.2. Reference speed points shall start at 20km/h in incremental steps of 10km/h and with the
highest reference speed according to the following provisions:
(a)
(b)
The highest reference speed point shall be 130km/h or the reference speed point
immediately above the maximum speed of the applicable test cycle if this value is
less than 130km/h. In the case that the applicable test cycle contains less than the
four cycle phases (low, medium, high and extra high) and at the request of the
manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, the highest reference
speed may be increased to the reference speed point immediately above the
maximum speed of the next higher phase, but no higher than 130km/h; in this case
road load determination and chassis dynamometer setting shall be done with the
same reference speed points;
If a reference speed point applicable for the cycle plus 14km/h is more than or equal
to the maximum vehicle speed v , this reference speed point shall be excluded
from the coastdown test and from chassis dynamometer setting. The next lower
reference speed point shall become the highest reference speed point for the
vehicle.
2.3. Unless otherwise specified, a cycle energy demand shall be calculated according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7 over the target speed trace of the applicable drive cycle.
2.4. f , f , f are the road load coefficients of the road load equation F = f + f × v + f × v ,
determined according to this Annex.
f is the constant road load coefficient and shall be rounded to one place of decimal, N;
f is the first order road load coefficient and shall be rounded to three places of decimal,
N/(km/h);
f is the second order road load coefficient and shall be rounded to five places of decimal,
N/(km/h) .
Unless otherwise stated, the road load coefficients shall be calculated with a least square
regression analysis over the range of the reference speed points.

(g)
(h)
(i)
Atmospheric pressure: ±0.3kPa, with a measurement frequency of at least 0.1Hz;
Vehicle mass measured on the same weighing scale before and after the test:
±10kg (±20kg for vehicles >4,000kg);
Tyre pressure: ±5kPa;
(j) Wheel rotational frequency: ±0.05s or 1%, whichever is greater.
3.2. Wind Tunnel Criteria
3.2.1. Wind Velocity
The wind velocity during a measurement shall remain within ±2km/h at the centre of the
test section. The possible wind velocity shall be at least 140km/h.
3.2.2. Air Temperature
3.2.3. Turbulence
The air temperature during a measurement shall remain within ±3°C at the centre of the
test section. The air temperature distribution at the nozzle outlet shall remain within ±3°C.
For an equally spaced 3 by 3 grid over the entire nozzle outlet, the turbulence intensity,
Tu, shall not exceed 1%. See Figure A4/1 below.
Figure A4/1
Turbulence Intensity
u'
Tu = U
where:
Tu
u'
U∞
is the turbulence intensity;
is the turbulent velocity fluctuation, m/s;
is the free flow velocity, m/s.

The absolute difference of the pressure coefficient cp over a distance 3m ahead and 3m
behind the centre of the balance in the empty test section and at a height of the centre of
the nozzle outlet shall not deviate more than ±0.02.
cp
− cp
≤ 0.02
where:
cp
is the pressure coefficient.
3.2.9. Boundary Layer Thickness
At x = 0 (balance centre point), the wind velocity shall have at least 99% of the inflow
velocity 30mm above the wind tunnel floor.
where:
δ (x = 0m) ≤ 30mm
δ is the distance perpendicular to the road, where 99% of free stream velocity is reached
(boundary layer thickness).
3.2.10. Restraint Blockage Ratio
The restraint system mounting shall not be in front of the vehicle. The relative blockage
ratio of the vehicle frontal area due to the restraint system, ε , shall not exceed 0.10.
ε
A
=
A
where:
ε is the relative blockage ratio of the restraint system;
A is the frontal area of the restraint system projected on the nozzle face, m ;
A is the frontal area of the vehicle, m .
3.2.11. Measurement Accuracy of the Balance in the x-direction
The inaccuracy of the resulting force in the x-direction shall not exceed ±5N. The
resolution of the measured force shall be within ±3N.
3.2.12. Measurement Repeatability
The repeatability of the measured force shall be within ±3N.

4.1.2. Test Road
4.2. Preparation
4.2.1. Test Vehicle
The road surface shall be flat, even, clean, dry and free of obstacles or wind barriers that
might impede the measurement of the road load, and its texture and composition shall be
representative of current urban and highway road surfaces, i.e. no airstrip specific surface.
The longitudinal slope of the test road shall not exceed ±1%. The local slope between any
points 3m apart shall not deviate more than ±0.5% from this longitudinal slope. If tests in
opposite directions cannot be performed at the same part of the test track (e.g. on an oval
test track with an obligatory driving direction), the sum of the longitudinal slopes of the
parallel test track segments shall be between 0 and an upward slope of 0.1%. The
maximum camber of the test road shall be 1.5%.
Each test vehicle shall conform in all its components with the production series, or, if the
vehicle is different from the production vehicle, a full description shall be recorded.
4.2.1.1 Requirements for Test Vehicle Selection
4.2.1.1.1. Without using an Interpolation Method
A test vehicle (vehicle H) with the combination of road load relevant characteristics
(i.e. mass, aerodynamic drag and tyre rolling resistance) producing the highest cycle
energy demand shall be selected from the interpolation family (see Paragraphs 5.6. and
5.7. of this UN GTR).
If the aerodynamic influence of the different wheels within one interpolation family is not
known, the selection shall be based on the highest expected aerodynamic drag. As a
guideline, the highest aerodynamic drag may be expected for wheels with
(a)
(b)
(c)
the largest width,
the largest diameter, and
the most open structure design (in that order of importance).
The wheel selection shall be performed additional to the requirement of the highest cycle
energy demand.
4.2.1.1.2. Using an Interpolation Method
At the request of the manufacturer, an interpolation method may be applied.
In this case, two test vehicles shall be selected from the interpolation family complying with
the respective family requirement.

4.2.1.2.3.4. If the road load delta of the vehicle option causing the friction difference is determined
according to Paragraph 6.8. of this annex, a new road load family shall be calculated
which includes the road load delta in both vehicle L and vehicle H of that new road load
family.
where:
f = f + f
f = f + f
f = f + f
N
R
refers to the road load coefficients of the new road load family;
refers to the road load coefficients of the reference road load family;
Delta refers to the delta road load coefficients determined in Paragraph 6.8.1. of this
annex.
4.2.1.3. Allowable Combinations of Test Vehicle Selection and Family Requirements
Table A4/1 shows the permissible combinations of test vehicle selection and family
requirements as described in paragraphs 4.2.1.1. and 4.2.1.2. of this annex.
Table A4/1
Permissible Combinations of Test Vehicle Selection and Family Requirements
Requirements to be
fulfilled:
(1) without
interpolation
Road load test vehicle Paragraph
4.2.1.1.1. of
this annex..
Family
Paragraph
4.2.1.2.1. of
this annex.
(2) Interpolation
method without
road load family
Paragraph
4.2.1.1.2.
of
this
annex.
Paragraph
4.2.1.2.2.
of
this
annex.
(3) Applying the
road load family
Paragraph
4.2.1.1.2. of this
annex.
Paragraph
4.2.1.2.3. of this
annex.
(4) Interpolation
method using one or
more road load
families
n.a.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.2.
of this annex.
Additional
none
none
none
Application of
column (3) "Applying
the road load family"
and application of
Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.
of this annex.

4.2.1.5. Movable Aerodynamic Body Parts
4.2.1.6. Weighing
Movable aerodynamic body parts on the test vehicles shall operate during road load
determination as intended under WLTP Type 1 test conditions (test temperature, speed
and acceleration range, engine load, etc.).
Every vehicle system that dynamically modifies the vehicle's aerodynamic drag
(e.g. vehicle height control) shall be considered to be a movable aerodynamic body part.
Appropriate requirements shall be added if future vehicles are equipped with movable
aerodynamic items of optional equipment whose influence on aerodynamic drag justifies
the need for further requirements.
Before and after the road load determination procedure, the selected vehicle shall be
weighed, including the test driver and equipment, to determine the arithmetic average
mass, m . The mass of the vehicle shall be greater than or equal to the test mass of the
vehicle H or of vehicle L at the start of the road load determination procedure.
4.2.1.7. Test Vehicle Configuration
The test vehicle configuration shall be recorded and shall be used for any subsequent
coastdown testing.
4.2.1.8. Test Vehicle Condition
4.2.1.8.1. Run-in
The test vehicle shall be suitably run-in for the purpose of the subsequent test for at least
10,000 but no more than 80,000km.
At the request of the manufacturer, a vehicle with a minimum of 3,000km may be used.
4.2.1.8.2. Manufacturer's Specifications
The vehicle shall conform to the manufacturer's intended production vehicle specifications
regarding tyre pressures described in Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, wheel alignment
described in Paragraph 4.2.1.8.3. of this Annex, ground clearance, vehicle height,
drivetrain and wheel bearing lubricants, and brake adjustment to avoid unrepresentative
parasitic drag.
4.2.1.8.3. Wheel Alignment
Toe and camber shall be set to the maximum deviation from the longitudinal axis of the
vehicle in the range defined by the manufacturer. If a manufacturer prescribes values for
toe and camber for the vehicle, these values shall be used. At the request of the
manufacturer, values with higher deviations from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle than
the prescribed values may be used. The prescribed values shall be the reference for all
maintenance during the lifetime of the vehicle.
Other adjustable wheel alignment parameters (such as caster) shall be set to the values
recommended by the manufacturer. In the absence of recommended values, they shall be
set to the arithmetic average of the range defined by the manufacturer.
Such adjustable parameters and set values shall be recorded.

4.2.2.2. Tyre Condition
Tyres used for the test shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Not be older than two years after the production date;
Not be specially conditioned or treated (e.g. heated or artificially aged), with the
exception of grinding in the original shape of the tread;
Be run-in on a road for at least 200km before road load determination;
Have a constant tread depth before the test between 100 and 80% of the original
tread depth at any point over the full tread width of the tyre.
4.2.2.2.1. After measurement of tread depth, the driving distance shall be limited to 500km. If 500km
are exceeded, the tread depth shall be measured again.
4.2.2.3. Tyre Pressure
The front and rear tyres shall be inflated to the lower limit of the tyre pressure range for the
respective axle for the selected tyre at the coastdown test mass, as specified by the
vehicle manufacturer.
4.2.2.3.1. Tyre-pressure Adjustment
If the difference between ambient and soak temperature is more than 5°C, the tyre
pressure shall be adjusted as follows:
(a)
(b)
The tyres shall be soaked for more than 1h at 10% above the target pressure;
Prior to testing, the tyre pressure shall be reduced to the inflation pressure as
specified in Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, adjusted for difference between the
soaking environment temperature and the ambient test temperature at a rate of
0.8kPa per 1°C using the following equation:
∆p = 0.8 × (T – T )
where:
∆p
is the tyre pressure adjustment added to the tyre pressure defined in
Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, kPa;
0.8 is the pressure adjustment factor, kPa/°C;
T is the tyre soaking temperature, °C;
T is the test ambient temperature, °C;
(c)
Between the pressure adjustment and the vehicle warm-up, the tyres shall be
shielded from external heat sources including sun radiation.

4.2.4.1.3. Criterion for Stable Condition
Refer to Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex.
4.3. Measurement and Calculation of Road Load by the Coastdown Method
The road load shall be determined by using either the stationary anemometry
(Paragraph 4.3.1. of this Annex) or the on-board anemometry (Paragraph 4.3.2. of this
Annex) method.
4.3.1. Coastdown Method with Stationary Anemometry
4.3.1.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Road Load Curve Determination
Reference speeds for road load determination shall be selected according to
Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
4.3.1.2. Data Collection
During the test, elapsed time and vehicle speed shall be measured at a minimum
frequency of 10Hz.
4.3.1.3. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
4.3.1.3.1. Following the vehicle warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex, and
immediately prior to each test measurement, the vehicle shall be accelerated to 10 to
15km/h above the highest reference speed and shall be driven at that speed for a
maximum of 1min. After that the coastdown shall be started immediately.
4.3.1.3.2. During coastdown, the transmission shall be in neutral. Any movement of the steering
wheel shall be avoided as much as possible, and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.
4.3.1.3.3. The test shall be repeated until the coastdown data satisfy the statistical precision
requirements as specified in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this annex.
4.3.1.3.4. Although it is recommended that each coastdown run be performed without interruption,
split runs may be performed if data cannot be collected in a single run for all the reference
speed points. For split runs, the following additional requirements shall apply:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Care shall be taken to keep the vehicle condition as constant as possible at each
split point;
At least one speed point shall overlap with the higher speed range coastdown;
At each of all overlapped speed point, the average force of the lower speed range
coastdown shall not deviate from the average force of the higher speed range
coastdown by ±10N or ±5%, whichever is greater;
If the track length does not allow fulfilling requirement (b) in this paragraph, one
additional speed point shall be added to serve as overlapping speed point.

Table A4/4
Coefficient h as a Function of n
n h n h
3 4.3 17 2.1
4 3.2 18 2.1
5 2.8 19 2.1
6 2.6 20 2.1
7 2.5 21 2.1
8 2.4 22 2.1
9 2.3 23 2.1
10 2.3 24 2.1
11 2.2 25 2.1
12 2.2 26 2.1
13 2.2 27 2.1
14 2.2 28 2.1
15 2.2 29 2.0
16 2.1 30 2.0
4.3.1.4.3. If during a measurement in one direction any external factor or driver action occurs that
obviously influences the road load test, that measurement and the corresponding
measurement in the opposite direction shall be rejected. All the rejected data and the
reason for rejection shall be recorded, and the number of rejected pairs of measurement
shall not exceed ⅓ of the total number of measurement pairs. The maximum number of
pairs that still fulfil the statistical accuracy as defined in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this annex
shall be evaluated. In the case of exclusion, pairs shall be excluded from the evaluations
starting with the pair having the maximum deviation from the average.

4.3.2. Coastdown Method with On-board Anemometry
The vehicle shall be warmed up and stabilised according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this
Annex.
4.3.2.1. Additional Instrumentation for On-board Anemometry
The on-board anemometer and instrumentation shall be calibrated by means of operation
on the test vehicle where such calibration occurs during the warm-up for the test.
4.3.2.1.1. Relative wind speed shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and to an
accuracy of 0.3m/s. Vehicle blockage shall be accounted for in the calibration of the
anemometer.
4.3.2.1.2. Wind direction shall be relative to the direction of the vehicle. The relative wind direction
(yaw) shall be measured with a resolution of 1° and an accuracy of 3°; the dead band of
the instrument shall not exceed 10° and shall be directed towards the rear of the vehicle.
4.3.2.1.3. Before the coastdown, the anemometer shall be calibrated for speed and yaw offset as
specified in IS0 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A.
4.3.2.1.4. Anemometer blockage shall be corrected for in the calibration procedure as described in
ISO 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A in order to minimise its effect.
4.3.2.2. Selection of Speed Range for Road Load Curve Determination
The test speed range shall be selected according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
4.3.2.3. Data Collection
During the procedure elapsed time, vehicle speed, and air velocity (speed, direction)
relative to the vehicle, shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 5Hz. Ambient
temperature shall be synchronised and sampled at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz.
4.3.2.4. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
The measurements shall be carried out in opposite directions until a minimum of ten
consecutive runs (five in each direction) have been obtained. Should an individual run fail
to satisfy the required on-board anemometry test conditions, that run and the
corresponding run in the opposite direction shall be rejected. All valid pairs shall be
included in the final analysis with a minimum of five pairs of coastdown runs. See
Paragraph 4.3.2.6.10. for statistical validation criteria.
The anemometer shall be installed in a position such that the effect on the operating
characteristics of the vehicle is minimised.
The anemometer shall be installed according to one of the options below:
(a)
(b)
Using a boom approximately 2m in front of the vehicle's forward aerodynamic
stagnation point.
On the roof of the vehicle at its centreline. If possible, the anemometer shall be
mounted within 30cm. from the top of the windshield.

Table A4/5
Symbols Used in the On-board Anemometer Equations of Motion
Symbol Units Description
A m frontal area of the vehicle
a … a degrees aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of yaw angle
A N mechanical drag coefficient
B N/(km/h) mechanical drag coefficient
C N/(km/h) mechanical drag coefficient
C (Y)
D N drag
D N aerodynamic drag
of aerodynamic drag coefficient at yaw angle Y
D N front axle drag (including driveline)
D N gravitational drag
D N mechanical drag
D N rear axle drag (including driveline)
D N tyre rolling resistance
(dh/ds)
-
sine of the slope of the track in the direction of travel (+ indicates
ascending)
(dv/dt) m/s acceleration
g m/s gravitational constant
m
kg
arithmetic average mass of the test vehicle before and after road
load determination
m kg effective vehicle mass including rotating components
ρ kg/m air density
t s time
T K Temperature
v km/h vehicle speed
v km/h relative wind speed
Y degrees yaw angle of apparent wind relative to direction of vehicle travel

4.3.2.5.3. Aerodynamic Drag Modelling
The aerodynamic drag coefficient C (Y) shall be modelled as a four-term polynomial as a
function of yaw angle Y as in the equation below:
C (Y) = a + a Y + a Y + a Y + a Y
a to a are constant coefficients whose values are determined in the data-analysis.
The aerodynamic drag coefficient shall be determined by combining the drag coefficient
with the vehicle's frontal area and the relative wind velocity v :
4.3.2.5.4. Final equation of motion
⎛ 1 ⎞
⎝ 2 ⎠
D = ⎜ ⎟ × ρ × A × v × C ( Y)
⎛ 1 ⎞
D = ⎜ ⎟ × ρ × A × v ( a + a Y + a Y + a Y + a Y )
⎝ 2 ⎠
Though substitution, the final form of the equation of motion becomes:
⎛ dv ⎞
− m ⎜ ⎟ = A
⎝ dt ⎠
+ B
v + C
v
⎛ 1 ⎞
+ ⎜ ⎟ × ρ× A
⎝ 2 ⎠
× v

⎜a

+ a Y + a
Y
+ a
Y
+ a
Y
⎛ dh ⎞
+ ⎜m×


⎝ ds ⎠
4.3.2.6. Data Reduction
A three-term equation shall be generated to describe the road load force as a function of
velocity, F = A + Bv + Cv , corrected to standard ambient temperature and pressure
conditions, and in still air. The method for this analysis process is described in
Paragraphs 4.3.2.6.1. to 4.3.2.6.10. inclusive of this Annex.
4.3.2.6.1. Determining Calibration Coefficients
If not previously determined, calibration factors to correct for vehicle blockage shall be
determined for relative wind speed and yaw angle. Vehicle speed (v), relative wind velocity
(v ) and yaw (Y) measurements during the warm-up phase of the test procedure shall be
recorded. Paired runs in alternate directions on the test track at a constant velocity of
80km/h shall be performed, and the arithmetic average values of v, v and Y for each run
shall be determined. Calibration factors that minimize the total errors in head and cross
winds over all the run pairs, i.e. the sum of (head – head ) , etc., shall be selected where
head and head refer to wind speed and wind direction from the paired test runs in
opposing directions during the vehicle warm-up/stabilization prior to testing.

4.3.2.6.10. Statistical criteria for on-board anemometry
The exclusion of each single pair of coastdown runs shall change the calculated road load
for each coastdown reference speed v less than the convergence requirement, for all i
and j:
Δ F (v
)/F (v
) ≤
0.03
n − 1
where:
∆F (v ) is the difference between the calculated road load with all coastdown runs and the
calculated road load with the i pair of coastdown runs excluded, N;
F(v ) is the calculated road load with all coastdown runs included, N;
V
n
is the reference speed, km/h;
is the number of pairs of coastdown runs, all valid pairs are included.
In the case that the convergence requirement is not met, pairs shall be removed from the
analysis, starting with the pair giving the highest change in calculated road load, until the
convergence requirement is met, as long as a minimum of five valid pairs are used for the
final road load determination.
4.4. Measurement and Calculation of Running Resistance Using the Torque Meter
Method
As an alternative to the coastdown methods, the torque meter method may also be used in
which the running resistance is determined by measuring wheel torque on the driven
wheels at the reference speed points for time periods of at least 5s.
4.4.1. Installation of Torque Meter
Wheel torque meters shall be installed between the wheel hub and the wheel of each
driven wheel, measuring the required torque to keep the vehicle at a constant speed.
The torque meter shall be calibrated on a regular basis, at least once a year, traceable to
national or international standards, in order to meet the required accuracy and precision.
4.4.2. Procedure and Data Sampling
4.4.2.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Running Resistance Curve Determination
Reference speed points for running resistance determination shall be selected according
to Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
The reference speeds shall be measured in descending order. At the request of the
manufacturer, there may be stabilization periods between measurements but the
stabilization speed shall not exceed the speed of the next reference speed.

4.4.2.5. Atmospheric Temperature
Tests shall be performed under the same temperature conditions as defined in
Paragraph 4.1.1.2. of this Annex.
4.4.3. Calculation of Arithmetic Average Velocity and Arithmetic Average Torque
4.4.3.1. Calculation Process
Arithmetic average velocity v , in km/h, and arithmetic average torque C , in Nm, of each
measurement shall be calculated from the data sets collected in Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of this
Annex using the following equations:
v

1
= v
k
and
C

= 1
k
C − C
where:
v
k
C
C
is the actual vehicle speed of the i data set at reference speed point j, km/h;
is the number of data sets in a single measurement;
is the actual torque of the i data set, Nm;
is the compensation term for speed drift, Nm, given by the following equation:
C = (m + m ) × α r
c
1
k
∑ c
m
m
r
shall be no greater than 0.05 and may be disregarded if α is not greater than
±0.005m/s ;
is the test vehicle mass at the start of the measurements and shall be
measured immediately before the warm-up procedure and no earlier, kg;
is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to
Paragraph 2.5.1. of this Annex, kg;
is the dynamic radius of the tyre, determined at a reference point of 80km/h or
at the highest reference speed point of the vehicle if this speed is lower than
80km/h, calculated using the following equation;

where:
C
and C
are the arithmetic average torques of the i measurement at speed v
determined in Paragraph 4.4.3.1. of this Annex for each direction, a and b
respectively, Nm;
s
is the standard deviation, Nm, calculated using the following equation:
∑ ( C − )
= 1
s
k − 1
C
h
is a coefficient as a function of n as given in Table A4/4 in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of
this Annex.
4.4.4. Running Resistance Curve Determination
The arithmetic average speed and arithmetic average torque at each reference speed
point shall be calculated using the following equations:
V = ½ × (v + v )
C = ½ × (C +C )
The following least squares regression curve of arithmetic average running resistance
shall be fitted to all the data pairs (v , C ) at all reference speeds described in
Paragraph 4.4.2.1. of this Annex to determine the coefficients c , c , and c
The coefficients, c , c and c as well as the coastdown times measured on the chassis
dynamometer (see Paragraph 8.2.4. of this Annex) shall be recorded.
In the case that the tested vehicle is the representative vehicle of a road load matrix
family, the coefficient c shall be set to zero and the coefficients c and c shall be
recalculated with a least squares regression analysis.
4.5. Correction to Reference Conditions and Measurement Equipment
4.5.1. Air Resistance Correction Factor
The correction factor for air resistance K shall be determined using the following equation:
where:
T 100kPa
K = ×
293k P
T
P
is the arithmetic average atmospheric temperature of all individual runs, Kelvin (K);
is the arithmetic average atmospheric pressure, kPa.

4.5.4. Test Mass Correction Factor
The correction factor K for the test mass of the test vehicle hall be determined using the
following equation:
K
⎛ TM ⎞
= f × ⎜1


⎝ m ⎠
where:
f is a constant term, N;
TM
m
is the test mass of the test vehicle, kg;
is the arithmetic average of the test vehicle masses at the beginning and end
of road load determination, kg.
4.5.5. Road Load Curve Correction
4.5.5.1. The curve determined in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex shall be corrected to reference
conditions as follows:
where:
F* is the corrected road load, N;
f is the constant term, N;
F* = ((f – w – K ) + f v) × (1 + K (T – 20)) + K f v
f
is the coefficient of the first-order term, N (h/km);
f is the coefficient of the second-order term, N (h/km) ;
K
K
K
T
v
is the correction factor for rolling resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.2.of this
Annex;
is the test mass correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.4.of this Annex;
is the correction factor for air resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.1.of this Annex;
is the arithmetic average ambient atmospheric temperature, °C;
is vehicle velocity, km/h;
w is the wind resistance correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex, N.
The result of the calculation ((f – w – K ) × (1 + K × (T-20))) shall be used as the target
road load coefficient A in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting
described in Paragraph 8.1. of this Annex.

4.5.5.2.2. Correction for installed torque meters
If the running resistance is determined according to the torque meter method, the running
resistance shall be corrected for effects of the torque measurement equipment installed
outside the vehicle on its aerodynamic characteristics.
The running resistance coefficient c shall be corrected using the following equation:
where:
c = K × c × (1 + (∆(C × A ))/(C × A ))
∆(C × A ) = (C × A ) - (C × A ) ;
C × A is the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by the frontal area of
the vehicle with the torque meter measurement equipment installed measured in a wind
tunnel fulfilling the criteria of Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex, m ;
C × A is the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by the frontal area of
the vehicle with the torque meter measurement equipment not installed measured in a
wind tunnel fulfilling the criteria of Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex, m .
4.5.5.2.3. Target running resistance coefficients
The result of the calculation ((c – w – K ) × (1 + K x (T-20))) shall be used as the target
running resistance coefficient at in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting
described in Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex.
The result of the calculation (c × (1 + K × (T-20))) shall be used as the target running
resistance coefficient b in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting
described in Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex.
The result of the calculation (c × r) shall be used as the target running resistance
coefficient c in the calculation of the chassis dynamometer load setting described in
Paragraph 8.2. of this Annex.
5. METHOD FOR THE CALCULATION OF ROAD LOAD OR RUNNING RESISTANCE
BASED ON VEHICLE PARAMETERS
5.1. Calculation of road load and running resistance for vehicles based on a representative
vehicle of a road load matrix family.
If the road load of the representative vehicle is determined according to a coastdown
method described in Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, the road load of an individual vehicle
shall be calculated according to Paragraph 5.1.1. of this Annex.
If the running resistance of the representative vehicle is determined according to the
torque meter method described in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex, the running resistance of
an individual vehicle shall be calculated according to Paragraph 5.1.2. of this Annex.
5.1.1. For the calculation of the road load of vehicles of a road load matrix family, the vehicle
parameters described in Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of this Annex and the road load coefficients of
the representative test vehicle determined in Paragraphs 4.3. of this Annex shall be used.

5.1.2. For the calculation of the running resistance of vehicles of a road load matrix family, the
vehicle parameters described in Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of this Annex and the running
resistance coefficients of the representative test vehicle determined in Paragraphs 4.4. of
this Annex shall be used.
5.1.2.1. The running resistance for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
C = c + c × v + c × v
C
c
is the calculated running resistance as a function of vehicle velocity, Nm;
is the constant running resistance coefficient, Nm, defined by the equation:
c
⎛⎛
(
⎟ ⎞

⎛ RR − RR ⎞ ⎞
= r' /1.02 × Max
⎜0.05
× 1.02 x c / r' + 0.95 × 1.02 x c / r' × TM / TM + ⎜ ⎟9.81 x TM⎟
⎝⎝
⎝ 1,000 ⎠ ⎠⎠




⎛ RR − RR ⎞


0.2× 1.02 x c / r' + 0.8 × ⎜1.02
x c / r' × TM / TM + ⎜ ⎟ × 9.81 x TM⎟


⎝ 1,000 ⎠
⎠⎠
c
c
c
is the constant running resistance coefficient of the representative vehicle of the
road load matrix family, Nm;
is the first order road load coefficient, Nm/(km/h) and shall be set to zero;
is the second order running resistance coefficient, Nm/(km/h) , defined by the
equation:
c = r'/1.02 × Max ((0.05 × 1.02 × c /r' + 0.95 × 1.02 × c /r' × A /A );
(0.2 × 1.02 × c /r' + 0.8 × 1.02 × c /r' × A /A ))
c
v
TM
TM
is the second order running resistance coefficient of the representative vehicle of
the road load matrix family, N·(h/km) ;
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
is the actual test mass of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
is the test mass of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
A is the frontal area of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ,
A is the frontal area of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ;
RR
RR
r'
is the tyre rolling resistance of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix
family, kg/tonne;
is the tyre rolling resistance of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix
family, kg/tonne;
is the dynamic radius of the tyre on the chassis dynamometer obtained at
80km/h, m;
1.02 is an approximate coefficient compensating for drivetrain losses.

6.1.3. Rolling resistance and drivetrain losses shall be measured using a flat belt or a chassis
dynamometer, measuring the front and rear axles simultaneously.
6.2. Approval of the Facilities by the Responsible Authority
The results of the wind tunnel method shall be compared to those obtained using the
coastdown method to demonstrate qualification of the facilities and recorded.
6.2.1. Three vehicles shall be selected by the responsible authority. The vehicles shall cover the
range of vehicles (e.g. size, weight) planned to be measured with the facilities concerned.
6.2.2. Two separate coastdown tests shall be performed with each of the three vehicles
according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, and the resulting road load coefficients, f , f
and f , shall be determined according to that Paragraph and corrected according to
Paragraph 4.5.5. of this Annex. The coastdown test result of a test vehicle shall be the
arithmetic average of the road load coefficients of its two separate coastdown tests. If
more than two coastdown tests are necessary to fulfil the approval of facilities' criteria, all
valid tests shall be averaged.
6.2.3. Measurement with the wind tunnel method according to Paragraphs 6.3. to 6.7. inclusive
of this Annex shall be performed on the same three vehicles as selected in
Paragraph 6.2.1. of this Annex and in the same conditions, and the resulting road load
coefficients, f , f and f , shall be determined.
If the manufacturer chooses to use one or more of the available alternative procedures
within the wind tunnel method (i.e. Paragraph 6.5.2.1. on preconditioning,
Paragraphs 6.5.2.2. and 6.5.2.3. on the procedure, and Paragraph 6.5.2.3.3. on
dynamometer setting), these procedures shall also be used also for the approval of the
facilities.
6.2.4. Approval Criteria
The facility or combination of facilities used shall be approved if both of the following two
criteria are fulfilled:
(a)
The difference in cycle energy, expressed as εk, between the wind tunnel method
and the coastdown method shall be within ±0.05 for each of the three vehicles, k,
according to the following equation:
ε
E
=
E
− 1
where:
ε
is the difference in cycle energy over a complete Class 3 WLTC for vehicle
k between the wind tunnel method and the coastdown method, percent;
E is the cycle energy over a complete Class 3 WLTC for vehicle k,
calculated with the road load derived from the wind tunnel method (WTM)
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, J;
E is the cycle energy over a complete Class 3 WLTC for vehicle k,
calculated with the road load derived from the coastdown method
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, J.; and

6.4.2. Wind Tunnel Measurement
The vehicle shall be in the condition described in Paragraph 6.3. of this Annex.
The vehicle shall be placed parallel to the longitudinal centre line of the tunnel with a
maximum deviation of 10mm.
The vehicle shall be placed with a yaw angle of 0° and with a tolerance of ±0.1°.
Aerodynamic drag shall be measured for at least for 60s and at a minimum frequency of
5Hz. Alternatively, the drag may be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and with at
least 300 subsequent samples. The result shall be the arithmetic average of the drag.
In the case that the vehicle has movable aerodynamic body parts, Paragraph 4.2.1.5. of
this Annex shall apply. Where movable parts are velocity-dependent, every applicable
position shall be measured in the wind tunnel and evidence shall be provided to the
responsible authority indicating the relationship between reference speed, movable part
position, and the corresponding (C × A ).
6.5. Flat Belt Applied for the Wind Tunnel Method
6.5.1. Flat Belt Criteria
6.5.1.1. Description of the Flat Belt Test Bench
The wheels shall rotate on flat belts that do not change the rolling characteristics of the
wheels compared to those on the road. The measured forces in the x-direction shall
include the frictional forces in the drivetrain .
6.5.1.2. Vehicle Restraint System
The dynamometer shall be equipped with a centring device aligning the vehicle within a
tolerance of ±0.5° of rotation around the z-axis. The restraint system shall maintain the
centred drive wheel position throughout the coastdown runs of the road load determination
within the following limits:
6.5.1.2.1. Lateral position (y-axis)
The vehicle shall remain aligned in the y-direction and lateral movement shall be
minimised.
6.5.1.2.2. Front and rear position (x-axis)
6.5.1.2.3. Vertical force
Additional to the requirement of Paragraph 6.5.1.2.1. of this Annex, both wheel axes shall
be within ±10mm of the belt's lateral centre lines.
The restraint system shall be designed so as to impose no vertical force on the drive
wheels.

At the request of the manufacturer, as an alternative to Paragraph 4.2.4.1.2. of this Annex,
the warm-up may be conducted by driving the vehicle with the flat belt.
In this case, the warm-up speed shall be 110% of the maximum speed of the applicable
WLTC and the duration shall exceed 1,200s until the change of measured force over a
period of 200s is less than 5N.
6.5.2.2. Measurement Procedure with Stabilised Speeds
6.5.2.2.1. The test shall be conducted from the highest to the lowest reference speed point.
6.5.2.2.2. Immediately after the measurement at the previous speed point, the deceleration from the
current to the next applicable reference speed point shall be performed in a smooth
transition of approximately 1m/s .
6.5.2.2.3. The reference speed shall be stabilised for at least 4s and for a maximum of 10s. The
measurement equipment shall ensure that the signal of the measured force is stabilised
after that period.
6.5.2.2.4. The force at each reference speed shall be measured for at least 6s while the vehicle
speed is kept constant. The resulting force for that reference speed point F shall be the
arithmetic average of the force during the measurement.
The steps in Paragraphs 6.5.2.2.2. to 6.5.2.2.4. inclusive of this Annex inclusive shall be
repeated for each reference speed.
6.5.2.3. Measurement procedure by Deceleration
6.5.2.3.1. Preconditioning and dynamometer setting shall be performed according to
Paragraph 6.5.2.1. of this Annex. Prior to each coastdown, the vehicle shall be driven at
the highest reference speed or, in the case that the alternative warm -up procedure is
used at 110% of the highest reference speed, for at least 1min. The vehicle shall be
subsequently accelerated to at least 10km/h above the highest reference speed and the
coastdown shall be started immediately.
6.5.2.3.2. The measurement shall be performed according to Paragraphs 4.3.1.3.1. to 4.3.1.4.4.
inclusive of this Annex. Coasting down in opposite directions is not required and the
equation used to calculate ∆t in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex shall not apply. The
measurement shall be stopped after two decelerations if the force of both coastdowns at
each reference speed point is within ±10, otherwise at least three coastdowns shall be
performed using the criteria set out in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this annex

6.6.1.2.2. Vertical force
The restraint system shall fulfil the requirements of Paragraph 6.5.1.2.3. of this Annex.
6.6.1.3. Accuracy of Measured Forces
The accuracy of measured forces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.5.1.3. of this
Annex apart from the force in the x-direction that shall be measured with an accuracy as
described in Paragraph 2.4.1. of Annex 5.
6.6.1.4. Dynamometer Speed Control
6.6.1.5. Roller Surface
6.6.1.6. Cooling
The roller speeds shall be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.2km/h.
The roller surface shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that might cause tyre
slippage.
The cooling fan shall be as described in Paragraph 6.5.1.6. of this Annex.
6.6.2. Dynamometer Measurement
The measurement shall be performed as described in Paragraph 6.5.2. of this Annex.
6.6.3. Correction of the Chassis Dynamometer Roller Radius
The measured forces on the chassis dynamometer shall be corrected to a reference
equivalent to the road (flat surface) and the result shall be referred to as f .
f
=
f
× c1×
R
R
1
+ f
× c2 + 1
× (1
− c1)
where:
c1 is the tyre rolling resistance fraction of f ;
c2
is a chassis dynamometer specific radius correction factor;
f is the force calculated in Paragraph 6.5.2.3.3. of this annex for each reference
speed j, N;
R is one-half of the nominal design tyre diameter, m;
R is the radius of the chassis dynamometer roller, m.
The manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree on the factors c1 and c2 to be
used, based on correlation test evidence provided by the manufacturer for the range of
tyre characteristics intended to be tested on the chassis dynamometer.

6.7.3. Calculation of Road Load Values
The total road load as a sum of the results of Paragraphs 6.7.1 and 6.7.2. of this Annex
shall be calculated using the following equation:
F
= F
+ F
for all applicable reference speed points j, N;
For all calculated F , the coefficients f , f and f in the road load equation shall be
calculated with a least squares regression analysis and shall be used as the target
coefficients in Paragraph 8.1.1. of this Annex.
In the case that the vehicle tested according to the wind tunnel method is representative of
a road load matrix family vehicle, the coefficient f shall be set to zero and the coefficients
f and f shall be recalculated with a least squares regression analysis.
6.8. Road Load Delta Method
For the purpose of including options in the interpolation method which are not incorporated
in the road load interpolation (i.e. aerodynamics, rolling resistance and mass), a delta in
vehicle friction may be measured by the road load delta method (e.g. friction difference
between brake systems). The following steps shall be performed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The friction of reference Vehicle R shall be measured;
The friction of the vehicle with the option (Vehicle N) causing the difference in
friction shall be measured;
The difference shall be calculated according to Paragraph 6.8.1. of this annex.
These measurements shall be performed on a flat belt according to Paragraph 6.5. of this
annex or on a chassis dynamometer according to Paragraph 6.6. of the Annex, and the
correction of the results (excluding aerodynamic force) calculated according to
Paragraph 6.7.1. of this annex.
The application of this method is allowed only if the following criterion is fulfilled:
1
Σ
n
( F − F ) ≤ 25 N
where:
F is the corrected resistance of Vehicle R measured on the flat belt or chassis
dynamometer at reference speed j calculated according to Paragraph 6.7.1. of this
Annex, N;
F is the corrected resistance of Vehicle N measured on the flat belt or chassis
dynamometer at reference speed j calculated according to Paragraph 6.7.1. of this
Annex. N;
n
is the total number of speed points.

7. TRANSFERRING ROAD LOAD TO A CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
7.1. Preparation for Chassis Dynamometer Test
7.1.1. Laboratory Conditions
7.1.1.1. Roller(s)
The chassis dynamometer roller(s) shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that
might cause tyre slippage. The dynamometer shall be run in the same coupled or
uncoupled state as the subsequent Type 1 test. Chassis dynamometer speed shall be
measured from the roller coupled to the power-absorption unit.
7.1.1.1.1. Tyre Slippage
Additional weight may be placed on or in the vehicle to eliminate tyre slippage. The
manufacturer shall perform the load setting on the chassis dynamometer with the
additional weight. The additional weight shall be present for both load setting and the
emissions and fuel consumption tests. The use of any additional weight shall be recorded.
7.1.1.2. Room Temperature
The laboratory atmospheric temperature shall be at a set point of 23°C and shall not
deviate by more than ±5°C during the test unless otherwise required by any subsequent
test.
7.2. Preparation of Chassis Dynamometer
7.2.1. Inertia Mass Setting
The equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer shall be set according to
Paragraph 2.5.3. of this Annex. If the chassis dynamometer is not capable to meet the
inertia setting exactly, the next higher inertia setting shall be applied with a maximum
increase of 10kg.
7.2.2. Chassis Dynamometer Warm-up
The chassis dynamometer shall be warmed up in accordance with the dynamometer
manufacturer's recommendations, or as appropriate, so that the frictional losses of the
dynamometer may be stabilized.
7.3. Vehicle Preparation
7.3.1. Tyre Pressure Adjustment
The tyre pressure at the soak temperature of a Type 1 test shall be set to no more than
50% above the lower limit of the tyre pressure range for the selected tyre, as specified by
the vehicle manufacturer (see Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex), and shall be recorded.

7.3.4.2. If the vehicle is already warmed up, the WLTC phase applied in Paragraph 7.3.4.1. of this
Annex, with the highest speed, shall be driven.
7.3.4.3. Alternative Warm-up Procedure
7.3.4.3.1. At the request of the vehicle manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority,
an alternative warm-up procedure may be used. The approved alternative warm-up
procedure may be used for vehicles within the same road load family and shall satisfy the
requirements outlined in Paragraphs 7.3.4.3.2. to 7.3.4.3.5. inclusive of this Annex.
7.3.4.3.2. At least one vehicle representing the road load family shall be selected.
7.3.4.3.3. The cycle energy demand calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7 with corrected
road load coefficients f , f and f , for the alternative warm-up procedure shall be equal
to or higher than the cycle energy demand calculated with the target road load coefficients
f , f , and f , for each applicable phase.
The corrected road load coefficients f , f and f , shall be calculated according to the
following equations:
where:
f =f +A −A
f =f +B −B
f =f +C −C
A
, B
and C
are the chassis dynamometer setting coefficients after the
alternative warm-up procedure;
A
, B
and C
are the chassis dynamometer setting coefficients after a
WLTC warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 7.3.4.1.
of this Annex and a valid chassis dynamometer load setting
according to Paragraph 8. of this Annex.
7.3.4.3.4. The corrected road load coefficients f , f and f , shall be used only for the purpose of
Paragraph 7.3.4.3.3. of this Annex. For other purposes, the target road load coefficients f ,
f and f , shall be used as the target road load coefficients.
7.3.4.3.5. Details of the procedure and of its equivalency shall be provided to the responsible
authority.
8. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER LOAD SETTING
8.1. Chassis Dynamometer Setting using the Coastdown Method
This method is applicable when the road load coefficients f , f and f have been
determined.
In the case of a road load matrix family, this method shall be applied when the road load of
the representative vehicle is determined using the coastdown method described in
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex. The target road load values are the values calculated using
the method described in Paragraph 5.1. of this Annex.

8.1.3.2. The measured road load shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
F
=
1
3.6
×
( TM + m )
2 × Δv
×
Δt
F is the measured road load for each reference speed v , N;
TM
M
is the test mass of the vehicle, kg;
is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to
Paragraph 2.5.1. of this Annex, kg;
∆t is the coastdown time corresponding to speed v , s.
8.1.3.3. The simulated road load on the chassis dynamometer shall be calculated according to the
method as specified in Paragraph 4.3.1.4. of this Annex, with the exception of measuring
in opposite directions:
F = A + B × v + C × v²
The simulated road load for each reference speed vj shall be determined using the
following equation, using the calculated A , B and C :
F = A + B × v + C × v
8.1.3.4. For dynamometer load setting, two different methods may be used. If the vehicle is
accelerated by the dynamometer, the methods described in Paragraph 8.1.3.4.1. of this
Annex shall be used. If the vehicle is accelerated under its own power, the methods in
Paragraphs 8.1.3.4.1. or 8.1.3.4.2. of this Annex shall be used and the minimum
acceleration multiplied by speed shall be 6m /s . Vehicles which are unable to achieve
6m /s shall be driven with the acceleration control fully applied.
8.1.3.4.1. Fixed Run Method
8.1.3.4.1.1. The dynamometer software shall perform a total of four coastdowns. From the first
coastdown, the dynamometer setting coefficients for the second run shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 8.1.4. of this Annex shall be calculated. Following the first
coastdown, the software shall perform three additional coastdowns with either the fixed
dynamometer setting coefficients determined after the first coastdown or adjusted
dynamometer setting coefficients according to Paragraph 8.1.4. of this Annex.

where:
F is the initial chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F is the adjusted chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F is the adjustment road load equal to (F −F ), N;
F is the simulated road load at reference speed v , N;
F is the target road load at reference speed v , N;
A , B and C are the new chassis dynamometer setting coefficients.
8.1.5. A, B and C shall be used as the final values of f , f and f , and shall be used for the
following purposes:
(a) Determination of downscaling, Paragraph 8. of Annex 1;
(b) Determination of gearshift points, Annex 2;
(c) Interpolation of CO and fuel consumption, Paragraph 3.2.3. of Annex 7;
(d) Calculation of results of electrified vehicles, Paragraph 4. of Annex 8.
8.2. Chassis Dynamometer Load Setting Using the Torque Meter Method
This method is applicable when the running resistance is determined using the torque
meter method, described in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex.
In the case of a road load matrix family, this method shall be applied when the running
resistance of the representative vehicle is determined using the torque meter method as
specified in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex. The target road load values are the values
calculated using the method specified in Paragraph 5.1. of this Annex.
8.2.1. Initial Load Setting
For a chassis dynamometer of coefficient control, the chassis dynamometer power
absorption unit shall be adjusted with the arbitrary initial coefficients, A , B and C , of the
following equation:
where:
F = A + B v + C v
F is the chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
v
is the speed of the chassis dynamometer roller, km/h.
The following coefficients are recommended for the initial load setting:

8.2.3.3. Adjustment
The chassis dynamometer load setting shall be adjusted using the following equation:
therefore:
A
B
C
= A
= B
= C
a
+
b
+
c
+
− a
r'
− b
r'
− c
r'
where:
F is the new chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F
F
F
is the adjustment road load, which is equal to (F – F ), Nm;
is the simulated road load at reference speed v , Nm;
is the target road load at reference speed v , Nm;
A , B and C and are the new chassis dynamometer setting coefficients;
r'
is the dynamic radius of the tyre on the chassis dynamometer obtained
at 80km/h, m.
Paragraphs 8.2.2. and 8.2.3. of this Annex shall be repeated until the tolerance in
Paragraph 8.2.3.2. of this annex is met.
8.2.3.4. The mass of the driven axle(s), tyre specifications and chassis dynamometer load setting
shall be recorded when the requirement of Paragraph 8.2.3.2. of this Annex is fulfilled.
8.2.4. Transformation of Running Resistance Coefficients to Road Load Coefficients f , f , f
8.2.4.1 If the vehicle does not coast down in a repeatable manner and a coastdown mode
according to Paragraph 4.2.1.8.5. of this Annex is not feasible, the coefficients f , f and f
in the road load equation shall be calculated using the equations in Paragraph 8.2.4.1.1. of
this Annex. In any other case, the procedure described in Paragraphs 8.2.4.2. to 8.2.4.4.
inclusive of this Annex shall be performed.

ANNEX 5
TEST EQUIPMENT AND CALIBRATIONS
1. TEST BENCH SPECIFICATIONS AND SETTINGS
1.1. Cooling Fan Specifications
1.1.1. A variable speed current of air shall be blown towards the vehicle. The set point of the
linear velocity of the air at the blower outlet shall be equal to the corresponding roller
speed above roller speeds of 5km/h. The deviation of the linear velocity of the air at the
blower outlet shall remain within ±5km/h or ±10% of the corresponding roller speed,
whichever is greater.
1.1.2. The above-mentioned air velocity shall be determined as an averaged value of a number
of measuring points that:
(a)
For fans with rectangular outlets, are located at the centre of each rectangle dividing
the whole of the fan outlet into nine areas (dividing both horizontal and vertical sides
of the fan outlet into three equal parts). The centre area shall not be measured (as
shown in Figure A5/1);
Figure A5/1
Fan with Rectangular Outlet

1.1.6. In the cases described in Paragraph 1.1.5. of this Annex, the position and capacity of the
cooling fan(s) and details of the justification supplied to the responsible authority shall be
recorded. For any subsequent testing, similar positions and specifications shall be used in
consideration of the justification to avoid non-representative cooling characteristics.
2. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
2.1. General Requirements
2.1.1. The dynamometer shall be capable of simulating road load with three road load
coefficients that can be adjusted to shape the load curve.
2.1.2. The chassis dynamometer may have a single or twin-roller configuration. In the case that
twin-roller chassis dynamometers are used, the rollers shall be permanently coupled or the
front roller shall drive, directly or indirectly, any inertial masses and the power absorption
device.
2.2. Specific Requirements
The following specific requirements relate to the dynamometer manufacturer's
specifications.
2.2.1. The roller run-out shall be less than 0.25mm at all measured locations.
2.2.2. The roller diameter shall be within ±1.0mm of the specified nominal value at all
measurement locations.
2.2.3. The dynamometer shall have a time measurement system for use in determining
acceleration rates and for measuring vehicle/dynamometer coastdown times. This time
measurement system shall have an accuracy of at least ±0.001%. This shall be verified
upon initial installation.
2.2.4. The dynamometer shall have a speed measurement system with an accuracy of at least
±0.080km/h. This shall be verified upon initial installation.
2.2.5. The dynamometer shall have a response time (90% response to a tractive effort step
change) of less than 100ms with instantaneous accelerations that are at least 3m/s . This
shall be verified upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
2.2.6. The base inertia of the dynamometer shall be stated by the dynamometer manufacturer
and shall be confirmed to within ±0.5% for each measured base inertia and ±0.2% relative
to any arithmetic average value by dynamic derivation from trials at constant acceleration,
deceleration and force.
2.2.7. Roller speed shall be measured at a frequency of not less than 10Hz.

3. EXHAUST GAS DILUTION SYSTEM
3.1. System Specification
3.1.1. Overview
3.1.1.1. A full-flow exhaust dilution system shall be used. The total vehicle exhaust shall be
continuously diluted with ambient air under controlled conditions using a constant volume
sampler. A critical flow venturi (CFV) or multiple critical flow venturis arranged in parallel, a
positive displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter
(UFM) may be used. The total volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air shall be
measured and a continuously proportional sample of the volume shall be collected for
analysis. The quantities of exhaust gas compounds shall be determined from the sample
concentrations, corrected for their respective content of the dilution air and the totalised
flow over the test period.
3.1.1.2. The exhaust dilution system shall consist of a connecting tube, a mixing device and
dilution tunnel, dilution air conditioning, a suction device and a flow measurement device.
Sampling probes shall be fitted in the dilution tunnel as specified in Paragraphs 4.1., 4.2.
and 4.3. of this Annex.
3.1.1.3. The mixing device referred to in Paragraph 3.1.1.2. of this Annex shall be a vessel such as
that illustrated in Figure A5/3 in which vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air are
combined so as to produce a homogeneous mixture at the sampling position.
3.2. General Requirements
3.2.1. The vehicle exhaust gases shall be diluted with a sufficient amount of ambient air to
prevent any water condensation in the sampling and measuring system at all conditions
that may occur during a test.
3.2.2. The mixture of air and exhaust gases shall be homogeneous at the point where the
sampling probes are located (Paragraph 3.3.3. of this Annex). The sampling probes shall
extract representative samples of the diluted exhaust gas.
3.2.3. The system shall enable the total volume of the diluted exhaust gases to be measured.
3.2.4. The sampling system shall be gas-tight. The design of the variable-dilution sampling
system and the materials used in its construction shall be such that the concentration of
any compound in the diluted exhaust gases is not affected. If any component in the
system (heat exchanger, cyclone separator, suction device, etc.) changes the
concentration of any of the exhaust gas compounds and the systematic error cannot be
corrected, sampling for that compound shall be carried out upstream from that component.
3.2.5. All parts of the dilution system in contact with raw or diluted exhaust gas shall be designed
to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulate or particles. All parts shall be made of
electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall
be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.
3.2.6. If the vehicle being tested is equipped with an exhaust pipe comprising several branches,
the connecting tubes shall be connected as near as possible to the vehicle without
adversely affecting their operation.

3.3.3. Dilution Tunnel
3.3.3.1. Provision shall be made for the vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air to be mixed. A
mixing device may be used.
3.3.3.2. The homogeneity of the mixture in any cross-section at the location of the sampling probe
shall not vary by more than ±2% from the arithmetic average of the values obtained for at
least five points located at equal intervals on the diameter of the gas stream.
3.3.3.3. For PM and PN (if applicable) emissions sampling, a dilution tunnel shall be used that:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Consists of a straight tube of electrically-conductive material, that is grounded;
Causes turbulent flow (Reynolds number ≥4,000) and be of sufficient length to
cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;
Is at least 200mm in diameter;
May be insulated and/or heated.
3.3.4. Suction Device
3.3.4.1. This device may have a range of fixed speeds to ensure sufficient flow to prevent any
water condensation. This result is obtained if the flow is either:
(a)
(b)
Twice as high as the maximum flow of exhaust gas produced by accelerations of
the driving cycle; or
Sufficient to ensure that the CO concentration in the dilute exhaust sample bag is
less than 3% by volume for petrol and diesel, less than 2.2% by volume for LPG and
less than 1.5% by volume for NG/biomethane.
3.3.4.2. Compliance with the requirements in Paragraph 3.3.4.1. of this Annex may not be
necessary if the CVS system is designed to inhibit condensation by such techniques, or
combination of techniques, as:
(a)
(b)
Reducing water content in the dilution air (dilution air dehumidification);
Heating of the CVS dilution air and of all components up to the diluted exhaust flow
measurement device, and optionally, the bag sampling system including the sample
bags and also the system for the measurement of the bag concentrations.
In such cases, the selection of the CVS flow rate for the test shall be justified by showing
that condensation of water cannot occur at any point within the CVS, bag sampling or
analytical system.

Exact conformity with these figures is not essential. Additional components such as
instruments, valves, solenoids and switches may be used to provide additional information
and co-ordinate the functions of the component system.
3.3.6.1. Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
Figure A5/3
Exhaust Dilution System
A positive displacement pump (PDP) full flow exhaust dilution system satisfies the
requirements of this Annex by metering the flow of gas through the pump at constant
temperature and pressure. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions
made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional sample is achieved
by sampling with pump, flow meter and flow control valve at a constant flow rate.
3.3.6.2. Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
3.3.6.2.1. The use of a CFV for the full-flow exhaust dilution system is based on the principles of flow
mechanics for critical flow. The variable mixture flow rate of dilution and exhaust gas is
maintained at sonic velocity that is directly proportional to the square root of the gas
temperature. Flow is continually monitored, computed and integrated throughout the test.
3.3.6.2.2. The use of an additional critical flow sampling venturi ensures the proportionality of the
gas samples taken from the dilution tunnel. As both pressure and temperature are equal at
the two venturi inlets, the volume of the gas flow diverted for sampling is proportional to
the total volume of diluted exhaust-gas mixture produced, and thus the requirements of
this Annex are fulfilled.
3.3.6.2.3. A measuring CFV tube shall measure the flow volume of the diluted exhaust gas.

3.3.6.4.2. Components of the system include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A suction device fitted with speed control, flow valve or other method for setting the
CVS flow rate and also for maintaining constant volumetric flow at standard
conditions;
A UFM;
Temperature and pressure measurement devices, T and P, required for flow
correction;
An optional heat exchanger for controlling the temperature of the diluted exhaust to
the UFM. If installed, the heat exchanger shall be capable of controlling the
temperature of the diluted exhaust to that specified in Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of this
Annex. Throughout the test, the temperature of the air/exhaust gas mixture
measured at a point immediately upstream of the suction device shall be within
±6°C of the arithmetic average operating temperature during the test.
Figure A5/5
Schematic of an Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM)
3.3.6.4.3. The following conditions shall apply to the design and use of the UFM type CVS:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The velocity of the diluted exhaust gas shall provide a Reynolds number higher than
4,000 in order to maintain a consistent turbulent flow before the ultrasonic flow
meter;
An ultrasonic flow meter shall be installed in a pipe of constant diameter with a
length of 10 times the internal diameter upstream and 5 times the diameter
downstream;
A temperature sensor (T) for the diluted exhaust shall be installed immediately
before the ultrasonic flow meter. This sensor shall have an accuracy and a precision
of ±1°C and a response time of 0.1s at 62% of a given temperature variation (value
measured in silicone oil);
The absolute pressure (P) of the diluted exhaust shall be measured immediately
before the ultrasonic flow meter to within ±0.3kPa;
If a heat exchanger is not installed upstream of the ultrasonic flow meter, the flow
rate of the diluted exhaust, corrected to standard conditions shall be maintained at a
constant level during the test. This may be achieved by control of the suction
device, flow valve or other method.

3.4.2.4. Figure A5/6 of this Annex shows an example of a calibration set-up. Variations are
permissible, provided that the responsible authority approves them as being of
comparable accuracy. If the set-up shown in Figure A5/6 is used, the following data shall
be found within the limits of accuracy given:
Barometric pressure (corrected), P
Ambient temperature, T
Air temperature at LFE, ETI
Pressure depression upstream of LFE, EPI
Pressure drop across the LFE matrix, EDP
Air temperature at CVS pump inlet, PTI
Air temperature at CVS pump outlet, PTO
Pressure depression at CVS pump inlet, PPI
Pressure head at CVS pump outlet, PPO
±0.03kPa;
±0.2K;
±0.15K;
±0.01kPa;
±0.0015kPa;
±0.2K;
±0.2K;
±0.22kPa;
±0.22kPa;
Pump revolutions during test period, n ±1min ;
Elapsed time for period (minimum 250s), t
±0.1s.
Figure A5/6
PDP Calibration Configuration

3.4.2.6.
3.4.2.7.
3.4.3.
3.4.3.1.
A CVS
system having multiplee speeds shall be calibrated at each speed used. The
calibration curves generated for the ranges shall bee approximately parallel and the
intercept values D shall increase as the pump flow range decreases.
The calculated values from the equation shall be within 0.5% of the measured value of V .
Values of M will vary from one pump to another. A calibration shall be performed at initial
installation and after major maintenance.
Calibration of a Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
Calibration of a CFV
is based upon the flow equation forr a critical venturi:
where:
Q
K
P
T
is
the flow, m /min;
is
the calibration coefficient;
is
the absolute pressure, kPa;
is
the absolute temperature, Kelvin (K).
Gas flow
is a function of inlet pressure and temperature.
The calibration procedure described in Paragraph 3.4.3.2. to 3.4.3.3.4. inclusive of this
Annex establishes the t value of the calibration coefficient at measured values off pressure,
temperature and airr flow.
3.4.3.2.
Measurements for flow f calibration of a critical flow venturi are required and the
following
data shall be within the limits of precision given:
Barometric pressuree (corrected), P
LFE air
temperature, flow meter, ETI
Pressure depression upstream of LFE, EPI
Pressure drop across LFE matrix, EDP
Air flow, Q
CFV inlet depression, PPI
Temperature at venturi inlet, T
±0.03kPa;
±0.15K;
±0.01kPa;
±0.0015kPa;
±0.5%;
±0.02kPa;
±0.2K.

3.4.3.3.3.2. K shall be plotted as a function of venturi inlet pressure P . For sonic flow, K will have a
relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes
unchoked and K decreases. These values of K shall not be used for further calculations.
3.4.3.3.3.3. For a minimum of eight points in the critical region, an arithmetic average K and the
standard deviation shall be calculated.
3.4.3.3.3.4. If the standard deviation exceeds 0.3% of the arithmetic average K , corrective action shall
be taken.
3.4.4. Calibration of a Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
3.4.4.1. Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is
a function of inlet pressure and temperature, and the pressure drop between the SSV inlet
and throat.
3.4.4.2. Data Analysis
3.4.4.2.1. The airflow rate, Q , at each restriction setting (minimum 16 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flow meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.
The discharge coefficient C shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting
using the flowing equation:
C
=
d
× p
×

⎧ 1
⎨ ×
T ⎪⎩
Q
( r − r )

× ⎜


1 − r
1
× r
⎞⎪




⎠⎪⎭
where:
Q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
T
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, Kelvin (K);
d is the diameter of the SSV throat, m;
r
Δ
is the ratio of the SSV throat pressure to inlet absolute static pressure, 1 − ;
p
r is the ratio of the SSV throat diameter d to the inlet pipe inner diameter D;
C
p
is the discharge coefficient of the SSV;
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa.

3.4.5.6. Measurements for flow calibration of the ultrasonic flow meter are required and the
following data (in the case that a laminar flow element is used) shall be found within the
limits of precision given:
Barometric pressure (corrected), P
LFE air temperature, flow meter, ETI
Pressure depression upstream of LFE, EPI
Pressure drop across (EDP) LFE matrix
±0.03kPa;
±0.15K;
±0.01kPa;
±0.0015kPa;
3.4.5.7. Procedure
Air flow, Q ±0.5%;
UFM inlet depression, P ±0.02kPa;
Temperature at UFM inlet, T ±0.2K.
3.4.5.7.1. The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure A5/8 and checked for leaks. Any leaks
between the flow-measuring device and the UFM will seriously affect the accuracy of the
calibration.
Figure A5/8
UFM Calibration Configuration
3.4.5.7.2. The suction device shall be started. Its speed and/or the position of the flow valve shall be
adjusted to provide the set flow for the validation and the system stabilised. Data from all
instruments shall be collected.
3.4.5.7.3. For UFM systems without a heat exchanger, the heater shall be operated to increase the
temperature of the calibration air, allowed to stabilise and data from all the instruments
recorded. The temperature shall be increased in reasonable steps until the maximum
expected diluted exhaust temperature expected during the emissions test is reached.
3.4.5.7.4. The heater shall be subsequently turned off and the suction device speed and/or flow
valve shall be adjusted to the next flow setting that will be used for vehicle emissions
testing after which the calibration sequence shall be repeated.

3.5.1.1.2. Gravimetric Method
The gravimetric method weighs a quantity of pure gas (CO, CO , or C H ).
The weight of a small cylinder filled with either pure carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or
propane shall be determined with a precision of ±0.01g. The CVS system shall operate
under normal exhaust emissions test conditions while the pure gas is injected into the
system for a time sufficient for subsequent analysis. The quantity of pure gas involved
shall be determined by means of differential weighing. The gas accumulated in the bag
shall be analysed by means of the equipment normally used for exhaust gas analysis as
described in Paragraph 4.1. of this Annex. The results shall be subsequently compared to
the concentration figures computed previously. If deviations exceed 2%, the cause of the
malfunction shall be determined and corrected.
4. EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
4.1. Gaseous Emissions Measurement Equipment
4.1.1. System Overview
4.1.1.1. A continuously proportional sample of the diluted exhaust gases and the dilution air shall
be collected for analysis.
4.1.1.2. The mass of gaseous emissions shall be determined from the proportional sample
concentrations and the total volume measured during the test. Sample concentrations
shall be corrected to take into account the respective compound concentrations in dilution
air.
4.1.2. Sampling System Requirements
4.1.2.1. The sample of diluted exhaust gases shall be taken upstream from the suction device.
With the exception of Paragraph 4.1.3.1. (hydrocarbon sampling system), Paragraph 4.2.
(PM measurement equipment) and Paragraph 4.3. (PM measurement equipment) of this
Annex, the dilute exhaust gas sample may be taken downstream of the conditioning
devices (if any).
4.1.2.2. The bag sampling flow rate shall be set to provide sufficient volumes of dilution air and
diluted exhaust in the CVS bags to allow concentration measurement and shall not exceed
0.3% of the flow rate of the dilute exhaust gases, unless the diluted exhaust bag fill volume
is added to the integrated CVS volume.
4.1.2.3. A sample of the dilution air shall be taken near the dilution air inlet (after the filter if one is
fitted).
4.1.2.4. The dilution air sample shall not be contaminated by exhaust gases from the mixing area.
4.1.2.5. The sampling rate for the dilution air shall be comparable to that used for the dilute
exhaust gases.
4.1.2.6. The materials used for the sampling operations shall be such as not to change the
concentration of the emissions compounds.
4.1.2.7. Filters may be used in order to extract the solid particles from the sample.

4.1.4. Analysers
4.1.4.1. General Requirements for Gas Analysis
4.1.4.1.1. The analysers shall have a measuring range compatible with the accuracy required to
measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas sample compounds.
4.1.4.1.2. If not defined otherwise, measurement errors shall not exceed ±2% (intrinsic error of
analyser) disregarding the reference value for the calibration gases.
4.1.4.1.3. The ambient air sample shall be measured on the same analyser with the same range.
4.1.4.1.4. No gas drying device shall be used before the analysers unless it is shown to have no
effect on the content of the compound in the gas stream.
4.1.4.2. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO ) analysis
The analysers shall be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type.
4.1.4.3. Hydrocarbons (HC) analysis for all fuels other than diesel fuel
The analyser shall be of the flame ionization (FID) type calibrated with propane gas
expressed in equivalent carbon atoms (C ).
4.1.4.4. Hydrocarbons (HC) analysis for diesel fuel and optionally for other fuels
The analyser shall be of the heated flame ionization type with detector, valves, pipework,
etc., heated to 190°C ± 10°C. It shall be calibrated with propane gas expressed equivalent
to carbon atoms (C ).
4.1.4.5. Methane (CH ) Analysis
The analyser shall be either a gas chromatograph combined with a flame ionization
detector (FID), or a flame ionization detector (FID) combined with a non-methane cutter
(NMC-FID), calibrated with methane or propane gas expressed equivalent to carbon
atoms (C ).
4.1.4.6. Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Analysis
The analysers shall be of chemiluminescent (CLA) or non-dispersive ultra-violet resonance
absorption (NDUV) types.
4.1.4.7. Nitrogen Oxide (NO) Analysis (if Applicable)
The analysers shall be of chemiluminescent (CLA) or non-dispersive ultra-violet resonance
absorption (NDUV) types.

4.1.5. Recommended System Descriptions
4.1.5.1. Figure A5/9 is a schematic drawing of the gaseous emissions sampling system.
Figure A5/9
Full Flow Exhaust Dilution System Schematic
4.1.5.2. Examples of system components are as listed below.
4.1.5.2.1. Two sampling probes for continuous sampling of the dilution air and of the diluted exhaust
gas/air mixture.
4.1.5.2.2. A filter to extract solid particles from the flows of gas collected for analysis.
4.1.5.2.3. Pumps and flow controller to ensure constant uniform flow of diluted exhaust gas and
dilution air samples taken during the course of the test from sampling probes and flow of
the gas samples shall be such that, at the end of each test, the quantity of the samples is
sufficient for analysis.
4.1.5.2.4. Quick-acting valves to divert a constant flow of gas samples into the sample bags or to the
outside vent.
4.1.5.2.5. Gas-tight, quick-lock coupling elements between the quick-acting valves and the sample
bags. The coupling shall close automatically on the sampling-bag side. As an alternative,
other methods of transporting the samples to the analyser may be used
(three-way stopcocks, for instance).
4.1.5.2.6. Bags for collecting samples of the diluted exhaust gas and of the dilution air during the
test.
4.1.5.2.7. A sampling critical flow venturi to take proportional samples of the diluted exhaust gas
(CFV-CVS only).

4.2. PM Measurement Equipment
4.2.1. Specification
4.2.1.1. System Overview
4.2.1.1.1. The particulate sampling unit shall consist of a sampling probe PSP, located in the dilution
tunnel, a particle transfer tube PTT, a filter holder(s) FH, pump(s), flow rate regulators and
measuring units. See Figures A5/11, A5/12 and A5/13.
4.2.1.1.2. A particle size pre-classifier PCF, (e.g. cyclone or impactor) may be used. In such case, it
is recommended that it be employed upstream of the filter holder.
4.2.1.2. General Requirements
Figure A5/11
Alternative Particulate Sampling Probe Configuration
4.2.1.2.1. The sampling probe for the test gas flow for particulate shall be arranged within the dilution
tunnel so that a representative sample gas flow can be taken from the homogeneous
air/exhaust mixture and shall be upstream of a heat exchanger (if any).
4.2.1.2.2. The particulate sample flow rate shall be proportional to the total mass flow of diluted
exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel to within a tolerance of ±5% of the particulate sample
flow rate. The verification of the proportionality of the particulate sampling shall be made
during the commissioning of the system and as required by the responsible authority.
4.2.1.2.3. The sampled dilute exhaust gas shall be maintained at a temperature above 20°C and
below 52°C within 20cm upstream or downstream of the particulate sampling filter face.
Heating or insulation of components of the particulate sampling system to achieve this is
permitted.
In the event that the 52°C limit is exceeded during a test where periodic regeneration
event does not occur, the CVS flow rate shall be increased or double dilution shall be
applied (assuming that the CVS flow rate is already sufficient so as not to cause
condensation within the CVS, sample bags or analytical system).

4.2.1.2.11. Each flow meter used in a particulate sampling and double dilution system shall be
subjected to a linearity verification as required by the instrument manufacturer.
Figure A5/12
Particulate Sampling System
Figure A5/13
Double Dilution Particulate Sampling System

4.2.1.3.3.1.4. If the double diluted sample is returned to the CVS, the location of the sample return shall
be selected so that it does not interfere with the extraction of other samples from the CVS.
4.2.1.3.4. Sample Pump and Flow Meter
4.2.1.3.4.1. The sample gas flow measurement unit shall consist of pumps, gas flow regulators and
flow measuring units.
4.2.1.3.4.2. The temperature of the gas flow in the flow meter may not fluctuate by more than ±3°C
except:
(a)
(b)
When the sampling flow meter has real time monitoring and flow control operating at
a frequency of 1Hz or faster;
During regeneration tests on vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating
after-treatment devices.
Should the volume of flow change unacceptably as a result of excessive filter loading, the
test shall be invalidated. When it is repeated, the flow rate shall be decreased.
4.2.1.3.5. Filter and Filter Holder
4.2.1.3.5.1. A valve shall be located downstream of the filter in the direction of flow. The valve shall
open and close within 1s of the start and end of test.
4.2.1.3.5.2. For a given test, the gas filter face velocity shall be set to an initial value within the range
20cm/s to 105cm/s and shall be set at the start of the test so that 105cm/s will not be
exceeded when the dilution system is being operated with sampling flow proportional to
CVS flow rate.
4.2.1.3.5.3. Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon membrane filters shall be used.
All filter types shall have a 0.3μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) or PAO (poly-alpha-olefin)
CS 68649-12-7 or CS 68037-01-4 collection efficiency of at least 99% at a gas filter face
velocity of 5.33cm/s measured according to one of the following standards:
(a) U.S.A. Department of Defense Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-282 method 102.8:
DOP-Smoke Penetration of Aerosol-Filter Element;
(b) U.S.A. Department of Defense Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-282
method 502.1.1: DOP-Smoke Penetration of Gas-Mask Canisters;
(c)
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, IEST-RPCC021: Testing
HEPA and ULPA Filter Media.
4.2.1.3.5.4. The filter holder assembly shall be of a design that provides an even flow distribution
across the filter stain area. The filter shall be round and have a stain area of at least
1075mm .

If the density of the filter material is not known, the following densities shall be used:
(a) PTFE coated glass fibre filter: 2,300kg/m ;
(b) PTFE membrane filter: 2,144kg/m ;
(c) PTFE membrane filter with polymethylpentene support ring: 920kg/m .
For stainless steel calibration weights, a density of 8,000kg/m shall be used. If the
material of the calibration weight is different, its density shall be known and be used.
International Recommendation OIML R 111-1 Edition 2004(E) (or equivalent) from
International Organization of Legal Metrology on calibration weights should be followed.
The following equation shall be used:
m
= m
⎛ ρ
⎜ 1 −
⎜ ρ
×
⎜ ρ
⎜ 1 −
⎝ ρ






where:
Pe
is the corrected particulate sample mass, mg;
Pe is the uncorrected particulate sample mass, mg;
ρ is the density of the air, kg/m ;
ρ is the density of balance calibration weight, kg/m ;
ρ is the density of the particulate sampling filter, kg/m .
The density of the air ρ shall be calculated using the following equation:
ρ
ρ × M
=
R × T
ρ
T
is the total atmospheric pressure, kPa;
is the air temperature in the balance environment, Kelvin (K).
M is the molar mass of air in a balanced environment, 28.836g/mol ;
R is the molar gas constant, 8.3144J/mol K .

4.3.1.2.1.3. Any other sampling configuration for the PTS for which equivalent particle penetration at
30nm can be demonstrated shall be considered acceptable.
4.3.1.2.1.4. The outlet tube OT, conducting the diluted sample from the VPR to the inlet of the PNC,
shall have the following properties:
(a)
(b)
An internal diameter ≥4mm;
A sample gas flow residence time of ≤0.8s.
4.3.1.2.1.5. Any other sampling configuration for the OT for which equivalent particle penetration at
30nm can be demonstrated shall be considered acceptable.
4.3.1.2.2. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution and for volatile particle removal.
4.3.1.2.3. All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the
PNC, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, shall be designed to minimize
deposition of the particles. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive materials that
do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be electrically grounded to prevent
electrostatic effects.
4.3.1.2.4. The particle sampling system shall incorporate good aerosol sampling practice that
includes the avoidance of sharp bends and abrupt changes in cross-section, the use of
smooth internal surfaces and the minimization of the length of the sampling line. Gradual
changes in the cross-section are permitted.
4.3.1.3. Specific Requirements
4.3.1.3.1. The particle sample shall not pass through a pump before passing through the PNC.
4.3.1.3.2. A sample pre-classifier is recommended.
4.3.1.3.3. The sample pre-conditioning unit shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Be capable of diluting the sample in one or more stages to achieve a particle
number concentration below the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of
the PNC and a gas temperature below 35°C at the inlet to the PNC;
Include an initial heated dilution stage that outputs a sample at a temperature of
≥150°C and ≤350°C ± 10°C, and dilutes by a factor of at least 10;
Control heated stages to constant nominal operating temperatures, within the range
≥150°C and ≤400°C ± 10°C;
Provide an indication of whether or not heated stages are at their correct operating
temperatures;
Be designed to achieve a solid particle penetration efficiency of at least 70% for
particles of 100nm electrical mobility diameter;
Achieve a particle concentration reduction factor f (d ) for particles of 30nm and
50nm electrical mobility diameters, that is no more than 30% and 20% respectively
higher, and no more than 5% lower than that for particles of 100nm electrical
mobility diameter for the VPR as a whole;

(f) Have a t response time over the measured concentration range of less than 5s;
(g)
(h)
Incorporate a coincidence correction function up to a maximum 10% correction, and
may make use of an internal calibration factor as determined in Paragraph 5.7.1.3.of
this Annex but shall not make use of any other algorithm to correct for or define the
counting efficiency;
Have counting efficiencies at the different particle sizes as specified in Table A5/2.
Table A5/2
PNC Counting Efficiency
Particle size electrical mobility diameter (nm) PNC counting efficiency (%)
23 ± 1 50 ± 12
41 ± 1 >90
4.3.1.3.5. If the PNC makes use of a working liquid, it shall be replaced at the frequency specified by
the instrument manufacturer.
4.3.1.3.6. Where not held at a known constant level at the point at which PNC flow rate is controlled,
the pressure and/or temperature at the PNC inlet shall be measured for the purposes of
correcting particle number concentration measurements to standard conditions.
4.3.1.3.7. The sum of the residence time of the PTS, VPR and OT plus the t response time of the
PNC shall be no greater than 20s.
4.3.1.4. Recommended System Description
The following Paragraph contains the recommended practice for measurement of PN.
However, systems meeting the performance specifications in Paragraphs 4.3.1.2. and
4.3.1.3. of this Annex are acceptable.

5.
CALIBRATION INTERVALS AND PROCEDURES
5.1.
Calibration Intervals
Table A5/3
Instrument Calibration Intervals
Instrument checks
Interval
Criterion
Gas analyser linearization
(calibration)
Every six months
±2% of reading
Mid span Every six months ±2%
CO NDIR:
CO /H O interference
Monthly
-1 to 3ppm
NO converter check Monthly > 95%
CH cutter check Yearly 98% of ethane
FID CH response Yearly See Paragraph 5.4.3.
FID air/fuel flow
At major maintenance
According to instrument
manufacturer
NO/NO NDUV:
H O, HC interference
Laser infrared
spectrometers (modulated
high resolution narrow
band infrared analysers):
interference check
At major maintenance
Yearly or at major maintenance
According to instrument
manufacturer
According to instrument
manufacturer
QCL
Yearly or at major maintenance
According to instrument
manufacturer
GC methods See Paragraph 7.2. of this Annex See Paragraph 7.2. of this Annex
LC methods
Yearly or at major maintenance
According to instrument
manufacturer
Photo-acoustics
Yearly or at major maintenance
According to instrument
manufacturer
FTIR: linearity verification
Microgram balance
linearity
PNC (particle number
counter)
VPR (volatile particle
remover)
Within 370 days before testing
and after major maintenance
Yearly or at major maintenance
See Paragraph 5.7.1.1. of this
Annex
See Paragraph 5.7.2.1. of this
Annex
See Paragraph 7.1. of this Annex
See Paragraph 4.2.2.2. of this Annex
See Paragraph 5.7.1.3.of this Annex
See Paragraph 5.7.2. of this Annex

5.2.2.5. From the trace of the linearization curve and the linearization points it is possible to verify
that the calibration has been carried out correctly. The different characteristic parameters
of the analyser shall be indicated, particularly:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Analyser and gas component;
Range;
Date of the linearization.
5.2.2.6. If the responsible authority is satisfied that alternative technologies (e.g. computer,
electronically controlled range switch, etc.) give equivalent accuracy, these alternatives
may be used.
5.3. Analyser Zero and Calibration Verification Procedure
5.3.1. Each normally used operating range shall be checked prior to each analysis in accordance
with Paragraphs 5.3.1.1 and 5.3.1.2. of this Annex.
5.3.1.1. The calibration shall be checked by use of a zero gas and by use of a calibration gas
according to Paragraph 2.14.2.3. of Annex 6.
5.3.1.2. After testing, zero gas and the same calibration gas shall be used for rechecking
according to Paragraph 2.14.2.4. of Annex 6.
5.4. FID Hydrocarbon Response Check Procedure
5.4.1. Detector Response Optimization
The FID shall be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. Propane in air
shall be used on the most common operating range.
5.4.2. Calibration of the HC Analyser
5.4.2.1. The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air.
5.4.2.2. A calibration curve as described in Paragraph 5.2.2.of this Annex shall be established.
5.4.3. Response Factors of Different Hydrocarbons and Recommended Limits
5.4.3.1. The response factor R for a particular hydrocarbon compound is the ratio of the FID C
reading to the gas cylinder concentration, expressed as ppm C .
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of approximately
80% of full-scale deflection, for the operating range. The concentration shall be known to
an accuracy of ±2% in reference to a gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In
addition, the gas cylinder shall be pre-conditioned for 24h at a temperature between
20 and 30°C.

5.5.1.5. The ozonator shall now be deactivated. The mixture of gases described in
Paragraph 5.5.1.2. of this Annex shall pass through the converter into the detector. The
indicated concentration (b) shall be recorded.
Figure A5/15
NO Converter Efficiency Test Configuration
5.5.1.6. With the ozonator deactivated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air shall be shut off. The
NO reading of the analyser shall then be no more than 5% above the figure given in
Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex.
5.5.1.7. The percent efficiency of the NO converter shall be calculated using the concentrations a,
b, c and d determined in Paragraphs 5.5.1.2. to 5.5.1.5. inclusive of this Annex inclusive
using the following equation:
⎛ a − b ⎞
Efficiency =
⎜1
+ × 100
c d

⎝ − ⎠
The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 95%. The efficiency of the converter
shall be tested in the frequency defined in Table A5/3.
5.6. Calibration of the Microgram Balance
The calibration of the microgram balance used for particulate sampling filter weighing shall
be traceable to a national or international standard. The balance shall comply with the
linearity requirements given in Paragraph 4.2.2.2.of this Annex. The linearity verification
shall be performed at least every 12 months or whenever a system repair or change is
made that could influence the calibration.

5.7.1.3. Calibration shall be traceable to a national or international standard calibration method by
comparing the response of the PNC under calibration with that of:
(a)
(b)
A calibrated aerosol electrometer when simultaneously sampling electrostatically
classified calibration particles; or
A second PNC that has been directly calibrated by the method described above.
5.7.1.3.1. In Paragraph 5.7.1.3.(a) of this Annex, calibration shall be undertaken using at least six
standard concentrations spaced as uniformly as possible across the PNC's measurement
range.
5.7.1.3.2. In Paragraph 5.7.1.3.(b) of this Annex, calibration shall be undertaken using at least six
standard concentrations across the PNC's measurement range. At least three points shall
be at concentrations below 1,000 per cm , the remaining concentrations shall be linearly
spaced between 1,000 per cm and the maximum of the PNC's range in single particle
count mode.
5.7.1.3.3. In Paragraphs 5.7.1.3.(a) and 5.7.1.3.(b) of this Annex, the selected points shall include a
nominal zero concentration point produced by attaching HEPA filters of at least Class H13
of EN 1822:2008, or equivalent performance, to the inlet of each instrument. With no
calibration factor applied to the PNC under calibration, measured concentrations shall be
within ±10% of the standard concentration for each concentration, with the exception of
the zero point, otherwise the PNC under calibration shall be rejected. The gradient from a
linear least squares regression of the two data sets shall be calculated and recorded. A
calibration factor equal to the reciprocal of the gradient shall be applied to the PNC under
calibration. Linearity of response is calculated as the square of the Pearson product
moment correlation coefficient (r) of the two data sets and shall be equal to or greater than
0.97. In calculating both the gradient and r , the linear regression shall be forced through
the origin (zero concentration on both instruments).
5.7.1.4. Calibration shall also include a check, according to the requirements of
Paragraph 4.3.1.3.4.(h) of this Annex, on the PNC's detection efficiency with particles of
23nm electrical mobility diameter. A check of the counting efficiency with 41nm particles is
not required.
5.7.2. Calibration/Validation of the VPR
5.7.2.1. Calibration of the VPR's particle concentration reduction factors across its full range of
dilution settings, at the instrument's fixed nominal operating temperatures, shall be
required when the unit is new and following any major maintenance. The periodic
validation requirement for the VPR's particle concentration reduction factor is limited to a
check at a single setting, typical of that used for measurement on particulate
filter-equipped vehicles. The responsible authority shall ensure the existence of a
calibration or validation certificate for the VPR within a six-month period prior to the
emissions test. If the VPR incorporates temperature monitoring alarms, a 13-month
validation interval is permitted.
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit.

Where a polydisperse 50nm aerosol is used for validation, the arithmetic average particle
concentration reduction factor f at the dilution setting used for validation shall be
calculated as follows:
where:
N
f =
N
N
is the upstream particle number concentration;
N is the downstream particle number concentration.
5.7.2.3. The VPR shall demonstrate greater than 99.0% removal of tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH )
particles of at least 30nm electrical mobility diameter with an inlet concentration
≥10,000 per cm when operated at its minimum dilution setting and manufacturers
recommended operating temperature.
5.7.3. PN Measurement System Check Procedures
On a monthly basis, the flow into the PNC shall have a measured value within 5% of the
PNC nominal flow rate when checked with a calibrated flow meter.
5.8. Accuracy of the Mixing Device
In the case that a gas divider is used to perform the calibrations as defined in
Paragraph 5.2. of this Annex, the accuracy of the mixing device shall be such that the
concentrations of the diluted calibration gases may be determined to within ±2%. A
calibration curve shall be verified by a mid-span check as described in Paragraph 5.3. of
this Annex. A calibration gas with a concentration below 50% of the analyser range shall
be within 2% of its certified concentration.
6. REFERENCE GASES
6.1. Pure Gases
6.1.1. All Values in ppm Mean V-ppm (vpm)
6.1.2. The following pure gases shall be available, if necessary, for calibration and operation:
6.1.2.1. Nitrogen:
6.1.2.2. Synthetic Air:
Purity: ≤1ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO, <0.1ppm NO , <0.1ppm N O,
<0.1ppm NH ;
Purity: ≤1ppm C1, ≤1ppm CO, ≤400ppm CO , ≤0.1ppm NO; oxygen content between 18
and 21% volume;

7. ADDITIONAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS
7.1. Sampling and Analysis Methods for NH (if Applicable)
Two measurement principles are specified for NH measurement; either may be used
provided the criteria specified in Paragraphs 7.1.1. or 7.1.2. of this Annex are fulfilled.
Gas dryers are not permitted for NH measurement. For non-linear analysers, the use of
linearizing circuits is permitted.
7.1.1. Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) or Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL)
7.1.1.1. Measurement Principle
7.1.1.2. Installation
The LDS/QCL employs the single line spectroscopy principle. The NH absorption line is
chosen in the near infrared (LDS) or mid-infrared spectral range (QCL).
The analyser shall be installed either directly in the exhaust pipe (in-situ) or within an
analyser cabinet using extractive sampling in accordance with the instrument
manufacturer's instructions.
Where applicable, sheath air used in conjunction with an in-situ measurement for
protection of the instrument shall not affect the concentration of any exhaust component
measured downstream of the device, or, if the sheath air affects the concentration, the
sampling of other exhaust components shall be made upstream of the device.
7.1.1.3. Cross Interference
The spectral resolution of the laser shall be within 0.5 per cm in order to minimize cross
interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.
7.1.2. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Analyser
7.1.2.1. Measurement Principle
An FTIR employs the broad waveband infrared spectroscopy principle. It allows
simultaneous measurement of exhaust components whose standardised spectra are
available in the instrument. The absorption spectrum (intensity/wavelength) is calculated
from the measured interferogram (intensity/time) by means of the Fourier transform
method.
7.1.2.2. The internal analyser sample stream up to the measurement cell and the cell itself shall be
heated.
7.1.2.3. Extractive Sampling
The sample path upstream of the analyser (sampling line, prefilter(s), pumps and valves)
shall be made of stainless steel or PTFE, and shall be heated to set points between 110°C
and 190°C in order to minimise NH losses and sampling artefacts. In addition, the
sampling line shall be as short as possible. At the request of the manufacturer,
temperatures between 110°C and 133°C may be chosen.

7.2.1.2.1. Sample Transfer
Secondary sample storage media may be used to transfer samples from the test cell to the
GC lab. Good engineering judgement shall be used to avoid additional dilution when
transferring the sample from sample bags to secondary sample bags.
7.2.1.2.2. Secondary Sample Storage Media.
Gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers that minimize off-gassing and
permeation. Good engineering judgment shall be used to determine acceptable processes
and thresholds regarding storage media cleanliness and permeation.
7.2.1.2.3. Sample Storage
Secondary sample storage bags shall be analysed within 24h and shall be stored at room
temperature.
7.2.1.3. Instrumentation and Apparatus
7.2.1.3.1. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) shall be used to
measure N O concentrations of diluted exhaust for batch sampling.
7.2.1.3.2. The sample may be injected directly into the GC or an appropriate pre-concentrator may
be used. In the case of pre-concentration, this shall be used for all necessary verifications
and quality checks.
7.2.1.3.3. A porous layer open tubular or a packed column phase of suitable polarity and length shall
be used to achieve adequate resolution of the N O peak for analysis.
7.2.1.3.4. Column temperature profile and carrier gas selection shall be taken into consideration
when setting up the method to achieve adequate N O peak resolution. Whenever possible,
the operator shall aim for baseline separated peaks.
7.2.1.3.5. Good engineering judgement shall be used to zero the instrument and to correct for drift.
Example: A calibration gas measurement may be performed before and after sample
analysis without zeroing and using the arithmetic average area counts of the precalibration
and post-calibration measurements to generate a response factor (area
counts/calibration gas concentration), which shall be subsequently multiplied by the area
counts from the sample to generate the sample concentration.
7.2.1.4. Reagents and Material
All reagents, carrier and make up gases shall be of 99.995% purity. Make up gas shall be
N or Ar/CH
7.2.1.5. Peak Integration Procedure
7.2.1.5.1. Peak integrations shall be corrected as necessary in the data system. Any misplaced
baseline segments shall be corrected in the reconstructed chromatogram.
7.2.1.5.2. Peak identifications provided by a computer shall be checked and corrected if necessary.
7.2.1.5.3. Peak areas shall be used for all evaluations. Alternatively, peak heights may be used with
approval of the responsible authority.

7.3. Sampling and Analysis Methods for Ethanol (C H OH) (if Applicable)
7.3.1. Impinger and Gas Chromatograph Analysis of the Liquid Sample
7.3.1.1. Sampling
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken for analysis from the diluted exhaust
and dilution air bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background
sample may be analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
7.3.1.2. Gas Chromatographic Method
A sample shall be introduced into a gas chromatograph, GC. The alcohols in the sample
shall be separated in a GC capillary column and ethanol shall be detected and quantified
by a flame ionization detector, FID.
7.3.1.2.1. Sample transfer
Secondary sample storage media may be used to transfer samples from the test cell to the
GC lab. Good engineering judgement shall be used to avoid additional dilution when
transferring the sample from the sample bags to secondary sample bags.
7.3.1.2.1.1. Secondary sample storage media.
Gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers that minimize off-gassing and
permeation. Good engineering judgment shall be used to determine acceptable processes
and thresholds regarding storage media cleanliness and permeation.
7.3.1.2.1.2. Sample storage
Secondary sample storage bags shall be analysed within 24h and shall be stored at room
temperature.
7.3.1.2.2. Sampling with impingers
7.3.1.2.2.1. For each test phase, two impingers shall be filled with 15ml of deionized water and
connected in series, and an additional pair of impingers shall be used for background
sampling.
7.3.1.2.2.2. Impingers shall be conditioned to ice bath temperature before the sampling collection and
shall be kept at that temperature during sample collection.
7.3.1.2.2.3. After sampling, the solution contained in each impinger shall be transferred to a vial and
sealed for storage and/or transport before analysis in the laboratory.

7.3.1.7.2. The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.3.1.7.3. A quality control standard shall be analysed within 24h before the analysis of the samples.
7.3.1.8. Limit of Detection and, Limit of Quantification
The limits of detection and quantification shall be determined according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.8. of this Annex.
7.3.1.9. Interference Verification
Interference and reducing interference error is described in Paragraph 7.2.1.9. of this
Annex
7.3.2. Alternative Methods for the Sampling and Analysis of Ethanol (C H OH)
7.3.2.1. Sampling
7.3.2.2. FTIR Method
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken for analysis from the diluted exhaust
and dilution air bag. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
Frequency of calibration and calibration methods will be adapted to each instrument for
the best practice and always respecting the quality control standards.
The FTIR analyser shall comply with the specifications in Paragraph 7.1.2.1. of this Annex.
The FTIR system shall be designed for the measurement of diluted exhaust gas directly
from the CVS system on a continuous basis and also from the CVS dilution air source, or
from the dilution air sample bags.
7.3.2.2.1. Measurement cross interference
The spectral resolution of the target wavelength shall be within 0.5 per cm in order to
minimize cross interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.
The FTIR shall be specifically optimised for the measurement of ethanol in terms of
linearization against a traceable standard and also for correction and/or compensation of
co-existing interfering gases.

7.3.2.6. Calibration Gas
Gas:
Ethanol
Tolerance: ±3%
Stability:
12 months
7.4. Sampling and Analysis Methods for Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde (if Applicable)
7.4.1. Aldehydes shall be sampled with DNPH-impregnated cartridges. Elution of the cartridges
shall be done with acetonitrile. Analysis shall be carried out by high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), with an ultraviolet (UV) detector at 360nm or diode array
detector (DAD). Carbonyl masses ranging between 0.02 to 200μg are measured using this
method.
7.4.1.1. Sampling
7.4.1.2. Cartridges
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken from the diluted exhaust and dilution
air bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
DNPH-impregnated cartridges shall be sealed and refrigerated at a temperature less than
4°C upon receipt from manufacturer until ready for use.
7.4.1.2.1. System Capacity
The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling system shall be of sufficient capacity so as
to enable the collection of samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact
on the volume of the diluted exhaust passing through the CVS.
7.4.1.2.2. Sample Storage
Samples not analysed within 24h of being taken shall be refrigerated at a temperature
below 4°C. Refrigerated samples shall not be analysed after more than 30 days of
storage.
7.4.1.2.3. Sample Preparation
The cartridges shall be eluted by removing their caps, extracting with acetonitrile and
running the extract into glass storage bottles. The solution shall be transferred from each
cartridge to glass vials and sealed with new septum screw caps.
7.4.1.2.4. Good engineering practice shall be used to avoid sample breakthrough.

7.4.1.5. Procedure
7.4.1.5.1. Vials containing the field blank, calibration standard, control standard, and samples for
subsequent injection into the HPLC shall be prepared.
7.4.1.5.2. Columns, temperatures and solvent/eluents shall be chosen to achieve adequate peak
resolution. Columns of suitable polarity and length shall be used. The method shall specify
column, temperature, detector, sample volume, solvents and flow.
7.4.1.5.3. Good analytical judgment shall be used to evaluate the quality of the performance of the
instrument and all elements of the protocol.
7.4.1.6. Linearity
A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.6.
7.4.1.7. Quality Control
7.4.1.7.1. Field blank
One cartridge shall be analysed as a field blank for each emission test. If the field blank
shows a peak greater than the limit of detection (LOD) in the region of interest, the source
of the contamination shall be investigated and remedied.
7.4.1.7.2. Calibration run
The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.4.1.7.3. Control standard
A quality control standard shall be analysed at least once every 7 days.
7.4.1.8. Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification
The LoD for the target analytes shall be determined:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For new instruments;
After making instrument modifications that could affect the LoD; and
At least once per year.
7.4.1.8.1. A multipoint calibration consisting of at least four "low" concentration levels, each above
the LoD, with at least five replicate determinations of the lowest concentration standard,
shall be performed.
7.4.1.8.2. The maxim allowable LoD of the hydrazine derivative is 0.0075μg/ml.
7.4.1.8.3. The calculated laboratory LoD shall be equal to or lower than the maximum allowable LoD.

7.4.2.3. Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) Method
PTR-MS is a technique based on soft chemical ionization via proton transfer for the
detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Reagent ions shall be chosen specifically for the measurement of acetaldehyde and
formaldehyde, e.g. hydronium (H3O+) and to minimize the measurement cross
interference of co-existing gases. The system should be linearised against a traceable
standards.
7.4.2.3.1. Calibration method
The analyser response should be calibrated periodically, at least once per month, using a
gas consisting of the target analyte of known concentration balanced by a mixture of the
coexisting gases at concentrations typically expected from the diluted exhaust sample
(e.g. N , O , H O).

1.2.3.5. After the second test, the arithmetic average results of the two tests shall be calculated.
If all criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A6/2 are fulfilled by these arithmetic average
results, all values declared by the manufacturer shall be accepted as the type approval
value. If any one of the criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled, a third
test shall be performed with the same vehicle.
1.2.3.6. After the third test, the arithmetic average results of the three tests shall be calculated.
For all parameters which fulfil the corresponding criterion in row 3 of the applicable
Table A6/2, the declared value shall be taken as the type approval value. For any
parameter which does not fulfil the corresponding criterion in row 3 of the applicable
Table A6/2, the arithmetic average result shall be taken as the type approval value.
1.2.3.7. In the case that any one of the criterion of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled after
the first or second test, at the request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the
responsible authority, the values may be re-declared as higher values for emissions or
consumption, or as lower values for electric ranges, in order to reduce the required
number of tests for type approval.
1.2.3.8. dCO2 , dCO2 and dCO2 determination.
1.2.3.8.1. Additional to the requirement of Paragraph 1.1.2.3.8.2., the Contracting Party shall
determine a value for dCO2 ranging from 0.990 to 1.020, a value for dCO2 ranging
from 0.995 to 1.020, and a value for dCO2 ranging from 1.000 to 1.020 in the
Table A6/2.
1.2.3.8.2. If the charge depleting Type 1 test for OVC-HEVs consists of two or more applicable
WLTP test cycles and the dCO2x value is below 1.0, the dCO2x value shall be replaced
by 1.0.
1.2.3.9. In the case that a test result or an average of test results was taken and confirmed as the
type approval value, this result shall be referred to as the ʺdeclared valueʺ for further
calculations.

Figure A6/1
Flowchart for the Number of Type 1 Tests

1.2.4. Determination of Phase-specific Values
1.2.4.1. Phase-specific value for CO
1.2.4.1.1. After the total cycle declared value of the CO mass emission is accepted, the arithmetic
average of the phase-specific values of the test results in g/km shall be multiplied by the
adjustment factor CO2_AF to compensate for the difference between the declared value
and the test results. This corrected value shall be the type approval value for CO .
where:
Declared value
CO2_AF =
Phase combined value
( CO2 × D ) + ( CO2 × D ) + ( CO2 × D ) + ( CO2 × D )
Phase combined value =
where:
D
+ D
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the L phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the M phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the H phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2 is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the exH phase test
result(s), g/km;
+ D
+ D
D
D
D
is theoretical distance of phase L, km;
is theoretical distance of phase M, km;
is theoretical distance of phase H, km;
D is theoretical distance of phase exH, km.
1.2.4.1.2. If the total cycle declared value of the CO mass emission is not accepted, the type
approval phase-specific CO mass emission value shall be calculated by taking the
arithmetic average of the all test results for the respective phase.
1.2.4.2. Phase-specific values for fuel consumption
The fuel consumption value shall be calculated by the phase-specific CO mass
emission using the equations in Paragraph 1.1.2.4.1. of this Annex and the arithmetic
average of the emissions.

2.1.3.2. Background Particle Number Determination (if Applicable)
2.1.3.2.1. Where the Contracting Party permits subtraction of either dilution air or dilution tunnel
background particle number from emissions measurements and a manufacturer requests
a background correction, these background levels shall be determined as follows:
2.1.3.2.1.1. The background value may be either calculated or measured. The maximum permissible
background correction shall be related to the maximum allowable leak rate of the particle
number measurement system (0.5 particles per cm ) scaled from the particle
concentration reduction factor, PCRF, and the CVS flow rate used in the actual test;
2.1.3.2.1.2. Either the Contracting Party or the manufacturer may request that actual background
measurements are used instead of calculated ones.
2.1.3.2.1.3. Where subtraction of the background contribution gives a negative result, the PN result
shall be considered to be zero.
2.1.3.2.2. The dilution air background particle number level shall be determined by sampling
filtered dilution air. This shall be drawn from a point immediately downstream of the
dilution air filters into the PN measurement system. Background levels in particles per
cm shall be determined as a rolling arithmetic average of least 14 measurements with at
least one measurement per week.
2.1.3.2.3. The dilution tunnel background particle number level shall be determined by sampling
filtered dilution air. This shall be drawn from the same point as the PN sample. Where
secondary dilution is used for the test the secondary dilution system shall be active for
the purposes of background measurement. One measurement may be performed on the
day of test, either prior to or after the test using the actual PCRF and the CVS flow rate
utilised during the test.
2.2. General Test Cell Equipment
2.2.1. Parameters to be Measured
2.2.1.1. The following temperatures shall be measured with an accuracy of ±1.5°C:
(a)
Test cell ambient air
(b) Dilution and sampling system temperatures as required for emissions
measurement systems defined in Annex 5.
2.2.1.2. Atmospheric pressure shall be measurable with a resolution of ±0.1kPa.
2.2.1.3. Specific humidity H shall be measurable with a resolution of ±1g H O/kg dry air.
2.2.2. Test Cell and Soak Area
2.2.2.1. Test Cell
2.2.2.1.1. The test cell shall have a temperature set point of 23°C. The tolerance of the actual
value shall be within ±5°C. The air temperature and humidity shall be measured at the
test cell's cooling fan outlet at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz. For the temperature at the
start of the test, see Paragraph 2.8.1. of this Annex.

2.3.3. Run-in
2.4. Settings
The vehicle shall be presented in good technical condition. It shall have been run-in and
driven between 3,000 and 15,000km before the test. The engine, transmission and
vehicle shall be run-in in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
2.4.1. Dynamometer settings and verification shall be performed according to Annex 4.
2.4.2. Dynamometer Operation
2.4.2.1. Auxiliary devices shall be switched off or deactivated during dynamometer operation
unless their operation is required by regional legislation.
2.4.2.2. The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode, if any, shall be activated by using the
manufacturer's instruction (e.g. using vehicle steering wheel buttons in a special
sequence, using the manufacturer's workshop tester, removing a fuse).
The manufacturer shall provide the responsible authority a list of the deactivated devices
and justification for the deactivation. The dynamometer operation mode shall be
approved by the responsible authority and the use of a dynamometer operation mode
shall be recorded.
2.4.2.3. The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode shall not activate, modulate, delay or
deactivate the operation of any part that affects the emissions and fuel consumption
under the test conditions. Any device that affects the operation on a chassis
dynamometer shall be set to ensure a proper operation.
2.4.3. The vehicle's exhaust system shall not exhibit any leak likely to reduce the quantity of
gas collected.
2.4.4. The settings of the powertrain and vehicle controls shall be those prescribed by the
manufacturer for series production.
2.4.5. Tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer.
Tyre pressure may be increased by up to 50% above the pressure specified in
Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of Annex 4. The same tyre pressure shall be used for the setting of
the dynamometer and for all subsequent testing. The tyre pressure used shall be
recorded.
2.4.6. Reference Fuel
2.4.6.1. The appropriate reference fuel as defined in Annex 3 shall be used for testing.
2.4.7. Test Vehicle Preparation
2.4.7.1. The vehicle shall be approximately horizontal during the test so as to avoid any abnormal
distribution of the fuel.
2.4.7.2. If necessary, the manufacturer shall provide additional fittings and adapters, as required
to accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tank(s) as installed on the
vehicle, and to provide for exhaust sample collection.

2.6.2.2. Background Measurement
2.6.3. Procedure
In a test facility in which there may be possible contamination of a low particulate
emitting vehicle test with residue from a previous test on a high particulate emitting
vehicle, it is recommended, for the purpose of sampling equipment preconditioning, that
a 120km/h steady state drive cycle of 20min duration be driven by a low particulate
emitting vehicle. Longer and/or higher speed running is permissible for sampling
equipment pre-conditioning if required. Dilution tunnel background measurements, if
applicable, shall be taken after the tunnel pre-conditioning, and prior to any subsequent
vehicle testing.
2.6.3.1. The test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer
and operated through the applicable WLTCs. The vehicle need not be cold, and may be
used to set the dynamometer load.
2.6.3.2. The dynamometer load shall be set according to Paragraphs 7. and 8. of Annex 4.
2.6.4. Operating the Vehicle
2.6.4.1. The powertrain start procedure shall be initiated by means of the devices provided for
this purpose according to the manufacturer's instructions.
A non-vehicle initiated switching of mode of operation during the test shall not be
permitted unless otherwise specified.
2.6.4.1.1. If the initiation of the powertrain start procedure is not successful, e.g. the engine does
not start as anticipated or the vehicle displays a start error, the test is void,
pre-conditioning tests shall be repeated and a new test shall be driven.
2.6.4.1.2. In the cases where LPG or NG/biomethane is used as a fuel, it is permissible that the
engine is started on petrol and switched automatically to LPG or NG/biomethane after a
predetermined period of time that cannot be changed by the driver.
2.6.4.2. The cycle starts on the initiation of the powertrain start procedure.
2.6.4.3. For preconditioning, the applicable WLTC shall be driven.
At the request of the manufacturer or the responsible authority, additional WLTCs may
be performed in order to bring the vehicle and its control systems to a stabilized
condition.
The extent of such additional preconditioning shall be recorded by the responsible
authority.

2.6.5.2. Automatic Shift Transmissions
2.6.5.2.1. After initial engagement, the selector shall not be operated at any time during the test.
Initial engagement shall be done 1s before beginning the first acceleration.
2.6.5.2.2. Vehicles with an automatic transmission with a manual mode shall not be tested in
manual mode.
2.6.6. Driver-selectable Modes
2.6.6.1. Vehicles equipped with a predominant mode shall be tested in that mode. At the request
of the manufacturer, the vehicle may also be tested with the driver-selectable mode in
the worst-case position for CO emissions.
2.6.6.2. The manufacturer shall provide evidence to the responsible authority of the existence of
a mode that fulfils the requirements of Paragraph 3.5.9. of this UN GTR. With the
agreement of the responsible authority, the predominant mode may be used as the only
mode for the determination of criteria emissions, CO emissions, and fuel consumption.
2.6.6.3. If the vehicle has no predominant mode or the requested predominant mode is not
agreed by the responsible authority as a predominant mode, the vehicle shall be tested
in the best case mode and worst case mode for criteria emissions, CO emissions, and
fuel consumption. Best and worst case modes shall be identified by the evidence
provided on the CO emissions and fuel consumption in all modes. CO emissions and
fuel consumption shall be the arithmetic average of the test results in both modes. Test
results for both modes shall be recorded
At the request of the manufacturer, the vehicle may also be tested with the driverselectable
mode in the worst case position for CO emissions.
2.6.6.4. On the basis of technical evidence provided by the manufacturer and with the agreement
of the responsible authority, the dedicated driver-selectable modes for very special
limited purposes shall not be considered (e.g. maintenance mode, crawler mode). All
remaining modes used for forward driving shall be considered and the criteria limits shall
be fulfilled in all these modes.
2.6.6.5. Paragraphs 2.6.6.1. to 2.6.6.4. inclusive of this annex shall apply to all vehicle systems
with driver-selectable modes, including those not solely specific to the transmission.
2.6.7. Voiding of the Type 1 test and completion of the cycle
If the engine stops unexpectedly, the preconditioning or Type 1 test shall be declared
void.
After completion of the cycle, the engine shall be switched off. The vehicle shall not be
restarted until the beginning of the test for which the vehicle has been preconditioned.

Figure A6/2
Speed Trace Tolerances
2.7. Soaking
2.7.1. After pre-conditioning, and before testing, the test vehicle shall be kept in an area with
ambient conditions as specified in Paragraph 2.2.2.2. of this Annex
2.7.2. The vehicle shall be soaked for a minimum of 6h and a maximum of 36h with the engine
compartment cover opened or closed. If not excluded by specific provisions for a
particular vehicle, cooling may be accomplished by forced cooling down to the set point
temperature. If cooling is accelerated by fans, the fans shall be placed so that the
maximum cooling of the drive train, engine and exhaust after-treatment system is
achieved in a homogeneous manner.
2.8. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Test (Type 1 Test)
2.8.1. The test cell temperature at the start of the test shall be 23°C ± 3°C measured at
minimum frequency of 1Hz. The engine oil temperature and coolant temperature, if any,
shall be within ±2°C of the set point of 23°C.

2.9.1.3. The CVS heat exchanger (if installed) shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled to within its
operating test temperature tolerance as specified in Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of Annex 5.
2.9.1.4. Components such as sample lines, filters, chillers and pumps shall be heated or cooled
as required until stabilised operating temperatures are reached.
2.9.1.5. CVS flow rates shall be set according to Paragraph 3.3.4. of Annex 5, and sample flow
rates shall be set to the appropriate levels.
2.9.1.6. Any electronic integrating device shall be zeroed and may be re-zeroed before the start
of any cycle phase.
2.9.1.7. For all continuous gas analysers, the appropriate ranges shall be selected. These may
be switched during a test only if switching is performed by changing the calibration over
which the digital resolution of the instrument is applied. The gains of an analyser's
analogue operational amplifiers may not be switched during a test.
2.9.1.8. All continuous gas analysers shall be zeroed and calibrated using gases fulfilling the
requirements of Paragraph 6. of Annex 5.
2.10. Sampling for PM Determination
2.10.1. The steps described in Paragraph 2.10.1.1. to 2.10.1.2.3. inclusive of this Annex shall be
taken prior to each test.
2.10.1.1. Filter Selection
2.10.1.1.1. A single particulate sample filter without back-up shall be employed for the complete
applicable WLTC. In order to accommodate regional cycle variations, a single filter may
be employed for the first three phases and a separate filter for the fourth phase.
2.10.1.2. Filter Preparation
2.10.1.2.1. At least 1h before the test, the filter shall be placed in a petri dish protecting against dust
contamination and allowing air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber (or room)
for stabilization.
At the end of the stabilization period, the filter shall be weighed and its weight shall be
recorded. The filter shall subsequently be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter
holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the
weighing chamber (or room).
The filter shall be returned to the stabilization room within 1h after the test and shall be
conditioned for at least 1h before weighing.
2.10.1.2.2. The particulate sample filter shall be carefully installed into the filter holder. The filter
shall be handled only with forceps or tongs. Rough or abrasive filter handling will result in
erroneous weight determination. The filter holder assembly shall be placed in a sample
line through which there is no flow.

2.12.5.2. Particulate
The requirements of Paragraph 2.10.1.1.1.of this Annex shall apply.
2.12.6. Dynamometer distance shall be recorded for each phase.
2.13. Ending the Test
2.13.1. The engine shall be turned off immediately after the end of the last part of the test.
2.13.2. The constant volume sampler, CVS, or other suction device shall be turned off, or the
exhaust tube from the tailpipe or tailpipes of the vehicle shall be disconnected.
2.13.3. The vehicle may be removed from the dynamometer.
2.14. Post-test Procedures
2.14.1. Gas Analyser Check
2.14.2. Bag Analysis
Zero and calibration gas reading of the analysers used for continuous diluted
measurement shall be checked. The test shall be considered acceptable if the difference
between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2% of the calibration gas value.
2.14.2.1. Exhaust gases and dilution air contained in the bags shall be analysed as soon as
possible. Exhaust gases shall, in any event, be analysed not later than 30min after the
end of the cycle phase.
The gas reactivity time for compounds in the bag shall be taken into consideration.
2.14.2.2. As soon as practical prior to analysis, the analyser range to be used for each compound
shall be set to zero with the appropriate zero gas.
2.14.2.3. The calibration curves of the analysers shall be set by means of calibration gases of
nominal concentrations of 70 to 100% of the range.
2.14.2.4. The zero settings of the analysers shall be subsequently rechecked: if any reading differs
by more than 2% of the range from that set in Paragraph 2.14.2.2. of this Annex, the
procedure shall be repeated for that analyser.
2.14.2.5. The samples shall be subsequently analysed.
2.14.2.6. After the analysis, zero and calibration points shall be rechecked using the same gases.
The test shall be considered acceptable if the difference is less than 2% of the calibration
gas value.
2.14.2.7. The flow rates and pressures of the various gases through analysers shall be the same
as those used during calibration of the analysers.
2.14.2.8. The content of each of the compounds measured shall be recorded after stabilization of
the measuring device.

ANNEX 6 – APPENDIX 1
EMISSIONS TEST PROCEDURE FOR ALL VEHICLES
EQUIPPED WITH PERIODICALLY REGENERATING SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
1.1. This Appendix defines the specific provisions regarding testing a vehicle equipped with
periodically regenerating systems as defined in Paragraph 3.8.1. of this UN GTR.
Upon request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a
manufacturer may develop an alternative procedure to demonstrate its equivalency,
including filter temperature, loading quantity and distance driven. This may be done on
an engine bench or on a chassis dynamometer.
Alternatively to carrying out the test procedures defined in this Appendix, a fixed K value
of 1.05 may be used for CO and fuel consumption.
1.2. During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards need not apply. If a
periodic regeneration occurs at least once per Type 1 test and has already occurred at
least once during vehicle preparation, it does not require a special test procedure. In this
case, this Appendix does not apply.
1.3. The provisions of this appendix shall apply for the purposes of PM measurements only
and not PN measurements.
1.4. At the request of the manufacturer, and with approval of the responsible authority, the
test procedure specific to periodically regenerating systems will not apply to a
regenerative device if the manufacturer provides data demonstrating that, during cycles
where regeneration occurs, emissions remain below the emissions limits applied by the
Contracting Party for the relevant vehicle category.
1.5. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High2 phase may be excluded for
determining the regenerative factor K for Class 2 vehicles.
1.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High3 phase may be excluded for
determining the regenerative factor K for Class 3 vehicles.
2. TEST PROCEDURE
The test vehicle shall be capable of inhibiting or permitting the regeneration process
provided that this operation has no effect on original engine calibrations. Prevention of
regeneration is only permitted during loading of the regeneration system and during the
pre-conditioning cycles. It is not permitted during the measurement of emissions during
the regeneration phase. The emission test shall be carried out with the unchanged
original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) control unit. At the request of the manufacturer
and with agreement of the responsible authority, an "engineering control unit" which has
no effect on original engine calibrations may be used during K determination.

2.2.6. The emission values during regeneration M for each compound i shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 3. of this Appendix. The number of applicable test cycles d
measured for complete regeneration shall be recorded.
3. CALCULATIONS
3.1. Calculation of the exhaust and CO emissions, and fuel consumption of a single
regenerative system
M
n
M′
for n ≥ 1
= ∑ 1
M
d
M′
for d ≥
M
M
=
= ∑ d
× D + M
D +
× d
where for each compound considered:
M' are the mass emissions of compound i over test cycle j without regeneration,
g/km;
M'
M
M
M
n
d
D
are the mass emissions of compound i over test cycle j during regeneration, g/km
(if d >1, the first WLTC test shall be run cold and subsequent cycles hot);
are the mean mass emissions of compound i without regeneration, g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of compound i during regeneration, g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of compound i, g/km;
is the number of test cycles, between cycles where regenerative events occur,
during which emissions measurements on Type 1 WLTCs are made, ≥1;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles required for regeneration;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles between two cycles where
regeneration events occur.

3.2. Calculation of exhaust and CO emissions, and fuel consumption of multiple periodic
regenerating systems
The following shall be calculated for:
(a)
(b)
one Type 1 operation cycle for criteria emissions and
for each individual phase for CO emission and fuel consumption
M
n
M′
= ∑ 1
for n
≥ 1
M
d
M′
for d ≥
= ∑ ∑
M
=
∑ M × D
D
M
=
∑ M × d

d
M
M
=
×


D
+ M ×
( D + d )

d
M
=

( M × D + M × d )

( D + d )
K factor:
M
K =
M
K offset: K = M – M

Figure A6.App1/2
Parameters Measured During Emissions Test During and
Between Cycles where Regeneration Occurs (Schematic Example)
The calculation of K for multiple periodic regenerating systems is only possible after a
certain number of regeneration events for each system.
After performing the complete procedure (A to B, see Figure A6.App1/2), the original
starting condition A should be reached again.

2.2. Vehicle On-board Data
2.2.1. Alternatively, the REESS current shall be determined using vehicle-based data. In order
to use this measurement method, the following information shall be accessible from the
test vehicle:
(a)
(b)
Integrated charging balance value since last ignition run in Ah;
Integrated on-board data charging balance value calculated at a minimum sample
frequency of 5Hz;
(c) The charging balance value via an OBD connector as described in SAE J1962.
2.2.2. The accuracy of the vehicle on-board battery REESS charging and discharging data
shall be demonstrated by the manufacturer to the responsible authority.
The manufacturer may create a REESS monitoring vehicle family to prove that the
vehicle on-board REESS charging and discharging data are correct. The accuracy of the
data shall be demonstrated on a representative vehicle.
The following family criteria shall be valid:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Identical combustion processes (i.e. positive ignition, compression ignition,
two-stroke, four-stroke;
Identical charge and/or recuperation strategy (software REESS data module);
On-board data availability;
Identical charging balance measured by REESS data module;
Identical on-board charging balance simulation.
3. REESS ENERGY CHANGE-BASED CORRECTION PROCEDURE
3.1. Measurement of the REESS current shall start at the same time as the test starts and
shall end immediately after the vehicle has driven the complete driving cycle.
3.2. The electricity balance Q measured in the electric power supply system, shall be used as
a measure of the difference in the REESS energy content at the end of the cycle
compared to the beginning of the cycle. The electricity balance shall be determined for
the total driven WLTC.
3.3. Separate values of Q shall be logged over driven the cycle phases.

3.4.4. The correction may be omitted and uncorrected values may be used if:
(a) ∆E is positive (corresponding to REESS charging) and the correction
Criterion c calculated according to Paragraph 3.4.1. of this annex is greater than
the applicable tolerance according to Table A6.App2/2;
(b)
the manufacturer can prove to the responsible authority by measurement that
there is no relation between ∆E
and CO mass emission and ∆E
and
fuel consumption respectively.
Table A6.App2/1
Energy Content of Fuel
Fuel Petrol Diesel
Content
Ethanol/Biodiesel, %
E0 E5 E10 E15 E22 E85 E100 B0 B5 B7 B20 B100
Heat value (kWh/l) 8.92 8.78 8.64 8.50 8.30 6.41 5.95 9.85 9.80 9.79 9.67 8.90
Table A6.App2/2
RCB Correction Criteria
Cycle low + medium) low + medium + high
low + medium + high
+ extra high
Correction Criterion c 0.015 0.01 0.005
4. APPLYING THE CORRECTION FUNCTION
4.1. To apply the correction function, the electric energy change ∆E of a period j of all
REESSs shall be calculated from the measured current and the nominal voltage:
ΔE
= ∑ ΔE
where:
∆E is the electric energy change of REESS i during the considered period j, Wh;
and:
ΔE
=
1
3,600
× U
× ∫
() t
I
dt

0.0036 is the conversion factor from Wh to MJ;
η is the efficiency of the alternator according to Paragraph 4.4. of this
appendix;
Willans is the combustion process specific Willans factor as defined in Table
A6.App2/3, gCO /MJ;
4.5.1. The CO values of each phase and the total cycle shall be corrected as follows:
where
M = M - ∆M
M = M - ∆M
∆M is the result from Paragraph 4.5. of this Annex for a period j, g/km.
4.6. For the correction of CO emission, g/km, the Willans factors in Table A6.App2/3 shall be
used.
Table A6.App2/3
Willans Factors
Positive ignition
Compression
ignition
Petrol (E0)
Petrol (E5)
Petrol (E10)
CNG (G20)
LPG
E85
Diesel (B0)
Diesel (B5)
Diesel (B7)
Naturally
aspirated
Pressurecharged
l/MJ
0.0733
0.0778
gCO /MJ
175
186
l/MJ
0.0744
0.0789
gCO /MJ
174
185
l/MJ
0.0756
0.0803
gCO /MJ
174
184
M /MJ
0.0719
0.0764
gCO /MJ
129
137
l/MJ
0.0950
0.101
gCO /MJ
155
164
l/MJ
0.102
0.108
gCO /MJ
169
179
l/MJ
0.0611
0.0611
gCO /MJ
161
161
l/MJ
0.0611
0.0611
gCO /MJ
161
161
l/MJ
0.0611
0.0611
gCO /MJ
161
161

Table A7/1
Procedure for Calculating Final Test Results
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Annex 6
Raw test results
Mass emissions
Paragraphs 3. to 3.2.2. inclusive of this
annex.
Output step 1
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
Calculation of combined cycle values:
M
Σ
=
M
Σ
× d
d
M
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km.
1
2
M
where:
Σ
=
M
Σ
d
× d
M
are the emission results over
the total cycle;
d
are the driven distances of
the cycle phases, p.
Output step 1
and 2
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
RCB correction
Appendix 2 to Annex 6.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
3
Output step 2
and 3
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Emissions test procedure for all
vehicles equipped with periodically
regenerating systems, K .
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
4a
Annex 6, Appendix 1.
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
and
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
Additive offset or multiplicative factor to
be used according to K determination.
If K is not applicable:
M = M
M = M

Step 8
Source Input Process Output Step No.
For each of the test
vehicles H and L:
M
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
If a test vehicle L was tested in addition
to a test vehicle H, the resulting criteria
emission values of L and H shall be the
arithmetic average and are referred to
as M .
At request of a contracting party, the
averaging of the criteria emissions may
be omitted and the values of H and L
remain separated.
Otherwise, if no vehicle L was tested,
M = M
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
FC , l/100km;
FC , l/100km;
and if a vehicle L
was tested:
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
9
Interpolation
family result
Final criteria
emission
result
For CO and FC, the values derived in
step 8 shall be used, and CO values
shall be rounded to two decimal
places, and FC values shall be
rounded to three decimal places.
Step 9
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
FC
, l/100km;
FC
, l/100km;
and if a vehicle L
was tested:
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
Fuel consumption and CO
calculations for individual vehicles in an
interpolation family.
Paragraph 3.2.3. of this Annex.
CO emissions shall be expressed in
grams per kilometre (g/km) rounded to
the nearest whole number;
FC values shall be rounded to one
decimal place, expressed in (l/100km).
M
M
FC
FC
, g/km;
, g/km;
, l/100km;
, l/100km.
10
Result of an
individual
vehicle
Final CO and
FC result
2. DETERMINATION OF DILUTED EXHAUST GAS VOLUME
2.1. Volume calculation for a variable dilution device capable of operating at a constant or
variable flow rate.
The volumetric flow shall be measured continuously. The total volume shall be measured
for the duration of the test.
2.2. Volume calculation for a variable dilution device using a positive displacement pump
2.2.1. The volume shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
V = V × N
V
V
N
is the volume of the diluted gas, in litres per test (prior to correction);
is the volume of gas delivered by the positive displacement pump in testing
conditions, litres per pump revolution;
is the number of revolutions per test.

for NG/biomethane (CH )
ρ = 0.716g/l
for ethanol (E85) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.934g/l
Formaldehyde (if applicable)
ρ = 1.34
Acetaldehyde (if applicable)
ρ = 1.96
Ethanol (if applicable)
ρ = 2.05
Nitrogen oxides (NO )
Nitrogen dioxide (NO ) (if applicable)
Nitrous oxide (N O) (if applicable)
ρ = 2.05g/l
ρ = 2.05g/l
ρ = 1.964g/l
The density for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total hydrocarbons at
273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa, and is fuel-dependent. The density for propane mass
calculations (see Paragraph 3.5. of Annex 5) is 1.967 g/l at standard conditions.
If a fuel type is not listed in this Paragraph, the density of that fuel shall be calculated
using the equation given in Paragraph 3.1.3. of this annex.
3.1.3. The general equation for the calculation of total hydrocarbon density for each reference
fuel with an mean composition of C H O is as follows:
ρ
MW
=
H
+ × MW
C
V
O
+
C
× MW
where:
ρ is the density of total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbons, g/l;
MW is the molar mass of carbon (12.011g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of hydrogen (1.008g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of oxygen (15.999g/mol);
V
is the molar volume of an ideal gas at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa
(22.413l/mol);
H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio for a specific fuel C H O ;
O/C is the oxygen to carbon ratio for a specific fuel C H O .

3.2.1.1.1. The dilution factor DF shall be calculated using the equation for the concerned fuel:
13.4
DF = for petrol (E5, E10) and diesel (B0)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
DF =
C
+
13.
5
( C + C ) × 10
for petrol (E0)
13.5
DF = for diesel (B5 and B7)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
11.9
DF = for LPG
C +
( C + C ) × 10
9.5
DF = for NG/biomethane
C +
( C + C ) × 10
12.5
DF = for ethanol (E85)
C +
( C + C ) × 10
DF =
C

C
35.
03
+ C
× 10
for hydrogen
With respect to the equation for hydrogen:
C is the concentration of H O in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample
bag, % volume;
C is the concentration of H O in the dilution air, % volume;
C is the concentration of H in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample
bag, ppm.
If a fuel type is not listed in this Paragraph, the DF for that fuel shall be calculated using
the equations in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.2. of this Annex.
If the manufacturer uses a DF that covers several phases, it shall calculate a DF using
the mean concentration of gaseous compounds for the phases concerned.

3.2.1.1.3.2. For methane measurement using an NMC-FID, the calculation of NMHC depends on the
calibration gas/method used for the zero/calibration adjustment.
The FID used for the THC measurement (without NMC) shall be calibrated with
propane/air in the normal manner.
For the calibration of the FID in series with an NMC, the following methods are permitted:
(a)
(b)
The calibration gas consisting of propane/air bypasses the NMC;
The calibration gas consisting of methane/air passes through the NMC.
It is highly recommended to calibrate the methane FID with methane/air through the
NMC.
In case (a), the concentration of CH and NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equations:
If R <1.05, it may be omitted from the equation above for C .
In case (b), the concentration of CH and NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equations:
where:
C is the HC concentration with sample gas flowing through the NMC, ppm C;
C is the HC concentration with sample gas bypassing the NMC, ppm C;
R
E
E
is the methane response factor as determined per Paragraph 5.4.3.2 of
Annex 5;
is the methane efficiency as determined per Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.3.1. of
this Annex;
is the ethane efficiency as determined per Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.3.2. of this
Annex.
If R <1.05, it may be omitted in the equations for case (b) above for C and C .

3.2.1.1.3.4. If the methane FID is calibrated through the cutter, E shall be 0.
The equation to calculate C in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in the Annex becomes:
C = C
The equation to calculate CNMHC in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in the Annex
becomes:
C = C – C × r
The density used for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total
hydrocarbons at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa and is fuel-dependent.
3.2.1.1.4. Flow Weighted Arithmetic Average Concentration Calculation
The following calculation method shall only be applied for CVS systems that are not
equipped with a heat exchanger or for CVS systems with a heat exchanger that do not
comply with Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of Annex 5.
When the CVS flow rate q over the test varies by more than ±3% of the arithmetic
average flow rate, a flow weighted arithmetic average shall be used for all continuous
diluted measurements including PN:
where:
() i × Δt
C()
i
∑ q
×
C =
V
C
is the flow-weighted arithmetic average concentration;
q (i) is the CVS flow rate at time t = i × ∆t, m /min;
C(i)
is the concentration at time t = i × ∆t, ppm;
∆t sampling interval, s;
V total CVS volume, m .

3.2.1.3.1.3. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bag. A
correction shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.1.3.2. NO Concentrations (if Applicable)
3.2.1.3.2.1. Determination NO concentration from direct diluted measurement
3.2.1.3.2.2. NO concentrations shall be calculated from the integrated NO analyser reading,
corrected for varying flow if necessary.
3.2.1.3.2.3. The arithmetic average NO concentration shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
is the integral of the recording of the continuous dilute NO analyser over
the test (t -t );
C
is the concentration of NO measured in the diluted exhaust, ppm.
3.2.1.3.2.4. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bags.
Correction is carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.1.4. N O Concentration (if Applicable)
For measurements using a GC-ECD, the N O concentration shall be calculated using the
following equations:
where:
C = PeakArea × Rf
C
is the concentration of N O, ppm;
and:
Rf
c
=
PeakArea

3.2.1.8. Determining the Mass of Ethanol, Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde (if Applicable)
As an alternative to measuring the concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and
formaldehyde, the M for ethanol petrol blends with less than 25% ethanol by volume
may be calculated using the following equation:
where:
M = (0.0302 + 0.0071 × (percentage of ethanol)) × M
M is the mass emission of EAF per test, g/km;
MN is the mass emission of NMHC per test, g/km;
percentage of alcohol
is the volume percentage of ethanol in the test fuel.
3.2.2. Determination of the HC Mass Emissions from Compression-ignition Engines
3.2.2.1. To calculate HC mass emission for compression-ignition engines, the arithmetic average
HC concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
C
∫ C dt
=
t − t
where:

C dt is the integral of the recording of the heated FID over the test (t to t );
C
is the concentration of HC measured in the diluted exhaust in ppm of C and
is substituted for C in all relevant equations.
3.2.2.1.1. Dilution air concentration of HC shall be determined from the dilution air bags. Correction
shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.3. Fuel Consumption and CO Calculations for Individual Vehicles in an Interpolation Family
3.2.3.1. Fuel Consumption and CO Emissions without Using the Interpolation Method
The CO value, as calculated in Paragraphs 3.2.1. to 3.2.1.1.2. inclusive of this Annex
and fuel consumption, as calculated according to Paragraph 6. of this Annex, shall be
attributed to all individual vehicles in the interpolation family and the interpolation method
shall not be applicable.
3.2.3.2. Fuel Consumption and CO Emissions Using the Interpolation Method
The CO emissions and the fuel consumption for each individual vehicle in the
interpolation family may be calculated according to the interpolation method outlined in
Paragraphs 3.2.3.2. of this Annex.

If the same tyres were fitted to test vehicles L and H, the value of RR for the
interpolation method shall be set to RR .
In the case that the interpolation family is derived from one or more road load families,
the calculation of the individual road load shall be performed within the road load family
applicable to the individual vehicle.
3.2.3.2.2.3. Aerodynamic Drag of an Individual Vehicle
The aerodynamic drag shall be measured for each of the drag-influencing items of
optional equipment and body shapes in a wind tunnel fulfilling the requirements of
Paragraph 3.2. of Annex 4 verified by the responsible authority.
At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, an
alternative method (e.g. simulation, wind tunnel not fulfilling the criteria in Annex 4) may
be used to determine ∆(C × A ) if the following criteria are fulfilled:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The alternative determination method shall fulfil an accuracy for ∆(C × A ) of
±0.015 m and additionally, in the case that simulation is used, the Computational
Fluid Dynamics method should be validated in detail, so that the actual air flow
patterns around the body, including magnitudes of flow velocities, forces, or
pressures, are shown to match the validation test results;
The alternative method shall be used only for those aerodynamic-influencing parts
(e.g. wheels, body shapes, cooling system) for which equivalency was
demonstrated;
Evidence of equivalency shall be shown in advance to the responsible authority for
each road load family in the case that a mathematical method is used or every
four years in the case that a measurement method is used, and in any case shall
be based on wind tunnel measurements fulfilling the criteria of this UN GTR;
(d) If the ∆(C × A ) of an option is more than double than that with the option for
which the evidence was given, aerodynamic drag shall not be determined with the
alternative method; and
(e)
In the case that a simulation model is changed, a revalidation shall be necessary.
∆(C ×A )
is the difference in the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient times
frontal area of test vehicle H compared to test vehicle L and shall be
recorded, m .
∆(C ×A ) is the difference in the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient times
frontal area between an individual vehicle and test vehicle L due to options
and body shapes on the vehicle that differ from those of test vehicle L, m ;
These differences in aerodynamic drag, ∆(C ×A ), shall be determined with an accuracy
of 0.015m .

Applying the least squares regression method in the range of the reference speed points,
adjusted road load coefficients f and f shall be determined for F (v) with the linear
coefficient f set to f . The road load coefficients f , f and f for an individual
vehicle in the interpolation family shall be calculated using the following equations:
f
= f
− Δf
or, if ( TM RR − TM × RR ) = 0,
×
( TM × RR − TM × RR )
( TM × RR − TM × RR )
× the equation for f below shall apply:
f
= f
− Δf
f = f
f
= f
− Δf
×
( Δ[ C
× A ]
− Δ[ C
× A ]
)
( Δ[ C
× A ]
)
or, if Δ ( C × A ) LH = 0,
the equation for F below shall apply:
f
= f
− Δf
where:
Δ f
= f
− f
Δ f
= f
− f
In the case of a road load matrix family, the road load coefficients f , f and f for an
individual vehicle shall be calculated according to the equations in Paragraph 5.1.1. of
Annex 4.
3.2.3.2.3. Calculation of Cycle Energy Demand
The cycle energy demand of the applicable WLTC, E , and the energy demand for all
applicable cycle phases E , shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of this Annex, for the following sets k of road load coefficients and masses:
k = 1: f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(test vehicle L)
k = 2 : f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(test vehicle H)
k=3: f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(an individual vehicle in the interpolation family)
These three sets of road loads may be derived from different road load families.

3.2.4.1. Determination of Fuel Consumption and CO Emissions of Vehicles L and H
The mass of CO emissions M of vehicles L and H shall be determined according
to the calculations in Paragraph 3.2.1. of this Annex for the individual cycle phases p of
the applicable WLTC and are referred to as table M and M respectively.
Fuel consumption for individual cycle phases of the applicable WLTC shall be
determined according to Paragraph 6. of this Annex and are referred to as FC and
FC
respectively.
3.2.4.1.1. Road load calculation for an individual vehicle
The road load force shall be calculated according to the procedure described in
Paragraph 5.1. of Annex 4.
3.2.4.1.1.1. Mass of an individual vehicle
The test masses of vehicles H and L selected according to Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of
Annex 4 shall be used as input.
TM , in kg, shall be the test mass of the individual vehicle according to the definition of
test mass in Paragraph 3.2.25. of this UN GTR.
If the same test mass is used for vehicles L and H , the value of TM shall be set to
the mass of vehicle HM for the road load matrix family method.
3.2.4.1.1.2. Rolling resistance of an individual vehicle
The rolling resistance values for vehicle L , RR , and vehicle H , RR , selected under
Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of Annex 4 shall be used as input.
If the tyres on the front and rear axles of vehicle L or H have different rolling resistance
values, the weighted mean of the rolling resistances shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
RR = RR × mp + RR × (1 − mp )
RR is the rolling resistance of the front axle tyres, kg/tonne;
RR is the rolling resistance of the rear axle tyres, kg/tonne;
mp is the proportion of the vehicle mass on the front axle;
x
represents vehicle L, H or an individual vehicle.
For the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle, the value of the rolling resistance RR shall
be set to the class value of the applicable tyre rolling resistance class according to
Table A4/2 of Annex 4.
If the tyres on the front and the rear axles have different rolling resistance class values,
the weighted mean shall be used calculated with the equation in this Paragraph.

3.3.1.1. Where correction for the background particulate mass from the dilution system has been
used, this shall be determined in accordance with Paragraph 2.1.3.1. of Annex 6. In this
case, particulate mass (mg/km) shall be calculated using the following equations:
⎪⎧
PM = ⎨
⎪⎩
P
V

− ⎢
⎢⎣
P
V
⎛ × ⎜1


1
DF
⎞⎤⎪⎫
⎟⎥⎬
×
⎠⎥⎦
⎪⎭
( V + V )
in the case that the exhaust gases are vented outside the tunnel;
and:
⎪⎧
P ⎡ P ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤⎪⎫
PM = ⎨ − ⎢ × ⎜1
− ⎟⎥⎬
×
V V DF
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
⎝ ⎠⎥⎦
⎪⎭
in the case that the exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
where:
d
( V )
d
V
P
DF
is the volume of tunnel air flowing through the background particulate filter under
standard conditions;
is the particulate mass from the dilution air, or the dilution tunnel background air,
as determined by the one of the methods described in Paragraph 2.1.3.1. of
Annex 6;
is the dilution factor determined in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.1. of this Annex.
Where application of a background correction results in a negative result, it shall be
considered to be zero mg/km.
3.3.2. Calculation of PM using the Double Dilution Method
where:
V = V – V
V
is the volume of diluted exhaust gas flowing through the particulate sample filter
under standard conditions;
V is the volume of the double diluted exhaust gas passing through the particulate
sampling filters under standard conditions;
V is the volume of the secondary dilution air under standard conditions.

C
shall be calculated using the following equation:
C =

C
n
where:
C
n
is a discrete measurement of particle number concentration in the diluted gas
exhaust from the PNC; particles per cm and corrected for coincidence;
is the total number of discrete particle number concentration measurements made
during the applicable test cycle and shall be calculated using the following
equation:
n = t × f
where:
t is the time duration of the applicable test cycle, s;
f
is the data logging frequency of the particle counter, Hz.
5. CALCULATION OF CYCLE ENERGY DEMAND
Unless otherwise specified, the calculation shall be based on the target speed trace
given in discrete time sample points.
For the calculation, each time sample point shall be interpreted as a time period. Unless
otherwise specified, the duration ∆t of these periods shall be 1s.
The total energy demand E for the whole cycle or a specific cycle phase shall be
calculated by summing E over the corresponding cycle time between t and t
according to the following equation:
where:
E = F × d if F > 0
E = 0 if F ≤ 0
E = ∑ E

6. CALCULATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION
6.1. The fuel characteristics required for the calculation of fuel consumption values shall be
taken from Annex 3 to this UN GTR.
6.2. The fuel consumption values shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using the results of step 6 for criteria emissions
and step 7 for CO of Table A7/1.
6.2.1. The general equation in Paragraph 6.12. using H/C and O/C ratios shall be used for the
calculation of fuel consumption.
6.2.2. For all Equations in Paragraph 6. of this Annex:
FC
is the fuel consumption of a specific fuel, l/100km (or m per 100km in the case of
natural gas or kg/100km in the case of hydrogen);
H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of a specific fuel C H O ;
O/C is the oxygen to carbon ratio of a specific fuel C H O ;
MW is the molar mass of carbon (12.011g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of hydrogen (1.008g/mol);
MW is the molar mass of oxygen (15.999g/mol);
ρ is the test fuel density, kg/l. For gaseous fuels, fuel density at 15°C;
HC
CO
are the emissions of hydrocarbon, g/km;
are the emissions of carbon monoxide, g/km;
CO are the emissions of carbon dioxide, g/km;
H O are the emissions of water, g/km;
H
p
p
are the emissions of hydrogen, g/km;
is the gas pressure in the fuel tank before the applicable test cycle, Pa;
is the gas pressure in the fuel tank after the applicable test cycle, Pa;
T is the gas temperature in the fuel tank before the applicable test cycle, K;
T is the gas temperature in the fuel tank after the applicable test cycle, K;
Z is the compressibility factor of the gaseous fuel at p and T ;
Z is the compressibility factor of the gaseous fuel at p and T ;
V is the interior volume of the gaseous fuel tank, m ;
d
is the theoretical length of the applicable phase or cycle, km.

6.9. For a vehicle with a compression engine fuelled with diesel (B5)
⎛ 0.
1163 ⎞
FC = ⎜
⎟ ×
. ×
⎝ ρ ⎠
[( 0.
860 × HC) + ( 0.
429 × CO) + ( 0 273 CO )]
6.10. For a vehicle with a compression engine fuelled with diesel (B7)
⎛ 0.
1165 ⎞
FC = ⎜
⎟ ×
. ×
⎝ ρ ⎠
[( 0.
858 × HC) + ( 0.
429 × CO) + ( 0 273 CO )]
6.11. For a vehicle with a positive ignition engine fuelled with ethanol (E85)
⎛ 0.
1743 ⎞
FC = ⎜
⎟ ×
. ×
⎝ ρ ⎠
[( 0.
574 × HC) + ( 0.
429 × CO) + ( 0 273 CO )]
6.12. Fuel consumption for any test fuel may be calculated using the following equation:
H O ⎛

MW + × MW + × MW ⎜


MW
MW MW
FC = C C ×
× HC + × CO + × CO ⎟
MW × ρ × 10 ⎜ H O
MW MW ⎟
MW + × MW + × MW
⎝ C C

6.13. Fuel consumption for a vehicle with a positive ignition engine fuelled by hydrogen:
V
FC = 0.024 ×
d

×


1
Z
p
×
T
-
1
Z
p
×
T



For vehicles fuelled either with gaseous or liquid hydrogen, and with approval of the
responsible authority, the manufacturer may choose to calculate fuel consumption using
either the equation for FC below or a method using a standard protocol such as
SAE J2572.
FC = 0.1 × (0.1119 × H O + H )

7. DRIVE TRACE INDICES
7.1. General Requirement
The prescribed speed between time points in Tables A1/1 to A1/12 shall be determined
by a linear interpolation method at a frequency of 10Hz.
In the case that the accelerator control is fully activated, the prescribed speed shall be
used instead of the actual vehicle speed for drive trace index calculations during such
periods of operation.
7.2. Calculation of Drive Trace Indices
The following indices shall be calculated according to SAE J2951 (Revised JAN2014):
(a) ER : Energy Rating
(b) DR : Distance Rating
(c) EER : Energy Economy Rating
(d) ASCR : Absolute Speed Change Rating
(e) IWR : Inertial Work Rating
(f)
RMSSE : Root Mean Squared Speed Error
8. CALCULATING N/V RATIOS
n/v ratios shall be calculated using the following equation:
⎛ n ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ v ⎠
=
( r × r × 60,000) /( U × 3.6)
n is engine speed, min ;
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
r is the transmission ratio in gear I;
r
is the axle transmission ratio.
U is the dynamic rolling circumference of the tyres of the drive axle and is
calculated using the following equation:

ANNEX 8
PURE ELECTRIC, HYBRID ELECTRIC AND COMPRESSED
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL HYBRID VEHICLES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
In the case of testing NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs, Appendix 2 and
Appendix 3 to this Annex shall replace Appendix 2 to Annex 6.
Unless stated otherwise, all requirements in this annex shall apply to vehicles with and
without driver-selectable modes. Unless explicitly stated otherwise in this annex, all of
the requirements and procedures specified in Annex 6 shall continue to apply for
NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and PEVs.
1.1. Units, Accuracy and Resolution of Electric Parameters
Units, accuracy and resolution of measurements shall be as in Table A8/1.
Table A8/1
Parameters, Units and Accuracy of Measurements
Parameter Units Accuracy Resolution
Electrical energy Wh ±1% 0.001kWh
Electrical current
A
±0.3% FSD or
±1% of reading
Electrical voltage
V
±0.3% FSD or
±1% of reading
0.1A
0.1V
1.2. Emission and Fuel Consumption Testing
Parameters, units and accuracy of measurements shall be the same as those required
for conventional combustion engine-powered vehicles.

1.4.2.2. Applicable WLTP City Test Cycle
The WLTP city test cycle (WLTC
Annex 1.
) for Class 3 vehicles is specified in Paragraph 3.5. of
1.5. OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and PEVs with Manual Transmissions
The vehicles shall be driven according to the technical gear shift indicator, if available, or
according to instructions incorporated in the manufacturer's handbook.
2. REESS AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM PREPARATION
2.1. For all OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and PEVs, the following shall apply:
(a)
(b)
Additional to the requirements of Paragraph 2.3.3. of Annex 6, the vehicles tested
according to this Annex shall have been run-in at least 300km with those REESSs
installed;
In the case that the REESSs are operated above the normal operating
temperature range, the operator shall follow the procedure recommended by the
vehicle manufacturer in order to keep the temperature of the REESS in its normal
operating range. The manufacturer shall provide evidence that the thermal
management system of the REESS is neither disabled nor reduced.
2.2. For NOVC-FCHVs additional to the requirements of Paragraph 2.3.3. of
Annex 6, the vehicles tested to this Annex shall have been run-in at least 300km with
their fuel cell system installed.
3. TEST PROCEDURE
3.1. General Requirements
3.1.1. For all OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, PEVs and NOVC-FCHVs the following shall apply
where applicable:
3.1.1.1. Vehicles shall be tested according to the applicable test cycles described in Paragraph
1.4.2. of this Annex.
3.1.1.2. If the vehicle cannot follow the applicable test cycle within the speed trace tolerances
according to Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6, the accelerator control shall, unless stated
otherwise, be fully activated until the required speed trace is reached again.
3.1.1.3. The powertrain start procedure shall be initiated by means of the devices provided for
this purpose according to the manufacturer's instructions.
3.1.1.4. For OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and PEVs, exhaust emissions sampling and measurement
of electric energy consumption shall begin for each applicable test cycle before or at the
initiation of the vehicle start procedure and end at the conclusion of each applicable test
cycle.

Figure A8/1
Possible Test Sequences in the Case of OVC-HEV Testing
3.2.3. The driver-selectable mode shall be set as described in the following test sequences
(Option 1 to Option 4).
3.2.4. Charge-depleting Type 1 Test with no Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test
(Option 1)
The test sequence according to Option 1, described in Paragraphs 3.2.4.1. to 3.2.4.7.
inclusive of this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are
shown in Figure A8.App1/1 in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.4.1. Pre-conditioning
The vehicle shall be prepared according to the procedures in Paragraph 2.2. of
Appendix 4, this Annex.
3.2.4.2. Test Conditions
3.2.4.2.1. The test shall be carried out with a fully charged REESS according to the charging
requirements as described in Paragraph 2.2.3. of Appendix 4 to this Annex and with the
vehicle operated in charge-depleting operating condition as defined in Paragraph 3.3.5.
of this UN GTR.

3.2.4.5. Break-off Criterion
3.2.4.5.1. Whether the break-off criterion has been reached for each driven applicable WLTP test
cycle shall be evaluated.
3.2.4.5.2. The break-off criterion for the charge-depleting Type 1 test is reached when the relative
electric energy change REEC as calculated using the following equation, is less
than 0.04.
REEC
ΔE
=
E ×
1
3,600
where:
REEC
is the relative electric energy change of the applicable test cycle considered i of
the charge-depleting Type 1 test;
∆E is the change of electric energy of all REESSs for the considered
charge-depleting Type 1 test cycle i calculated according to Paragraph 4.3. of
this Annex, Wh;
E is the cycle energy demand of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
i
is the index number for the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
1
3,
600
is a conversion factor to Wh for the cycle energy demand.
3.2.4.6. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.2.4.6.1. The vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 120min after the applicable WLTP
test cycle n + 1 in which the break-off criterion for the charge-depleting Type 1 test is
reached for the first time.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.2.4.6.2. The electric energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and
the mains, shall measure the recharged electric energy, E , delivered from the mains,
as well as its duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the
end-of-charge criterion, as defined in Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is
reached.
3.2.4.7. Each individual applicable WLTP test cycle within the charge-depleting Type 1 test shall
fulfil the applicable criteria emission limits according to Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 6.

3.2.6.3. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.2.6.3.1. The vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 120min after the conclusion of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex is reached.
3.2.6.3.2. The energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and the
mains, shall measure the recharged electric energy E delivered from the mains, as well
as its duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the
end-of-charge criterion as defined in Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex is
reached.
3.2.7. Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test with a Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 1 Test
(Option 4)
The test sequence according to Option 4, described in Paragraphs 3.2.7.1. and 3.2.7.2.
inclusive of this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are
shown in Figure A8.App1/4 of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.7.1. For the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, the procedure described in Paragraphs 3.2.5.1. to
3.2.5.3. inclusive of this Annex, as well as Paragraph 3.2.6.3.1. of this Annex shall be
followed.
3.2.7.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraphs 3.2.4.2. to 3.2.4.7. inclusive of this Annex shall be followed.
3.3. NOVC-HEVs
The test sequence described in Paragraphs 3.3.1. to 3.3.3. inclusive of this Annex, as
well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in Figure A8.App1/5
of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.3.1. Preconditioning and Soaking
3.3.1.1. Vehicles shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6.
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6, the level of the state of
charge of the traction REESS for the charge-sustaining test may be set according to the
manufacturer's recommendation before preconditioning in order to achieve a test under
charge-sustaining operating condition.
3.3.1.2. Vehicles shall be soaked according to Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6.

The manufacturer shall give evidence to the responsible authority concerning the
estimated pure electric range (PER) prior to the test. In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the applicable test procedure shall be determined based on the
estimated PER of vehicle H of the interpolation family. The PER determined by the
applied test procedure shall confirm that the correct test procedure was applied.
The test sequence for the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, as described in
Paragraphs 3.4.2., 3.4.3. and 3.4.4.1. of this Annex, as well as the corresponding
REESS state of charge profile, are shown in Figure A8.App1/6 of Appendix 1 to this
Annex.
The test sequence for the shortened Type 1 test procedure, as described in
Paragraphs 3.4.2., 3.4.3. and 3.4.4.2. of this Annex as well as the corresponding REESS
state of charge profile are shown in Figure A8.App1/7 in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.4.2. Preconditioning
The vehicle shall be prepared according to the procedures in Paragraph 3. of Appendix 4
to this Annex.
3.4.3. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the test shall be
selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.4.4. PEV Type 1 Test Procedures
3.4.4.1. Consecutive Cycle Type 1 Test Procedure
3.4.4.1.1. Speed trace and breaks
The test shall be performed by driving consecutive applicable test cycles until the
break-off criterion according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex is reached.
Breaks for the driver and/or operator are permitted only between test cycles and with a
maximum total break time of 10min. During the break, the powertrain shall be switched
off.
3.4.4.1.2. REESS current and voltage measurement
From the beginning of the test until the break-off criterion is reached, the electric current
of all REESSs shall be measured according to Appendix 3 to this Annex and the electric
voltage shall be determined according to Appendix 3 to this Annex.
3.4.4.1.3. Break-off criterion
The break-off criterion is reached when the vehicle exceeds the prescribed speed trace
tolerance as specified in Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6 for 4 consecutive seconds or
more. The accelerator control shall be deactivated. The vehicle shall be braked to
standstill within 60s.

3.4.4.2.1.2. Constant speed segment
The constant speeds during segments CSS and CSS shall be identical. If the
interpolation method is applied, the same constant speed shall be applied within the
interpolation family.
(a)
Speed specification
The minimum speed of the constant speed segments shall be 100km/h. If the
extra high phase (Extra High ) is excluded by a Contracting Party, the minimum
speed of the constant speed segments shall be set to 80km/h. At the request of
manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a higher constant
speed in the constant speed segments may be selected.
The acceleration to the constant speed level shall be smooth and accomplished
within 1min after completion of the dynamic segments and, in the case of a break
according to Table A8/4, after initiating the powertrain start procedure;
If the maximum speed of the vehicle is lower than the required minimum speed for
the constant speed segments according to the speed specification of this
Paragraph, the required speed in the constant speed segments shall be equal to
the maximum speed of the vehicle.
(b)
Distance determination of CSS and CSS
The length of the constant speed segment CSS shall be determined based on the
percentage of the usable REESS energy UBE according to
Paragraph 4.4.2.1. of this Annex. The remaining energy in the traction REESS
after dynamic speed segment DS shall be equal to or less than 10% of UBE .
The manufacturer shall provide evidence to the responsible authority after the test
that this requirement is fulfilled.
The length of the constant speed segment CSS may be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
d =PER −d −d −d
PER
d
d
d
is the estimated pure electric range of the considered PEV, km;
is the length of dynamic segment 1, km;
is the length of dynamic segment 2, km;
is the length of constant speed segment CSS , km.

3.5. NOVC-FCHVs
The test sequence, described in Paragraphs 3.5.1. to 3.5.3. inclusive of this Annex, as
well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, is shown in Figure A8.App1/5
in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.5.1. Preconditioning and Soaking
3.5.2. Test Conditions
Vehicles shall be conditioned and soaked according to Paragraph 3.3.1. of this Annex.
3.5.2.1. Vehicles shall be tested under charge-sustaining operating conditions as defined in
Paragraph 3.3.6. of this UN GTR.
3.5.2.2. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test shall be selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.5.3. Type 1 Test Procedure
3.5.3.1. Vehicles shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6
and fuel consumption measured according to Appendix 7 to this Annex.
3.5.3.2. If required, fuel consumption shall be corrected according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.
4. CALCULATIONS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC, PURE ELECTRIC AND COMPRESSED
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLES
4.1. Calculations of Gaseous Emission Compounds, Particulate Matter Emission and
Particle Number Emission
4.1.1. Charge-sustaining Mass Emission of Gaseous Emission Compounds, Particulate Matter
Emission and Particle Number Emission for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining particulate matter emission PM shall be calculated according to
Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 7.
The charge-sustaining particle number emission PN shall be calculated according to
Paragraph 4. of Annex 7.
4.1.1.1. Stepwise procedure for calculating the final test results of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs
The results shall be calculated in the order described in Table A8/5. All applicable results
in the column "Output" shall be recorded. The column "Process" describes the
Paragraphs to be used for calculation or contains additional calculations.

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output from
steps Nos. 2
and 3 of this
Table.
M
M
, g/km
, g/km.
Charge-sustaining mass emission
correction for all vehicles equipped
with periodically regenerating systems
K according to Annex 6,
Appendix 1.
or
and
M = K × M
M = K + M
M
M
, g/km.
, g/km.
4a
M
or
M
=K
=K
×M
+ M
Additive offset or multiplicative factor
to be used according to K
determination.
If K is not applicable:
M = M
M = M
Output from
steps Nos. 3
and 4a of this
table.
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
If K is applicable, align CO phase
values to combined cycle value:
M = M × AF
M , g/km. 4b
for every cycle phase p;
where:
M
AF =
M
If K is not applicable:
M = M
Output from
step No. 4 of
this table.
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
Placeholder for additional corrections,
if applicable.
Otherwise:
M
M
M
g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
5
Result of a
single test
M = M
M = M
M = M

4.1.1.2. In the case that the correction according to Paragraph 1.1.4. of Appendix 2 to this Annex
was not applied, the following charge-sustaining CO mass emission shall be used:
where:
M = M
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
M
is the non-balanced charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km.
4.1.1.3 If the correction of the charge-sustaining CO mass emission is required according to
Paragraph 1.1.3. of Appendix 2 to this Annex or in the case that the correction according
to Paragraph 1.1.4. of Appendix 2 to this Annex was applied, the CO mass emission
correction coefficient shall be determined according to Paragraph 2. of Appendix 2 to this
Annex. The corrected charge-sustaining CO mass emission shall be determined using
the following equation:
where:
M = M − K EC
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test according to Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km;
M
EC
is the non-balanced CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test,
not corrected for the energy balance, determined according to Table A8/5,
step No. 2, g/km;
is the electric energy consumption of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.2.
of Appendix 2 to this Annex, (g/km)/(Wh/km).

4.1.2. Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission M shall be
calculated using the following equation:
where:
M
Σ
=
( UF × M )
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
Σ
UF
UF
j
k
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k shall be the number of phases
driven up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L n .
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, an individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family, n , is lower than the transition cycle
number driven by vehicle L, n , the confirmation cycle of vehicle H and, if applicable,
an individual vehicle shall be included in the calculation. The CO mass emission of each
phase of the confirmation cycle shall then be corrected to an electric energy
consumption of zero EC = 0 by using the CO correction coefficient according to
Appendix 2 of this Annex.
4.1.3. Utility Factor-weighted Mass Emissions of Gaseous Compounds, Particulate Matter
Emission and Particle Number Emission for OVC-HEVs.
4.1.3.1. The utility factor-weighted mass emission of gaseous compounds shall be calculated
using the following equation:
M
=
∑( UF ×M ) + ⎜1-

∑UF





×M

where:
M is the utility factor-weighted mass emission compound i, g/km;
i
UF
is the index of the considered gaseous emission compound;
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;

4.1.3.3. The utility factor-weighted particulate matter emission shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
⎛ ⎞
PM = Σ
×
⎝ ⎠
( UF × PM ) + ⎜1−
Σ UF ⎟ PM
PM is the utility factor-weighted particulate matter emission, mg/km;
UF
PM
is the utility factor of cycle c according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
is the charge-depleting particulate matter emission during cycle c determined
according to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 7 for the charge-depleting Type 1 test,
mg/km;
PM
is the particulate matter emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Paragraph 4.1.1. of this Annex, mg/km;
c
n
is the index number of the cycle considered;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven until the end of the
transition cycle n according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
4.2. Calculation of Fuel Consumption
4.2.1. Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs
4.2.1.1. The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs shall be
calculated stepwise according to Table A8/6.

For the purpose of this table, the following nomenclature within the equations and results
is used:
c
p
CS
complete applicable test cycle;
every applicable cycle phase;
charge-sustaining
Table A8/7
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for NOVC-FCHVs
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Appendix 7 of this
Annex.
Output from step
No. 1 of this table.
Non-balanced
charge-sustaining
fuel consumption
FC
FC
kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
Charge-sustaining fuel consumption
according to Paragraph 2.2.6. of
Appendix 7 to this Annex
(phase-specific values only, if
required by the Contracting Party
according to Paragraph 2.2.7. of
Appendix 7 to this Annex)
REESS electric energy change
correction
FC
FC
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
1
2
Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.2. to 4.2.1.2.5.
inclusive of this Annex
Output from step
No. 2 of this table.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
Placeholder for additional
corrections, if applicable.
Otherwise:
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
3
Result of a single
test
FC
= FC
FC
= FC
Output from step
No. 3 of this table.
For every test:
FC
, kg/100km;
FC
, kg/100km;
Averaging of tests and declared
value according to Paragraphs 1.2.
to 1.2.3. inclusive of
Annex 6.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
4
Output from step
No. 4 of this table.
FC
FC
FC ,
kg/100km
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
Alignment of phase values.
Paragraph.1.2.4. of Annex 6
And:
FC = FC
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km;
5
FC results of a
Type 1 test for a
test vehicle

4.2.1.2.4. In the case that phase-specific fuel consumption correction coefficients have not been
determined, the phase-specific fuel consumption shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step
No. 1, kg/100km;
EC is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K
p
is the fuel consumption correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.2.1.2.5. In the case that phase-specific fuel consumption correction coefficients have been
determined, the phase-specific fuel consumption shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step
No. 1, kg/100km;
EC is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K
p
is the fuel consumption correction coefficient for the correction of the phase p
according to Paragraph 2.3.1.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex,
(kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.

4.2.3. Utility Factor-weighted Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted fuel consumption from the charge-depleting and
charge-sustaining Type 1 test shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
⎛ ⎞
( UF × FC ) + ⎜1−
Σ UF ⎟ FC
FC = Σ
×
⎝ ⎠
FC is the utility factor-weighted fuel consumption, l/100km;
UF
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 of this Annex;
FC
is the fuel consumption of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test,
determined according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, l/100km;
FC
is the fuel consumption determined according to Table A8/6, step No. 1,
l/100km;
j
k
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k shall be the number of phases
driven up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L n .
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, an individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family, n , is lower than the transition cycle
number driven by vehicle L, n , the confirmation cycle of vehicle H and, if applicable,
an individual vehicle shall be included in the calculation.
The fuel consumption of each phase of the confirmation cycle shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7 with the criteria emission over the complete
confirmation cycle and the applicable CO phase value which shall be corrected to an
electric energy consumption of zero EC = 0 by using the CO mass correction
coefficient (K ) according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.

4.3.1. Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption Based on the
Recharged Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
EC
UF
EC
is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption
based on the recharged electric energy from the mains, Wh/km;
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
is the electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric energy from
the mains of phase j, Wh/km;
and
EC
= EC
×
Σ
E
ΔE
where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption based on the REESS depletion of phase j of
the charge-depleting Test 1 according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains determined according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.6. of this Annex, Wh;
∆E is the electric energy change of all REESSs of phase j according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh;
j
k
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k is the number of phases
driven up to the end of the transition cycle of L, n .

4.3.3.2. Determination of Phase-specific Electric Energy Consumption
The phase-specific electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric energy
from the mains and the phase-specific equivalent all-electric range shall be calculated
using the following equation:
EC
=
E
EAER
where:
EC
is the phase-specific electric energy consumption based on the recharged
electric energy from the mains and the equivalent all-electric range, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.2.4.6.
of this Annex, Wh;
EAER is the phase-specific equivalent all-electric range according to
Paragraph 4.4.4.2. of this Annex, km.
4.3.4. Electric Energy Consumption of PEVs
At the option of the Contracting Party, the determination of EC according to
Paragraph 4.3.4.2. of this Annex may be excluded.
4.3.4.1. The electric energy consumption determined in this Paragraph shall be calculated only if
the vehicle was able to follow the applicable test cycle within the speed trace tolerances
according to Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6 during the entire considered period.
4.3.4.2. Electric Energy Consumption Determination of the Applicable WLTP Test Cycle
The electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range shall be calculated
using the following equation:
EC
E
=
PER
where:
EC is the electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on
the recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for the
applicable WLTP test cycle, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3.
of this Annex, Wh;
PER is the pure electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle as calculated
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. or Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this Annex,
depending on the PEV test procedure used, km.

4.4. Calculation of Electric Ranges
At the option of the Contracting Party, the determination of AER , PER and the
calculation of EAER may be excluded.
4.4.1. All-electric Ranges AER and AER for OVC-HEVs
4.4.1.1. All-electric Range AER
The all-electric range AER for OVC-HEVs shall be determined from the charge-depleting
Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex as part of the Option 1 test
sequence and is referenced in Paragraph 3.2.6.1. of this Annex as part of the Option 3
test sequence by driving the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2.1.
of this Annex. The AER is defined as the distance driven from the beginning of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test to the point in time where the combustion engine starts
consuming fuel.
4.4.1.2. All-electric Range City AER
4.4.1.2.1. The all-electric range city AER for OVC-HEVs shall be determined from the
charge-depleting Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex as part of the
Option 1 test sequence and is referenced in Paragraph 3.2.6.1. of this Annex as part of
the Option 3 test sequence by driving the applicable WLTP city test cycle according to
Paragraph 1.4.2.2. of this Annex. The AER is defined as the distance driven from the
beginning of the charge-depleting Type 1 test to the point in time where the combustion
engine starts consuming fuel.
4.4.1.2.2. As an alternative to Paragraph 4.4.1.2.1. of this Annex, the all-electric range city AER
may be determined from the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by driving the applicable WLTP test cycles according to
Paragraph 1.4.2.1. of this Annex. In that case, the charge-depleting Type 1 test by
driving the applicable WLTP city test cycle shall be omitted and the all-electric range city
AER shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
AER
UBE
=
EC
UBE is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by
driving applicable WLTP test cycles until the point in time when the combustion
engine starts consuming fuel, Wh;
EC is the weighted electric energy consumption of the pure electrically driven
applicable WLTP city test cycles of the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycle(s),
Wh/km;

4.4.2. Pure Electric Range for PEVs
The ranges determined in this Paragraph shall only be calculated if the vehicle was able
to follow the applicable WLTP test cycle within the speed trace tolerances according to
Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6 during the entire considered period.
4.4.2.1. Determination of the Pure Electric Ranges when the Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure is
Applied
4.4.2.1.1. The pure-electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle PER for PEVs shall be
calculated from the shortened Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of this
Annex using the following equations:
PER
UBE
=
EC
where:
UBE
EC
is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure until the break-off criterion as defined in
Paragraph 3.4.4.2.3. of this Annex is reached, Wh;
is the weighted electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test
cycle of DS and DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure Type 1 test,
Wh/km;
and
UBE
= ΔE
+ ΔE
= ΔE
= ΔE
where:
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during DS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during DS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during CSS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
Δ E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during CSS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;

and
EC
=

EC
× K
where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP city test cycle
where the first applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 1,
the second applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 2, the
first applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 3 and the
second applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 4 of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex,
Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP city test cycle where the first
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 1, the second
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 2, the first
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 3 and the second
applicable WLTP city test cycle of DS is indicated as j = 4,
and
K
ΔE
=
UBE
andK
1- K
=
3
for j = 2…4
where:
∆E is the energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable WLTP city
test cycle of DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.1.3. The phase-specific pure electric-range PER for PEVs shall be calculated from the
Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of this Annex by using the following
equations:
P ER
UBE
=
EC
where:
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this
Annex, Wh;
EC
is the weighted electric energy consumption for each individual phase of
DS and DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;

4.4.2.2. Determination of the Pure Electric Ranges when the Consecutive Cycle Type 1 Test
Procedure is Applied
4.4.2.2.1. The pure electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle PER for PEVs shall be
calculated from the Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of this Annex using
the following equations:
where:
P ER
UBE
=
EC
UBE
is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure until the break-off criterion according
to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex is reached, Wh;
EC is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle
determined from completely driven applicable WLTP test cycles of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;
and
UBE
= ∑ ΔE
where:
∆E
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during phase j of the consecutive
cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
j
k
is the index number of the phase;
is the number of phases driven from the beginning up to and including the
phase where the break-off criterion is reached;
and
EC
=

EC
× K
where:
EC is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle j of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle j of the consecutive
cycle Type 1 test procedure;
j
is the index number of the applicable WLTP test cycle;
n is the whole number of complete applicable WLTP test cycles driven;

and
K
ΔE
=
UBE
and K
=
1 - K
n
− 1
for j = 2…n
where:
∆E is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable
WLTP city test cycle of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.2.3. The phase-specific pure electric-range PER for PEVs shall be calculated from the
Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of this Annex using the following
equations:
P ER
UBE
=
EC
where:
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this
Annex, Wh;
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the considered phase p determined
from completely driven phases p of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test
procedure, Wh/km;
and
EC
=

EC
× K
where:
EC
is the j electric energy consumption for the considered phase p of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K
is the j weighting factor for the considered phase p of the consecutive cycle
Type 1 test procedure;
j is the index number of the considered phase p;
n
is the whole number of complete WLTC phases p driven;

and
M
=

( M × d )

d
where:
M is the arithmetic average charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
d
j
k
is the distance driven in phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle n
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4 of this Annex.
4.4.4.2. Determination of the Phase-specific Equivalent all-electric Range
The phase-specific equivalent all-electric range shall be calculated using the following
equation:
EAER
⎛ M
= ⎜

- MC
M
⎞ ∑ E

Δ
×

EC
where:
EAER is the phase-specific equivalent all-electric range for the considered phase p,
km;
M is the phase-specific CO mass emission from the charge-sustaining Type 1
test for the considered phase p according to Table A8/5, step No. 7, g/km;
∆E
are the electric energy changes of all REESSs during the considered phase j,
Wh;
EC is the electric energy consumption over the considered phase p based on the
REESS depletion, Wh/km;
j
k
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle n
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4 of this Annex;

4.4.5. Actual Charge-depleting Range for OVC-HEVs
The actual charge-depleting range shall be calculated using the following equation:
R
=

d
⎛ M
+ ⎜

M
- M
- M

⎟ × d

where:
R is the actual charge-depleting range, km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission according to Table A8/5, step
No. 7, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission of the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average CO mass emission of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test from the beginning up to and including the applicable WLTP
test cycle (n-1), g/km;
d
d
c
n
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle c of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven including the
transition cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex;

The linearity criterion for vehicle M shall be considered fulfilled if the difference between
the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of vehicle M derived from the measurement
and the interpolated charge-sustaining CO mass emission between vehicle L and H is
below 1g/km. If this difference is greater, the linearity criterion shall be considered to be
fulfilled if this difference is 3g/km or 3% of the interpolated charge-sustaining CO mass
emission for vehicle M, whichever is smaller.
If the linearity criterion is fulfilled, the interpolation method shall be applicable for all
individual vehicles between vehicles L and H within the interpolation family.
If the linearity criterion is not fulfilled, the interpolation family shall be split into two
sub-families for vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles L and M, and
vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles M and H.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles L and M, each
parameter of vehicle H that is necessary for the application of the interpolation method
on individual OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEV values, shall be substituted by the
corresponding parameter of vehicle M.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles M and H, each
parameter of vehicle L that is necessary for the application of the interpolation method on
individual OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEV values shall be substituted by the corresponding
parameter of vehicle M.
4.5.2. Calculation of Energy Demand per Period
The energy demand E and distance driven d per period p applicable for individual
vehicles in the interpolation family shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, for the sets k of road load coefficients and masses according to
Paragraph 3.2.3.2.3. of Annex 7.
4.5.3. Calculation of the Interpolation Coefficient for Individual Vehicles K
The interpolation coefficient K per period shall be calculated for each considered
period p using the following equation:
K
E
=
E
- E
- E
where:
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
E is the energy demand for the considered period for vehicle L according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
E is the energy demand for the considered period for vehicle H according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
E is the energy demand for the considered period for the individual vehicle according
to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable test cycle.
In the case that the considered period p is the applicable WLTP test cycle, K is
named K .

4.5.4.3. Individual Utility Factor-weighted CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
where:
M = M + K × (M − M )
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle,
g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for vehicle L, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for vehicle H, g/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.5. Interpolation of the Fuel Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.5.1. Individual Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle shall be calculated
using the following equation:
where:
FC = FC + K × (FC − FC )
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle of the
considered period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 3, l/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle L of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, l/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle H of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, l/100km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for
period p;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable WLTP test
cycle.
The considered periods shall be the low-phase, medium phase, high-phase, extra
high-phase, and the applicable WLTP test cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party
requests to exclude the extra high-phase, this phase value shall be omitted.

4.5.6. Interpolation of Electric Energy Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.6.1. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption Based
on the Recharged Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
an individual vehicle, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle L, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.6.2. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Electric Energy Consumption Based on the Recharged
Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC
EC
EC
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for an individual vehicle,
Wh/km;
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle L, Wh/km;
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.

is fulfilled, the all-electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
where:
AER = AER + K × (AER − AER )
AER is the all-electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable
WLTP test cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra
high-phase, this phase value shall be omitted.
If the criterion defined in this Paragraph is not fulfilled, the AER determined for vehicle H
is applicable to all vehicles within the interpolation family.
4.5.7.2. Individual Pure Electric Range for PEVs
The pure electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
PER = PER + K × (PER − PER )
PER is the pure electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p,
km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the low-phase, medium phase, high-phase, extra
high-phase, the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable WLTP test cycle. In
the case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra high-phase, this phase
value shall be omitted.

Table A8/8
Calculation of Final Charge-depleting Values
Source Input Process Output Step no.
Annex 8
Charge-depleting test
results
Results measured according. to
Appendix 3 to this Annex,
pre-calculated acc. to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex.
∆E , Wh;d ,
km;
1
Usable battery energy according to
Paragraph 4.4.1.2.2. of this Annex.
UBE
, Wh;
Recharged electric energy
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.6. of
this Annex.
Cycle energy acc. To Paragraph 5.
of Annex 7.
CO mass emission according to
Paragraph 3.2.1. of Annex 7.
Mass emission of gaseous emission
compound i according to
Paragraph 3.2.1. of Annex 7.
E
E
M
M
, Wh;
, Ws;
, g/km;
, g/km;
Particle number emission according
to Paragraph 4. of Annex 7.
Particle matter emission acc. to
Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 7.
All-electric range determined
according to Paragraph 4.4.1.1. of
this Annex
PN , particles
per kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
AER, km;
In the case that the applicable
WLTC city test cycle was driven:
All-electric range city according to
Paragraph 4.4.1.2.1. of this Annex.
AER
, km.
SOC correction coefficient might be
necessary acc. to Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
Output is available for each test.
In the case the interpolation
approach is applied, the output
(except of K ) is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).

Source Input Process Output Step no.
Output step 1
M
, g/km;
PM
, mg/km;
PN
, particles per
kilometer.
Calculation of combined values for
pollutant emissions for n cycles; in
the case of interpolation for n
cycles for each vehicle.
Output is available for each test.
M , g/km;
PM , mg/km;
PN , particles per
kilometer.
5
Output step 5
M
, g/km;
PM
, mg/km;
PN
, particles per
kilometer.
Output step 1
∆E
, Wh;
d , km;
UBE
, Wh.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
Emission averaging of tests for each M
, g/km;
applicable WLTP test cycle within
PM
, mg/km;
the charge-depleting Type 1 test and PN
, particles per
check with the limits according to
kilometer.
Table A6/2 of Annex 6.
In the case that AER
is derived
AER
, km;
from the Type 1 test by driving the
AER
, km.
applicable WLTP test cycles, the
value shall be calculated acc. to
Paragraph 4.4.1.2.2. of this Annex.
In the case of more than one test,
n shall be equal for each test.
6
7
Output available for each test.
Averaging of AER .
Output step 1
Output step 3
Output step 4
d , km;
n ;
n ;
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
Phase-specific and cycle-specific UF
calculation.
Output is available for each test.
UF
;
UF
.
8
In the case the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.

Source Input Process Output Step no.
Output step 1
Output step 3
Output step 4
Output step 8
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
K , (g/km)/(Wh/km).
n ;
n ;
UF ;
Calculation of the
charge-depleting fuel consumption
according to Paragraph 4.2.2. of this
Annex.
In the case of interpolation, n
cycles shall be used. With reference
to Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex,
M of the confirmation cycle
shall be corrected according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex. The
phase-specific fuel consumption
FC shall be calculated using the
corrected CO mass emission
according to Paragraph 6. of
Annex 7.
Output is available for each test.
FC
FC
, l/100 km;
, l/100 km.
11
Output step 1
∆E
, Wh;
d , km;
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
Regional option:
EC
, Wh/km
12
Calculation of the electric energy
consumption from the first applicable
WLTP test cycle.
Output is available for each test.
Output step 9
Output step 10
Output step 11
Output step 12
EC
EC
M
FC
EC
Output step 13 EC
M
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, g/km;
, l/100 km;
, Wh/km.
, Wh/km;
, g/km.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
Averaging of tests for each vehicle.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle H, L and,
if applicable, M.
Declaration of charge-depleting
electric energy consumption and
CO mass emission for each vehicle.
EC
EC
M
FC
EC
EC
M
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, g/km;
, l/100 km;
, Wh/km
, Wh/km;
, g/km.
13
14
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle H, L and,
if applicable, M.

Table A8/9
Calculation of Final Charge-depleting and Charge-sustaining Weighted Values
Source Input Process Output Step no.
Output step 1,
Table A8/8
Output step 7,
Table A8/8
Output step 3,
Table A8/8
Output step 4,
Table A8/8
M , g/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
M , g/km;
∆E , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
, km;
Input from CD and CS
postprocessing.
M , g/km;
PN , particles per
kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
M , g/km;
∆E , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER , km;
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
UF ;
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
1
Output step 8,
Table A8/8
UF
;
UF
;
Output step 6,
Table A8/5
M
, g/km;
Output step 7,
Table A8/5
M
, g/km;
Output in the case of CD is
available for each CD test. Output
in the case of CS is available
once due to CS test averaged
values.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output
(except of K ) is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).
SOC correction coefficient might
be necessary according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex.
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).

Source Input Process Output Step no.
Output step 1
AER, km.
Averaging AER and AER
declaration.
AER
AER
, km;
, km.
5
Output step 1
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
n
;
n
;
UF
;
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied and the AERinterpolation
availability criterion is
fulfilled, the output is available for
each vehicle L, H and if applicable
M.
If the criterion is not fulfilled, AER
of vehicle H shall be applied for
the whole interpolation family.
Calculation of weighted CO mass
emission and fuel consumption
acc. to Paragraphs 4.1.3.1. and
4.2.3. of this Annex.
Output is available for each CD
test.
M
FC
, g/km;
, l/100 km;
6
In the case of interpolation, n
cycles shall be used. Therefore,
based on the explanation of in
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex, it
is necessary to correct M of
the confirmation cycle according
to Appendix 2 to this Annex.
Output step 1
Output step 3
E , Wh;
EAER, km;
EAER , km;
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle L, H
and, if applicable, M.
Calculation of the electric energy
consumption based in EAER acc.
to Paragraphs 4.3.3.1. and
4.3.3.2. of this Annex.
EC, Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
7
Output is available for each CD
test.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle L, H
and, if applicable, M.

Table A8/10
Calculation of Final PEV Values Determined by Application of the Consecutive Cycle
Type 1 Procedure
Source Input Process Output Step no.
Annex 8
Test results
Results measured according to
Appendix 3 to this Annex and
pre-calculated according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex.
Usable battery energy according to
Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this Annex.
Recharged electric energy according
to Paragraph 3.4.4.3. of this Annex.
Output available for each test.
∆E
d , km;
UBE
E
, Wh.
, Wh;
, Wh;
1
Output step 1 ∆E
UBE
, Wh;
, Wh.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
Determination of the number of
completely driven applicable WLTC
phases and cycles acc. to
Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of this Annex.
Output available for each test.
n ;
n ;
n ;
n ;
n ;
n .
2
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and
vehicle L.

Source Input Process Output Step no.
Output step 1 E
Output step 5 PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
Output step 5 PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
Output step 6 EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
Output step 4
, Wh;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km.
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
EC ,
Wh/km.
Calculation of electric energy
consumption at the mains acc. to
Paragraph 4.3.4. of this Annex.
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
Averaging of tests for all input values.
Regional option:
EC
Declaration of PER
and
EC
based on PER
and
EC
.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
6
7
Output step 7 EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km.
Regional option:
Determination of the adjustment
factor and application to EC .
For example:
EC
AF =
EC
EC , Wh/km. 8
EC = EC × AF
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.

4.7.2. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of PEVs in case of the
Shortened Test Procedure
For the purpose of this table, the following nomenclature within the questions and results
is used:
j
index for the considered period.
Table A8/11
Calculation of Final PEV Values Determined by Application the Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure
Source Input Process Output Step no.
Annex 8
Test results
Results measured acc. to Appendix 3
to this Annex, and
pre-calculated according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex
∆E
d , km;
, Wh;
1
Usable battery energy according to
Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this Annex.
UBE
, Wh;
Recharged electric energy according
to Paragraph 3.4.4.3. of this Annex.
Output is available for each test.
E
, Wh.
Output
step 1
∆E
UBE
, Wh;
, Wh.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle L and vehicle H.
Calculation of weighting factors acc.
to Paragraph 4.4.2.1. of this Annex
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle L and vehicle H.
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
2

Source Input Process Output Step no.
Output
step 4
Output
step 5
Output
step 3
Output
step 6
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
EC
,
Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
,
Wh/km.
EC ,
Wh/km.
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km.
Averaging of tests for all input values.
Regional option:
EC
Declaration of PER
and
EC
based on PER
and
EC
.
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle L and vehicle H.
Regional option:
Determination of the adjustment
factor and application to EC .
For example:
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
,
km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km.
EC ,
Wh/km.
6
7
EC = EC × AF
In the case that the interpolation
approach is applied, the output is
available for vehicle L and vehicle H.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 1
REESS STATE OF CHARGE PROFILE
1. TEST SEQUENCES AND REESS PROFILES: OVC-HEVS, CHARGE-DEPLETING
AND CHARGE-SUSTAINING TEST
1.1. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 1:
Charge-depleting type 1 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1 test
(Figure A8.App1/1).
Figure A8.App1/1
OVC-HEVs, Charge-depleting Type 1 Test

1.3. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 3:
Charge-depleting Type 1 test with subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1 test
(Figure A8.App1/3).
Figure A8.App1/3
OVC-HEVs, Charge-depleting Type 1 Test with
Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test

2. TEST SEQUENCE NOVC-HEVS AND NOVC-FCHVS
Charge-sustaining Type 1 test (Figure A8.App1/5)
Figure A8.App1/5
NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs, Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test
3. TEST SEQUENCES PEV
3.1. Consecutive Cycles Procedure (Figure A8.App1/6)
Figure A8.App1/6
Consecutive Cycles Test Sequence PEV

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 2
REESS ENERGY CHANGE-BASED CORRECTION PROCEDURE
This Appendix describes the procedure to correct the charge-sustaining Type 1 test CO mass emission
for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs, and the fuel consumption for NOVC-FCHVs as a function of the
electric energy change of all REESSs.
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Applicability of this Appendix
1.1.1. The phase-specific fuel consumption for NOVC-FCHVs, and the CO mass emission for
NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs shall be corrected.
1.1.2. In the case that a correction of fuel consumption for NOVC-FCHVs or a correction of CO
mass emission for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs measured over the whole cycle
according to Paragraph 1.1.3. or Paragraph 1.1.4. of this Appendix is applied,
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex shall be used to calculate the charge-sustaining REESS
energy change ∆E of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test. The considered period j
used in Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex is defined by the charge-sustaining Type 1 test.
1.1.3. The correction shall be applied if ∆E is negative which corresponds to REESS
discharging and the correction criterion c calculated in Paragraph 1.2. of this Appendix is
greater than the applicable tolerance according to Table A8.App2/1.
1.1.4. The correction may be omitted and uncorrected values may be used if:
(a) ∆E is positive which corresponds to REESS charging and the correction
criterion c calculated in Paragraph 1.2. of this appendix is greater than the
applicable tolerance according to Table A8.App2/1;
(b)
(c)
The correction criterion c calculated in Paragraph 1.2. of this appendix is smaller
than the applicable tolerance according to Table A8.App2/1;
The manufacturer can prove to the responsible authority by measurement that
there is no relation between ∆E and charge-sustaining CO mass emission
and ∆E and fuel consumption respectively.

1.2.2. Charge-sustaining Fuel Energy for NOVC-FCHVs
The charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel for NOVC-FCHVs shall be
calculated using the following equation:
E
=
1
0.36
×121×FC
× d
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel of the
applicable WLTP test cycle of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, Wh;
121 is the lower heating value of hydrogen, MJ/kg;
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Table A8/7, step No.1, kg/100km;
d is the distance driven over the corresponding applicable WLTP test cycle, km;
1
0.36
conversion factor to Wh.
Applicable Type 1 test
cycle
Table A8.App2/1
Correction Criteria
Low + Medium
Low + Medium +
High
Low + Medium +
High + Extra High
Correction criterion ratio c 0.015 0.01 0.005
2. CALCULATION OF CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS
2.1. The CO mass emission correction coefficient K , the fuel consumption correction
coefficients K , as well as, if required by the manufacturer, the phase-specific
correction coefficients K and K shall be developed based on the applicable
charge-sustaining Type 1 test cycles.
In the case that vehicle H was tested for the development of the correction coefficient for
CO mass emission for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs, the coefficient may be applied
within the interpolation family.
2.2. The correction coefficients shall be determined from a set of charge-sustaining Type 1
tests according to Paragraph 3. of this Appendix. The number of tests performed by the
manufacturer shall be equal to or greater than five.
The manufacturer may request to set the state of charge of the REESS prior to the test
according to the manufacturer's recommendation and as described in Paragraph 3. of
this Appendix. This practice shall only be used for the purpose of achieving a
charge-sustaining Type 1 test with opposite sign of the ∆E and with approval of
the responsible authority.

2.3. Calculation of Correction Coefficients K and K
2.3.1. Determination of the Fuel Consumption Correction Coefficient K
For NOVC-FCHVs, the fuel consumption correction coefficient K , determined by
driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined using the following equation:
K =
where:
∑ ( EC − EC ) × ( FC − FC
)
∑ ( EC − EC )
K
EC
is the fuel consumption correction coefficient, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km
EC is the mean charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of n tests based
on the REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of test n, not corrected for the
energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step No. 1, kg/100km;
FC is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of n
tests based on the fuel consumption, not corrected for the energy balance,
according to the equation below, kg/100km;
n
is the index number of the considered test;
n is the total number of tests;
and:
1
EC = ×
n

EC
and:
1
FC = ×
n

FC

2.3.2. Determination of CO Mass Emission Correction Coefficient K
For OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs, the CO mass emission correction coefficient K ,
determined by driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined by the following
equation:
where:
K
=

( EC − EC ) × ( M − M
)
∑ ( EC − EC )
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient, (g/km)/(Wh/km);
EC
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix, Wh/km;
EC is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining electric energy
consumption of n tests based on the REESS depletion according to
Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix, Wh/km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of test n, not corrected for the
energy balance, calculated according Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of n
tests based on the CO mass emission, not corrected for the energy
balance, according to the equation below, g/km;
n
is the index number of the considered test;
n is the total number of tests;
and:
M
1
= ×∑ M
n
The CO mass emission correction coefficient shall be rounded to four significant figures.
The statistical significance of the CO mass emission correction coefficient shall be
evaluated by the responsible authority.
2.3.2.1. It is permitted to apply the CO mass emission correction coefficient developed from
tests over the whole applicable WLTP test cycle for the correction of each individual
phase.
2.3.2.2. Additional to the requirements of Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix, at the request of the
manufacturer and upon approval of the responsible authority, separate CO mass
emission correction coefficients K for each individual phase may be developed.
In this case, the same criteria as described in Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix shall be
fulfilled in each individual phase and the procedure described in Paragraph 2.3.2. of this
Appendix shall be applied for each individual phase to determine phase-specific
correction coefficients.

3.1.1.3. Test Procedure
3.1.1.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected
according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.1.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex
shall be driven.
3.1.1.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.1.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2 of this Appendix consisting of Paragraph 3.1.1.1. to
Paragraph 3.1.1.3. inclusive of this Appendix.
3.1.2. Option 2 Test Sequence
3.1.2.1. Preconditioning
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 2.1.1. or
Paragraph 2.1.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex.
3.1.2.2. REESS Adjustment
After preconditioning, soaking according to Paragraph 2.1.3. of Appendix 4 to this Annex
shall be omitted and a break, during which the REESS is permitted to be adjusted, shall
be set to a maximum duration of 60min. A similar break shall be applied in advance of
each test. Immediately after the end of this break, the requirements of
Paragraph 3.1.2.3. of this Appendix shall be applied.
Upon request of the manufacturer, an additional warm-up procedure may be conducted
in advance of the REESS adjustment to ensure similar starting conditions for the
correction coefficient determination. If the manufacturer requests this additional warm-up
procedure, the identical warm-up procedure shall be applied repeatedly within the test
sequence.
3.1.2.3. Test Procedure
3.1.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected
according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex
shall be driven.
3.1.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.2.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of
the correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive
sequences required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of
Paragraphs 3.1.2.2. and 3.1.2.3. of this Appendix.

3.2.1.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.2.1.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of
the correction coefficients, the test can be followed by a number of consecutive
sequences required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of
Paragraph 3.2.1.1. to Paragraph 3.2.1.3. inclusive of this Appendix.
3.2.2. Option 2 Test Sequence
3.2.2.1. Preconditioning
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 3.3.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.2.2. REESS Adjustment
After preconditioning, the soaking according to Paragraph 3.3.1.2. of this Annex shall be
omitted and a break, during which the REESS is permitted to be adjusted, shall be set to
a maximum duration of 60min. A similar break shall be applied in advance of each test.
Immediately after the end of this break, the requirements of Paragraph 3.2.2.3. of this
Appendix shall be applied.
Upon request of the manufacturer, an additional warm-up procedure may be conducted
in advance of the REESS adjustment to ensure similar starting conditions for the
correction coefficient determination. If the manufacturer requests this additional warm-up
procedure, the identical warm-up procedure shall be applied repeatedly within the test
sequence.
3.2.2.3. Test Procedure
3.2.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected
according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.2.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex
shall be driven.
3.2.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.2.2.3.4. To get a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test can be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraphs 3.2.2.2.
and 3.2.2.3. of this Appendix.

2.1.3. The current transducer output shall be sampled with a minimum frequency of 20Hz. The
measured current shall be integrated over time, yielding the measured value of Q,
expressed in ampere-hours Ah. The integration may be done in the current
measurement system.
2.2. Vehicle on-board REESS Current Data
As an alternative to Paragraph 2.1. of this Appendix, the manufacturer may use the
on-board current measurement data. The accuracy of these data shall be demonstrated
to the responsible authority.
3. REESS VOLTAGE
3.1. External REESS Voltage Measurement
During the tests described in Paragraph 3. of this annex, the REESS voltage shall be
measured with the equipment and accuracy requirements specified in Paragraph 1.1. of
this annex. To measure the REESS voltage using external measuring equipment, the
manufacturers shall support the responsible authority by providing REESS voltage
measurement points.
3.2. Nominal REESS Voltage
For NOVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-HEVs, instead of using the measured
REESS voltage according to Paragraph 3.1. of this Appendix, the nominal voltage of the
REESS determined according to DIN EN 60050-482 may be used.
3.3. Vehicle on-board REESS Voltage Data
As an alternative to Paragraph 3.1. and 3.2. of this appendix, the manufacturer may use
the on-board voltage measurement data. The accuracy of these data shall be
demonstrated to the responsible authority.

2.2.3. Application of a Normal Charge
2.2.3.1. The REESS shall be charged at an ambient temperature as specified in
Paragraph 2.2.2.2. of Annex 6 either with:
(a)
(b)
The on-board charger if fitted; or
An external charger recommended by the manufacturer using the charging pattern
prescribed for normal charging.
The procedures in this Paragraph exclude all types of special charges that could be
automatically or manually initiated, e.g. equalization charges or servicing charges. The
manufacturer shall declare that, during the test, a special charge procedure has not
occurred.
2.2.3.2. End of Charge Criterion
The end-of-charge criterion is reached when the on-board or external instruments
indicate that the REESS is fully charged.
3. PEV PRE-CONDITIONING
3.1. Initial Charging of the REESS
Initial charging of the REESS consists of discharging the REESS and applying a normal
charge.
3.1.1. Discharging the REESS
The discharge procedure shall be performed according to the manufacturer's
recommendation. The manufacturer shall guarantee that the REESS is as fully depleted
as is possible by the discharge procedure.
3.1.2. Application of a Normal Charge
The REESS shall be charged according to Paragraph 2.2.3.1. of this Appendix.

Table A8.App5/1
Parameters for the Regional Determination of Fractional UFs
Parameter
Europe
Japan
USA (fleet)
USA (individual)
d
800km
400km
399.9mi
400mi
C1
26.25
11.9
10.52
13.1
C2
-38.94
-32.5
-7.282
-18.7
C3
-631.05
89.5
-26.37
5.22
C4
5964.83
-134
79.08
8.15
C5
-25095
98.9
-77.36
3.53
C6
60380.2
-29.1
26.07
-1.34
C7
-87517
NA
NA
-4.01
C8
75513.8
NA
NA
-3.9
C9
-35749
NA
NA
-1.15
C10
7154.94
NA
NA
3.88

2.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 2.1. and Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9 of Annex 1:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle under charge-depleting operating conditions, this mode shall
be selected.
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow
the modified reference test cycle under charge-depleting operating condition, the
mode with the highest electric energy consumption shall be selected.
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test
cycle under charge-depleting operating condition, the mode or modes with the
highest cycle energy demand shall be identified and the mode with the highest
electric energy consumption shall be selected.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle can be replaced by
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected.

3.2. If there is no predominant mode or if there is a predominant mode but this mode does
not enable the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle under charge-sustaining
operating condition, the mode for the test shall be selected according to the following
conditions:
(a)
(b)
If there is only one mode which allows the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle
under charge-sustaining operating conditions, this mode shall be selected;
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle under
charge-sustaining operating conditions, it shall be at the option of the
manufacturer either to select the worst case mode or to select both best case
mode and worst case mode and average the test results arithmetically.
3.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 3.1. and Paragraph 3.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9. of Annex 1:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, this mode shall
be selected.
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow
the modified reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, the
worst case mode of these modes shall be selected.
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test
cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, the mode or modes with the
highest cycle energy demand shall be identified and the worst case mode shall be
selected.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle can be replaced by
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the worst case mode shall be selected.

4.2. If there is no predominant mode or if there is a predominant mode but this mode does
not enable the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the mode for the test shall be
selected according to the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
If there is only one mode which allows the vehicle to follow the reference test
cycle, this mode shall be selected.
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle, the most
electric energy consuming mode of those shall be selected.
4.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 4.1. and Paragraph 4.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9. of Annex 1. The resulting test cycle shall be named
as the applicable WLTP test cycle:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle, this mode shall be selected;
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow
the modified reference test cycle, the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected;
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test
cycle, the mode or modes with the highest cycle energy demand shall be identified
and the mode with the highest electric energy consumption shall be selected;
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle may be replaced by
the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected.

ANNEX 8 - APPENDIX 7
FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF COMPRESSED
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL HYBRID VEHICLES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Fuel consumption shall be measured using the gravimetric method in accordance with
Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, fuel
consumption may be measured using either the pressure method or the flow method. In
this case, the manufacturer shall provide technical evidence that the method yields
equivalent results. The pressure and flow methods are described in ISO 23828.
2. GRAVIMETRIC METHOD
Fuel consumption shall be calculated by measuring the mass of the fuel tank before and
after the test.
2.1. Equipment and Setting
2.1.1. An example of the instrumentation is shown in Figure A8.App7/1. One or more
off-vehicle tanks shall be used to measure the fuel consumption. The off-vehicle tank(s)
shall be connected to the vehicle fuel line between the original fuel tank and the fuel cell
system.
2.1.2. For preconditioning, the originally installed tank or an external source of hydrogen may
be used.
2.1.3. The refuelling pressure shall be adjusted to the manufacturer's recommended value.
2.1.4. Difference of the gas supply pressures in lines shall be minimized when the lines are
switched.
In the case that influence of pressure difference is expected, the manufacturer and
responsible authority shall agree whether correction is necessary or not.
2.1.5. Precision Balance
2.1.5.1. The precision balance used for fuel consumption measurement shall meet the
specification of Table A8.App7/1.
Table A8.App7/1
Analytical Balance Verification Criteria
Measurement system Resolution (readability) Precision (repeatability)
Precision balance 0.1g maximum 0.02 maximum

2.2.4. The off-vehicle tank shall be removed from the line.
2.2.5. The mass of the tank after the test shall be measured.
2.2.6. The non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption FC from the measured mass
before and after the test shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
g - g
FC = × 100
d
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption measured during the
test, kg/100km;
g
g
d
is the mass of the tank at the start of the test, kg;
is the mass of the tank at the end of the test, kg;
is the distance driven during the test, km.
2.2.7. If required by a Contracting Party, separate fuel consumption FC as defined in
Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.4. and 4.2.1.2.5. of this annex shall be calculated for each individual
phase in accordance with Paragraph 2.2. of this appendix. The test procedure shall be
conducted with off-vehicle tanks and connections to the vehicle fuel line which are
individually prepared for each phase.

Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure.