Global Technical Regulation No. 15

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 15
Description:Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).
Official Title:Global Technical Regulation No. 15 on Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2014-05-12
Amendment Level:Amendment 5 of September 23, 2019
Number of Pages:412
Vehicle Types:Car, Component, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.15/Amend.5
September 23, 2019
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum 15:
UN GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION No. 15
WORLDWIDE HARMONIZED LIGHT VEHICLES TEST PROCEDURE (WLTP)
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 12, 2014)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1
dated March 8, 2017
Amendment 2
dated August 24, 2017
Amendment 3
dated Feburary 1, 2018
Amendment 4
dated September 20, 2018
Amendment 5
dated September 23, 2019

7. Calculations
8. Pure Electric, Hybrid Electric and Compressed Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
REESS State of Charge Profile
REESS Energy Change-based Correction Procedure
Determination of REESS Current and REESS Voltage for NOVC-HEVs,
OVC-HEVs, PEVs and NOVC-FCHVs
Preconditioning, Soaking and REESS Charging Conditions of PEVs and
OVC-HEVs
Utility Factors (UF) for OVC-HEVs
Selection of Driver-selectable Modes
Fuel Consumption Measurement of Compressed Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid
Vehicles
9. Determination of Method Equivalency

B. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WLTP
6. In its November 2007 session, WP.29 decided to set up an informal WLTP group under
GRPE to prepare a road map for the development of WLTP. After various meetings and
intense discussions, WLTP presented in June 2009 a first road map consisting of 3 phases,
which was subsequently revised a number of times and contains the following main tasks:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Phase 1 (2009 – 2015): development of the worldwide harmonized light duty driving
cycle and associated test procedure for the common measurement of criteria
compounds, CO , fuel and energy consumption;
Phase 2 (2014 – 2018): low temperature/high altitude test procedure, durability,
in-service conformity, technical requirements for On-board Diagnostics (OBD), Mobile
Air-conditioning (MAC) system energy efficiency, off-cycle/real driving emissions;
Phase 3 (2018 – …): emission limit values and OBD threshold limits, definition of
reference fuels, comparison with regional requirements.
7. It should be noted that since the beginning of the WLTP process, the European Union had a
strong political objective set by its own legislation (Regulations (EC) 443/2009 and
510/2011) to implement a new and more realistic test cycle by 2014, which was a major
political driving factor for setting the time frame of Phase 1.
8. For the work of Phase 1 the following working groups and subgroups were established:
(a)
Development of Harmonized Cycle (DHC): construction of a new Worldwide
Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC), i.e. the speed trace of the WLTP, based on statistical
analysis of real driving data;
The DHC group started working in September 2009, launched the collection of driving
data in 2010 and proposed a first version of the driving cycle by mid-2011, which was
revised a number of times to take into consideration technical issues such as
driveability and a better representation of driving conditions after a first validation.
(b)
Development of Test Procedures (DTP): development of test procedures with the
following specific expert groups:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
PM/PN: Mass of particulate matter and Particle Number (PN) measurements;
AP: Additional Pollutant measurements, i.e. measurement procedures for
exhaust substances which are not yet regulated as compounds but may be
regulated in the near future, such as NO , ethanol, formaldehyde,
acetaldehyde, and ammonia;
LabProcICE: test conditions and measurement procedures of existing
regulated compounds for vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines
(other than PM and PN);
EV-HEV: specific test conditions and measurement procedures for electric and
hybrid-electric vehicles;
Reference fuels: definition of reference fuels.
The DTP group started working in April 2010.

(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
End of Electric Vehicle (EV) range criteria;
Interpolation method for OVC-HEVs and PEVs;
Utility factors;
Predominant mode/mode selection.
(c)
Alternative pollutants:
Measurement method for ammonia, ethanol, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
(d)
Development of the Harmonized driving Cycle (DHC):
(i)
(ii)
Further downscaling in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation;
Gear shifting.
C. BACKGROUND ON DRIVING CYCLES AND TEST PROCEDURES
11. The development of the worldwide harmonized light duty vehicle driving cycle was based on
experience gained from work on the Worldwide Heavy-Duty Certification procedure
(WHDC), Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and national cycles.
12. The WLTC is a transient cycle by design. To construct WLTC, driving data from all
participating Contracting Parties were collected and weighted according to the relative
contribution of regions to the globally driven mileage and data collected for WLTP purpose.
13. The resulting driving data were subsequently cut into idling periods and "short trips"
(i.e. driving events between two idling periods). With the above-mentioned weightings the
following unified frequency distributions were calculated:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Short trip duration distribution;
Stop phase duration distribution;
Joint vehicle speed acceleration (v, a) distribution.
These distributions together with the averages of vehicle speed, short trip and stop phase
durations built the basis for the development of the WLTC speed trace.
By randomised combinations of these segments, a large number of "draft cycles" were
generated. From the latter "draft cycle" family, the cycle best fitting the
averages/distributions described above was selected as a first "raw WLTC". In the
subsequent work, the "raw WLTC" was further processed, in particular with respect to its
driveability and better representativeness, to obtain the final WLTC.

II.
TEXT OF THE UN GTR
1. PURPOSE
This United Nations global technical regulation (UN GTR) aims at providing a
worldwide harmonized method to determine the levels of emissions of gaseous
compounds, particulate matter, particle number, CO emissions, fuel consumption,
electric energy consumption and electric range from light-duty vehicles in a
repeatable and reproducible manner designed to be representative of real-world
vehicle operation. The results will provide the basis for the regulation of these
vehicles within regional type approval and certification procedures.
2. SCOPE AND APPLICATION
This UN GTR applies to vehicles of Categories 1-2 and 2, both having a technically
permissible maximum laden mass not exceeding 3,500kg, and to all vehicles of
Category 1-1.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1. Test Equipment
3.1.1. "Accuracy" means the difference between a measured value and a reference value,
traceable to a national standard and describes the correctness of a result. See
Figure 1.
3.1.2. "Calibration" means the process of setting a measurement system's response so
that its output agrees with a range of reference signals.
3.1.3. "Calibration gas" means a gas mixture used to calibrate gas analysers.
3.1.4. "Double dilution method" means the process of separating a part of the diluted
exhaust flow and mixing it with an appropriate amount of dilution air prior to the
particulate sampling filter.
3.1.5. "Full flow exhaust dilution system" means the continuous dilution of the total
vehicle exhaust with ambient air in a controlled manner using a Constant Volume
Sampler (CVS).
3.1.6. "Linearization" means the application of a range of concentrations or materials to
establish a mathematical relationship between concentration and system response.
3.1.7. "Major maintenance" means the adjustment, repair or replacement of a component
or module that could affect the accuracy of a measurement.
3.1.8. "Non-methane Hydrocarbons" (NMHC) are the Total Hydrocarbons (THC) minus
the methane (CH ) contribution.
3.1.9. "Precision" means the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged
conditions show the same results (Figure 1) and, in this UN GTR, always refers to
one standard deviation.
3.1.10. "Reference value" means a value traceable to a national standard. See Figure 1.
3.1.11. "Set point" means the target value a control system aims to reach.

3.2. Road Load and Dynamometer Setting
3.2.1. "Aerodynamic drag" means the force opposing a vehicle's forward motion through
air.
3.2.2. "Aerodynamic stagnation point" means the point on the surface of a vehicle where
wind velocity is equal to zero.
3.2.3. "Anemometer blockage" means the effect on the anemometer measurement due to
the presence of the vehicle where the apparent air speed is different than the vehicle
speed combined with wind speed relative to the ground.
3.2.4. "Constrained analysis" means the vehicle's frontal area and aerodynamic drag
coefficient have been independently determined and those values shall be used in the
equation of motion.
3.2.5. "Mass in running order" means the mass of the vehicle, with its fuel tank(s) filled to
at least 90% of its or their capacity/capacities, including the mass of the driver, fuel
and liquids, fitted with the standard equipment in accordance with the manufacturer's
specifications and, when they are fitted, the mass of the bodywork, the cabin, the
coupling and the spare wheel(s) as well as the tools.
3.2.6. "Mass of the driver" means a mass rated at 75kg located at the driver's seating
reference point.
3.2.7. "Maximum vehicle load" means the technically permissible maximum laden mass
minus the mass in running order, 25kg and the mass of the optional equipment as
defined in Paragraph 3.2.8. of this UN GTR.
3.2.8. "Mass of the optional equipment" means maximum mass of the combinations of
optional equipment which may be fitted to the vehicle in addition to the standard
equipment in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
3.2.9. "Optional equipment" means all the features not included in the standard equipment
which are fitted to a vehicle under the responsibility of the manufacturer, and that can
be ordered by the customer.
3.2.10. "Reference atmospheric conditions (regarding road load measurements)"
means the atmospheric conditions to which these measurement results are corrected:
(a)
(b)
Atmospheric pressure: p = 100kPa;
Atmospheric temperature: T = 20°C;
(c) Dry air density: ρ = 1.189kg/m ;
(d)
Wind speed: 0m/s.
3.2.11. "Reference speed" means the vehicle speed at which road load is determined or
chassis dynamometer load is verified.
3.2.12. "Road load" means the force resisting the forward motion of a vehicle as measured
with the coastdown method or methods that are equivalent regarding the inclusion of
frictional losses of the drivetrain.

3.2.28. "n/v ratio" means the engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed in a specific
gear.
3.2.29. "Single roller dynamometer" means a dynamometer where each wheel on a
vehicle's axle is in contact with one roller.
3.2.30. "Twin-roller dynamometer" means a dynamometer where each wheel on a
vehicle's axle is in contact with two rollers.
3.3. Pure Electric, Pure ICE, Hybrid Electric, Fuel Cell and Alternatively-fuelled
Vehicles
3.3.1. "All-electric Range" (AER) means the total distance travelled by an OVC-HEV from
the beginning of the charge-depleting test to the point in time during the test when the
combustion engine starts to consume fuel.
3.3.2. "Pure Electric Range" (PER) means the total distance travelled by a PEV from the
beginning of the charge-depleting test until the break-off criterion is reached.
3.3.3. "Charge-depleting Actual Range" (R ) means the distance travelled in a series of
WLTCs in charge-depleting operating condition until the Rechargeable Electric
Energy Storage System (REESS) is depleted.
3.3.4. "Charge-depleting Cycle Range" (R ) means the distance from the beginning of
the charge-depleting test to the end of the last cycle prior to the cycle or cycles
satisfying the break-off criterion, including the transition cycle where the vehicle may
have operated in both depleting and sustaining conditions.
3.3.5. "Charge-depleting operating condition" means an operating condition in which the
energy stored in the REESS may fluctuate but decreases on average while the
vehicle is driven until transition to charge-sustaining operation.
3.3.6. "Charge-sustaining operating condition" means an operating condition in which
the energy stored in the REESS may fluctuate but, on average, is maintained at a
neutral charging balance level while the vehicle is driven.
3.3.7. "Utility factors" are ratios based on driving statistics depending on the range
achieved in charge-depleting condition and are used to weigh the charge-depleting
and
charge-sustaining exhaust emission compounds, CO emissions and fuel
consumption for OVC-HEVs.
3.3.8. "Electric Machine" (EM) means an energy converter transforming between electrical
and mechanical energy.
3.3.9. "Energy converter" means a system where the form of energy output is different
from the form of energy input.
3.3.9.1. "Propulsion energy converter" means an energy converter of the powertrain which
is not a peripheral device whose output energy is used directly or indirectly for the
purpose of vehicle propulsion.
3.3.9.2. "Category of propulsion energy converter" means (i) an internal combustion
engine, or (ii) an electric machine, or (iii) a fuel cell.

3.3.22. "Bi-fuel gas vehicle" means a bi-fuel vehicle where the two fuels are petrol (petrol
mode) and either LPG, NG/biomethane, or hydrogen.
3.3.23. "Pure ICE vehicle" means a vehicle where all of the propulsion energy converters
are internal combustion engines.
3.3.24. "On-board charger" means the electric power converter between the traction
REESS and the vehicle's recharging socket.
3.4. Powertrain
3.4.1. "Powertrain" means the total combination in a vehicle of propulsion energy storage
system(s), propulsion energy converter(s) and the drivetrain(s) providing the
mechanical energy at the wheels for the purpose of vehicle propulsion, plus
peripheral devices.
3.4.2. "Auxiliary devices" means energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying
non-peripheral devices or systems which are installed in the vehicle for purposes
other than the propulsion of the vehicle and are therefore not considered to be part of
the powertrain.
3.4.3. "Peripheral devices" means any energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying
devices, where the energy is not directly or indirectly used for the purpose of vehicle
propulsion but which are essential to the operation of the powertrain and are therefore
considered to be part of the powertrain.
3.4.4. "Drivetrain" means the connected elements of the powertrain for transmission of the
mechanical energy between the propulsion energy converter(s) and the wheels.
3.4.5. "Manual transmission" means a transmission where gears can only be shifted by
action of the driver.
3.5. General
3.5.1. "Criteria emissions" means those emission compounds for which limits are set in
regional legislation.
3.5.2. "Category 1 vehicle" means a power-driven vehicle with four or more wheels
designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of one or more persons.
3.5.3. "Category 1-1 vehicle" means a Category 1 vehicle comprising not more than
eight seating positions in addition to the driver's seating position. A Category 1-1
vehicle may not have standing passengers.
3.5.4. "Category 1-2 vehicle" means a Category 1 vehicle designed for the carriage of
more than eight passengers, whether seated or standing, in addition to the driver.
3.5.5. "Category 2 vehicle" means a power-driven vehicle with four or more wheels
designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of goods. This category shall also
include:
(a)
(b)
Tractive units;
Chassis designed specifically to be equipped with special equipment.
3.5.6. "Cycle energy demand" means the calculated positive energy required by the
vehicle to drive the prescribed cycle.

4. ABBREVIATIONS
4.1. General Abbreviations
AC
CFD
CFV
CFO
CLD
CLA
CVS
DC
EAF
ECD
ET
Extra High
Extra High
FCHV
FID
FSD
FTIR
GC
HEPA
HFID
High
High
High
ICE
LoD
LoQ
Low
Low
Low
Alternating current
Computational fluid dynamics
Critical flow venturi
Critical flow orifice
Chemiluminescent detector
Chemiluminescent analyser
Constant volume sampler
Direct current
Sum of ethanol, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde
Electron capture detector
Evaporation tube
Class 2 WLTC extra high speed phase
Class 3 WLTC extra high speed phase
Fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Flame ionization detector
Full scale deflection
Fourier transform infrared analyser
Gas chromatograph
High efficiency particulate air (filter)
Heated flame ionization detector
Class 2 WLTC high speed phase
Class 3a WLTC high speed phase
Class 3b WLTC high speed phase
Internal combustion engine
Limit of detection
Limit of quantification
Class 1 WLTC low speed phase
Class 2 WLTC low speed phase
Class 3 WLTC low speed phase

QCL-IR
Infrared quantum cascade laser
R Charge-depleting actual range
RCB
REESS
RRC
SSV
USFM
VPR
WLTC
REESS charge balance
Rechargeable electric energy storage system
Rolling resistance coefficient
Subsonic venturi
Ultrasonic flow meter
Volatile particle remover
Worldwide light-duty test cycle
4.2. Chemical Symbols and Abbreviations
C
CH
C H
C H OH
C H
CH CHO
CO
CO
DOP
H O
HCHO
NH
NMHC
NO
NO
NO
N O
THC
Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon
Methane
Ethane
Ethanol
Propane
Acetaldehyde
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Di-octylphthalate
Water
Formaldehyde
Ammonia
Non-methane hydrocarbons
Oxides of nitrogen
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Total hydrocarbons

5.5. Provisions for Electronic System Security
5.5.1. Any vehicle with an emission control computer shall include features to deter
modification, except as authorised by the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall
authorise modifications if those modifications are necessary for the diagnosis,
servicing, inspection, retrofitting or repair of the vehicle. Any reprogrammable
computer codes or operating parameters shall be resistant to tampering and afford a
level of protection at least as good as the provisions in ISO 15031-7
(March 15, 2001). Any removable calibration memory chips shall be potted, encased
in a sealed container or protected by electronic algorithms and shall not be
changeable without the use of specialized tools and procedures.
5.5.2. Computer-coded engine operating parameters shall not be changeable without the
use of specialized tools and procedures (e.g. soldered or potted computer
components or sealed (or soldered) enclosures).
5.5.3. Manufacturers may seek approval from the responsible authority for an exemption to
one of these requirements for those vehicles that are unlikely to require protection.
The criteria that the responsible authority shall evaluate in considering an exemption
shall include, but are not limited to, the current availability of performance chips, the
high-performance capability of the vehicle and the projected sales volume of the
vehicle.
5.5.4. Manufacturers using programmable computer code systems shall deter unauthorised
reprogramming. Manufacturers shall include enhanced tamper protection strategies
and write-protect features requiring electronic access to an off-site computer
maintained by the manufacturer. Methods giving an adequate level of tamper
protection shall be approved by the responsible authority.
5.6. Interpolation Family
5.6.1. Interpolation Family for Pure ICE Vehicles
5.6.1.1. Vehicles may be part of the same interpolation family in any of the following cases
including combinations of these cases:
(a)
(b)
They belong to different vehicle classes as described in Paragraph 2. of
Annex 1;
They have different levels of downscaling as described in Paragraph 8. of
Annex 1;
(c) They have different capped speeds as described in Paragraph 9. of Annex 1.
5.6.1.2. Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following vehicle/
power-train/transmission characteristics may be part of the same interpolation family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Type of internal combustion engine: fuel type (or types in the case of bi-fuel
vehicles), combustion process, engine displacement, full-load characteristics,
engine technology, and charging system, and also other engine subsystems or
characteristics that have a non-negligible influence on CO mass emission
under WLTP conditions;
Operation strategy of all CO mass emission influencing components within the
powertrain;
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g.
torque rating, number of gears, number of clutches, etc.);

(f)
(g)
Operation strategy of all components influencing the electric energy
consumption within the powertrain;
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement
shall be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the
difference with respect to the n/v ratios of the most commonly installed
transmission type and model is within 8%.
5.7. Road Load Family
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be
part of the same road load family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g.
torque rating, number of gears, number of clutches, etc.). At the request of the
manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a transmission
with lower power losses may be included in the family;
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement
shall be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the
difference with respect to the transmission ratios of the most commonly
installed transmission type is within 25%;
Number of powered axles.
If at least one electric machine is coupled in the gearbox position neutral and the
vehicle is not equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode (Paragraph 4.2.1.8.5. of
Annex 4) such that the electric machine has no influence on the road load, the criteria
in Paragraph 5.6.2. (a) of this UN GTR and Paragraph 5.6.3. (a) of this UN GTR shall
apply.
If there is a difference, apart from vehicle mass, rolling resistance and aerodynamics,
that has a non-negligible influence on road load, that vehicle shall not be considered
to be part of the family unless approved by the responsible authority.
5.8. Road Load Matrix Family
The road load matrix family may be applied for vehicles with a technically permissible
maximum laden mass ≥3,000kg.
Vehicles with a technically permissible maximum laden mass ≥2,500kg may be part
of the road load matrix family provided the driver seat R-point height is above 850mm
from the ground.
"R-point" means "R" point or "seating reference point" as defined in Paragraph 2.4. of
Annex 1 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3.).
Only vehicles which are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be
part of the same road load matrix family:
(a)
(b)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT);
Number of powered axles.

7. ROUNDING
7.1. When the digit immediately to the right of the last place to be retained is less than 5,
that digit shall remain unchanged.
Example:
If a result is 1.234g but only two places of decimal are to be retained, the final result
shall be 1.23g.
7.2. When the digit immediately to the right of the last place to be retained is greater than
or equal to 5, that digit shall be increased by 1.
Example:
If a result is 1.236g but only two places of decimal are to be retained, and because 6
is greater than 5, the final result shall be 1.24g.

3.3. Class 3 Cycle
Class 3 cycles are divided into 2 subclasses to reflect the subdivision of Class 3 vehicles.
3.3.1. Class 3a Cycle
3.3.1.1. A complete cycle shall consist of a low phase (Low ), a medium phase (Medium ), a high
phase (High ) and an extra high phase (Extra High ).
3.3.1.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/7 and Table A1/7.
3.3.1.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/8 and Table A1/8.
3.3.1.4. The High phase is described in Figure A1/10 and Table A1/10.
3.3.1.5. The Extra High phase is described in Figure A1/12 and Table A1/12.
3.3.1.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High phase may be excluded.
3.3.2. Class 3b Cycle
3.3.2.1. A complete cycle shall consist of a low phase (Low ) phase, a medium phase (Medium ), a
high phase (High ) and an extra high phase (Extra High ).
3.3.2.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/7 and Table A1/7.
3.3.2.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/9 and Table A1/9.
3.3.2.4. The High phase is described in Figure A1/11 and Table A1/11.
3.3.2.5. The Extra High phase is described in Figure A1/12 and Table A1/12.
3.3.2.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High phase may be excluded.
3.4. Duration of All Phases
3.4.1. All low speed phases last 589s.
3.4.2. All medium speed phases last 433s.
3.4.3. All high speed phases last 455s.
3.4.4. All extra high speed phases last 323s.
3.5. WLTC City Cycles
OVC-HEVs and PEVs shall be tested using the appropriate Class 3a and Class 3b WLTC
and WLTC city cycles (see Annex 8).
The WLTC city cycle consists of the low and medium speed phases only.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the WLTC city may be excluded.

Table A1/1
WLTC, Class 1 Cycle, Phase Low





Figure A1/5
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase High
Figure A1/6
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Extra High



Table A1/4
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Medium


Table A1/5
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase High


Table A1/6
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Extra High


Figure A1/9
WLTC, Class 3b Cycle, Phase Medium
Figure A1/10
WLTC, Class 3a Cycle, Phase High

Table A1/7
WLTC, Class 3 Cycle, Phase Low












7. CYCLE IDENTIFICATION
In order to confirm if the correct cycle version was chosen or if the correct cycle was
implemented into the test bench operation system, checksums of the vehicle speed values
for cycle phases and the whole cycle are listed in Table A1/13.
Table A1/13
1Hz Checksums
Cycle Class Cycle Phase Checksum of 1Hz Target Vehicle Speeds
Low 11988.4
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3a
Class 3b
Medium
17162.8
Low
11988.4
Total
41139.6
Low
11162.2
Medium
17054.3
High
24450.6
Extra High
28869.8
Total
81536.9
Low
11140.3
Medium
16995.7
High
25646.0
Extra High
29714.9
Total
83496.9
Low
11140.3
Medium
17121.2
High
25782.2
Extra High
29714.9
Total
83758.6

For the Class 1 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 651 and
second 906. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 651 and second 906.
The downscaling shall be applied first in the time period between second 651 and
second 848. The downscaled speed trace shall be subsequently calculated using the
following equation:
With i = 651 to 847.
For i = 651, v = v .
In order to meet the original vehicle speed at second 907, a correction factor for the
deceleration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where 36.7km/h is the original vehicle speed at second 907.
The downscaled vehicle speed between second 849 and second 906 shall be subsequently
calculated using the following equation:
For i = 849 to 906.

The downscaling shall be applied first to the time period between second 1,520 and
second 1,725. Second 1,725 is the time when the maximum speed of the extra high speed
phase is reached. The downscaled speed trace shall be subsequently calculated using the
following equation:
For i = 1,520 to 1,724.
For i = 1,520, v = v .
In order to meet the original vehicle speed at second 1,743, a correction factor for the
deceleration shall be calculated using the following equation:
90.4km/h is the original vehicle speed at second 1,743.
The downscaled vehicle speed between second 1,726 and second 1,742 shall be calculated
using the following equation:
For i = 1,726 to 1,742.
8.2.3. Downscaling Procedure for Class 3 Vehicles
Figure A1/16 shows an example for a downscaled extra high speed phase of the Class 3
WLTC.
Figure A1/16
Downscaled Extra High Speed Phase of the Class 3 WLTC

8.3. Determination of the Downscaling Factor
The downscaling factor f is a function of the ratio r between the maximum required
power of the cycle phases where the downscaling is to be applied and the rated power of
the vehicle, P .
The maximum required power P (in kW) is related to a specific time i and the
corresponding vehicle speed v in the cycle trace and is calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
f , f , f
TM
v
are the applicable road load coefficients, N, N/(km/h), and N/(km/h) respectively;
is the applicable test mass, kg;
is the speed at time i, km/h;
a is the acceleration at time i, km/h .
The cycle time i at which maximum power or power values close to maximum power is
required is second 764 for the Class 1 cycle, second 1,574 for the Class 2 cycle and
second 1,566 for the Class 3 cycle.
The corresponding vehicle speed values, v , and acceleration values, a , are as follows:
v = 61.4km/h, a = 0.22m/s for Class 1,
v = 109.9km/h, a = 0.36m/s for Class 2,
v = 111.9km/h, a = 0.50m/s for Class 3.
r shall be calculated using the following equation:
The downscaling factor, f
, shall be calculated using the following equations:
If r
< r , then f
= 0
and no downscaling shall be applied.
If r
≥ r , then f
= a × r
+ b .
The calculation parameter/coefficients, r , a and b , are as follows:
Class 1
r = 0.978, a = 0.680, b = -0.665
Class 2
r = 0.866, a = 0.606, b = -0.525.
Class 3
r = 0.867, a = 0.588 b = -0.510.

9.2. Calculation Steps
9.2.1. Determination of the Distance Difference per Cycle Phase
An interim capped speed cycle shall be derived by replacing all vehicle speed samples v
where v > v by v .
9.2.1.1. If v < v , the distance of the medium speed phases of the base cycle d
and the interim capped speed cycle d shall be calculated using the following
equation for both cycles:
Where:
v is the maximum vehicle speed of the medium speed phase as listed in
Table A1/2 for the Class 1 cycle, in Table A1/4 for the Class 2 cycle, in
Table A1/8 for the Class 3a cycle and in Table A1/9 for the Class 3b cycle.
9.2.1.2. If v < v , the distances of the high speed phases of the base cycle d and the
interim capped speed cycle d shall be calculated using the following equation for both
cycles:
v is the maximum vehicle speed of the high speed phase as listed in Table A1/5
for the Class 2 cycle, in Table A1/10 for the Class 3a cycle and in Table A1/11
for the Class 3b cycle.
9.2.1.3. The distances of the extra high speed phase of the base cycle d and the interim
capped speed cycle d shall be calculated applying the following equation to the extra
high speed phase of both cycles:
9.2.2. Determination of the Time Periods to be added to the Interim Capped Speed Cycle in Order
to Compensate for Distance Differences
In order to compensate for a difference in distance between the base cycle and the interim
capped speed cycle, corresponding time periods with v = v shall be added to the interim
capped speed cycle as described in Paragraphs 9.2.2.1. to 9.2.2.3. inclusive of this Annex.
9.2.2.1. Additional Time Period for the Medium Speed Phase
If v < v , the additional time period to be added to the medium speed phase of the
interim capped speed cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
The number of time samples n with v = v to be added to the medium speed
phase of the interim capped speed cycle equals Δ , rounded according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR to the nearest integer.

In a next step, the first part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle up to
the last sample in the high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time of this
sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this sample in
the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
).
Then, n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample
becomes (t + n + n ).
The remaining part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,477 + n + n ).
In a next step, the first part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle
up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time
of this sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this
sample in the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
+ n
).
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n + n + n ).
The remaining part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which
is identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,800 + n + n + n ).
The length of the final capped speed cycle is equivalent to the length of the base cycle
except for differences caused by the rounding process according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR for n , n and n .
9.2.3.2.2. v ≤ v < v
The first part of the final capped speed cycle consists of the vehicle speed trace of the
interim capped speed cycle up to the last sample in the high speed phase where v = v .
The time of this sample is referred to as t .
Then, n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n ).
The remaining part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,477 + n ).
In a next step, the first part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle
up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time
of this sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this
sample in the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
).
Then nadd,exhigh samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample
is (t + n + n ).

ANNEX 2
GEAR SELECTION AND SHIFT POINT DETERMINATION FOR VEHICLES EQUIPPED
WITH MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS
1. GENERAL APPROACH
1.1. The shifting procedures described in this Annex shall apply to vehicles equipped with
manual shift transmissions.
1.2. The prescribed gears and shifting points are based on the balance between the power
required to overcome driving resistance and acceleration, and the power provided by the
engine in all possible gears at a specific cycle phase.
1.3. The calculation to determine the gears to use shall be based on engine speeds and full load
power curves versus engine speed.
1.4. For vehicles equipped with a dual-range transmission (low and high), only the range
designed for normal on-road operation shall be considered for gear use determination.
1.5. The prescriptions for clutch operation shall not be applied if the clutch is operated
automatically without the need of an engagement or disengagement of the driver.
1.6. This Annex shall not apply to vehicles tested according to Annex 8.
2. REQUIRED DATA AND PRECALCULATIONS
The following data are required and calculations shall be performed in order to determine
the gears to be used when driving the cycle on a chassis dynamometer:
(a) P , the maximum rated engine power as declared by the manufacturer, kW;
(b) n , the rated engine speed declared by the manufacturer as the engine speed at
which the engine develops its maximum power, min ;
(c) n , idling speed, min .
n shall be measured over a period of at least 1min at a sampling rate of at least
1Hz with the engine running in warm condition, the gear lever placed in neutral, and
the clutch engaged. The conditions for temperature, peripheral and auxiliary devices,
etc. shall be the same as described in Annex 6 for the Type 1 test.
The value to be used in this Annex shall be the arithmetic average over the
measuring period and rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the
nearest 10min ;
(d)
ng, the number of forward gears.
The forward gears in the transmission range designed for normal on-road operation
shall be numbered in descending order of the ratio between engine speed in min
and vehicle speed in km/h. Gear 1 is the gear with the highest ratio, gear ng is the
gear with the lowest ratio. ng determines the number of forward gears;

(i) Determination of ng and v
ng , the gear in which the maximum vehicle speed is reached and shall be
determined as follows:
If v (ng) ≥ v (ng-1) and v (ng-1) ≥ v (ng-2), then:
ng = ng and v = v (ng).
If v (ng) < v (ng-1) and v (ng-1) ≥ v (ng-2), then:
ng = ng-1 and v = v (ng-1),
Otherwise, ng = ng-2 and v = v (ng-2)
Where:
v (ng) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power P in gear ng (see Figure A2/1a).
v (ng-1) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power P in the next lower gear (gear ng-1). See
Figure A2/1b.
v (ng-2) is the vehicle speed at which the required road load power equals the
available power P in the gear ng-2.
Vehicle speed values rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to one place
of decimal shall be used for the determination of v and ng .
The required road load power, kW, shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
v
is the vehicle speed specified above, km/h.
The available power at vehicle speed v in gear ng, gear ng-1 or gear ng-2 shall be
determined from the full load power curve, P (n), by using the following equations:
n = (n/v) × v
(ng);
n = (n/v) × v (ng-1);
n = (n/v) × v (ng-2),
and by reducing the power values of the full load power curve by 10%.
The method described above shall be extended to even lower gears, i.e. ng-3, ng-4,
etc. if necessary.
If, for the purpose of limiting maximum vehicle speed, the maximum engine speed is
limited to n which is lower than the engine speed corresponding to the intersection
of the road load power curve and the available power curve, then:
ng = ng and v = n / (n/v)(ng).

(j)
Exclusion of a crawler gear
Gear 1 may be excluded at the request of the manufacturer if all of the following
conditions are fulfilled:
(1) The vehicle family is homologated to tow a trailer;
(2) (n/v) × (v / n ) > 6.74;
(3) (n/v) × (v / n ) > 3.85;
(4) The vehicle, having a mass m as defined in the equation below, is able to pull
away from standstill within 4s, on an uphill gradient of at least 12%, on five
separate occasions within a period of 5min.
m = m + 25kg + (MC – m – 25kg) × 0.28
(factor 0.28 in the above equation shall be used for Category 2 vehicles with a gross
vehicle mass up to 3.5t and shall be replaced by factor 0.15 in the case of Category 1
vehicles),
Where:
v is the maximum vehicle speed as specified in Paragraph 2. (i) of this
Annex. Only the v value resulting from the intersection of the
required road load power curve and the available power curve of the
relevant gear shall be used for the conditions in (3) and (4) above. A
v value resulting from a limitation of the engine speed which
prevents this intersection of curves shall not be used;
(n/v)(ng ) is the ratio obtained by dividing the engine speed n by the vehicle
speed v for gear ng , min /(km/h);
m
MC
is the mass in running order, kg;
is the technically permissible maximum laden mass of the
combination (see Paragraph 3.2.27. of this UN GTR), kg.
In this case, gear 1 shall not be used when driving the cycle on a chassis
dynamometer and the gears shall be renumbered starting with the second gear as
gear 1.
(k) Definition of n
n is the minimum engine speed when the vehicle is in motion, min ;
(1) For n = 1, n = n ,
(2) For n = 2,
(i)
For transitions from first to second gear:
n = 1.15 × n ,

3. CALCULATIONS OF REQUIRED POWER, ENGINE SPEEDS, AVAILABLE POWER,
AND POSSIBLE GEAR TO BE USED
3.1. Calculation of Required Power
For each second j of the cycle trace, the power required to overcome driving resistance and
to accelerate shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
P is the required power at second j, kW;
a
is the vehicle acceleration at second j, m/s , and is calculated as follows:
kr
is a factor taking the inertial resistances of the drivetrain during acceleration
into account and is set to 1.03.
3.2. Determination of Engine Speeds
For any v < 1km/h, it shall be assumed that the vehicle is standing still and the engine
speed shall be set to n .The gear lever shall be placed in neutral with the clutch engaged
except 1s before beginning an acceleration from standstill where first gear shall be selected
with the clutch disengaged.
For each v ≥ 1km/h of the cycle trace and each gear i, i = 1 to ng, the engine speed,
n , shall be calculated using the following equation:
n = (n/v) × v
The calculation shall be performed with floating point numbers; the results shall not be
rounded.
3.3. Selection of Possible Gears with respect to Engine Speed
The following gears may be selected for driving the speed trace at v :
(a) All gears i < ng where n ≤ n ≤ n ;
(b) All gears i ≥ ng where n ≤ n ≤ n ;
(c) Gear 1, if n < n .
If a < 0 and n ≤ n , n shall be set to n and the clutch shall be disengaged.
If a ≥ 0 and n < max(1.15 × n ; min. engine speed of the P (n) curve), n shall be set to
the maximum of (1.15 × n ) or ((n/v) × v ), and the clutch shall be set to "undefined".
"Undefined" covers any status of the clutch between disengaged and engaged, depending
on the individual engine and transmission design. In such a case, the real engine speed
may deviate from the calculated engine speed.

3.5. Determination of Possible Gears to be Used
The possible gears to be used shall be determined by the following conditions:
(a)
The conditions of Paragraph 3.3. of this Annex are fulfilled, and
(b) For n > 2, if P ≥ P .
The initial gear to be used for each second j of the cycle trace is the highest final possible
gear, i . When starting from standstill, only the first gear shall be used.
The lowest final possible gear is i .
4. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CORRECTIONS AND/OR MODIFICATIONS OF
GEAR USE
The initial gear selection shall be checked and modified in order to avoid too frequent
gearshifts and to ensure driveability and practicality.
An acceleration phase is a time period of more than 2s with a vehicle speed ≥ 1km/h and
with strictly monotonic increase of vehicle speed. A deceleration phase is a time period of
more than 2s with a vehicle speed ≥ 1km/h and with strictly monotonic decrease of vehicle
speed.
The end of an acceleration/deceleration phase is determined by the last time sample in
which the vehicle speed is higher/lower than the vehicle speed of the previous time sample.
Corrections and/or modifications shall be made according to the following requirements:
(a)
If a one step higher gear (n + 1) is required for only 1s and the gears before and after
are the same (n) or one of them is one step lower (n – 1), gear (n + 1) shall be
corrected to gear n.
Examples:
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1.
Gears used during accelerations or constant speed sections at vehicle speeds
≥ 1km/h shall be used for a period of at least 2s.
Examples:
Gear sequence 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3 shall be replaced by:
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3.

Table A2/2
Time j j + 1 j + 2 j + 3 j + 4 j + 5 j + 6 j + 7 j + 8 j + 9 j + 10 j + 11 j + 12 j + 13 j + 14 j + 15 j + 16 j + 17 j + 18
Initial gear
use
Start
of
accel.
Down
shift,
i = 3
Down
shift,
i = 3
2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4
Start of
correction
check
First 10s window for the correction check
i = 4
Last 10s window for the correction check
Latest 10s window containing i twice
End of
correction
Correction 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Removal
Final gear
use
2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4
End
of
accel.

Table A2/4
Time j j + 1 j + 2 j + 3 j + 4 j + 5 j + 6 j + 7 j + 8 j + 9 j + 10 j + 11 j + 12 j + 13 j + 14 j + 15 j + 16 j + 17 j + 18
Initial gear
use
Correction
Start
of
accel.
Down
shift,
i = 3
Down
shift,
i = 3
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 5
Start of
correction
check
First 10s window for the correction check
i = 4
No 10s window containing i twice
Last 10s window for the correction check
Removal 4 4
Final gear
use
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
End
of
accel.

Table A2/6
Time j j + 1 j + 2 j + 3 j + 4 j + 5 j + 6 j + 7 j + 8 j + 9 j + 10 j + 11 j + 12 j + 13 j + 14 j + 15 j + 16 j + 17 j + 18
Start
of
accel.
Downshift,
i = 3
Downshift,
i = 4
Downshift,
i = 5
End
of
accel.
Initial gear
use
4 3 3 4 5 5 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6
Start of
correction
check i
Start of
correction
check i
Start of
correction
check i
i = 4 i = 5 i = 6
Latest 10s window containing i twice or more
Latest 10s window containing i = twice or more
Latest 10s window containing i twice or more
End of
correction
i
End of
correction
i
End of
correction
i
Correction 3 4 4 5 5 5 5
Removal
Final gear
use
3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6

(iii)
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i - 1shall be replaced by:
i – 1, i – 1, i – 1, i – 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i-1, i, i, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1.
(iv)
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1.
(v)
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i – 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i-1, i, i, i, i, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1.
In all cases (i) to (v), i-1 ≥ i shall be fulfilled.
(d)
No upshift to a higher gear at the transition from an acceleration or constant speed
phase to a deceleration phase shall be performed if one of the gears in the first 2s
following the end of the deceleration phase is lower than the upshifted gear or is
gear 0.
Example:
If v ≤ v and v < v and gear i = 4 and gear (i + 1 = 5) and gear (i + 2 = 5), then
gear (i + 1) and gear (i + 2) shall be set to 4 if the gear for the phase following the
deceleration phase is gear 4 or lower. For all following cycle trace points with gear 5
within the deceleration phase, the gear shall also be set to 4. If the gear following the
deceleration phase is gear 5, an upshift shall be performed.

If gear (i – 1) is more than two steps below i for second 3 of this sequence, a gear
sequence j, 0, i, i, i - 1, k with j > (i + 1) and k ≤ (i –1) shall be changed to
j, 0, 0, k, k, k.
A gear sequence j, 0, i, i, i - 2, k with j > (i + 1) and k ≤ (i – 2) shall be changed to
j, 0, i - 2, i - 2 , i - 2, k, if gear (i – 2) is one or two steps below i for second 3 of this
sequence (one after gear 0).
If gear (i – 2) is more than two steps below i for second 3 of this sequence, a gear
sequence j, 0, i, i, i - 2, k with j > (i + 1) and k ≤ (i – 2) shall be changed to
j, 0, 0, k, k, k.
In all cases specified above in this Sub-paragraph (Paragraph 4.(f) of this Annex), the
clutch disengagement (gear 0) for 1s is used in order to avoid too high engine speeds
for this second. If this is not an issue and, if requested by the manufacturer, it is
allowed to use the lower gear of the following second directly instead of gear 0 for
downshifts of up to 3 steps. The use of this option shall be recorded.
If the deceleration phase is the last part of a short trip shortly before a stop phase and
the last gear > 0 before the stop phase is used only for a period of up to 2s, gear 0
shall be used instead and the gear lever shall be placed in neutral and the clutch shall
be engaged.
Examples: A gear sequence of 4, 0, 2, 2, 0 for the last 5s before a stop phase shall
be replaced by 4, 0, 0, 0, 0. A gear sequence of 4, 3, 3, 0 for the last 4s before a stop
phase shall be replaced by 4, 0, 0, 0.
A downshift to first gear is not permitted during those deceleration phases. If such a
downshift would be necessary in the last part of a short trip just before a stop phase,
since the engine speed would drop below n in 2 gear, gear 0 shall be used
instead and the gear lever shall be placed in neutral and the clutch shall be engaged.
If the first gear is required in the section of a short trip prior to the deceleration to stop,
this gear should be used until the first sample of the deceleration phase. For the rest
of the deceleration phase, gear 0 shall be used and the gear lever shall be placed in
neutral and the clutch shall be engaged.
5. Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive of this Annex shall be applied sequentially, scanning the
complete cycle trace in each case. Since modifications to Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive
of this Annex may create new gear use sequences, these new gear sequences shall be
checked three times and modified if necessary.
In order to enable the assessment of the correctness of the calculation, the average gear for
v ≥ 1km/h, rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to four places of decimal,
shall be calculated and recorded.

Fuel Property or Substance Name
Table A3/1
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Test Method
Research octane number, RON 90 92 JIS K2280
Motor octane number, MON 80 82 JIS K2280
Density g/cm 0.720 0.734 JIS K2249
Vapour pressure kPa 56 60 JIS K2258
Distillation:
– 10% distillation temperature K (°C) 318 (45) 328 (55) JIS K2254
– 50% distillation temperature K (°C) 363 (90) 373 (100) JIS K2254
– 90% distillation temperature K (°C) 413 (140) 443 (170) JIS K2254
– Final boiling point K (°C) 488 (215) JIS K2254
– Olefins
– Aromatics
– Benzene
Oxygen content
% v/v 15 25
% v/v 20 45
% v/v 1.0
Not to be detected
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
Existent gum mg/100ml 5 JIS K2261
Sulphur content
wt ppm 10
JIS K2541-1
JIS K2541-2
JIS K2541-6
JIS K2541-7
Lead content Not to be detected JIS K2255
Ethanol
Methanol
MTBE
Kerosene
Not to be detected
Not to be detected
Not to be detected
Not to be detected
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-5
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-5
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4

3.3. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)
Fuel Property or Substance Name
Table A3/3
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Test Method
Research octane number, RON 99 101 JIS K2280
Motor octane number, MON 86 88 JIS K2280
Density g/cm 0.740 0.754 JIS K2249
Vapour pressure kPa 56 60 JIS K2258
Distillation:
– 10% distillation temperature K (°C) 318 (45) 328 (55) JIS K2254
– 50% distillation temperature K (°C) 363 (90) 373 (100) JIS K2254
– 90% distillation temperature K (°C) 413 (140) 443 (170) JIS K2254
– Final boiling point K (°C) 488 (215) JIS K2254
– Olefins % v/v 15 25
– Aromatics % v/v 20 45
– Benzene % v/v 1.0
Oxygen content
Not to be detected
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
Existent gum mg/100ml 5 JIS K2261
Sulphur content wt ppm 10
JIS K2541-1
JIS K2541-2
JIS K2541-6
JIS K2541-7
Lead content Not to be detected JIS K2255
Ethanol
Methanol
MTBE
Kerosene
Not to be detected
Not to be detected
Not to be detected
Not to be detected
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-5
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-5
JIS K2536-6
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4

3.5. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 95 RON, E5)
Table A3/5
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 95 RON, E5)

3.7. Ethanol (Nominal 95 RON, E85)
Table A3/7
Ethanol (Nominal 95 RON, E85)

4.2. NG/Biomethane
4.2.1. "G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
Table A3/9
"G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Basis
Minimum
Maximum
Test Method
Composition:
Methane
% mole
100
99
100
ISO 6974
Balance
% mole


1
ISO 6974
N
% mole
ISO 6974
Sulphur content
mg/m


10
ISO 6326-5
Wobbe Index (net)
MJ/m
48.2
47.2
49.2
4.2.2. "K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)
Table A3/10
"K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Minimum
Maximum
Methane
% v/v
88.0

Ethane
% v/v

7.0
C + hydrocarbon
% v/v

5.0
C + hydrocarbon
% v/v

0.2
Sulphur content
ppm

40
Inert gas (CO , N , etc.)
vol %

4.5
Test Method
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6326-1, KS M ISO 19739,
ASTM D5504, JIS K 0127
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114

4.2.5. Hydrogen
Table A3/13
Hydrogen
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Minimum
Maximum
Test Method
Hydrogen purity
% mole
98
100
ISO 14687-1
Total hydrocarbon
μmol/mol

5.2. E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Table A3/15
E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)

5.4. E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B7)
Table A3/17
E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B7)
Parameter
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test Method
Cetane Index 46.0 EN-ISO 4264
Cetane number 52.0 56.0 EN-ISO 5165
Density at 15°C kg/m 833.0 837.0 EN-ISO 12185
Distillation:
– 50% point °C 245.0 – EN-ISO 3405
– 95% point °C 345.0 360.0 EN-ISO 3405
– Final boiling point °C – 370.0 EN-ISO 3405
Flash point °C 55 – EN ISO 2719
Cloud point °C – -10 EN 116
Viscosity at 40°C mm /s 2.30 3.30 EN-ISO 3104
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons % m/m 2.0 4.0 EN 12916
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10.0
EN ISO 20846/
EN ISO 20884
Copper corrosion (3h, 50°C) – Class 1 EN-ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue (10% DR) % m/m – 0.20 EN-ISO10370
Ash content % m/m – 0.010 EN-ISO 6245
Total contamination mg/kg 24 EN 12662
Water content mg/kg – 200 EN-ISO12937
Acid number mg KOH/g – 0.10 EN ISO 6618
Lubricity (HFRR wear scan diameter at 60°C) μm – 400 EN ISO 12156
Oxidation stability at 110°C h 20.0 EN 15751
FAME % v/v 6.0 7.0 EN 14078

ANNEX 4
ROAD LOAD AND DYNAMOMETER SETTING
1. SCOPE
This Annex describes the determination of the road load of a test vehicle and the transfer of
that road load to a chassis dynamometer.
2. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
2.1. For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in Paragraph 3. of this
UN GTR shall have primacy. Where definitions are not provided in Paragraph 3. of this
UN GTR, definitions given in ISO 3833:1977 "Road Vehicles – Types – Terms and
Definitions" shall apply.
2.2. Reference speed points shall start at 20km/h in incremental steps of 10km/h and with the
highest reference speed according to the following provisions:
(a)
(b)
The highest reference speed point shall be 130km/h or the reference speed point
immediately above the maximum speed of the applicable test cycle if this value is less
than 130km/h. In the case that the applicable test cycle contains less than the 4 cycle
phases (Low, Medium, High and Extra High) and at the request of the manufacturer
and with approval of the responsible authority, the highest reference speed may be
increased to the reference speed point immediately above the maximum speed of the
next higher phase, but no higher than 130km/h; in this case road load determination
and chassis dynamometer setting shall be done with the same reference speed
points;
If a reference speed point applicable for the cycle plus 14km/h is more than or equal
to the maximum vehicle speed v , this reference speed point shall be excluded from
the coastdown test and from chassis dynamometer setting. The next lower reference
speed point shall become the highest reference speed point for the vehicle.
2.3. Unless otherwise specified, a cycle energy demand shall be calculated according to
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7 over the target speed trace of the applicable drive cycle.
2.4. f , f , f are the road load coefficients of the road load equation F = f + f × v + f × v
determined according to this Annex.
f is the constant road load coefficient and shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR to one place of decimal, N;
f is the first order road load coefficient and shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR to three places of decimal, N/(km/h);
f
is the second order road load coefficient and shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to five places of decimal, N/(km/h) .
Unless otherwise stated, the road load coefficients shall be calculated with a least square
regression analysis over the range of the reference speed points.

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Atmospheric temperature accuracy: ±1°C, with a measurement frequency of at least
0.1Hz;
Atmospheric pressure accuracy: ±0.3kPa, with a measurement frequency of at least
0.1Hz;
Vehicle mass accuracy measured on the same weighing scale before and after the
test: ±10kg (±20kg for vehicles > 4,000kg);
Tyre pressure accuracy: ±5kPa;
Wheel rotational speed accuracy: ±0.05s or 1%, whichever is greater.
3.2. Wind Tunnel Criteria
3.2.1. Wind Velocity
The wind velocity during a measurement shall remain within ±2km/h at the centre of the test
section. The possible wind velocity shall be at least 140km/h.
3.2.2. Air Temperature
3.2.3. Turbulence
The air temperature during a measurement shall remain within ±3°C at the centre of the test
section. The air temperature distribution at the nozzle outlet shall remain within ±3°C.
For an equally-spaced 3 by 3 grid over the entire nozzle outlet, the turbulence intensity, Tu,
shall not exceed 1%. See Figure A4/1.
Where:
Figure A4/1
Turbulence Intensity
Tu
is the turbulence intensity;
u′ is the turbulent velocity fluctuation, m/s;
U∞
is the free flow velocity, m/s.

The absolute difference of the pressure coefficient cp over a distance 3m ahead and 3m
behind the centre of the balance in the empty test section and at a height of the centre of
the nozzle outlet shall not deviate more than ±0.02.
Where:
|cp − cp | ≤ 0.02
cp
is the pressure coefficient.
3.2.9. Boundary Layer Thickness
At x = 0 (balance center point), the wind velocity shall have at least 99% of the inflow
velocity 30mm above the wind tunnel floor.
Where:
δ (x = 0m) ≤ 30mm
δ
is the distance perpendicular to the road where 99% of free stream velocity is
reached (boundary layer thickness).
3.2.10. Restraint Blockage Ratio
The restraint system mounting shall not be in front of the vehicle. The relative blockage ratio
of the vehicle frontal area due to the restraint system, ε , shall not exceed 0.10.
Where:
ε is the relative blockage ratio of the restraint system;
A is the frontal area of the restraint system projected on the nozzle face, m ;
A is the frontal area of the vehicle, m .
3.2.11. Measurement Accuracy of the Balance in the x-direction
The inaccuracy of the resulting force in the x-direction shall not exceed ±5N. The resolution
of the measured force shall be within ±3N.
3.2.12. Measurement Precision
The precision of the measured force shall be within ±3N.

4.1.2. Test Road
In that case, the values of the road load coefficients f , f and f shall be determined and
corrected for each run pair. The final set of f , f and f values shall be the arithmetic
average of the individually corrected coefficients f , f and f respectively. Contracting
Parties may deviate from the upper range by ±5°C on a regional level.
The road surface shall be flat, even, clean, dry and free of obstacles or wind barriers that
might impede the measurement of the road load, and its texture and composition shall be
representative of current urban and highway road surfaces, i.e. no airstrip-specific surface.
The longitudinal slope of the test road shall not exceed ±1%. The local slope between any
points 3m apart shall not deviate more than ±0.5% from this longitudinal slope. If tests in
opposite directions cannot be performed at the same part of the test track (e.g. on an oval
test track with an obligatory driving direction), the sum of the longitudinal slopes of the
parallel test track segments shall be between 0 and an upward slope of 0.1%. The
maximum camber of the test road shall be 1.5%.
4.2. Preparation
4.2.1. Test Vehicle
Each test vehicle shall conform in all its components with the production series, (e.g. side
mirrors shall be same position as during normal vehicle operation, body gaps shall not be
sealed), or, if the vehicle is different from the production vehicle, a full description shall be
recorded.
4.2.1.1. Requirements for Test Vehicle Selection
4.2.1.1.1. Without using the Interpolation Method
A test vehicle (vehicle H) with the combination of road load relevant characteristics (i.e.
mass, aerodynamic drag and tyre rolling resistance) producing the highest cycle energy
demand shall be selected from the family (see Paragraphs 5.6. and 5.7. of this UN GTR).
If the aerodynamic influence of the different wheels within one interpolation family is not
known, the selection shall be based on the highest expected aerodynamic drag. As a
guideline, the highest aerodynamic drag may be expected for wheels with (a) the largest
width, (b) the largest diameter, and (c) the most open structure design (in that order of
importance).
The wheel selection shall be performed additional to the requirement of the highest cycle
energy demand.
4.2.1.1.2. Using an Interpolation Method
At the request of the manufacturer, an interpolation method may be applied.
In this case, two test vehicles shall be selected from the family complying with the
respective family requirement.
Test vehicle H shall be the vehicle producing the higher, and preferably highest, cycle
energy demand of that selection, test vehicle L the one producing the lower, and preferably
lowest, cycle energy demand of that selection.
All items of optional equipment and/or body shapes that are chosen not to be considered
when applying the interpolation method shall be identical for both test vehicles H and L such
that these items of optional equipment produce the highest combination of the cycle energy
demand due to their road load relevant characteristics (i.e. mass, aerodynamic drag and
tyre rolling resistance).

4.2.1.3. Allowable Combinations of Test Vehicle Selection and Family Requirements
Requirements
to be fulfilled:
Road load test
vehicle
Table A4/1 shows the permissible combinations of test vehicle selection and family
requirements as described in Paragraphs 4.2.1.1. and 4.2.1.2. of this Annex.
Table A4/1
Permissible Combinations of Test Vehicle Selection and Family Requirements
(1) w/o
interpolation
method
Paragraph 4.2.1.1.1.
of this Annex.
Family Paragraph 4.2.1.2.1.
of this Annex.
(2) Interpolation
method w/o
road load
family
Paragraph 4.2.1.1.2.
of this Annex.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.2.
of this Annex.
(3) Applying the
road load
family
Paragraph 4.2.1.1.2.
of this Annex.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.3.
of this Annex.
(4) Interpolation
method using
one or more
road load
families
n.a.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.2.
of this Annex.
Additional
None
None
None
Application of
column (3)
"Applying the road
load family" and
application of
Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.
of this Annex.
4.2.1.3.1. Deriving Road Loads of an Interpolation Family from a Road Load Family
Road loads H and/or L shall be determined according to this Annex.
The road load of vehicle H (and L) of an interpolation family within the road load family shall
be calculated according to Paragraphs 3.2.3.2.2. to 3.2.3.2.2.4. inclusive of Annex 7 by:
(a)
Using H and L of the road load family instead of H and L as inputs for the
equations;
(b) Using the road load parameters (i.e. test mass, Δ(C ×A) compared to vehicle L ,
and tyre rolling resistance) of vehicle H (or L) of the interpolation family as inputs for
the individual vehicle;
(c)
Repeating this calculation for each H and L vehicle of every interpolation family within
the road load family.
The road load interpolation shall only be applied on those road load-relevant characteristics
that were identified to be different between test vehicle L and H . For other road
load-relevant characteristic(s), the value of vehicle H shall apply.
H and L of the interpolation family may be derived from different road load families. If that
difference between these road load families comes from applying the delta method, refer to
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.3.4. of this Annex.

4.2.1.8. Test Vehicle Condition
4.2.1.8.1. Run-in
The test vehicle shall be suitably run-in for the purpose of the subsequent test for at least
10,000 but no more than 80,000km.
At the request of the manufacturer, a vehicle with a minimum of 3,000km may be used.
4.2.1.8.2. Manufacturer's Specifications
The vehicle shall conform to the manufacturer's intended production vehicle specifications
regarding tyre pressures described in Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, wheel alignment
described in Paragraph 4.2.1.8.3. of this Annex, ground clearance, vehicle height, drivetrain
and wheel bearing lubricants, and brake adjustment to avoid unrepresentative parasitic
drag.
4.2.1.8.3. Wheel Alignment
Toe and camber shall be set to the maximum deviation from the longitudinal axis of the
vehicle in the range defined by the manufacturer. If a manufacturer prescribes values for toe
and camber for the vehicle, these values shall be used. At the request of the manufacturer,
values with higher deviations from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle than the prescribed
values may be used. The prescribed values shall be the reference for all maintenance
during the lifetime of the vehicle.
Other adjustable wheel alignment parameters (such as caster) shall be set to the values
recommended by the manufacturer. In the absence of recommended values, they shall be
set to the arithmetic average of the range defined by the manufacturer.
Such adjustable parameters and set values shall be recorded.
4.2.1.8.4. Closed Panels
During the road load determination, the engine compartment cover, luggage compartment
cover, manually-operated movable panels and all windows shall be closed.
4.2.1.8.5. Vehicle Coastdown Mode
If the determination of dynamometer settings cannot meet the criteria described in
Paragraphs 8.1.3. or 8.2.3. of this Annex due to non-reproducible forces, the vehicle shall
be equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode. The vehicle coastdown mode shall be
approved and its use shall be recorded by the responsible authority.
If a vehicle is equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode, it shall be engaged both during road
load determination and on the chassis dynamometer.

4.2.2.2. Tyre Condition
Tyres used for the test shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Not be older than 2 years after the production date;
Not be specially conditioned or treated (e.g. heated or artificially aged), with the
exception of grinding in the original shape of the tread;
Be run-in on a road for at least 200km before road load determination;
Have a constant tread depth before the test between 100 and 80% of the original
tread depth at any point over the full tread width of the tyre.
After measurement of tread depth, the driving distance shall be limited to 500km. If 500km
are exceeded, the tread depth shall be measured again.
4.2.2.3. Tyre Pressure
The front and rear tyres shall be inflated to the lower limit of the tyre pressure range for the
respective axle for the selected tyre at the coastdown test mass, as specified by the vehicle
manufacturer.
4.2.2.3.1. Tyre Pressure Adjustment
If the difference between ambient and soak temperature is more than 5°C, the tyre pressure
shall be adjusted as follows:
(a)
(b)
The tyres shall be soaked for more than 1h at 10% above the target pressure;
Prior to testing, the tyre pressure shall be reduced to the inflation pressure as
specified in Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, adjusted for difference between the
soaking environment temperature and the ambient test temperature at a rate of
0.8kPa per 1°C using the following equation:
Δp = 0.8 ×(T − T )
Where:
Δp
is the tyre pressure adjustment added to the tyre pressure defined in
Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, kPa;
0.8 is the pressure adjustment factor, kPa/°C;
T is the tyre soaking temperature, °C;
T is the test ambient temperature, °C.
(c)
Between the pressure adjustment and the vehicle warm-up, the tyres shall be
shielded from external heat sources including sun radiation.

4.3. Measurement and Calculation of Road Load using the Coastdown Method
The road load shall be determined by using either the stationary anemometry
(Paragraph 4.3.1. of this Annex) or the on-board anemometry (Paragraph 4.3.2. of this
Annex) method.
4.3.1. Coastdown Method using Stationary Anemometry
4.3.1.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Road Load Curve Determination
Reference speeds for road load determination shall be selected according to Paragraph 2.2.
of this Annex.
4.3.1.2. Data Collection
During the test, elapsed time and vehicle speed shall be measured at a minimum frequency
of 10Hz.
4.3.1.3. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
4.3.1.3.1. Following the vehicle warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex and
immediately prior to each coastdown run, the vehicle shall be accelerated to 10 to 15km/h
above the highest reference speed and shall be driven at that speed for a maximum of
1min. After that, the coastdown run shall be started immediately.
4.3.1.3.2. During a coastdown run, the transmission shall be in neutral. Any movement of the steering
wheel shall be avoided as much as possible, and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.
4.3.1.3.3. The test shall be repeated until the coastdown data satisfy the statistical precision
requirements as specified in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex.
4.3.1.3.4. Although it is recommended that each coastdown run should be performed without
interruption, if data cannot be collected in a single run for all the reference speed points, the
coastdown test may be performed with coastdown runs where the first and last reference
speeds are not necessarily the highest and lowest reference speeds. In this case, the
following additional requirements shall apply:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
At least one reference speed in each coastdown run shall overlap with the
immediately higher speed range coastdown run. This reference speed shall be
referred to as a split point;
At each overlapped reference speed, the average force of the immediately lower
speed coastdown run shall not deviate from the average force of the immediately
higher speed coastdown run by ±10N or ±5%, whichever is greater;
Overlapped reference speed data of the lower speed coastdown run shall be used
only for checking criterion (b) and shall be excluded from evaluation of the statistical
precision as defined in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex;
The overlapped speed may be less than 10km/h but shall not be less than 5km/h. In
this case, overlap criterion (b) shall be checked by either extrapolating the polynomial
curves for the lower and higher speed segment to a 10km/h overlap, or by comparing
the average force in the specific speed range.

Table A4/4
Coefficient h as a Function of n
n h n h
3 4.3 17 2.1
4 3.2 18 2.1
5 2.8 19 2.1
6 2.6 20 2.1
7 2.5 21 2.1
8 2.4 22 2.1
9 2.3 23 2.1
10 2.3 24 2.1
11 2.2 25 2.1
12 2.2 26 2.1
13 2.2 27 2.1
14 2.2 28 2.1
15 2.2 29 2.0
16 2.1 30 2.0
4.3.1.4.3. If during a measurement in one direction any external factor or driver action occurs that
obviously influences the road load test, that measurement and the corresponding
measurement in the opposite direction shall be rejected. All the rejected data and the
reason for rejection shall be recorded, and the number of rejected pairs of measurement
shall not exceed 1/3 of the total number of measurement pairs. In the case of split runs, the
rejection criteria shall be applied at each split run speed range.
Due to uncertainty of data validity and for practical reasons, more than the minimum number
of run pairs required in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex may be performed, but the total
number of run pairs shall not exceed 30 runs including the rejected pairs as described in this
Paragraph. In this case, data evaluation shall be carried out as described in
Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex starting from the first run pair, then including as many
consecutive run pairs as needed to reach the statistical precision on a data set containing
no more than 1/3 of rejected pairs. The remaining run pairs shall be disregarded.

4.3.2. Coastdown Method using On-board Anemometry
The vehicle shall be warmed up and stabilised according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex.
4.3.2.1. Additional Instrumentation for On-board Anemometry
The on-board anemometer and instrumentation shall be calibrated by means of operation
on the test vehicle where such calibration occurs during the warm-up for the test.
4.3.2.1.1. Relative wind speed shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and to an accuracy
of 0.3m/s. Vehicle blockage shall be accounted for in the calibration of the anemometer.
4.3.2.1.2. Wind direction shall be relative to the direction of the vehicle. The relative wind direction
(yaw) shall be measured with a resolution of 1° and an accuracy of 3°; the dead band of the
instrument shall not exceed 10° and shall be directed towards the rear of the vehicle.
4.3.2.1.3. Before the coastdown, the anemometer shall be calibrated for speed and yaw offset as
specified in ISO 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A.
4.3.2.1.4. Anemometer blockage shall be corrected for in the calibration procedure as described in
ISO 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A in order to minimise its effect.
4.3.2.2. Selection of Vehicle Speed Range for Road Load Curve Determination
The test vehicle speed range shall be selected according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
4.3.2.3. Data Collection
During the procedure, elapsed time, vehicle speed, and air velocity (speed, direction)
relative to the vehicle, shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 5Hz. Ambient
temperature shall be synchronised and sampled at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz.
4.3.2.4. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
The measurements shall be carried out in run pairs in opposite directions until a minimum of
ten consecutive runs (five pairs) have been obtained. Should an individual run fail to satisfy
the required on-board anemometry test conditions, that pair, i.e. that run and the
corresponding run in the opposite direction, shall be rejected. All valid pairs shall be
included in the final analysis with a minimum of 5 pairs of coastdown runs. See
Paragraph 4.3.2.6.10. of this Annex for statistical validation criteria.
The anemometer shall be installed in a position such that the effect on the operating
characteristics of the vehicle is minimised.
The anemometer shall be installed according to one of the options below:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Using a boom approximately 2m in front of the vehicle's forward aerodynamic
stagnation point;
On the roof of the vehicle at its centreline. If possible, the anemometer shall be
mounted within 30cm from the top of the windshield;
On the engine compartment cover of the vehicle at its centreline, mounted at the
midpoint position between the vehicle front and the base of the windshield.

Table A4/5
Symbols used in the On-board Anemometer Equations of Motion
Symbol Units Description
A m frontal area of the vehicle
a … a degrees aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of yaw angle
A N mechanical drag coefficient
B N/(km/h) mechanical drag coefficient
C N/(km/h) mechanical drag coefficient
C (Y)
D N drag
D N aerodynamic drag
aerodynamic drag coefficient at yaw angle Y
D N front axle drag (including driveline)
D N gravitational drag
D N mechanical drag
D N rear axle drag (including driveline)
D N tyre rolling resistance
(dh/ds) –
(dv/dt) m/s acceleration
g m/s gravitational constant
m
kg
sine of the slope of the track in the direction of travel (+ indicates
ascending)
arithmetic average mass of the test vehicle before and after road load
determination
m kg effective vehicle mass including rotating components
ρ kg/m air density
t s time
T K temperature
v km/h vehicle speed
v km/h relative wind speed
Y degrees yaw angle of apparent wind relative to direction of vehicle travel

4.3.2.5.4. Final Equation of Motion
Through substitution, the final form of the equation of motion becomes:
4.3.2.6. Data Reduction
A three-term equation shall be generated to describe the road load force as a function of
velocity, F = A + Bv + Cv , corrected to standard ambient temperature and pressure
conditions, and in still air. The method for this analysis process is described in
Paragraphs 4.3.2.6.1. to 4.3.2.6.10. inclusive of this Annex.
4.3.2.6.1. Determining Calibration Coefficients
If not previously determined, calibration factors to correct for vehicle blockage shall be
determined for relative wind speed and yaw angle. Vehicle speed v, relative wind velocity v
and yaw Y measurements during the warm-up phase of the test procedure shall be
recorded. Paired runs in alternate directions on the test track at a constant velocity of
80km/h shall be performed, and the arithmetic average values of v, v and Y for each run
shall be determined. Calibration factors that minimize the total errors in head and cross
winds over all the run pairs, i.e. the sum of (head – head ) , etc., shall be selected where
headi and head refer to wind speed and wind direction from the paired test runs in
opposing directions during the vehicle warm-up/stabilization prior to testing.
4.3.2.6.2. Deriving Second by Second Observations
From the data collected during the coastdown runs, values for v, , v , and Y shall
be determined by applying calibration factors obtained in Paragraphs 4.3.2.1.3. and
4.3.2.1.4. of this Annex. Data filtering shall be used to adjust samples to a frequency of 1Hz.
4.3.2.6.3. Preliminary Analysis
Using a linear least squares regression technique, all data points shall be analysed at once
to determine A , B , C , a , a , a , a and a given m , ,v,v , and ρ.
4.3.2.6.4. Data Outliers
A predicted force m shall be calculated and compared to the observed data points.
Data points with excessive deviations, e.g., over three standard deviations, shall be flagged.
4.3.2.6.5. Data Filtering (optional)
Appropriate data filtering techniques may be applied and the remaining data points shall be
smoothed out.

4.4. Measurement and Calculation of Running Resistance using the Torque Meter Method
As an alternative to the coastdown methods, the torque meter method may also be used in
which the running resistance is determined by measuring wheel torque on the driven wheels
at the reference speed points for time periods of at least 5s.
4.4.1. Installation of Torque Meters
Wheel torque meters shall be installed between the wheel hub and the wheel of each driven
wheel, measuring the required torque to keep the vehicle at a constant speed.
The torque meter shall be calibrated on a regular basis, at least once a year, traceable to
national or international standards, in order to meet the required accuracy and precision.
4.4.2. Procedure and Data Sampling
4.4.2.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Running Resistance Curve Determination
Reference speed points for running resistance determination shall be selected according to
Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
The reference speeds shall be measured in descending order. At the request of the
manufacturer, there may be stabilization periods between measurements but the
stabilization speed shall not exceed the speed of the next reference speed.
4.4.2.2. Data Collection
Data sets consisting of actual speed v actual torque C and time over a period of at least 5s
shall be measured for every v at a sampling frequency of at least 10Hz. The data sets
collected over one time period for a reference speed v shall be referred to as one
measurement.
4.4.2.3. Vehicle Torque Meter Measurement Procedure
Prior to the torque meter method test measurement, a vehicle warm-up shall be performed
according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex.
During test measurement, steering wheel movement shall be avoided as much as possible,
and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.
The test shall be repeated until the running resistance data satisfy the measurement
precision requirements as specified in Paragraph 4.4.3.2. of this Annex.
4.4.2.4. Velocity Deviation
During a measurement at a single reference speed point, the velocity deviation from the
arithmetic average velocity (v - vj ) calculated according to Paragraph 4.4.3. of this Annex,
shall be within the values in Table A4/6.
Additionally, the arithmetic average velocity v at every reference speed point shall not
deviate from the reference speed v by more than ±1km/h or 2% of the reference speed v ,
whichever is greater.

m is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to Paragraph 2.5.1.
of this Annex, kg;
r
is the dynamic radius of the tyre determined at a reference point of 80km/h or at the
highest reference speed point of the vehicle if this speed is lower than 80km/h,
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
n is the rotational frequency of the driven tyre, s ;
α
is the arithmetic average acceleration, m/s , calculated using the following equation:
Where:
t is the time at which the i data set was sampled, s.
4.4.3.2. Measurement Precision
The measurements shall be carried out in opposite directions until a minimum of three pairs
of measurements at each reference speed v have been obtained, for which C̅ satisfies the
precision ρ according to the following equation:
Where:
n is the number pairs of measurements for C ;

is the running resistance at the speed v , Nm, given by the equation:
Where:
C is the arithmetic average torque of the i pair of measurements at speed v , Nm, and
given by:
Where:
C
and C
are the arithmetic average torques of the i measurement at speed v
determined in Paragraph 4.4.3.1. of this Annex for each direction, a and b
respectively, Nm;

4.5.3. Wind Correction
4.5.3.1. Wind Correction with Stationary Anemometry
Wind correction may be waived when the arithmetic average wind speed for each valid run
pair is 2m/s or less. In the case that wind speed is measured at more than one part of the
test track, such as when the test is performed on an oval test track (see
Paragraph 4.1.1.1.1. of this Annex), the wind speed shall be averaged at each
measurement location and the higher of two average wind speeds shall be used to
determine whether a wind speed correction is to be applied or may be waived.
4.5.3.1.1. The wind correction resistance w for the coastdown method or w for the torque meter
method shall be calculated using the following equations:
Where:
w = 3.6 × f × v
or: w = 3.6 × c × v
w is the wind correction resistance for the coastdown method, N;
f is the coefficient of the aerodynamic term determined according to
Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex;
v
v
w
c
in the case that wind speed is measured at only one point, v is the arithmetic
average vector component of the wind speed parallel to the test road during all valid
run pairs m/s;
in the case that the wind speed is measured at two points, v is the lower of the two
arithmetic average vector components of the wind speed parallel to the test road
during all valid run pairs, m/s;
is the wind correction resistance for the torque meter method, Nm;
is the coefficient of the aerodynamic term for the torque meter method determined
according to Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex.
4.5.3.2. Wind Correction with On-board Anemometry
In the case that the coastdown method is based on on-board anemometry, w and w in the
equations in Paragraph 4.5.3.1.1. of this Annex shall be set to zero, as the wind correction is
already applied according to Paragraph 4.3.2. of this Annex.
4.5.4. Test Mass Correction Factor
The correction factor K for the test mass of the test vehicle shall be determined using the
following equation:
Where:
TM
m
is the test mass of the test vehicle, kg;
is the arithmetic average of the test vehicle masses at the beginning and end of road
load determination, kg.

4.5.5.2. The curve determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex shall be corrected to reference
conditions and measurement equipment installed according to the following procedure.
4.5.5.2.1. Correction to Reference Conditions
Where:
C = ((c (1 − K ) − w ) + c v) × (1 + K (T − 20)) + K f v
C
c
c
c
K
K
K
v
T
w
is the corrected running resistance, Nm;
is the constant term as determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex, Nm;
is the coefficient of the first order term as determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this
Annex, Nm/(km/h);
is the coefficient of the second order term as determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this
Annex, Nm/(km/h) ;
is the correction factor for rolling resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.2. of this
Annex;
is the test mass correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.4. of this Annex;
is the correction factor for air resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.1. of this Annex;
is the vehicle velocity, km/h;
is the arithmetic average atmospheric temperature during all valid run pairs, °C;
is the wind correction resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex.
4.5.5.2.2. Correction for Installed Torque Meters
If the running resistance is determined according to the torque meter method, the running
resistance shall be corrected for effects of the torque measurement equipment installed
outside the vehicle on its aerodynamic characteristics.
The running resistance coefficient c shall be corrected using the following equation:
Where:
c = K × c × (1 + (Δ(C × A ))/(C × A ))
Δ(C × A ) = (C × A ) - (C × A ) ;
C × A is the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by the frontal area of
the vehicle with the torque meter measurement equipment installed measured in a
wind tunnel fulfilling the criteria of Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex, m ;
C × A
is the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by the frontal area of
the vehicle with the torque meter measurement equipment not installed measured
in a wind tunnel fulfilling the criteria of Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex, m .

f
f
f
is the constant road load coefficient of the representative vehicle of the road load
matrix family, N;
is the first order road load coefficient, N/(km/h), and shall be set to zero;
is the second order road load coefficient, N/(km/h) , defined by the equation:
f = Max((0.05 × f + 0.95 × f × A / A ); (0.2 × f + 0.8 × f × A / A ))
f
v
TM
TM
is the second order road load coefficient of the representative vehicle of the road load
matrix family, N/(km/h) ;
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
is the actual test mass of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
is the test mass of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
A is the frontal area of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ,
A is the frontal area of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ;
RR
RR
is the tyre rolling resistance of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family,
kg/tonne;
is the tyre rolling resistance of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix
family, kg/tonne.
For the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle, the value of the rolling resistance RR shall be set
to the class value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class according to Table A4/2 of
Annex 4.
If the tyres on the front and rear axles belong to different energy efficiency classes, the
weighted mean shall be used, calculated using the equation in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.2. of
Annex 7.
If the same tyres were fitted to test vehicles L and H, the value of RR when using the
interpolation method shall be set to RR .
5.1.2. For the calculation of the running resistance of vehicles of a road load matrix family, the
vehicle parameters described in Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of this Annex and the running resistance
coefficients of the representative test vehicle determined in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex
shall be used.
5.1.2.1. The running resistance for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
C = c + c × v + c × v
C
is the calculated running resistance as a function of vehicle velocity, Nm;

f
is the constant road load coefficient, N, defined by the following equation:
f = 0.140 × TM;
f
f
is the first order road load coefficient, N/(km/h), and shall be set to zero;
is the second order road load coefficient, N/(km/h) , defined by the following
equation:
f = (2.8 × 10 × TM) + (0.0170 × width × height);
v
TM
is vehicle velocity, km/h;
test mass, kg;
width vehicle width as defined in 6.2. of Standard ISO 612:1978, m;
height vehicle height as defined in 6.3. of Standard ISO 612:1978, m.
6. WIND TUNNEL METHOD
The wind tunnel method is a road load measurement method using a combination of a wind
tunnel and a chassis dynamometer or of a wind tunnel and a flat belt dynamometer. The test
benches may be separate facilities or integrated with one another.
6.1. Measurement Method
6.1.1. The road load shall be determined by:
(a)
(b)
Adding the road load forces measured in a wind tunnel and those measured using a
flat belt dynamometer; or
Adding the road load forces measured in a wind tunnel and those measured on a
chassis dynamometer.
6.1.2. Aerodynamic drag shall be measured in the wind tunnel.
6.1.3. Rolling resistance and drivetrain losses shall be measured using a flat belt or a chassis
dynamometer, measuring the front and rear axles simultaneously.
6.2. Approval of the Facilities by the Responsible Authority
The results of the wind tunnel method shall be compared to those obtained using the
coastdown method to demonstrate qualification of the facilities and recorded.
6.2.1. Three vehicles shall be selected by the responsible authority. The vehicles shall cover the
range of vehicles (e.g. size, weight) planned to be measured with the facilities concerned.
6.2.2. Two separate coastdown tests shall be performed with each of the three vehicles according
to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, and the resulting road load coefficients, f , f and f , shall be
determined according to that Paragraph and corrected according to Paragraph 4.5.5. of this
Annex. The coastdown test result of a test vehicle shall be the arithmetic average of the
road load coefficients of its two separate coastdown tests. If more than two coastdown tests
are necessary to fulfil the approval of facilities' criteria, all valid tests shall be averaged.

6.3. Vehicle Preparation and Temperature
Conditioning and preparation of the vehicle shall be performed according to
Paragraphs 4.2.1. and 4.2.2. of this Annex and applies to both the flat belt or roller chassis
dynamometers and the wind tunnel measurements.
In the case that the alternative warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 6.5.2.1. of this
Annex is applied, the target test mass adjustment, the weighing of the vehicle and the
measurement shall all be performed without the driver in the vehicle.
The flat belt or the chassis dynamometer test cells shall have a temperature set point of
20°C with a tolerance of ±3°C. At the request of the manufacturer, the set point may also be
23°C with a tolerance of ±3°C.
6.4. Wind Tunnel Procedure
6.4.1. Wind Tunnel Criteria
The wind tunnel design, test methods and the corrections shall provide a value of (C × A)
representative of the on-road (C × A ) value and with a repeatability of ±0.015m .
For all (C × A) measurements, the wind tunnel criteria listed in Paragraph 3.2. of this
Annex shall be met with the following modifications:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The solid blockage ratio described in Paragraph 3.2.4. of this Annex shall be less
than 25%;
The belt surface contacting any tyre shall exceed the length of that tyre's contact area
by at least 20% and shall be at least as wide as that contact patch;
The standard deviation of total air pressure at the nozzle outlet described in
Paragraph 3.2.8. of this Annex shall be less than 1%;
The restraint system blockage ratio described in Paragraph 3.2.10. of this Annex shall
be less than 3%;
Additionally to the requirement defined in Paragraph 3.2.11. of this Annex, when
measuring Class 1 vehicles, the precision of the measured force shall not exceed
±2.0N.
6.4.2. Wind Tunnel Measurement
The vehicle shall be in the condition described in Paragraph 6.3. of this Annex.
The vehicle shall be placed parallel to the longitudinal centre line of the tunnel with a
maximum tolerance of ±10mm.
The vehicle shall be placed with a yaw angle of 0° within a tolerance of ±0.1°.
Aerodynamic drag shall be measured for at least for 60s and at a minimum frequency of
5Hz. Alternatively, the drag may be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and with at
least 300 subsequent samples. The result shall be the arithmetic average of the drag.

6.5.1.2.3. Vertical Force
The restraint system shall be designed so as to impose no vertical force on the drive
wheels.
6.5.1.3. Accuracy of Measured Forces
Only the reaction force for turning the wheels shall be measured. No external forces shall be
included in the result (e.g. force of the cooling fan air, vehicle restraints, aerodynamic
reaction forces of the flat belt, dynamometer losses, etc.).
The force in the x-direction shall be measured with an accuracy of ±5N.
6.5.1.4. Flat Belt Speed Control
The belt speed shall be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.1km/h.
6.5.1.5. Flat Belt Surface
6.5.1.6. Cooling
The flat belt surface shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that might cause tyre
slippage.
A current of air of variable speed shall be blown towards the vehicle. The set point of the
linear velocity of the air at the blower outlet shall be equal to the corresponding
dynamometer speed above measurement speeds of 5km/h. The linear velocity of the air at
the blower outlet shall be within ±5km/h or ±10% of the corresponding measurement speed,
whichever is greater.
6.5.2. Flat Belt Measurement
The measurement procedure may be performed according to either Paragraph 6.5.2.2. or
Paragraph 6.5.2.3. of this Annex.
6.5.2.1. Preconditioning
The vehicle shall be conditioned on the dynamometer as described in Paragraphs 4.2.4.1.1.
to 4.2.4.1.3. inclusive of this Annex.
The dynamometer load setting F for the preconditioning shall be:
Where:
a = 0
b = f ;
c = f
F = a + (b × v) + (c × v )
The equivalent inertia of the dynamometer shall be the test mass.
The aerodynamic drag used for the load setting shall be taken from Paragraph 6.7.2. of this
Annex and may be set directly as input. Otherwise, a , b , and c from this Paragraph shall
be used.

6.5.2.4. Measurement Conditions
The vehicle shall be in the condition described in Paragraph 4.3.1.3.2. of this Annex.
6.5.3. Measurement Result of the Flat Belt Method
The result of the flat belt dynamometer f shall be referred to as f for the further
calculations in Paragraph 6.7. of this Annex.
6.6. Chassis Dynamometer applied for the Wind Tunnel Method
6.6.1. Criteria
In addition to the descriptions in Paragraphs 1. and 2. of Annex 5, the criteria described in
Paragraph 6.6.1. shall apply.
6.6.1.1. Description of a Chassis Dynamometer
The front and rear axles shall be equipped with a single roller with a diameter of not less
than 1.2m.
6.6.1.2. Vehicle Restraint System
The dynamometer shall be equipped with a centring device aligning the vehicle. The
restraint system shall maintain the centred drive wheel position within the following
recommended limits throughout the coastdown runs of the road load determination:
6.6.1.2.1. Vehicle Position
The vehicle to be tested shall be installed on the chassis dynamometer roller as defined in
Paragraph 7.3.3. of this Annex.
6.6.1.2.2. Vertical Force
The restraint system shall fulfil the requirements of Paragraph 6.5.1.2.3. of this Annex.
6.6.1.3. Accuracy of Measured Forces
The accuracy of measured forces shall be as described in Paragraph 6.5.1.3. of this Annex
apart from the force in the x-direction that shall be measured with an accuracy as described
in Paragraph 2.4.1. of Annex 5.
6.6.1.4. Dynamometer Speed Control
The roller speeds shall be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.2km/h.
6.6.1.5. Roller Surface
6.6.1.6. Cooling
The roller surface shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that might cause tyre
slippage.
The cooling fan shall be as described in Paragraph 6.5.1.6. of this Annex.

6.7. Calculations
6.7.1. Correction of the Flat Belt and Chassis Dynamometer Results
The measured forces determined in Paragraphs 6.5. and 6.6. of this Annex shall be
corrected to reference conditions using the following equation:
Where:
F = (f − K ) × (1 + K (T − 293))
F
is the corrected resistance measured at the flat belt or chassis dynamometer at
reference speed j, N;
f is the measured force at reference speed j, N;
K
is the correction factor for rolling resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.2. of this
Annex, K ;
K is the test mass correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.4. of this Annex, N;
T is the arithmetic average temperature in the test cell during the measurement, K.
6.7.2. Calculation of the Aerodynamic Force
The calculation in Paragraph 6.7.2.1. shall be applied considering the results of both wind
speeds. However, if the difference of the product of the drag coefficient and frontal area
(C × A ) measured at the wind speeds v and v is less than 0.015m , the calculation in
Paragraph 6.7.2.2. may be applied at the request of the manufacturer.
6.7.2.1.
The aerodynamic force of each wind speed F
, F
, and F
shall be calculated using
the equation below.
Where:
(C ×A ) is the product of the drag coefficient and frontal area measured in the wind tunnel
at a certain reference speed point j, if applicable, m ;
ρ is the dry air density defined in Paragraph 3.2.10. of this UN GTR, kg/m ;
F is the aerodynamic force calculated at wind speed w, N;
v
w
is the applicable wind speed, km/h.
is the reference to the applicable wind speed "0wind", "low" and "high";
F is the aerodynamic force at 0km/h, N;
F is the aerodynamic force at v , N;
F is the aerodynamic force at v , N.

6.8. Road Load Delta Method
For the purpose of including options when using the interpolation method which are not
incorporated in the road load interpolation (i.e. aerodynamics, rolling resistance and mass),
a delta in vehicle friction may be measured by the road load delta method (e.g. friction
difference between brake systems). The following steps shall be performed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The friction of reference vehicle R shall be measured;
The friction of the vehicle with the option (vehicle N) causing the difference in friction
shall be measured;
The difference shall be calculated according to Paragraph 6.8.1. of this Annex.
These measurements shall be performed on a flat belt according to Paragraph 6.5. of this
Annex or on a chassis dynamometer according to Paragraph 6.6. of this Annex, and the
correction of the results (excluding aerodynamic force) calculated according to
Paragraph 6.7.1. of this Annex.
The application of this method is permitted only if the following criterion is fulfilled:
Where:
F is the corrected resistance of vehicle R measured on the flat belt or chassis
dynamometer at reference speed j calculated according to Paragraph 6.7.1. of this
Annex, N;
F is the corrected resistance of vehicle N measured on the flat belt orchassis
dynamometer at reference speed j calculated according to Paragraph 6.7.1. of this
Annex, N;
n
is the total number of speed points.
This alternative road load determination method may only be applied if vehicles R and N
have identical aerodynamic resistance and if the measured delta appropriately covers the
entire influence on the vehicle's energy consumption. This method shall not be applied if the
overall accuracy of the absolute road load of vehicle N is compromised in any way.

7.1.1.1.1. Tyre Slippage
Additional weight may be placed on or in the vehicle to eliminate tyre slippage. The
manufacturer shall perform the load setting on the chassis dynamometer with the additional
weight. The additional weight shall be present for both load setting and the emissions and
fuel consumption tests. The use of any additional weight shall be recorded.
7.1.1.2. Room Temperature
The laboratory atmospheric temperature shall be at a set point of 23°C and shall not deviate
by more than ±5°C during the test unless otherwise required by any subsequent test.
7.2. Preparation of Chassis Dynamometer
7.2.1. Inertia Mass Setting
The equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer shall be set according to
Paragraph 2.5.3. of this Annex. If the chassis dynamometer is not capable to meet the
inertia setting exactly, the next higher inertia setting shall be applied with a maximum
increase of 10kg.
7.2.2. Chassis Dynamometer Warm-up
The chassis dynamometer shall be warmed up in accordance with the dynamometer
manufacturer's recommendations, or as appropriate, so that the frictional losses of the
dynamometer may be stabilized.
7.3. Vehicle Preparation
7.3.1. Tyre Pressure Adjustment
The tyre pressure at the soak temperature of a Type 1 test shall be set to no more than 50%
above the lower limit of the tyre pressure range for the selected tyre, as specified by the
vehicle manufacturer (see Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex), and shall be recorded.
7.3.2. If the determination of dynamometer settings cannot meet the criteria described in
Paragraph 8.1.3. of this Annex due to non-reproducible forces, the vehicle shall be equipped
with a vehicle coastdown mode. The vehicle coastdown mode shall be approved by the
responsible authority and its use shall be recorded.
If a vehicle is equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode, it shall be engaged both during road
load determination and on the chassis dynamometer.
7.3.3. Vehicle Placement on the Dynamometer
The tested vehicle shall be placed on the chassis dynamometer in a straight ahead position
and restrained in a safe manner. In the case that a single roller chassis dynamometer is
used, the centre of the tyre's contact patch on the roller shall be within ±25mm or ±2% of the
roller diameter, whichever is smaller, from the top of the roller.
If the torque meter method is used, the tyre pressure shall be adjusted such that the
dynamic radius is within 0.5% of the dynamic radius r calculated using the equations in
Paragraph 4.4.3.1. of this Annex at the 80km/h reference speed point. The dynamic radius
on the chassis dynamometer shall be calculated according to the procedure described in
Paragraph 4.4.3.1. of this Annex.
If this adjustment is outside the range defined in Paragraph 7.3.1. of this Annex, the torque
meter method shall not apply.

The corrected road load coefficients f , f and f , shall be calculated according to the
following equations:
Where:
f = f + A − A
f = f + B − B
f = f + C − C
A
, B
and C
are the chassis dynamometer setting coefficients after the
alternative warm-up procedure;
A
, B
and C
are the chassis dynamometer setting coefficients after a
WLTC warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 7.3.4.1.
of this Annex and a valid chassis dynamometer load setting
according to Paragraph 8. of this Annex.
7.3.4.3.4. The corrected road load coefficients f , f and f , shall be used only for the purpose of
Paragraph 7.3.4.3.3. of this Annex. For other purposes, the target road load coefficients f , f
and f , shall be used as the target road load coefficients.
7.3.4.3.5. Details of the procedure and of its equivalency shall be provided to the responsible
authority.
8. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER LOAD SETTING
8.1. Chassis Dynamometer Load Setting using the Coastdown Method
This method is applicable when the road load coefficients f , f and f have been
determined.
In the case of a road load matrix family, this method shall be applied when the road load of
the representative vehicle is determined using the coastdown method described in
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex. The target road load values are the values calculated using
the method described in Paragraph 5.1. of this Annex.
8.1.1. Initial Load Setting
For a chassis dynamometer with coefficient control, the chassis dynamometer power
absorption unit shall be adjusted with the arbitrary initial coefficients, A , B and C , of the
following equation:
Where:
F = A + B v + C v
F is the chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
v
is the speed of the chassis dynamometer roller, km/h.

8.1.3.3. The coefficients A , B and C in the road load equation of the simulated road load on the
chassis dynamometer shall be calculated using a least squares regression analysis:
F = A + (B × v) + (C × v )
The simulated road load for each reference speed vj shall be determined using the following
equation, using the calculated A , B and C :
F = A + (B × v ) + (C × v )
8.1.3.4. For dynamometer load setting, two different methods may be used. If the vehicle is
accelerated by the dynamometer, the methods described in Paragraph 8.1.3.4.1. of this
Annex shall be used. If the vehicle is accelerated under its own power, the methods in
Paragraphs 8.1.3.4.1. or 8.1.3.4.2. of this Annex shall be used and the minimum
acceleration multiplied by speed shall be 6m /s . Vehicles which are unable to achieve
6m /s shall be driven with the acceleration control fully applied.
8.1.3.4.1. Fixed Run Method
8.1.3.4.1.1. The dynamometer software shall perform a total of four coastdowns. From the first
coastdown, the dynamometer setting coefficients for the second run shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 8.1.4. of this Annex. Following the first coastdown, the software
shall perform three additional coastdowns with either the fixed dynamometer setting
coefficients determined after the first coastdown or the adjusted dynamometer setting
coefficients according to Paragraph 8.1.4. of this Annex.
8.1.3.4.1.2. The final dynamometer setting coefficients A, B and C shall be calculated using the
following equations:
Where:
A , B and C
A , B and C
A , B and C
n
are the target road load parameters;
are the simulated road load coefficients of the n run;
are the dynamometer setting coefficients of the n run;
is the index number of coastdowns including the first stabilisation run.
8.1.3.4.2. Iterative Method
The calculated forces in the specified speed ranges shall either be within ±10N after a least
squares regression of the forces for two consecutive coastdowns when compared with the
target values, or additional coastdowns shall be performed after adjusting the chassis
dynamometer load setting according to Paragraph 8.1.4. of this Annex until the tolerance is
satisfied.

8.2. Chassis Dynamometer Load Setting using the Torque Meter Method
This method is applicable when the running resistance is determined using the torque meter
method described in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex.
In the case of a road load matrix family, this method shall be applied when the running
resistance of the representative vehicle is determined using the torque meter method as
specified in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex. The target running resistance values are the
values calculated using the method specified in Paragraph 5.1. of this Annex.
8.2.1. Initial Load Setting
For a chassis dynamometer of coefficient control, the chassis dynamometer power
absorption unit shall be adjusted with the arbitrary initial coefficients, A , B and C , of the
following equation:
Where:
F = A + B v + C v
F is the chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
v
is the speed of the chassis dynamometer roller, km/h.
The following coefficients are recommended for the initial load setting:
(a)
For single-axis chassis dynamometers, or
For dual-axis chassis dynamometers, where:
a , b and c are the target running resistance coefficients; and
r′ is the dynamic radius of the tyre on the chassis dynamometer obtained at 80km/h,
m, or
(b)
Empirical values, such as those used for the setting for a similar type of vehicle.
For a chassis dynamometer of polygonal control, adequate load values at each reference
speed shall be set for the chassis dynamometer power absorption unit.
8.2.2. Wheel Torque Measurement
8.2.3. Verification
The torque measurement test on the chassis dynamometer shall be performed with the
procedure defined in Paragraph 4.4.2. of this Annex. The torque meter(s) shall be identical
to the one(s) used in the preceding road test.
8.2.3.1. The target running resistance (torque) curve shall be determined using the equation in
Paragraph 4.5.5.2.1. of this Annex and may be written as follows:
C = a + b × v + c × v

8.2.3.4. The mass of the driven axle(s), tyre specifications and chassis dynamometer load setting
shall be recorded when the requirement of Paragraph 8.2.3.2. of this Annex is fulfilled.
8.2.4. Transforming Running Resistance Coefficients to Road Load Coefficients f , f , f
8.2.4.1. If the vehicle does not coast down in a repeatable manner and a vehicle coastdown mode
according to Paragraph 4.2.1.8.5. of this Annex is not feasible, the coefficients f , f and f in
the road load equation shall be calculated using the equations in Paragraph 8.2.4.1.1. of this
Annex. In any other case, the procedure described in Paragraphs 8.2.4.2. to 8.2.4.4.
inclusive of this Annex shall be performed.
8.2.4.1.1.
Where:
c , c , c
r
are the running resistance coefficients determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this
Annex, Nm, Nm/(km/h), Nm/(km/h) ;
is the dynamic tyre radius of the vehicle with which the running resistance was
determined, m;
1.02 is an approximate coefficient compensating for drivetrain losses.
8.2.4.1.2. The determined f , f , f values shall not be used for a chassis dynamometer setting or any
emission or range testing. They shall be used only in the following cases:
(a) Determination of downscaling, Paragraph 8. of Annex 1;
(b) Determination of gearshift points, Annex 2;
(c) Interpolation of CO and fuel consumption, Paragraph 3.2.3 of Annex 7;
(d) Calculation of results of electric and hybrid-electric vehicles, Paragraph 4. of Annex 8.
8.2.4.2. Once the chassis dynamometer has been set within the specified tolerances, a vehicle
coastdown procedure shall be performed on the chassis dynamometer as outlined in
Paragraph 4.3.1.3. of this Annex. The coastdown times shall be recorded.

ANNEX 5
TEST EQUIPMENT AND CALIBRATIONS
1. TEST BENCH SPECIFICATIONS AND SETTINGS
1.1. Cooling Fan Specifications
1.1.1. A variable speed current of air shall be blown towards the vehicle. The set point of the linear
velocity of the air at the blower outlet shall be equal to the corresponding roller speed above
roller speeds of 5km/h. The linear velocity of the air at the blower outlet shall be within
±5km/h or ±10% of the corresponding roller speed, whichever is greater.
1.1.2. The above-mentioned air velocity shall be determined as an averaged value of a number of
measuring points that:
(a)
For fans with rectangular outlets, are located at the centre of each rectangle dividing
the whole of the fan outlet into 9 areas (dividing both horizontal and vertical sides of
the fan outlet into 3 equal parts). The centre area shall not be measured (as shown in
Figure A5/1);
Figure A5/1
Fan with Rectangular Outlet
(b)
For fans with circular outlets, the outlet shall be divided into 8 equal sectors by
vertical, horizontal and 45° lines. The measurement points shall lie on the radial
centre line of each sector (22.5°) at two-thirds of the outlet radius (as shown in
Figure A5/2).

2. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
2.1. General Requirements
2.1.1. The dynamometer shall be capable of simulating road load with three road load coefficients
that can be adjusted to shape the load curve.
2.1.2. The chassis dynamometer may have a single or twin-roller configuration. In the case that
twin-roller chassis dynamometers are used, the rollers shall be permanently coupled or the
front roller shall drive, directly or indirectly, any inertial masses and the power absorption
device.
2.2. Specific Requirements
The following specific requirements relate to the dynamometer manufacturer's
specifications.
2.2.1. The roller run-out shall be less than 0.25mm at all measured locations.
2.2.2. The roller diameter shall be within ±1.0mm of the specified nominal value at all
measurement locations.
2.2.3. The dynamometer shall have a time measurement system for use in determining
acceleration rates and for measuring vehicle/dynamometer coastdown times. This time
measurement system shall not exceed an accuracy of ±0.001% after at least 1,000s of
operation. This shall be verified upon initial installation.
2.2.4. The dynamometer shall have a speed measurement system with an accuracy of at least
±0.080km/h. This shall be verified upon initial installation.
2.2.5. The dynamometer shall have a response time (90% response to a tractive effort step
change) of less than 100ms with instantaneous accelerations that are at least 3m/s . This
shall be verified upon initial installation and after major maintenance.
2.2.6. The base inertia of the dynamometer shall be stated by the dynamometer manufacturer and
shall be confirmed to within ±1.0% for each measured base inertia and ±0.2% relative to any
arithmetic average value by dynamic derivation from trials at constant acceleration,
deceleration and force.
2.2.7. Roller speed shall be measured at a frequency of not less than 10Hz.
2.3. Additional Specific Requirements for Chassis Dynamometers for Vehicles to be
tested in Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Mode
2.3.1. The 4WD control system shall be designed such that the following requirements are fulfilled
when tested with a vehicle driven over the WLTC.
2.3.1.1. Road load simulation shall be applied such that operation in 4WD mode reproduces the
same proportioning of forces as would be encountered when driving the vehicle on a
smooth, dry, level road surface.

3.1.1.2. The exhaust dilution system shall consist of a connecting tube, a mixing device and dilution
tunnel, dilution air conditioning, a suction device and a flow measurement device. Sampling
probes shall be fitted in the dilution tunnel as specified in Paragraphs 4.1., 4.2. and 4.3. of
this Annex.
3.1.1.3. The mixing device referred to in Paragraph 3.1.1.2. of this Annex shall be a vessel such as
that illustrated in Figure A5/3 in which vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air are
combined so as to produce a homogeneous mixture at the sampling position.
3.2. General Requirements
3.2.1. The vehicle exhaust gases shall be diluted with a sufficient amount of ambient air to prevent
any water condensation in the sampling and measuring system at all conditions that may
occur during a test.
3.2.2. The mixture of air and exhaust gases shall be homogeneous at the point where the
sampling probes are located (see Paragraph 3.3.3. of this Annex). The sampling probes
shall extract representative samples of the diluted exhaust gas.
3.2.3. The system shall enable the total volume of the diluted exhaust gases to be measured.
3.2.4. The sampling system shall be gas-tight. The design of the variable dilution sampling system
and the materials used in its construction shall be such that the concentration of any
compound in the diluted exhaust gases is not affected. If any component in the system (heat
exchanger, cyclone separator, suction device, etc.) changes the concentration of any of the
exhaust gas compounds and the systematic error cannot be corrected, sampling for that
compound shall be carried out upstream from that component.
3.2.5. All parts of the dilution system in contact with raw or diluted exhaust gas shall be designed
to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulate or particles. All parts shall be made of
electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall
be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.
3.2.6. If the vehicle being tested is equipped with an exhaust pipe comprising several branches,
the connecting tubes shall be connected as near as possible to the vehicle without
adversely affecting their operation.
3.3. Specific Requirements
3.3.1. Connection to Vehicle Exhaust
3.3.1.1. The start of the connecting tube is the exit of the tailpipe. The end of the connecting tube is
the sample point, or first point of dilution.
For multiple tailpipe configurations where all the tailpipes are combined, the start of the
connecting tube shall be taken at the last joint of where all the tailpipes are combined. In this
case, the tube between the exit of the tailpipe and the start of the connecting tube may or
may not be insulated or heated.
3.3.1.2. The connecting tube between the vehicle and dilution system shall be designed so as to
minimize heat loss.

3.3.3.3. For PM and PN (if applicable) emissions sampling, a dilution tunnel shall be used that:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Consists of a straight tube of electrically-conductive material that is grounded;
Causes turbulent flow (Reynolds number ≥4,000) and be of sufficient length to cause
complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;
Is at least 200mm in diameter;
May be insulated and/or heated.
3.3.4. Suction Device
3.3.4.1. This device may have a range of fixed speeds to ensure sufficient flow to prevent any water
condensation. This result is obtained if the flow is either:
(a)
(b)
Twice as high as the maximum flow of exhaust gas produced by accelerations of the
driving cycle; or
Sufficient to ensure that the CO concentration in the dilute exhaust sample bag is
less than 3% by volume for petrol and diesel, less than 2.2% by volume for LPG and
less than 1.5% by volume for NG/biomethane.
3.3.4.2. Compliance with the requirements in Paragraph 3.3.4.1. of this Annex may not be
necessary if the CVS system is designed to inhibit condensation by such techniques, or
combination of techniques, as:
(a)
(b)
Reducing water content in the dilution air (dilution air dehumidification);
Heating of the CVS dilution air and of all components up to the diluted exhaust flow
measurement device and, optionally, the bag sampling system including the sample
bags and also the system for the measurement of the bag concentrations.
In such cases, the selection of the CVS flow rate for the test shall be justified by showing
that condensation of water cannot occur at any point within the CVS, bag sampling or
analytical system.
3.3.5. Volume Measurement in the Primary Dilution System
3.3.5.1. The method of measuring total dilute exhaust volume incorporated in the constant volume
sampler shall be such that measurement is accurate to ±2% under all operating conditions.
If the device cannot compensate for variations in the temperature of the mixture of exhaust
gases and dilution air at the measuring point, a heat exchanger shall be used to maintain
the temperature to within ±6°C of the specified operating temperature for a PDP CVS,
±11°C for a CFV CVS, ±6°C for a UFM CVS, and ±11°C for an SSV CVS.
3.3.5.2. If necessary, some form of protection for the volume measuring device may be used e.g. a
cyclone separator, bulk stream filter, etc.

3.3.6.1. Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
Figure A5/3
Exhaust Dilution System
A positive displacement pump (PDP) full flow exhaust dilution system satisfies the
requirements of this Annex by metering the flow of gas through the pump at constant
temperature and pressure. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions made
by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional sample is achieved by
sampling with pump, flow meter and flow control valve at a constant flow rate.
3.3.6.2. Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
3.3.6.2.1. The use of a CFV for the full flow exhaust dilution system is based on the principles of flow
mechanics for critical flow. The variable mixture flow rate of dilution and exhaust gas is
maintained at sonic velocity that is directly proportional to the square root of the gas
temperature. Flow is continually monitored, computed and integrated throughout the test.
3.3.6.2.2. The use of an additional critical flow sampling venturi ensures the proportionality of the gas
samples taken from the dilution tunnel. As both pressure and temperature are equal at the
two venturi inlets, the volume of the gas flow diverted for sampling is proportional to the total
volume of diluted exhaust gas mixture produced, and thus the requirements of this Annex
are fulfilled.
3.3.6.2.3. A measuring CFV tube shall measure the flow volume of the diluted exhaust gas.

Figure A5/5
Schematic of an Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM)
3.3.6.4.3. The following conditions shall apply to the design and use of the UFM type CVS:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The velocity of the diluted exhaust gas shall provide a Reynolds number higher than
4,000 in order to maintain a consistent turbulent flow before the ultrasonic flow meter;
An ultrasonic flow meter shall be installed in a pipe of constant diameter with a length
of 10 times the internal diameter upstream and 5 times the diameter downstream;
A temperature sensor (T) for the diluted exhaust shall be installed immediately before
the ultrasonic flow meter. This sensor shall have an accuracy of ±1°C and a response
time of 0.1s at 62% of a given temperature variation (value measured in silicone oil);
The absolute pressure (P) of the diluted exhaust shall be measured immediately
before the ultrasonic flow meter to within ±0.3kPa;
If a heat exchanger is not installed upstream of the ultrasonic flow meter, the flow rate
of the diluted exhaust, corrected to standard conditions, shall be maintained at a
constant level during the test. This may be achieved by control of the suction device,
flow valve or other method.
3.4. CVS Calibration Procedure
3.4.1. General Requirements
3.4.1.1. The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow meter and a restricting device
and at the intervals listed in Table A5/4. The flow through the system shall be measured at
various pressure readings and the control parameters of the system measured and related
to the flows. The flow metering device (e.g. calibrated venturi, laminar flow element (LFE),
calibrated turbine meter) shall be dynamic and suitable for the high flow rate encountered in
constant volume sampler testing. The device shall be of certified accuracy.
3.4.1.2. The following Paragraphs describe methods for calibrating PDP, CFV, SSV and UFM units
using a laminar flow meter, which gives the required accuracy, along with a statistical check
on the calibration validity.

Figure A5/6
PDP Calibration Configuration
3.4.2.5. After the system has been connected as shown in Figure A5/6, the variable restrictor shall
be set in the wide-open position and the CVS pump shall run for 20min before starting the
calibration.
3.4.2.5.1. The restrictor valve shall be reset to a more restricted condition in increments of pump inlet
depression (about 1kPa) that will yield a minimum of six data points for the total calibration.
The system shall be allowed to stabilize for 3min before the data acquisition is repeated.
3.4.2.5.2. The air flow rate Q at each test point shall be calculated in standard m /min from the flow
meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.
3.4.2.5.3. The air flow rate shall be subsequently converted to pump flow V in m /rev at absolute
pump inlet temperature and pressure.
Where:
V
Q
T
P
is the pump flow rate at T and P , m /rev;
is the air flow at 101.325kPa and 273.15K (0°C), m /min;
is the pump inlet temperature, Kelvin (K);
is the absolute pump inlet pressure, kPa;
n is the pump speed, min .

3.4.3.2. Measurements for flow calibration of a critical flow venturi are required and the following
data shall be within the limits of accuracy given:
Barometric pressure (corrected), P
LFE air temperature, flow meter, ETI
Pressure depression upstream of LFE, EPI
Pressure drop across LFE matrix, EDP
±0.03kPa,
±0.15°C,
±0.01kPa,
±0.0015kPa,
Air flow, Q ±0.5%,
CFV inlet depression, PPI
Temperature at venturi inlet, T
±0.02kPa,
±0.2°C.
3.4.3.3. The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure A5/7 and checked for leaks. Any leaks
between the flow-measuring device and the critical flow venturi will seriously affect the
accuracy of the calibration and shall therefore be prevented.
Figure A5/7
CFV Calibration Configuration

3.4.4.2. Data Analysis
3.4.4.2.1. The airflow rate, Q , at each restriction setting (minimum 16 settings) shall be calculated
in standard m /s from the flow meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The
discharge coefficient C shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting using
the following equation:
Where:
Q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
T
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, Kelvin (K);
d is the diameter of the SSV throat, m;
r is the ratio of the SSV throat pressure to inlet absolute static pressure, ;
r is the ratio of the SSV throat diameter d to the inlet pipe inner diameter D;
C
p
is the discharge coefficient of the SSV;
is the absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa.
To determine the range of subsonic flow, C shall be plotted as a function of Reynolds
number Re at the SSV throat. The Reynolds number at the SSV throat shall be calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
A is 25.55152 in SI, ;
Q is the airflow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
d is the diameter of the SSV throat, m;
μ
is the absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas, kg/ms;
b is 1.458 × 10 (empirical constant), kg/ms K ;
S
is 110.4 (empirical constant), Kelvin (K).

3.4.5.7. Procedure
3.4.5.7.1. The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure A5/8 and checked for leaks. Any leaks
between the flow-measuring device and the UFM will seriously affect the accuracy of the
calibration.
Figure A5/8
UFM Calibration Configuration
3.4.5.7.2. The suction device shall be started. Its speed and/or the position of the flow valve shall be
adjusted to provide the set flow for the validation and the system stabilised. Data from all
instruments shall be collected.
3.4.5.7.3. For UFM systems without a heat exchanger, the heater shall be operated to increase the
temperature of the calibration air, allowed to stabilise and data from all the instruments
recorded. The temperature shall be increased in reasonable steps until the maximum
expected diluted exhaust temperature expected during the emissions test is reached.
3.4.5.7.4. The heater shall be subsequently turned off and the suction device speed and/or flow valve
shall be adjusted to the next flow setting that will be used for vehicle emissions testing after
which the calibration sequence shall be repeated.
3.4.5.8. The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculations. The air
flow rate Q at each test point shall be calculated from the flow meter data using the
manufacturer's prescribed method.
Where:
Q
is the air flow rate at standard conditions (101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
Q is the air flow rate of the calibration flow meter at standard conditions
(101.325kPa, 273.15K (0°C)), m /s;
K
is the calibration coefficient.
For UFM systems without a heat exchanger, K shall be plotted as a function of T .
The maximum variation in K shall not exceed 0.3% of the arithmetic average K value of all
the measurements taken at the different temperatures.

4. EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
4.1. Gaseous Emissions Measurement Equipment
4.1.1. System Overview
4.1.1.1. A continuously proportional sample of the diluted exhaust gases and the dilution air shall be
collected for analysis.
4.1.1.2. The mass of gaseous emissions shall be determined from the proportional sample
concentrations and the total volume measured during the test. Sample concentrations shall
be corrected to take into account the respective compound concentrations in dilution air.
4.1.2. Sampling System Requirements
4.1.2.1. The sample of diluted exhaust gases shall be taken upstream from the suction device.
With the exception of Paragraphs 4.1.3.1. (hydrocarbon sampling system), Paragraph 4.2.
(PM measurement equipment) and Paragraph 4.3. (PN measurement equipment) of this
Annex, the dilute exhaust gas sample may be taken downstream of the conditioning devices
(if any).
4.1.2.2. The bag sampling flow rate shall be set to provide sufficient volumes of dilution air and
diluted exhaust in the CVS bags to allow concentration measurement and shall not exceed
0.3% of the flow rate of the dilute exhaust gases, unless the diluted exhaust bag fill volume
is added to the integrated CVS volume.
4.1.2.3. A sample of the dilution air shall be taken near the dilution air inlet (after the filter if one is
fitted).
4.1.2.4. The dilution air sample shall not be contaminated by exhaust gases from the mixing area.
4.1.2.5. The sampling rate for the dilution air shall be comparable to that used for the dilute exhaust
gases.
4.1.2.6. The materials used for the sampling operations shall be such as not to change the
concentration of the emissions compounds.
4.1.2.7. Filters may be used in order to extract the solid particles from the sample.
4.1.2.8. Any valve used to direct the exhaust gases shall be of a quick-adjustment, quick-acting
type.
4.1.2.9. Quick-fastening, gas-tight connections may be used between three-way valves and the
sample bags, the connections sealing themselves automatically on the bag side. Other
systems may be used for conveying the samples to the analyser (e.g. three-way stop
valves).
4.1.2.10. Sample Storage
4.1.2.10.1. The gas samples shall be collected in sample bags of sufficient capacity so as not to
impede the sample flow.
4.1.2.10.2. The bag material shall be such as to affect neither the measurements themselves nor the
chemical composition of the gas samples by more than ±2% after 30min (e.g., laminated
polyethylene/polyamide films, or fluorinated polyhydrocarbons).

4.1.4.2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Analysis
The analysers shall be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type.
4.1.4.3. Hydrocarbons (HC) Analysis for All Fuels Other than Diesel Fuel
The analyser shall be of the flame ionization (FID) type calibrated with propane gas
expressed in equivalent carbon atoms (C ).
4.1.4.4. Hydrocarbons (HC) Analysis for Diesel Fuel and Optionally for Other Fuels
The analyser shall be of the heated flame ionization type with detector, valves, pipework,
etc., heated to 190°C ± 10°C. It shall be calibrated with propane gas expressed equivalent
to carbon atoms (C ).
4.1.4.5. Methane (CH ) Analysis
The analyser shall be either a gas chromatograph combined with a flame ionization detector
(FID), or a flame ionization detector (FID) combined with a non-methane cutter (NMC-FID),
calibrated with methane or propane gas expressed equivalent to carbon atoms (C ).
4.1.4.6. Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Analysis
The analysers shall be of chemiluminescent (CLA) or non-dispersive ultra-violet resonance
absorption (NDUV) types.
4.1.4.7. Nitrogen Oxide (NO) Analysis (if applicable)
The analysers shall be of chemiluminescent (CLA) or non-dispersive ultra-violet resonance
absorption (NDUV) types.
4.1.4.8. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO ) Analysis (if applicable)
4.1.4.8.1. Measurement of NO from Continuously Diluted Exhausts
4.1.4.8.1.1. A CLA analyser may be used to measure the NO concentration continuously from diluted
exhaust.
4.1.4.8.1.2. The CLA analyser shall be calibrated (zero/calibrated) in the NO mode using the NO
certified concentration in the calibration gas cylinder with the NO converter bypassed
(if installed).
4.1.4.8.1.3. The NO concentration shall be determined by subtracting the NO concentration from the
NO concentration in the CVS sample bags.
4.1.4.8.2. Measurement of NO from Continuously Diluted Exhausts
4.1.4.8.2.1. A specific NO analyser (NDUV, QCL) may be used to measure the NO concentration
continuously from diluted exhaust.
4.1.4.8.2.2. The analyser shall be calibrated (zeroed/calibrated) in the NO mode using the NO certified
concentration in the calibration gas cylinder.

4.1.5.2. Examples of system components are as listed below.
4.1.5.2.1. Two sampling probes for continuous sampling of the dilution air and of the diluted exhaust
gas/air mixture.
4.1.5.2.2. A filter to extract solid particles from the flows of gas collected for analysis.
4.1.5.2.3. Pumps and flow controller to ensure constant uniform flow of diluted exhaust gas and
dilution air samples taken during the course of the test from sampling probes and flow of the
gas samples shall be such that, at the end of each test, the quantity of the samples is
sufficient for analysis.
4.1.5.2.4. Quick-acting valves to divert a constant flow of gas samples into the sample bags or to the
outside vent.
4.1.5.2.5. Gas-tight, quick-lock coupling elements between the quick-acting valves and the sample
bags. The coupling shall close automatically on the sampling bag side. As an alternative,
other methods of transporting the samples to the analyser may be used (three-way
stopcocks, for instance).
4.1.5.2.6. Bags for collecting samples of the diluted exhaust gas and of the dilution air during the test.
4.1.5.2.7. A sampling critical flow venturi to take proportional samples of the diluted exhaust gas
(CFV-CVS only).
4.1.5.3. Additional components required for hydrocarbon sampling using a heated flame ionization
detector (HFID) as shown in Figure A5/10.
4.1.5.3.1. Heated sample probe in the dilution tunnel located in the same vertical plane as the
particulate and, if applicable, particle sample probes.
4.1.5.3.2. Heated filter located after the sampling point and before the HFID.
4.1.5.3.3. Heated selection valves between the zero/calibration gas supplies and the HFID.
4.1.5.3.4. Means of integrating and recording instantaneous hydrocarbon concentrations.
4.1.5.3.5. Heated sampling lines and heated components from the heated probe to the HFID.

4.2.1.2. General Requirements
4.2.1.2.1. The sampling probe for the test gas flow for particulate shall be arranged within the dilution
tunnel so that a representative sample gas flow can be taken from the homogeneous
air/exhaust mixture and shall be upstream of a heat exchanger (if any).
4.2.1.2.2. The particulate sample flow rate shall be proportional to the total mass flow of diluted
exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel to within a tolerance of ±5% of the particulate sample flow
rate. The verification of the proportionality of the particulate sampling shall be made during
the commissioning of the system and as required by the responsible authority.
4.2.1.2.3. The sampled dilute exhaust gas shall be maintained at a temperature above 20°C and
below 52°C within 20cm upstream or downstream of the particulate sampling filter face.
Heating or insulation of components of the particulate sampling system to achieve this is
permitted.
In the event that the 52°C limit is exceeded during a test where periodic regeneration event
does not occur, the CVS flow rate shall be increased or double dilution shall be applied
(assuming that the CVS flow rate is already sufficient so as not to cause condensation
within the CVS, sample bags or analytical system).
4.2.1.2.4. The particulate sample shall be collected on a single filter mounted within a holder in the
sampled dilute exhaust gas flow.
4.2.1.2.5. All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the
filter holder that are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas shall be designed to
minimise deposition or alteration of the particulate. All parts shall be made of electrically
conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be
electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.
4.2.1.2.6. If it is not possible to compensate for variations in the flow rate, provision shall be made for
a heat exchanger and a temperature control device as specified in Paragraphs 3.3.5.1. or
3.3.6.4.2. of this Annex, so as to ensure that the flow rate in the system is constant and the
sampling rate accordingly proportional.
4.2.1.2.7. Temperatures required for the measurement of PM shall be measured with an accuracy of
±1°C and a response time (t – t ) of 15s or less.
4.2.1.2.8. The sample flow from the dilution tunnel shall be measured with an accuracy of ±2.5% of
reading or ±1.5% full scale, whichever is the least.
The accuracy specified above of the sample flow from the CVS tunnel is also applicable
where double dilution is used. Consequently, the measurement and control of the secondary
dilution air flow and diluted exhaust flow rates through the filter shall be of a higher
accuracy.
4.2.1.2.9. All data channels required for the measurement of PM shall be logged at a frequency of 1Hz
or faster. Typically, these would include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Diluted exhaust temperature at the particulate sampling filter;
Sampling flow rate;
Secondary dilution air flow rate (if secondary dilution is used);
(d) Secondary dilution air temperature (if secondary dilution is used).

4.2.1.3. Specific Requirements
4.2.1.3.1. Sample Probe
Figure A5/13
Double Dilution Particulate Sampling System
4.2.1.3.1.1. The sample probe shall deliver the particle size classification performance specified in
Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.4. of this Annex. It is recommended that this performance be
achieved by the use of a sharp-edged, open-ended probe facing directly into the
direction of flow plus a pre-classifier (cyclone impactor, etc.). An appropriate sample
probe, such as that indicated in Figure A5/11, may alternatively be used provided it
achieves the pre-classification performance specified in Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.4. of this
Annex.
4.2.1.3.1.2. The sample probe shall be installed at least 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the
exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least 8mm.
If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sample probe, the flow
drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flows to avoid sampling artefacts.
If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and facing
directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced around the central
longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel, with a spacing between probes of at least 5cm.
4.2.1.3.1.3. The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at least five probe
diameters, but shall not exceed 2,000mm.

4.2.1.3.5. Filter and Filter Holder
4.2.1.3.5.1. A valve shall be located downstream of the filter in the direction of flow. The valve shall
open and close within 1s of the start and end of test.
4.2.1.3.5.2. For a given test, the gas filter face velocity shall be set to an initial value within the range
20cm/s to 105cm/s and shall be set at the start of the test so that 105cm/s will not be
exceeded when the dilution system is being operated with sampling flow proportional to
CVS flow rate.
4.2.1.3.5.3. Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon membrane filters shall be used.
All filter types shall have a 0.3μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) or PAO (poly-alpha-olefin)
CS 68649-12-7 or CS 68037-01-4 collection efficiency of at least 99% at a gas filter face
velocity of 5.33cm/s measured according to one of the following standards:
(a) U.S.A. Department of Defense Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-282 method 102.8:
DOP-Smoke Penetration of Aerosol-Filter Element;
(b) U.S.A. Department of Defense Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-282 method 502.1.1:
DOP-Smoke Penetration of Gas-Mask Canisters;
(c)
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, IEST-RP-CC021: Testing HEPA
and ULPA Filter Media.
4.2.1.3.5.4. The filter holder assembly shall be of a design that provides an even flow distribution across
the filter stain area. The filter shall be round and have a stain area of at least 1,075mm .
4.2.2. Weighing Chamber (or Room) and Analytical Balance Specifications
4.2.2.1. Weighing Chamber (or Room) Conditions
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The temperature of the weighing chamber (or room) in which the particulate sampling
filters are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained to within 22°C ± 2°C
(22°C ± 1°C if possible) during all filter conditioning and weighing;
Humidity shall be maintained at a dew point of less than 10.5°C and a relative
humidity of 45% ± 8%;
Limited deviations from weighing chamber (or room) temperature and humidity
specifications shall be permitted provided their total duration does not exceed 30min
in any one filter conditioning period;
The levels of ambient contaminants in the weighing chamber (or room) environment
that would settle on the particulate sampling filters during their stabilisation shall be
minimised;
During the weighing operation no deviations from the specified conditions are
permitted.

The following equation shall be used:
Where:
Pe
is the corrected particulate sample mass, mg;
Pe
is the uncorrected particulate sample mass, mg;
ρ
is the density of the air, kg/m ;
ρ
is the density of balance calibration weight, kg/m ;
ρ
is the density of the particulate sampling filter, kg/m .
The density of the air ρashall be calculated using the following equation:
p
T
is the total atmospheric pressure, kPa;
is the air temperature in the balance environment, Kelvin (K);
M is the molar mass of air in a balanced environment, 28.836g mol ;
R is the molar gas constant, 8.3144J mol K .
4.3. PN Measurement Equipment (if applicable)
4.3.1. Specification
4.3.1.1. System Overview
4.3.1.1.1. The particle sampling system shall consist of a probe or sampling point extracting a sample
from a homogenously mixed flow in a dilution system, a volatile particle remover (VPR)
upstream of a particle number counter (PNC) and suitable transfer tubing. See
Figure A5/14.
4.3.1.1.2. It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (PCF) (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) be
located prior to the inlet of the VPR. The PCF 50% cut point particle diameter shall be
between 2.5μm and 10μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for particle sampling. The
PCF shall allow at least 99% of the mass concentration of 1μm particles entering the PCF to
pass through the exit of the PCF at the volumetric flow rate selected for particle sampling.
A sample probe acting as an appropriate size-classification device, such as that shown in
Figure A5/11, is an acceptable alternative to the use of a PCF.

4.3.1.3.
Specific Requirements
4.3.1.3.1.
The particle sample shall not pass through a pump before passing through the PNC.
4.3.1.3.2.
A sample pre-classifier is recommended.
4.3.1.3.3.
The sample preconditioning unit shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Be capable of diluting the sample in one or more stages to achieve a particle number
concentration below the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC
and a gas temperature below 35°C at the inlet to the PNC;
Include an initial heated dilution stage that outputs a sample at a temperature of
≥150°C and ≤350°C ± 10°C, and dilutes by a factor of at least 10;
Control heated stages to constant nominal operating temperatures, within the range
≥150°C and ≤400°C ± 10°C;
Provide an indication of whether or not heated stages are at their correct operating
temperatures;
Be designed to achieve a solid particle penetration efficiency of at least 70% for
particles of 100nm electrical mobility diameter;
Achieve a particle concentration reduction factor f (d ) for particles of 30nm and 50nm
electrical mobility diameters that is no more than 30% and 20% respectively higher,
and no more than 5% lower than that for particles of 100nm electrical mobility
diameter for the VPR as a whole;
The particle concentration reduction factor at each particle size f (d ) shall be
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
N (d ) is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
N (d ) is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
d
is the particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100nm).
N (d ) and N
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor at a given dilution
setting f̅ shall be calculated using the following equation:
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit;
(g)
Be designed according to good engineering practice to ensure particle concentration
reduction factors are stable across a test;
(h) Also achieve more than 99.0% vaporization of 30nm tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH )
particles, with an inlet concentration of ≥10,000 per cm , by means of heating and
reduction of partial pressures of the tetracontane.

4.3.1.4.1. Sampling System Description
Figure A5/14
A Recommended Particle Sampling System
4.3.1.4.1.1. The particle sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe tip or particle sampling point
in the dilution system, a PTT, a PCF, and a VPR, upstream of the PNC unit.
4.3.1.4.1.2. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution (particle number diluters: PND and
PND ) and particle evaporation (evaporation tube, ET).
4.3.1.4.1.3. The sampling probe or sampling point for the test gas flow shall be arranged within the
dilution tunnel so that a representative sample gas flow is taken from a homogeneous
diluent/exhaust mixture.

Table A5/4
Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) Calibration Intervals
CVS
Interval
Criterion
CVS flow
After overhaul
±2%
Temperature sensor
Yearly
±1°C
Pressure sensor
Yearly
±0.4kPa
Injection check
Weekly
±2%
Table A5/5
Environmental Data Calibration Intervals
Climate Interval Criterion
Temperature Yearly ±1°C
Moisture dew Yearly ±5% RH
Ambient pressure Yearly ±0.4kPa
Cooling fan After overhaul According to Paragraph 1.1.1. of this Annex.
5.2. Analyser Calibration Procedures
5.2.1. Each analyser shall be calibrated as specified by the instrument manufacturer or at least as
often as specified in Table A5/3.
5.2.2. Each normally used operating range shall be linearized by the following procedure:
5.2.2.1. The analyser linearization curve shall be established by at least five calibration points
spaced as uniformly as possible. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas of the
highest concentration shall be not less than 80% of the full scale.
5.2.2.2. The calibration gas concentration required may be obtained by means of a gas divider,
diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air.
5.2.2.3. The linearization curve shall be calculated by the least squares method. If the resulting
polynomial degree is greater than 3, the number of calibration points shall be at least equal
to this polynomial degree plus 2.
5.2.2.4. The linearization curve shall not differ by more than ±2% from the nominal value of each
calibration gas.

5.4.3.2. The methane factor Rf shall be measured and determined when introducing an analyser
into service, and yearly thereafter or after major maintenance intervals, whichever comes
first.
The propylene response factor Rf and the toluene response factor Rf shall be
measured when introducing an analyser into service. It is recommended that they be
measured at or after major maintenance which might possibly affect the response factors.
The test gases to be used and the recommended response factors are:
Methane and purified air: 0.95 < Rf < 1.15
Propylene and purified air: 0.85 < Rf < 1.10
Toluene and purified air: 0.85 < Rf < 1.10
The factors are relative to an Rf of 1.00 for propane and purified air.
5.5. NO Converter Efficiency Test Procedure
5.5.1. Using the test set up as shown in Figure A5/15 and the procedure described below, the
efficiency of converters for the conversion of NO into NO shall be tested by means of an
ozonator as follows:
5.5.1.1. The analyser shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following the
manufacturer's specifications using zero and calibration gas (the NO content of which shall
amount to approximately 80% of the operating range and the NO concentration of the gas
mixture shall be less than 5% of the NO concentration). The NO analyser shall be in the
NO mode so that the calibration gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated
concentration shall be recorded.
5.5.1.2. Via a T-fitting, oxygen or synthetic air shall be added continuously to the calibration gas flow
until the concentration indicated is approximately 10% less than the indicated calibration
concentration given in Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex. The indicated concentration (c)
shall be recorded. The ozonator shall be kept deactivated throughout this process.
5.5.1.3. The ozonator shall now be activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO
concentration down to 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex. The indicated concentration (d) shall be recorded.
5.5.1.4. The NOx analyser shall be subsequently switched to the NO mode, whereby the gas
mixture (consisting of NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. The
indicated concentration (a) shall be recorded.
5.5.1.5. The ozonator shall now be deactivated. The mixture of gases described in
Paragraph 5.5.1.2. of this Annex shall pass through the converter into the detector. The
indicated concentration (b) shall be recorded.

5.7. Calibration and Validation of the Particle Sampling System (if applicable)
Examples of calibration/validation methods are available at:
http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/pmpFCP.html.
5.7.1. Calibration of the PNC
5.7.1.1. The responsible authority shall ensure the existence of a calibration certificate for the PNC
demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a 13-month period prior to the
emissions test. Between calibrations either the counting efficiency of the PNC shall be
monitored for deterioration or the PNC wick shall be routinely changed every 6 months. See
Figures A5/16 and A5/17. PNC counting efficiency may be monitored against a reference
PNC or against at least two other measurement PNCs. If the PNC reports particle number
concentrations within ±10% of the arithmetic average of the concentrations from the
reference PNC, or a group of two or more PNCs, the PNC shall subsequently be considered
stable, otherwise maintenance of the PNC is required. Where the PNC is monitored against
two or more other measurement PNCs, it is permitted to use a reference vehicle running
sequentially in different test cells each with its own PNC.
Figure A5/16
Nominal PNC Annual Sequence
Figure A5/17
Extended PNC Annual Sequence (in the case that a full PNC calibration is delayed)
5.7.1.2. The PNC shall also be recalibrated and a new calibration certificate issued following any
major maintenance.
5.7.1.3. Calibration shall be traceable to a national or international standard calibration method by
comparing the response of the PNC under calibration with that of:
(a)
(b)
A calibrated aerosol electrometer when simultaneously sampling electrostatically
classified calibration particles; or
A second PNC that has been directly calibrated by the method described above.

5.7.2.2. The test aerosol for these measurements shall be solid particles of 30, 50 and 100nm
electrical mobility diameter and a minimum concentration of 5,000 particles per cm at the
VPR inlet. As an option, a polydisperse aerosol with an electrical mobility median diameter
of 50nm may be used for validation. The test aerosol shall be thermally stable at the VPR
operating temperatures. Particle number concentrations shall be measured upstream and
downstream of the components.
The particle concentration reduction factor for each monodisperse particle size, f (d ), shall
be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
N (d ) is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
N (d ) is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
d
N (d ) and N
is the particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100nm).
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor f̅ at a given dilution setting
shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where a polydisperse 50nm aerosol is used for validation, the arithmetic average particle
concentration reduction factor f̅ at the dilution setting used for validation shall be calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
N
is the upstream particle number concentration;
N is the downstream particle number concentration.
5.7.2.3. The VPR shall demonstrate greater than 99.0% removal of tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH )
particles of at least 30nm electrical mobility diameter with an inlet concentration
≥10,000 per cm when operated at its minimum dilution setting and manufacturer's
recommended operating temperature.
5.7.3. PN Measurement System Check Procedures
On a monthly basis, the flow into the PNC shall have a measured value within 5% of the
PNC nominal flow rate when checked with a calibrated flow meter.

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
NO in nitrogen (the amount of NO contained in this calibration gas shall not exceed
5% of the NO content);
NO in synthetic air or nitrogen (tolerance: ±2%), if applicable;
N O in nitrogen (tolerance: ±2% or 0.25ppm, whichever is greater), if applicable;
NH in nitrogen (tolerance: ±3%), if applicable;
C H OH in synthetic air or nitrogen (tolerance: ±2%), if applicable;
HCHO (tolerance: ±10%), if applicable;
CH CHO (tolerance: ±5%), if applicable.
7. ADDITIONAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS
7.1. Sampling and Analysis Methods for NH (if applicable)
Two measurement principles are specified for NH measurement; either may be used
provided the criteria specified in Paragraphs 7.1.1. or 7.1.2. of this Annex are fulfilled.
Gas dryers are not permitted for NH measurement. For non-linear analysers, the use of
linearising circuits is permitted.
7.1.1. Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) or Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL)
7.1.1.1. Measurement Principle
7.1.1.2. Installation
The LDS/QCL employs the single line spectroscopy principle. The NH absorption line is
chosen in the near infrared (LDS) or mid-infrared spectral range (QCL).
The analyser shall be installed either directly in the exhaust pipe (in-situ) or within an
analyser cabinet using extractive sampling in accordance with the instrument
manufacturer's instructions.
Where applicable, sheath air used in conjunction with an in-situ measurement for protection
of the instrument shall not affect the concentration of any exhaust component measured
downstream of the device, or, if the sheath air affects the concentration, the sampling of
other exhaust components shall be made upstream of the device.
7.1.1.3. Cross Interference
The spectral resolution of the laser shall be within 0.5 per cm in order to minimize cross
interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.

7.2. Sampling and Analysis Methods for N O
7.2.1. Gas Chromatographic Method
7.2.1.1. General Description
7.2.1.2. Sampling
Followed by gas chromatographic separation, N O shall be analysed by an electron capture
detector (ECD).
During each phase of the test, a gas sample shall be taken from the corresponding diluted
exhaust bag and dilution air bag for analysis. Alternatively, analysis of the dilution air bag
from Phase 1 or a single composite dilution background sample may be performed
assuming that the N O content of the dilution air is constant.
7.2.1.2.1. Sample Transfer
Secondary sample storage media may be used to transfer samples from the test cell to the
GC lab. Good engineering judgement shall be used to avoid additional dilution when
transferring the sample from sample bags to secondary sample bags.
7.2.1.2.2. Secondary Sample Storage Media
Gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers that minimise off-gassing and
permeation. Good engineering judgment shall be used to determine acceptable processes
and thresholds regarding storage media cleanliness and permeation.
7.2.1.2.3. Sample Storage
Secondary sample storage bags shall be analysed within 24h and shall be stored at room
temperature.
7.2.1.3. Instrumentation and Apparatus
7.2.1.3.1. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) shall be used to measure
N O concentrations of diluted exhaust for batch sampling.
7.2.1.3.2. The sample may be injected directly into the GC or an appropriate pre-concentrator may be
used. In the case of pre-concentration, this shall be used for all necessary verifications and
quality checks.
7.2.1.3.3. A porous layer open tubular or a packed column phase of suitable polarity and length shall
be used to achieve adequate resolution of the N O peak for analysis.
7.2.1.3.4. Column temperature profile and carrier gas selection shall be taken into consideration when
setting up the method to achieve adequate N O peak resolution. Whenever possible, the
operator shall aim for baseline separated peaks.
7.2.1.3.5. Good engineering judgement shall be used to zero the instrument and to correct for drift.
Example: A calibration gas measurement may be performed before and after sample
analysis without zeroing and using the arithmetic average area counts of the pre-calibration
and post-calibration measurements to generate a response factor (area counts/calibration
gas concentration), which shall be subsequently multiplied by the area counts from the
sample to generate the sample concentration.

7.2.1.8. Limit of Detection, Limit of Quantification
The detection limit shall be based on the noise measurement close to the retention time of
N O (reference DIN 32645, 01.11.2008):
Limit of Detection: LoD = avg. (noise) + 3 × std.dev.
Where std.dev. is considered to be equal to noise.
Limit of Quantification: LoQ = 3 × LoD
For the purpose of calculating the mass of N O, the concentration below LoD shall be
considered to be zero.
7.2.1.9. Interference Verification
Interference is any component present in the sample with a retention time similar to that of
the target compound described in this method. To reduce interference error, proof of
chemical identity may require periodic confirmations using an alternate method or
instrumentation.
7.3. Sampling and Analysis Methods for Ethanol (C H OH) (if applicable)
7.3.1. Impinger and Gas Chromatograph Analysis of the Liquid Sample
7.3.1.1. Sampling
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken for analysis from the diluted exhaust
and dilution air bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background
sample may be analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
7.3.1.2. Gas Chromatographic Method
A sample shall be introduced into a gas chromatograph, GC. The alcohols in the sample
shall be separated in a GC capillary column and ethanol shall be detected and quantified by
a flame ionization detector, FID.
7.3.1.2.1. Sample Transfer
Secondary sample storage media may be used to transfer samples from the test cell to the
GC lab. Good engineering judgement shall be used to avoid additional dilution when
transferring the sample from the sample bags to secondary sample bags.
7.3.1.2.1.1. Secondary Sample Storage Media
Gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers that minimize off-gassing and
permeation. Good engineering judgment shall be used to determine acceptable processes
and thresholds regarding storage media cleanliness and permeation.

7.3.1.5. Peak Integration Procedure
7.3.1.6. Linearity
The peak integration procedure shall be performed as in Paragraph 7.2.1.5. of this Annex.
A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.6. of this Annex.
7.3.1.7. Quality Control
7.3.1.7.1. A nitrogen or air blank sample run shall be performed before running the calibration
standard.
A weekly blank sample run shall provide a check on contamination of the complete system.
A blank sample run shall be performed within one week of the test.
7.3.1.7.2. The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.3.1.7.3. A quality control standard shall be analysed within 24h before the analysis of the samples.
7.3.1.8. Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification
The limits of detection and quantification shall be determined according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.8. of this Annex.
7.3.1.9. Interference Verification
Interference and reducing interference error is described in Paragraph 7.2.1.9. of this
Annex.
7.3.2. Alternative Methods for the Sampling and Analysis of Ethanol (C H OH)
7.3.2.1. Sampling
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken for analysis from the diluted exhaust
and dilution air bag. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
Frequency of calibration and calibration methods will be adapted to each instrument for the
best practice and always respecting the quality control standards.

7.3.2.5.1. Calibration Frequency
Calibrating shall be performed once per week or after maintenance. No compensation is
needed.
7.4. Sampling and Analysis Methods for Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde (if applicable)
7.4.1.1. Sampling
7.4.1.2. Cartridges
Aldehydes shall be sampled with DNPH-impregnated cartridges. Elution of the cartridges
shall be done with acetonitrile. Analysis shall be carried out by high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), with an ultraviolet (UV) detector at 360nm or diode array detector
(DAD). Carbonyl masses ranging between 0.02 to 200μg are measured using this method.
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken from the diluted exhaust and dilution air
bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
DNPH-impregnated cartridges shall be sealed and refrigerated at a temperature less than
4°C upon receipt from manufacturer until ready for use.
7.4.1.2.1. System Capacity
The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling system shall be of sufficient capacity so as to
enable the collection of samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on
the volume of the diluted exhaust passing through the CVS.
7.4.1.2.2. Sample Storage
Samples not analysed within 24h of being taken shall be refrigerated at a temperature below
4°C. Refrigerated samples shall not be analysed after more than 30 days of storage.
7.4.1.2.3. Sample Preparation
The cartridges shall be eluted by removing their caps, extracting with acetonitrile and
running the extract into glass storage bottles. The solution shall be transferred from each
cartridge to glass vials and sealed with new septum screw caps.
7.4.1.2.4. Good engineering practice shall be used to avoid sample breakthrough.
7.4.1.3. Instrumentation
A liquid autosampler and either a HPLC-UV or HPLC-DAD shall be used.

7.4.1.6. Linearity
A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.6.
7.4.1.7. Quality Control
7.4.1.7.1. Field Blank
One cartridge shall be analysed as a field blank for each emission test. If the field blank
shows a peak greater than the limit of detection (LoD) in the region of interest, the source of
the contamination shall be investigated and remedied.
7.4.1.7.2. Calibration Run
The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.4.1.7.3. Control Standard
A quality control standard shall be analysed at least once every 7 days.
7.4.1.8. Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification
The LoD for the target analytes shall be determined:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For new instruments;
After making instrument modifications that could affect the LoD; and
At least once per year.
7.4.1.8.1. A multipoint calibration consisting of at least four "low" concentration levels, each above the
LoD, with at least five replicate determinations of the lowest concentration standard, shall be
performed.
7.4.1.8.2. The maxim allowable LoD of the hydrazine derivative is 0.0075μg/ml.
7.4.1.8.3. The calculated laboratory LoD shall be equal to or lower than the maximum allowable LoD.
7.4.1.8.4. All peaks identified as target compounds that are equal to or exceed the maximum
allowable LoD shall be recorded.
7.4.1.8.5. For the purpose of calculating the total mass of all species, the concentrations of the
compounds below the LoD are considered to be zero.
The final mass calculation shall be calculated according to the equation in
Paragraph 3.2.1.7. of Annex 7.
7.4.1.9. Interference Verification
To reduce interference error, proof of chemical identity may require periodic confirmations
using an alternate method and/or instrumentation, e.g. alternative HPLC columns or mobile
phase compositions

ANNEX 6
TYPE 1 TEST PROCEDURES AND TEST CONDITIONS
1. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS
1.1. The Type 1 test is used to verify the emissions of gaseous compounds, particulate matter,
particle number (if applicable), CO mass emission, fuel consumption, electric energy
consumption and electric ranges over the applicable WLTP test cycle.
1.1.1. The tests shall be carried out according to the method described in Paragraph 2. of this
Annex or Paragraph 3. of Annex 8 for pure electric, hybrid electric and compressed
hydrogen fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Exhaust gases, particulate matter and particle number
(if applicable) shall be sampled and analysed by the prescribed methods.
1.2. The number of tests shall be determined according to the flowchart in Figure A6/1. The limit
value is the maximum allowed value for the respective criteria emission as defined by the
Contracting Party.
1.2.1. The flowchart in Figure A6/1 shall be applicable only to the whole applicable WLTP test
cycle and not to single phases.
1.2.2. The test results shall be the values after the REESS energy change-based, K and other
regional corrections (if applicable) are applied.
1.2.3. Determination of Total Cycle Values
1.2.3.1. If during any of the tests a criteria emissions limit is exceeded, the vehicle shall be rejected.
1.2.3.2. Depending on the vehicle type, the manufacturer shall declare as applicable the total cycle
value of the CO mass emission, the electric energy consumption, fuel consumption for
NOVC-FCHVs as well as PER and AER according to Table A6/1.
1.2.3.3. The declared value of the electric energy consumption for OVC-HEVs under
charge-depleting operating condition shall not be determined according to Figure A6/1. It
shall be taken as the type approval value if the declared CO value is accepted as the
approval value. If that is not the case, the measured value of electric energy consumption
shall be taken as the type approval value. Evidence of a correlation between declared CO
mass emission and electric energy consumption shall be submitted to the responsible
authority in advance, if applicable.
1.2.3.4. If after the first test all criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A6/2 are fulfilled, all values
declared by the manufacturer shall be accepted as the type approval value. If any one of the
criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled, a second test shall be performed
with the same vehicle.
1.2.3.5. After the second test, the arithmetic average results of the two tests shall be calculated. If all
criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A6/2 are fulfilled by these arithmetic average results,
all values declared by the manufacturer shall be accepted as the type approval value. If any
one of the criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled, a third test shall be
performed with the same vehicle.

Figure A6/1
Flowchart for the Number of Type 1 Tests

1.2.4. Determination of Phase-specific Values
1.2.4.1. Phase-specific Value for CO
1.2.4.1.1. After the total cycle declared value of the CO mass emission is accepted, the arithmetic
average of the phase-specific values of the test results in g/km shall be multiplied by the
adjustment factor CO2_AF to compensate for the difference between the declared value
and the test results. This corrected value shall be the type approval value for CO .
Where:
Where:
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the L phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the M phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the H phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the exH phase test
result(s), g/km;
D
D
D
is theoretical distance of phase L, km;
is theoretical distance of phase M, km;
is theoretical distance of phase H, km;
D is theoretical distance of phase exH, km.
1.2.4.1.2. If the total cycle declared value of the CO mass emission is not accepted, the type approval
phase-specific CO mass emission value shall be calculated by taking the arithmetic
average of the all test results for the respective phase.
1.2.4.2. Phase-specific Values for Fuel Consumption
The fuel consumption value shall be calculated by the phase-specific CO mass emission
using the equations in Paragraph 1.2.4.1. of this Annex and the arithmetic average of the
emissions.
1.2.4.3. Phase-specific Value for Electric Energy Consumption, PER and AER
The phase-specific electric energy consumption and the phase-specific electric ranges are
calculated by taking the arithmetic average of the phase specific values of the test result(s),
without an adjustment factor.

2.1.3.2.1.2. Either the Contracting Party or the manufacturer may request that actual background
measurements are used instead of calculated ones.
2.1.3.2.1.3. Where subtraction of the background contribution gives a negative result, the PN result shall
be considered to be zero.
2.1.3.2.2. The dilution air background particle number level shall be determined by sampling filtered
dilution air. This shall be drawn from a point immediately downstream of the dilution air
filters into the PN measurement system. Background levels in particles per cm shall be
determined as a rolling arithmetic average of least 14 measurements with at least one
measurement per week.
2.1.3.2.3. The dilution tunnel background particle number level shall be determined by sampling
filtered dilution air. This shall be drawn from the same point as the PN sample. Where
secondary dilution is used for the test the secondary dilution system shall be active for the
purposes of background measurement. One measurement may be performed on the day of
test, either prior to or after the test using the actual PCRF and the CVS flow rate utilised
during the test.
2.2. General Test Cell Equipment
2.2.1. Parameters to be Measured
2.2.1.1. The following temperatures shall be measured with an accuracy of ±1.5°C:
(a)
(b)
Test cell ambient air;
Dilution and sampling system temperatures as required for emissions measurement
systems defined in Annex 5.
2.2.1.2. Atmospheric pressure shall be measurable with a precision of ±0.1kPa.
2.2.1.3. Specific humidity H shall be measurable with a precision of ±1g H O/kg dry air.
2.2.2. Test Cell and Soak Area
2.2.2.1. Test Cell
2.2.2.1.1. The test cell shall have a temperature set point of 23°C. The tolerance of the actual value
shall be within ±5°C. The air temperature and humidity shall be measured at the test cell's
cooling fan outlet at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz. For the temperature at the start of the
test, see Paragraph 2.8.1. of this Annex.
2.2.2.1.2. The specific humidity H of either the air in the test cell or the intake air of the engine shall be
such that:
5.5 ≤ H ≤ 12.2 (g H O/kg dry air)
2.2.2.1.3. Humidity shall be measured continuously at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz.
2.2.2.2. Soak Area
The soak area shall have a temperature set point of 23°C and the tolerance of the actual
value shall be within ±3°C on a 5min running arithmetic average and shall not show a
systematic deviation from the set point. The temperature shall be measured continuously at
a minimum frequency of 0.033Hz (every 30s).

This restriction does not apply for the application of a road load matrix family or when the
calculation of the road load of vehicles L and H is based on the default road load.
2.3.2.2.1. The allowed interpolation range defined in Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of this Annex may be
increased by 10g/km CO (see Figure A6/3) if a vehicle M is tested within that family and the
conditions according to Paragraph 2.3.2.4. of this Annex are fulfilled. This increase is
allowed only once within an interpolation family.
Figure A6/3
Interpolation Range for Pure ICE Vehicles with Vehicle M
2.3.2.3. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, the
application of the interpolation method on individual vehicle values within a family may be
extended if the maximum extrapolation is not more than 3g/km above the CO emission of
vehicle H and/or is not more than 3g/km below the CO emission of vehicle L. This
extrapolation is valid only within the absolute boundaries of the interpolation range specified
in Paragraph 2.3.2.2.
2.3.2.4. Vehicle M
For the application of a road load matrix family, extrapolation is not permitted.
Vehicle M is a vehicle within the interpolation family between the vehicles L and H with a
cycle energy demand which is preferably closest to the average of vehicles L and H.
The limits of the selection of vehicle M (see Figure A6/4) are such that neither the difference
in CO emission values between vehicles H and M nor the difference in CO emission
values between vehicles M and L is greater than the allowed CO range in accordance with
Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of this Annex. The defined road load coefficients and the defined test
mass shall be recorded.

2.3.3. Run-in
2.4. Settings
If the linearity criterion is not fulfilled, the interpolation family shall be split into two
sub-families for vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles L and M, and
vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles M and H. In such a case, the final
CO mass emissions of vehicle M shall be determined in accordance with the same process
as for vehicles L or H. See step 9 in Table 7/1 of Annex 7.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles L and M, each parameter
of vehicle H necessary for the application of the interpolation method on individual values
shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of vehicle M.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles M and H, each parameter
of vehicle L necessary for the application of the interpolation method on individual values
shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of vehicle M.
The vehicle shall be presented in good technical condition. It shall have been run-in and
driven between 3,000 and 15,000km before the test. The engine, transmission and vehicle
shall be run-in in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
2.4.1. Dynamometer settings and verification shall be performed according to Annex 4.
2.4.2. Dynamometer Operation
2.4.2.1. Auxiliary devices shall be switched off or deactivated during dynamometer operation unless
their operation is required by regional legislation.
2.4.2.2. The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode, if any, shall be activated by using the
manufacturer's instruction (e.g. using vehicle steering wheel buttons in a special sequence,
using the manufacturer's workshop tester, removing a fuse).
The manufacturer shall provide the responsible authority a list of the deactivated devices
and justification for the deactivation. The dynamometer operation mode shall be approved
by the responsible authority and the use of a dynamometer operation mode shall be
recorded.
2.4.2.3. The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode shall not activate, modulate, delay or deactivate
the operation of any part that affects the emissions and fuel consumption under the test
conditions. Any device that affects the operation on a chassis dynamometer shall be set to
ensure a proper operation.
2.4.3. The vehicle's exhaust system shall not exhibit any leak likely to reduce the quantity of gas
collected.
2.4.4. The settings of the powertrain and vehicle controls shall be those prescribed by the
manufacturer for series production.
2.4.5. Tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer. Tyre
pressure may be increased by up to 50% above the pressure specified in
Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of Annex 4. The same tyre pressure shall be used for the setting of the
dynamometer and for all subsequent testing. The tyre pressure used shall be recorded.

2.6.2. Test Cell
2.6.2.1. Temperature
During preconditioning, the test cell temperature shall be the same as defined for the Type 1
test (Paragraph 2.2.2.1.1. of this Annex).
2.6.2.2. Background Measurement
2.6.3. Procedure
In a test facility in which there may be possible contamination of a low particulate emitting
vehicle test with residue from a previous test on a high particulate emitting vehicle, it is
recommended, for the purpose of sampling equipment preconditioning, that a 120km/h
steady state drive cycle of 20min duration be driven by a low particulate emitting vehicle.
Longer and/or higher speed running is permissible for sampling equipment preconditioning if
required. Dilution tunnel background measurements, if applicable, shall be taken after the
tunnel preconditioning, and prior to any subsequent vehicle testing.
2.6.3.1. The test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and
operated through the applicable WLTCs. The vehicle need not be cold, and may be used to
set the dynamometer load.
2.6.3.2. The dynamometer load shall be set according to Paragraphs 7. and 8. of Annex 4.
2.6.4. Operating the Vehicle
2.6.4.1. The powertrain start procedure shall be initiated by means of the devices provided for this
purpose according to the manufacturer's instructions.
A non-vehicle initiated switching of mode of operation during the test shall not be permitted
unless otherwise specified.
2.6.4.1.1. If the initiation of the powertrain start procedure is not successful, e.g. the engine does not
start as anticipated or the vehicle displays a start error, the test is void, preconditioning tests
shall be repeated and a new test shall be driven.
2.6.4.1.2. In the cases where LPG or NG/biomethane is used as a fuel, it is permissible that the
engine is started on petrol and switched automatically to LPG or NG/biomethane after a
predetermined period of time that cannot be changed by the driver. This period of time shall
not exceed 60s.
It is also permissible to use petrol only or simultaneously with gas when operating in gas
mode provided that the energy consumption of gas is higher than 80% of the total amount of
energy consumed during the Type 1 test. This percentage shall be calculated in accordance
with the method set out in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
2.6.4.2. The cycle starts on initiation of the powertrain start procedure.
2.6.4.3. For preconditioning, the applicable WLTC shall be driven.
At the request of the manufacturer or the responsible authority, additional WLTCs may be
performed in order to bring the vehicle and its control systems to a stabilized condition.
The extent of such additional preconditioning shall be recorded.

2.6.6. Driver-selectable Modes
2.6.6.1. Vehicles equipped with a predominant mode shall be tested in that mode. At the request of
the manufacturer, the vehicle may alternatively be tested with the driver-selectable mode in
the worst-case position for CO emissions.
2.6.6.2. The manufacturer shall provide evidence to the responsible authority of the existence of a
mode that fulfils the requirements of Paragraph 3.5.9. of this UN GTR. With the agreement
of the responsible authority, the predominant mode may be used as the only mode for the
determination of criteria emissions, CO emissions, and fuel consumption.
2.6.6.3. If the vehicle has no predominant mode or the requested predominant mode is not agreed
by the responsible authority as being a predominant mode, the vehicle shall be tested in the
best case mode and worst case mode for criteria emissions, CO emissions, and fuel
consumption. Best and worst case modes shall be identified by the evidence provided on
the CO emissions and fuel consumption in all modes. CO emissions and fuel consumption
shall be the arithmetic average of the test results in both modes. Test results for both modes
shall be recorded.
At the request of the manufacturer, the vehicle may alternatively be tested with the
driver-selectable mode in the worst case position for CO emissions.
2.6.6.4. On the basis of technical evidence provided by the manufacturer and with the agreement of
the responsible authority, the dedicated driver-selectable modes for very special limited
purposes shall not be considered (e.g. maintenance mode, crawler mode). All remaining
modes used for forward driving shall be considered and the criteria emissions limits shall be
fulfilled in all these modes.
2.6.6.5. Paragraphs 2.6.6.1. to 2.6.6.4. inclusive of this Annex shall apply to all vehicle systems with
driver-selectable modes, including those not solely specific to the transmission.
2.6.7. Voiding of the Type 1 Test and Completion of the Cycle
If the engine stops unexpectedly, the preconditioning or Type 1 test shall be declared void.
After completion of the cycle, the engine shall be switched off. The vehicle shall not be
restarted until the beginning of the test for which the vehicle has been preconditioned.
2.6.8. Data Required, Quality Control
2.6.8.1. Speed Measurement
During the preconditioning, speed shall be measured against time or collected by the data
acquisition system at a frequency of not less than 1Hz so that the actual driven speed can
be assessed.
2.6.8.2. Distance Travelled
The distance actually driven by the vehicle shall be recorded for each WLTC phase.

2.7. Soaking
2.7.1. After preconditioning and before testing, the test vehicle shall be kept in an area with
ambient conditions as specified in Paragraph 2.2.2.2. of this Annex.
2.7.2. The vehicle shall be soaked for a minimum of 6h and a maximum of 36h with the engine
compartment cover opened or closed. If not excluded by specific provisions for a particular
vehicle, cooling may be accomplished by forced cooling down to the set point temperature.
If cooling is accelerated by fans, the fans shall be placed so that the maximum cooling of the
drive train, engine and exhaust after-treatment system is achieved in a homogeneous
manner.
2.8. Emission and Fuel Consumption Test (Type 1 Test)
2.8.1. The test cell temperature at the start of the test shall be 23°C ± 3°C. The engine oil
temperature and coolant temperature, if any, shall be within ±2°C of the set point of 23°C.
2.8.2. The test vehicle shall be pushed onto a dynamometer.
2.8.2.1. The drive wheels of the vehicle shall be placed on the dynamometer without starting the
engine.
2.8.2.2. The drive-wheel tyre pressures shall be set in accordance with the provisions of
Paragraph 2.4.5. of this Annex.
2.8.2.3. The engine compartment cover shall be closed.
2.8.2.4. An exhaust connecting tube shall be attached to the vehicle tailpipe(s) immediately before
starting the engine.
2.8.3. Starting of the Powertrain and Driving
2.8.3.1. The powertrain start procedure shall be initiated by means of the devices provided for this
purpose according to the manufacturer's instructions.
2.8.3.2. The vehicle shall be driven as described in Paragraphs 2.6.4. to 2.6.8. inclusive of this
Annex over the applicable WLTC, as described in Annex 1.
2.8.4. RCB data shall be measured for each phase of the WLTC as defined in Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
2.8.5. Actual vehicle speed shall be sampled with a measurement frequency of 10Hz and the drive
trace indices described in Paragraph 7. of Annex 7 shall be calculated and documented. If
either IWR or RMSSE is outside the respective validity range, the Type 1 test shall be
considered invalid.
2.9. Gaseous Sampling
Gaseous samples shall be collected in bags and the compounds analysed at the end of the
test or a test phase, or the compounds may be analysed continuously and integrated over
the cycle.
2.9.1. The following steps shall be taken prior to each test:
2.9.1.1. The purged, evacuated sample bags shall be connected to the dilute exhaust and dilution
air sample collection systems.

2.11. PN Sampling (if applicable)
2.11.1. The steps described in Paragraphs 2.11.1.1. to 2.11.1.2. inclusive of this Annex shall be
taken prior to each test:
2.11.1.1. The particle specific dilution system and measurement equipment shall be started and made
ready for sampling;
2.11.1.2. The correct function of the PNC and VPR elements of the particle sampling system shall be
confirmed according to the procedures listed in Paragraphs 2.11.1.2.1. to 2.11.1.2.4.
inclusive of this Annex.
2.11.1.2.1. A leak check, using a filter of appropriate performance attached to the inlet of the entire PN
measurement system, VPR and PNC, shall report a measured concentration of less than
0.5 particles per cm .
2.11.1.2.2. Each day, a zero check on the PNC, using a filter of appropriate performance at the PNC
inlet, shall report a concentration of ≤ 0.2 particles per cm . Upon removal of the filter, the
PNC shall show an increase in measured concentration to at least 100 particles per cm
when sampling ambient air and a return to ≤ 0.2 particles per cm on replacement of the
filter.
2.11.1.2.3. It shall be confirmed that the measurement system indicates that the evaporation tube,
where featured in the system, has reached its correct operating temperature.
2.11.1.2.4. It shall be confirmed that the measurement system indicates that the diluter PND has
reached its correct operating temperature.
2.12. Sampling during the Test
2.12.1. The dilution system, sample pumps and data collection system shall be started.
2.12.2. The PM and, if applicable, PN sampling systems shall be started.
2.12.3. Particle number, if applicable, shall be measured continuously. The arithmetic average
concentration shall be determined by integrating the analyser signals over each phase.
2.12.4. Sampling shall begin before or at the initiation of the powertrain start procedure and end on
conclusion of the cycle.
2.12.5. Sample Switching
2.12.5.1. Gaseous Emissions
2.12.5.2. Particulate
Sampling from the diluted exhaust and dilution air shall be switched from one pair of sample
bags to subsequent bag pairs, if necessary, at the end of each phase of the applicable
WLTC to be driven.
The requirements of Paragraph 2.10.1.1. of this Annex shall apply.
2.12.6. Dynamometer distance shall be recorded for each phase.

2.14.2.10. Calibrations and checks shall be performed either:
(a)
(b)
Before and after each bag pair analysis; or
Before and after the complete test.
In case (b), calibrations and checks shall be performed on all analysers for all ranges used
during the test.
In both cases, (a) and (b), the same analyser range shall be used for the corresponding
ambient air and exhaust bags.
2.14.3. Particulate Sample Filter Weighing
2.14.3.1. The particulate sample filter shall be returned to the weighing chamber (or room) no later
than 1h after completion of the test. It shall be conditioned in a petri dish, which is protected
against dust contamination and allows air exchange, for at least 1h, and weighed. The gross
weight of the filter shall be recorded.
2.14.3.2. At least two unused reference filters shall be weighed within 8h of, but preferably at the
same time as, the sample filter weighings. Reference filters shall be of the same size and
material as the sample filter.
2.14.3.3. If the specific weight of any reference filter changes by more than ±5μg between sample
filter weighings, the sample filter and reference filters shall be reconditioned in the weighing
chamber (or room) and reweighed.
2.14.3.4. The comparison of reference filter weighings shall be made between the specific weights
and the rolling arithmetic average of that reference filter's specific weights. The rolling
arithmetic average shall be calculated from the specific weights collected in the period after
the reference filters were placed in the weighing chamber (or room). The averaging period
shall be at least one day but not more than 15 days.
2.14.3.5. Multiple reconditionings and reweighings of the sample and reference filters are permitted
until a period of 80h has elapsed following the measurement of gases from the emissions
test. If, prior to or at the 80h point, more than half the number of reference filters meet the
±5μg criterion, the sample filter weighing may be considered valid. If, at the 80h point, two
reference filters are employed and one filter fails the ±5μg criterion, the sample filter
weighing may be considered valid under the condition that the sum of the absolute
differences between specific and rolling means from the two reference filters shall be less
than or equal to 10μg.
2.14.3.6. In the case that less than half of the reference filters meet the ±5μg criterion, the sample
filter shall be discarded, and the emissions test repeated. All reference filters shall be
discarded and replaced within 48h. In all other cases, reference filters shall be replaced at
least every 30 days and in such a manner that no sample filter is weighed without
comparison to a reference filter that has been present in the weighing chamber (or room) for
at least one day.
2.14.3.7. If the weighing chamber (or room) stability criteria outlined in Paragraph 4.2.2.1. of Annex 5
are not met, but the reference filter weighings meet the above criteria, the vehicle
manufacturer has the option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests,
repairing the weighing chamber (or room) control system and re-running the test.

2.1.2. The loading process and K determination shall be made during the Type 1 driving cycle on
a chassis dynamometer or on an engine test bench using an equivalent test cycle. These
cycles may be run continuously (i.e. without the need to switch the engine off between
cycles). After any number of completed cycles, the vehicle may be removed from the
chassis dynamometer and the test continued at a later time. Upon request of the
manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a manufacturer may develop
an alternative procedure and demonstrate its equivalency, including filter temperature,
loading quantity and distance driven. This may be done on an engine bench or on a chassis
dynamometer.
2.1.3. The number of cycles D between two WLTCs where regeneration events occur, the number
of cycles over which emission measurements are made n and the mass emissions
measurement M′ for each compound i over each cycle j shall be recorded.
2.2. Measurement of Emissions during Regeneration Events
2.2.1. Preparation of the vehicle, if required, for the emissions test during a regeneration phase,
may be completed using the preconditioning cycles in Paragraph 2.6. of this Annex or
equivalent engine test bench cycles, depending on the loading procedure chosen in
Paragraph 2.1.2. of this Appendix.
2.2.2. The test and vehicle conditions for the Type 1 test described in this UN GTR apply before
the first valid emission test is carried out.
2.2.3. Regeneration shall not occur during the preparation of the vehicle. This may be ensured by
one of the following methods:
(a)
(b)
A "dummy" regenerating system or partial system may be fitted for the
preconditioning cycles;
Any other method agreed between the manufacturer and the responsible authority.
2.2.4. A cold start exhaust emissions test including a regeneration process shall be performed
according to the applicable WLTC.
2.2.5. If the regeneration process requires more than one WLTC, each WLTC shall be completed.
Use of a single particulate sample filter for multiple cycles required to complete regeneration
is permissible.
If more than one WLTC is required, subsequent WLTC(s) shall be driven immediately,
without switching the engine off, until complete regeneration has been achieved. In the case
that the number of gaseous emission bags required for the multiple cycles would exceed the
number of bags available, the time necessary to set up a new test shall be as short as
possible. The engine shall not be switched off during this period.
2.2.6. The emission values during regeneration M for each compound i shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 3. of this Appendix. The number of applicable test cycles d
measured for complete regeneration shall be recorded.

3.1.1. Calculation of the Regeneration Factor K for each Compound i Considered
The manufacturer may elect to determine for each compound independently either additive
offsets or multiplicative factors.
K factor:
K offset:
K = M – M
M , M and K results, and the manufacturer's choice of type of factor shall be recorded.
K may be determined following the completion of a single regeneration sequence
comprising measurements before, during and after regeneration events as shown in
Figure A6.App1/1.
3.2. Calculation of Exhaust and CO Emissions, and Fuel Consumption of Multiple
Periodically Regenerating Systems
The following shall be calculated for one Type 1 operation cycle for criteria emissions and
for CO emissions. The CO emissions used for that calculation shall be from the result of
step 3 described in Table A7/1 of Annex 7.
K factor:
K offset:
K = M − M
Where:
M
M
are the mean mass emissions of all events k of compound i without regeneration,
g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of all events k of compound i during regeneration,
g/km;

Figure A6.App1/2
Parameters Measured during Emissions Test during and between Cycles where Regeneration
Occurs (Schematic Example)
The calculation of K for multiple periodically regenerating systems is only possible after a
certain number of regeneration events for each system.
After performing the complete procedure (A to B, see Figure A6.App1/2), the original
starting condition A should be reached again.
3.3. K factors and K offsets shall be rounded to four places of decimal. For K offsets, the
rounding shall be based on the physical unit of the emission standard value.

2.2. Vehicle On-board Data
2.2.1. Alternatively, the REESS current shall be determined using vehicle-based data. In order to
use this measurement method, the following information shall be accessible from the test
vehicle:
(a)
(b)
Integrated charging balance value since last ignition run in Ah;
Integrated on-board data charging balance value calculated at a minimum sample
frequency of 5Hz;
(c) The charging balance value via an OBD connector as described in SAE J1962.
2.2.2. The accuracy of the vehicle on-board REESS charging and discharging data shall be
demonstrated by the manufacturer to the responsible authority.
The manufacturer may create a REESS monitoring vehicle family to prove that the vehicle
on-board REESS charging and discharging data are correct. The accuracy of the data shall
be demonstrated on a representative vehicle.
The following family criteria shall be valid:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Identical combustion processes (i.e. positive ignition, compression ignition,
two-stroke, four-stroke);
Identical charge and/or recuperation strategy (software REESS data module);
On-board data availability;
Identical charging balance measured by REESS data module;
Identical on-board charging balance simulation.
2.2.3. All REESS having no influence on CO mass emissions shall be excluded from monitoring.
3. REESS ENERGY CHANGE-BASED CORRECTION PROCEDURE
3.1. Measurement of the REESS current shall start at the same time as the test starts and shall
end immediately after the vehicle has driven the complete driving cycle.
3.2. The electricity balance Q measured in the electric power supply system shall be used as a
measure of the difference in the REESS energy content at the end of the cycle compared to
the beginning of the cycle. The electricity balance shall be determined for the total driven
WLTC.
3.3. Separate values of Q shall be logged over the driven cycle phases.

Table A6.App2/1
Energy Content of Fuel
Fuel Petrol Diesel
Content Ethanol/
Biodiesel, per cent
E0 E5 E10 E15 E22 E85 E100 B0 B5 B7 B20 B100
Heat value (kWh/l) 8.92 8.78 8.64 8.50 8.30 6.41 5.95 9.85 9.80 9.79 9.67 8.90
Table A6.App2/2
RCB Correction Criteria Thresholds
Cycle low + medium low + medium + high low + medium + high + extra high
Thresholds for
correction criterion c
0.015 0.01 0.005
4. APPLYING THE CORRECTION FUNCTION
4.1. To apply the correction function, the electric energy change ΔE of a period j of all
REESSs shall be calculated from the measured current and the nominal voltage:
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of REESS i during the considered period j, Wh;
and:
Where:
U is the nominal REESS voltage determined according to IEC 60050-482, V;
I(t)
is the electric current of REESS i during the considered period j, determined
according to Paragraph 2. of this Appendix, A;
t is the time at the beginning of the considered period j, s;
t is the time at the end of the considered period j, s.
i
n
is the index number of the considered REESS;
is the total amount of REESS;

4.6. For the correction of CO emission, g/km, the Willans factors in Table A6.App2/3 shall be
used.
Table A6.App2/3
Willans Factors
Naturally Aspirated
Pressure-charged
Positive ignition Petrol (E0) 1/MJ 0.0733 0.0778
gCO /MJ 175 186
Petrol (E5) 1/MJ 0.0744 0.0789
gCO /MJ 174 185
Petrol (E10) 1/MJ 0.0756 0.0803
gCO /MJ 174 184
CNG (G20) m /MJ 0.0719 0.0764
gCO /MJ 129 137
LPG 1/MJ 0.0950 0.101
gCO /MJ 155 164
E85 1/MJ 0.102 0.108
gCO /MJ 169 179
Compression ignition Diesel (B0) 1/MJ 0.0611 0.0611
gCO /MJ 161 161
Diesel (B5) 1/MJ 0.0611 0.0611
gCO /MJ 161 161
Diesel (B7) 1/MJ 0.0611 0.0611
gCO /MJ 161 161

ANNEX 7
CALCULATIONS
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. Unless explicitly stated otherwise in Annex 8, all requirements and procedures specified in
this Annex shall apply for NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and PEVs.
1.2. The calculation steps described in Paragraph 1.4. of this Annex shall be used for pure ICE
vehicles only.
1.3. Rounding of Test Results
1.3.1. Intermediate steps in the calculations shall not be rounded unless intermediate rounding is
required.
1.3.2. The final criteria emission results shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR in one step to the number of places to the right of the decimal point indicated by
the applicable emission standard plus one additional significant figure.
1.3.3. The NO correction factor KH shall be reported rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR to two places of decimal.
1.3.4. The dilution factor DF shall be reported rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR
to two places of decimal.
1.3.5. For information not related to standards, good engineering judgement shall be used.
1.4. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results for Vehicles using
Combustion Engines
The results shall be calculated in the order described in Table A7/1. All applicable results in
the column "Output" shall be recorded. The column "Process" describes the paragraphs to
be used for calculation or contains additional calculations.
For the purpose of this Table, the following nomenclature within the equations and results is
used:
c
p
complete applicable cycle;
every applicable cycle phase;
i every applicable criteria emission component, without CO ;
CO CO emission.

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output
Step 3
and 4a
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
If K is applicable, align CO phase values
to the combined cycle value:
M = M × AF
For every cycle phase p;
Where:
M , g/km. 4b
If K is not applicable:
M = M
Output
Step 4
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
Placeholder for additional corrections, if
applicable.
Otherwise:
M = M
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
5
Result of a
single test.
M = M
M = M
Output
Step 5
For every test:
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M , g/km.
Averaging of tests and declared value.
Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3. inclusive of
Annex 6.
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
M
,
,
g/km.
6
Output
Step 6
M , g/km;
M , g/km.
M ,
g/km.
Alignment of phase values.
Paragraph 1.2.4. of Annex 6.
and:
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
7
M = M
Output
Steps 6
and 7
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
Calculation of fuel consumption.
Paragraph 6 of this Annex.
The calculation of fuel consumption shall
be performed for the applicable cycle and
its phases separately. For that purpose:
FC
FC
M
M
M
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
8
Result of a
Type 1 test
for a test
vehicle.
(a) The applicable phase or cycle CO
values shall be used;
(b) The criteria emission over the
complete cycle shall be used.
and:
M = M
M = M
M = M

2.2. Volume Calculation for a Variable Dilution Device using a Positive Displacement
Pump
2.2.1. The volume shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
V = V × N
V
V
N
is the volume of the diluted gas, in litres per test (prior to correction);
is the volume of gas delivered by the positive displacement pump in testing
conditions, litres per pump revolution;
is the number of revolutions per test.
2.2.1.1. Correcting the Volume to Standard Conditions
The diluted exhaust gas volume, V, shall be corrected to standard conditions according to
the following equation:
Where:
P
P
T
is the test room barometric pressure, kPa;
is the vacuum at the inlet of the positive displacement pump relative to the ambient
barometric pressure, kPa;
is the arithmetic average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas entering the positive
displacement pump during the test, Kelvin (K).
3. MASS EMISSIONS
3.1. General Requirements
3.1.1. Assuming no compressibility effects, all gases involved in the engine's intake, combustion
and exhaust processes may be considered to be ideal according to Avogadro's hypothesis.
3.1.2. The mass M of gaseous compounds emitted by the vehicle during the test shall be
determined by the product of the volumetric concentration of the gas in question and the
volume of the diluted exhaust gas with due regard for the following densities under the
reference conditions of 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa:
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO )
ρ = 1.25g/l
ρ = 1.964g/l
Hydrocarbons:
For petrol (E0) (C H
)
ρ = 0.619g/l
For petrol (E5) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.632g/l
For petrol (E10) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.646g/l

3.2. Mass Emissions Calculation
3.2.1. Mass emissions of gaseous compounds per cycle phase shall be calculated using the
following equations:
Where:
M
is the mass emission of compound i per test or phase, g/km;
V is the volume of the diluted exhaust gas per test or phase expressed in litres per
test/phase and corrected to standard conditions (273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa);
ρi
KH
C
d
n
is the density of compound i in grams per litre at standard temperature and pressure
(273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa);
is a humidity correction factor applicable only to the mass emissions of oxides of
nitrogen, NO and NO , per test or phase;
is the concentration of compound i per test or phase in the diluted exhaust gas
expressed in ppm and corrected by the amount of compound i contained in the
dilution air;
is the distance driven over the applicable WLTC, km;
is the number of phases of the applicable WLTC.
3.2.1.1. The concentration of a gaseous compound in the diluted exhaust gas shall be corrected by
the amount of the gaseous compound in the dilution air using the following equation:
Where:
C
C
C
DF
is the concentration of gaseous compound i in the diluted exhaust gas corrected by
the amount of gaseous compound i contained in the dilution air, ppm;
is the measured concentration of gaseous compound i in the diluted exhaust gas,
ppm;
is the concentration of gaseous compound i in the dilution air, ppm;
is the dilution factor.

3.2.1.1.2. The general equation for calculating the dilution factor DF for each reference fuel with an
arithmetic average composition of C H O is as follows:
Where:
C is the concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample bag,
per cent volume;
C is the concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample bag,
ppm carbon equivalent;
C is the concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample bag,
ppm.
3.2.1.1.3. Methane Measurement
3.2.1.1.3.1. For methane measurement using a GC-FID, NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
C = C − (Rf × C )
C is the corrected concentration of NMHC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm carbon
equivalent;
C is the concentration of THC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm carbon equivalent and
corrected by the amount of THC contained in the dilution air;
C is the concentration of CH in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm carbon equivalent and
corrected by the amount of CH contained in the dilution air;
Rf
is the FID response factor to methane determined and specified in
Paragraph 5.4.3.2. of Annex 5.
3.2.1.1.3.2. For methane measurement using an NMC-FID, the calculation of NMHC depends on the
calibration gas/method used for the zero/calibration adjustment.
The FID used for the THC measurement (without NMC) shall be calibrated with propane/air
in the normal manner.
For the calibration of the FID in series with an NMC, the following methods are permitted:
(a)
(b)
The calibration gas consisting of propane/air bypasses the NMC;
The calibration gas consisting of methane/air passes through the NMC.
It is highly recommended to calibrate the methane FID with methane/air through the NMC.

3.2.1.1.3.3.1. Methane Conversion Efficiency, E
The methane/air calibration gas shall be flowed to the FID through the NMC and
bypassing the NMC and the two concentrations recorded. The efficiency shall be
determined using the following equation:
Where:
C is the HC concentration with CH flowing through the NMC, ppm C;
C is the HC concentration with CH bypassing the NMC, ppm C.
3.2.1.1.3.3.2. Ethane Conversion Efficiency, E
The ethane/air calibration gas shall be flowed to the FID through the NMC and bypassing
the NMC and the two concentrations recorded. The efficiency shall be determined using
the following equation:
Where:
C is the HC concentration with C H flowing through the NMC, ppm C;
C is the HC concentration with C H bypassing the NMC, ppm C.
If the ethane conversion efficiency of the NMC is 0.98 or above, E shall be set to 1 for
any subsequent calculation.
3.2.1.1.3.4. If the methane FID is calibrated through the cutter, E shall be 0.
The equation to calculate C in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in this Annex
becomes:
C = C
The equation to calculate C in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in this Annex
becomes:
C = C − C × r
The density used for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total
hydrocarbons at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa and is fuel-dependent.

3.2.1.3. Determination of NO concentration from NO and NO (if applicable)
NO shall be determined by the difference between NO concentration from the bag
corrected for dilution air concentration and NO concentration from continuous measurement
corrected for dilution air concentration.
3.2.1.3.1. NO Concentrations
3.2.1.3.1.1. NO concentrations shall be calculated from the integrated NO analyser reading, corrected
for varying flow if necessary.
3.2.1.3.1.2. The arithmetic average NO concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
is the integral of the recording of the continuous dilute NO analyser over the
test (t -t );
C
is the concentration of NO measured in the diluted exhaust, ppm;
3.2.1.3.1.3. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bag. A correction
shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.1.3.2. NO Concentrations (if applicable)
3.2.1.3.2.1. Determination NO Concentration from Direct Diluted Measurement
3.2.1.3.2.2. NO concentrations shall be calculated from the integrated NO analyser reading, corrected
for varying flow if necessary.
3.2.1.3.2.3. The arithmetic average NO concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
is the integral of the recording of the continuous dilute NO analyser over the
test (t -t );
C
is the concentration of NO measured in the diluted exhaust, ppm.
3.2.1.3.2.4. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bags. Correction is
carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.

Mass = PeakArea × Rf × V × B
Where:
B
is the ratio of the molecular weight of the carbonyl compound to its
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative;
V is the volume of the sample, ml;
Rf
is the response factor for each carbonyl calculated during the calibration using the
following equation:
Rf = C (μg 2,4-DNPH species/ml) / PeakArea
3.2.1.8. Determining the Mass of Ethanol, Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde (if applicable)
As an alternative to measuring the concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and
formaldehyde, the M for ethanol petrol blends with less than 25% ethanol by volume may
be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
M = (0.0302 + 0.0071 × (percentage of ethanol)) × M
M is the mass emission of EAF per test, g/km;
M is the mass emission of NMHC per test, g/km;
Percentage of alcohol
is the volume percentage of ethanol in the test fuel.
3.2.2. Determination of the HC Mass Emissions from Compression-ignition Engines
3.2.2.1. To calculate HC mass emission for compression-ignition engines, the arithmetic average
HC concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
is the integral of the recording of the heated FID over the test (t to t );
C
is the concentration of HC measured in the diluted exhaust in ppm of C and is
substituted for C in all relevant equations.
3.2.2.1.1. Dilution air concentration of HC shall be determined from the dilution air bags. Correction
shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.

3.2.3.2.2.2.2. For the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle, the value of the rolling resistance coefficient
RR shall be set to the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4.
If the tyres on the front and rear axles belong to different energy efficiency classes, the
weighted mean shall be used and calculated using the equation in
Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.2.3. of this Annex.
If the same tyres, or tyres with the same rolling resistance coefficient were fitted to test
vehicles L and H, the value of RR for the interpolation method shall be set to RR .
3.2.3.2.2.2.3. Calculating the Weighted Mean of the Rolling Resistances
Where:
RR = (RR × mp ) + (RR × (1 − mp ))
x
represents vehicle L, H or an individual vehicle.
RR
and RR
are the actual RRCs of the front axle tyres on vehicles L and H
respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the front axle tyres on the
individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
RR
, and RR
are the actual RRCs of the rear axle tyres on vehicles L and H
respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the rear axle tyres on the
individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
mp
is the proportion of the vehicle mass in running order on the front
axle;
RRx shall not be rounded or categorised to tyre energy efficiency classes.
3.2.3.2.2.3. Aerodynamic Drag of an Individual Vehicle
3.2.3.2.2.3.1. Determination of Aerodynamic Influence of Optional Equipment
The aerodynamic drag shall be measured for each of the aerodynamic drag-influencing
items of optional equipment and body shapes in a wind tunnel fulfilling the requirements
of Paragraph 3.2. of Annex 4 verified by the responsible authority.
For the purpose of the interpolation method, the aerodynamic drag of optional equipment
within one road load family shall be measured at the same wind speed, either v or v ,
preferably v , as defined in Paragraph 6.4.3. of Annex 4. In the case that v or v
does not exist, (e.g. the road load of V and/or V are measured using the coastdown
method), the aerodynamic force shall be measured at the same wind speed within the
range ≥80km/h and ≤150km/h. For Class 1 vehicles, it shall be measured at the same
wind speed ≤150km/h.

Δ(C × A ) is the difference in the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient
multiplied by frontal area due to an individual feature, i, on the vehicle and is
positive for an item of optional equipment that adds aerodynamic drag with
respect to test vehicle L and vice versa, m .
The sum of all Δ(C × A ) differences between test vehicles L and H shall correspond to
Δ(C × A ) .
3.2.3.2.2.3.4. Definition of Complete Aerodynamic Delta between Test Vehicles H and L
The total difference of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by frontal area
between test vehicles L and H shall be referred to as Δ(C × A ) and shall be recorded,
m .
3.2.3.2.2.3.5. Documentation of Aerodynamic Influences
The increase or decrease of the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied
by frontal area expressed as Δ(C × A) for all items of optional equipment and body
shapes in the interpolation family that:
(a)
(b)
Have an influence on the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle; and
Are to be included in the interpolation,
Shall be recorded, m .
3.2.3.2.2.3.6. Additional Provisions for Aerodynamic Influences
The aerodynamic drag of vehicle H shall be applied to the whole interpolation family and
Δ(C × A ) shall be set to zero, if:
(a)
(b)
The wind tunnel facility is not able to accurately determine Δ(C × A ); or
There are no drag-influencing items of optional equipment between the test
vehicles H and L that are to be included in the interpolation method.
3.2.3.2.2.4. Calculation of Road Load Coefficients for Individual Vehicles
The road load coefficients f , f and f (as defined in Annex 4) for test vehicles H and L
are referred to as f , f and f ,and f , f and f respectively. An adjusted road load
curve for the test vehicle L is defined as follows:
F (v) = f + f × v + f × v
Applying the least squares regression method in the range of the reference speed points,
adjusted road load coefficients f and f shall be determined for F (v) with the linear
coefficient f set to f . The road load coefficients f , f and f for an individual
vehicle in the interpolation family shall be calculated using the following equations:

3.2.3.2.4. Calculation of the CO Value for an Individual Vehicle within an Interpolation Family using
the Interpolation Method
For each cycle phase p of the applicable cycle the mass of CO emissions g/km, for an
individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following equation:
The mass of CO emissions, g/km, over the complete cycle for an individual vehicle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
The terms E , E and E and E , E and E respectively shall be calculated as specified
in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.3. of this Annex.
3.2.3.2.5. Calculation of the Fuel Consumption FC Value for an Individual Vehicle within an
Interpolation Family using the Interpolation Method
For each cycle phase p of the applicable cycle, the fuel consumption, 1/100km, for an
individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following equation:
The fuel consumption, 1/100km, of the complete cycle for an individual vehicle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
The terms E , E and E , and E , E and E respectively shall be calculated as specified
in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.3. of this Annex.
3.2.3.2.6. The individual CO value determined in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.4. of this Annex may be
increased by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). In such cases:
(a)
(b)
The CO phase values shall be increased by the ratio of the increased CO value
divided by the calculated CO value;
The fuel consumption values shall be increased by the ratio of the increased CO
value divided by the calculated CO value.
This shall not compensate for technical elements that would effectively require a vehicle to
be excluded from the interpolation family.

3.2.4.1.1.2.3. Calculating the Weighed Mean of the Rolling Resistances
Where:
RR = (RR × mp ) + (RR × (1 − mp ))
x
represents vehicle L, H or an individual vehicle;
RR
and RR
are the actual RRCs of the front axle tyres on vehicles L and H
respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the front axle tyres on
the individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
RR
, and RR
are the actual rolling resistance coefficients of the rear axle
tyres on vehicles L and H respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the rear axle tyres on
the individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
mp
is the proportion of the vehicle mass in running order on the
front axle.
RR shall not be rounded or categorised to tyre energy efficiency classes.
3.2.4.1.1.3. Frontal Area of an Individual Vehicle
The frontal area for vehicle L , A , and vehicle H , A , selected under
Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of Annex 4 shall be used as input.
A
, in m , shall be the frontal area of the individual vehicle.
If the same frontal area is used for vehicles L and H , the value of A shall be set to
the frontal area of vehicle H for the road load matrix family method.
3.2.5. Alternative Interpolation Calculation Method
Upon request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a
manufacturer may apply an alternative interpolation calculation procedure in the case
that the interpolation method creates unrealistic phase-specific CO results or an
unrealistic road load curve. Before such permission is granted, the manufacturer shall
check and where possible correct:
(a)
The reason for having small differences between the road load relevant
characteristics between vehicle L and H in the case of unrealistic phase- specific
CO results;
(b)
The reason for having an unexpected difference between the f
and f
coefficients in the case of an unrealistic road load curve.
The request of the manufacturer to the responsible authority shall include evidence that
such a correction is not possible, and that the resultant error is significant.

3.3. PM
3.3.1. Calculation
PM shall be calculated using the following two equations:
Where exhaust gases are vented outside tunnel;
and:
Where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
Where:
V is the volume of diluted exhaust gases (see Paragraph 2. of this Annex), under
standard conditions;
V
P
d
is the volume of diluted exhaust gas flowing through the particulate sampling filter
under standard conditions;
is the mass of particulate matter collected by one or more sample filters, mg;
is the distance driven corresponding to the test cycle, km.
3.3.1.1. Where correction for the background particulate mass from the dilution system has been
used, this shall be determined in accordance with Paragraph 2.1.3.1. of Annex 6. In this
case, particulate mass (mg/km) shall be calculated using the following equations:
In the case that the exhaust gases are vented outside the tunnel;
and:
In the case that the exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
Where:
V
P
DF
is the volume of tunnel air flowing through the background particulate filter under
standard conditions;
is the particulate mass from the dilution air, or the dilution tunnel background air, as
determined by the one of the methods described in Paragraph 2.1.3.1. of Annex 6;
is the dilution factor determined in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.1. of this Annex.
Where application of a background correction results in a negative result, it shall be
considered to be zero mg/km.



d
is the mean particle concentration reduction factor of the VPR at the dilution setting
used for the test;
is the mean particle concentration reduction factor of the VPR at the dilution setting
used for the background measurement;
is the distance driven corresponding to the applicable test cycle, km.
C̅ shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
C
n
is a discrete measurement of particle number concentration in the diluted gas exhaust
from the PNC; particles per cm and corrected for coincidence;
is the total number of discrete particle number concentration measurements made
during the applicable test cycle and shall be calculated using the following equation:
n = t × f
Where:
t is the time duration of the applicable test cycle, s;
f
is the data logging frequency of the particle counter, Hz.
5. CALCULATION OF CYCLE ENERGY DEMAND
Unless otherwise specified, the calculation shall be based on the target speed trace given in
discrete time sample points.
For the calculation, each time sample point shall be interpreted as a time period. Unless
otherwise specified, the duration Δt of these periods shall be 1s.
The total energy demand E for the whole cycle or a specific cycle phase shall be calculated
by summing E over the corresponding cycle time between t
and t
according to the
following equation:
Where:
E = F × d if F > 0
E = 0 if F ≤ 0
and:

6. CALCULATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION
6.1. The fuel characteristics required for the calculation of fuel consumption values shall be
taken from Annex 3 of this UN GTR.
6.2. The fuel consumption values shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using the results of step 6 for criteria emissions and
step 7 for CO of Table A7/1.
6.2.1. The general equation in Paragraph 6.12. of this Annex using H/C and O/C ratios shall be
used for the calculation of fuel consumption.
6.2.2. For all equations in Paragraph 6. of this Annex:
FC
is the fuel consumption of a specific fuel, 1/100km (or m per 100km in the case of
natural gas or kg/100km in the case of hydrogen);
H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of a specific fuel C H O ;
O/C is the oxygen to carbon ratio of a specific fuel C H O ;
MW
MW
MW
is the molar mass of carbon (12.011g/mol);
is the molar mass of hydrogen (1.008g/mol);
is the molar mass of oxygen (15.999g/mol);
ρ is the test fuel density, kg/l. For gaseous fuels, fuel density at 15°C;
HC
CO
CO
H O
H
p
p
are the emissions of hydrocarbon, g/km;
are the emissions of carbon monoxide, g/km;
are the emissions of carbon dioxide, g/km;
are the emissions of water, g/km;
are the emissions of hydrogen, g/km;
is the gas pressure in the fuel tank before the applicable test cycle, Pa;
is the gas pressure in the fuel tank after the applicable test cycle, Pa;
T is the gas temperature in the fuel tank before the applicable test cycle, K;
T is the gas temperature in the fuel tank after the applicable test cycle, K;
Z is the compressibility factor of the gaseous fuel at p and T ;
Z is the compressibility factor of the gaseous fuel at p and T ;
V is the interior volume of the gaseous fuel tank, m ;
d
is the theoretical length of the applicable phase or cycle, km.
6.3. For a Vehicle with a Positive Ignition Engine Fuelled with Petrol (E0)

6.13. Fuel Consumption for a Vehicle with a Positive Ignition Engine Fuelled by Hydrogen:
For vehicles fuelled either with gaseous or liquid hydrogen, and with approval of the
responsible authority, the manufacturer may choose to calculate fuel consumption using
either the equation for FC below or a method using a standard protocol such as SAE J2572.
FC = 0.1 × (0.1119 × H O + H )
The compressibility factor, Z, shall be obtained from the following Table:
Table A7/2
Compressibility Factor Z
p(bar)
5 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
33 0.859 1.051 1.885 2.648 3.365 4.051 4.712 5.352 5.973 6.576
53 0.965 0.922 1.416 1.891 2.338 2.765 3.174 3.570 3.954 4.329
73 0.989 0.991 1.278 1.604 1.923 2.229 2.525 2.810 3.088 3.358
93 0.997 1.042 1.233 1.470 1.711 1.947 2.177 2.400 2.617 2.829
113 1.000 1.066 1.213 1.395 1.586 1.776 1.963 2.146 2.324 2.498
133 1.002 1.076 1.199 1.347 1.504 1.662 1.819 1.973 2.124 2.271
153 1.003 1.079 1.187 1.312 1.445 1.580 1.715 1.848 1.979 2.107
173 1.003 1.079 1.176 1.285 1.401 1.518 1.636 1.753 1.868 1.981
193 1.003 1.077 1.165 1.263 1.365 1.469 1.574 1.678 1.781 1.882
T(K)
213
1.003
1.071
1.147
1.228
1.311
1.396
1.482
1.567
1.652
1.735
233
1.004
1.071
1.148
1.228
1.312
1.397
1.482
1.568
1.652
1.736
248
1.003
1.069
1.141
1.217
1.296
1.375
1.455
1.535
1.614
1.693
263
1.003
1.066
1.136
1.207
1.281
1.356
1.431
1.506
1.581
1.655
278
1.003
1.064
1.130
1.198
1.268
1.339
1.409
1.480
1.551
1.621
293
1.003
1.062
1.125
1.190
1.256
1.323
1.390
1.457
1.524
1.590
308
1.003
1.060
1.120
1.182
1.245
1.308
1.372
1.436
1.499
1.562
323
1.003
1.057
1.116
1.175
1.235
1.295
1.356
1.417
1.477
1.537
338
1.003
1.055
1.111
1.168
1.225
1.283
1.341
1.399
1.457
1.514
353
1.003
1.054
1.107
1.162
1.217
1.272
1.327
1.383
1.438
1.493
In the case that the required input values for p and T are not indicated in the table, the
compressibility factor shall be obtained by linear interpolation between the compressibility
factors indicated in the table, choosing the ones that are the closest to the value sought.

7.4.2.3. City Cycle Test (Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of Annex 8 replacing WLTC with WLTC )
For the application of the drive trace index calculation, two consecutively driven city test
cycles (L and M) shall be considered as one cycle.
For the city cycle during which the combustion engine starts to consume fuel, the drive
indices IWR and RMSSE shall not be calculated individually. Instead, depending on the
number of completed city cycles before the city cycle during which the combustion engine
start, the incomplete city cycle shall be combined with the previous city cycles as follows
and shall be considered as one cycle in the context of the drive trace index calculations.
If the number of completed city cycles is even, the incomplete city cycle shall be combined
with the previous two completed city cycles. See the example in Figure A7/1 below.
Figure A7/1
Example with an Even Number of Completed City Test Cycles before the City Cycle where the
Combustion Engine Start
If the number of completed city cycles is odd, the incomplete city cycle shall be combined
with the previous three completed city cycles. See the example in figure A7/2 below.
Figure A7/2
Example with an Odd Number of Completed City Test Cycles before the City Cycle where the
Combustion Engine Start
If the number of cycles derived according to Figure A7/1 or Figure A7/2 is less than four, the
drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each individual cycle and
comply with the limits specified in Paragraph 7.3. of this Annex.
If the number of cycles derived according to Figure A7/1 or Figure A7/2 is greater than or
equal to four, the drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each individual
cycle. In this case, the average IWR and the average RMSSE for the combination of any
two cycles shall comply with the respective limits specified in Paragraph 7.3. of this Annex
and the IWR of any individual cycle shall not be less than -3.0 or greater than +5.0%.

Figure A7/4
Example with an Odd Number of Completed City Test Cycles before the City Cycle with the
Break-off Criterion
If the number of cycles derived according to Figure A7/3 or Figure A7/4 is less than four, the
drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each of these cycles and comply
with the limits specified in Paragraph 7.3. of this Annex.
If the number of cycles derived according to Figure A7/3 or Figure A7/4 is greater than or
equal to four, the drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each of these
cycles. In this case, the average IWR and the average RMSSE for the combination of any
two cycles shall comply with the respective limits as specified in Paragraph 7.3. of this
Annex and the IWR of any individual cycle shall not be less than -3.0 or greater than +5.0%.
8. CALCULATING N/V RATIOS
n/v ratios shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
n is engine speed, min ;
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
r is the transmission ratio in gear i;
r is the axle transmission ratio.
U is the dynamic rolling circumference of the tyres of the drive axle and is calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
H/W
W
R
is the tyre's aspect ratio, e.g. "45" for a 225/45 R17 tyre;
is the tyre width, mm; e.g. "225" for a 225/45 R17 tyre;
is the wheel diameter, inch; e.g. "17" for a 225/45 R17 tyre.
U shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to whole millimetres.
If U is different for the front and the rear axles, the value of n/v for the mainly powered
axle shall be applied. Upon request, the responsible authority shall be provided with the
necessary information for that selection.

1.3.3. For information not related to standards, good engineering judgement shall be used.
1.3.4. Rounding of range, CO , energy consumption and fuel consumption results is described in
the calculation tables of this Annex.
1.4. Vehicle Classification
All OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, PEVs and NOVC-FCHVs shall be classified as Class 3
vehicles. The applicable test cycle for the Type 1 test procedure shall be determined
according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex based on the corresponding reference test
cycle as described in Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex.
1.4.1. Reference Test Cycle
1.4.1.1. The Class 3 reference test cycles are specified in Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 1.
1.4.1.2. For PEVs, the downscaling procedure, according to Paragraphs 8.2.3. and 8.3. of Annex 1,
may be applied on the test cycles according to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 1 by replacing the
rated power with maximum net power according to Regulation No. 85. In such a case, the
downscaled cycle is the reference test cycle.
1.4.2. Applicable Test Cycle
1.4.2.1. Applicable WLTP Test Cycle
The reference test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex shall be the applicable
WLTP test cycle (WLTC) for the Type 1 test procedure.
In the case that Paragraph 9. of Annex 1 is applied based on the reference test cycle as
described in Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex, this modified test cycle shall be the applicable
WLTP test cycle (WLTC) for the Type 1 test procedure.
1.4.2.2. Applicable WLTP City Test Cycle
The Class 3 WLTP city test cycle (WLTCcity) is specified in Paragraph 3.5. of Annex 1.
1.5. OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and PEVs with Manual Transmissions
The vehicles shall be driven according to the technical gear shift indicator, if available, or
according to instructions incorporated in the manufacturer's handbook.
2. RUN-IN OF TEST VEHICLE
The vehicle tested according to this Annex shall be presented in good technical condition
and shall be run-in in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. In the case
that the REESSs are operated above the normal operating temperature range, the operator
shall follow the procedure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer in order to keep the
temperature of the REESS in its normal operating range. The manufacturer shall provide
evidence that the thermal management system of the REESS is neither disabled nor
reduced.
2.1. OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs shall have been run-in according to the requirements of
Paragraph 2.3.3. of Annex 6.
2.2. NOVC-FCHVs shall have been run-in at least 300km with their fuel cell and REESS
installed.
2.3. PEVs shall have been run-in at least 300km or one full charge distance, whichever is longer.
2.4. All REESS having no influence on CO mass emissions or H consumption shall be
excluded from monitoring.

Figure A8/1
Possible Test Sequences in the Case of OVC-HEV Testing
3.2.3. The driver-selectable mode shall be set as described in the following test sequences
(Option 1 to Option 4).
3.2.4. Charge-depleting Type 1 Test with no Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test
(Option 1)
The test sequence according to Option 1, described in Paragraphs 3.2.4.1. to 3.2.4.7.
inclusive of this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are
shown in Figure A8.App1/1 in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.4.1. Preconditioning
The vehicle shall be prepared according to the procedures in Paragraph 2.2. of Appendix 4
to this Annex.

3.2.4.5. Break-off Criterion
3.2.4.5.1. Whether the break-off criterion has been reached for each driven applicable WLTP test
cycle shall be evaluated.
3.2.4.5.2. The break-off criterion for the charge-depleting Type 1 test is reached when the relative
electric energy change REEC , as calculated using the following equation, is less than 0.04.
Where:
REEC
is the relative electric energy change of the applicable test cycle considered i of
the charge-depleting Type 1 test;
ΔE
is the change of electric energy of all REESSs for The considered
charge-depleting Type 1 test cycle i calculated according to Paragraph 4.3. of
this Annex, Wh;
E is the cycle energy demand of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
i
is the index number for the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is a conversion factor to Wh for the cycle energy demand.
3.2.4.6. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.2.4.6.1. The vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 120min after the applicable WLTP test
cycle n+1 in which the break-off criterion for the charge-depleting Type 1 test is reached for
the first time.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.2.4.6.2. The electric energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and the
mains, shall measure the recharged electric energy E delivered from the mains, as well as
its duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the end-of-charge criterion,
as defined in Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.2.4.7. Each individual applicable WLTP test cycle within the charge-depleting Type 1 test shall
fulfil the applicable criteria emission limits according to Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 6.

3.2.7. Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test with a Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 1 Test (Option 4)
The test sequence according to Option 4, described in Paragraphs 3.2.7.1. and 3.2.7.2. of
this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in
Figure A8.App1/4 of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.7.1. For the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, the procedure described in Paragraphs 3.2.5.1. to
3.2.5.3. inclusive of this Annex, as well as Paragraph 3.2.6.3.1. of this Annex, shall be
followed.
3.2.7.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraphs 3.2.4.2. to 3.2.4.7. inclusive of this Annex shall be followed.
3.3. NOVC-HEVs
The test sequence described in Paragraphs 3.3.1. to 3.3.3. inclusive of this Annex, as well
as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in Figure A8.App1/5 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.3.1. Preconditioning and Soaking
3.3.1.1. Vehicles shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6.
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6, the level of the state of charge
of the traction REESS for the charge-sustaining test may be set according to the
manufacturer's recommendation before preconditioning in order to achieve a test under
charge-sustaining operating condition.
3.3.1.2. Vehicles shall be soaked according to Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6.
3.3.2. Test Conditions
3.3.2.1. Vehicles shall be tested under charge-sustaining operating condition as defined in
Paragraph 3.3.6. of this UN GTR.
3.3.2.2. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test shall be selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.3.3. Type 1 Test Procedure
3.3.3.1. Vehicles shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.3.3.2. If required, the CO mass emission shall be corrected according to Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
3.3.3.3. The charge-sustaining Type 1 test shall fulfil the applicable criteria emission limits according
to Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 6.

3.4.3. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the test shall be selected
according to Paragraph 4. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.4.4. PEV Type 1 Test Procedures
3.4.4.1. Consecutive Cycle Type 1 Test Procedure
3.4.4.1.1. Speed Trace and Breaks
The test shall be performed by driving consecutive applicable test cycles until the break-off
criterion according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex is reached.
Breaks for the driver and/or operator are permitted only between test cycles and with a
maximum total break time of 10min. During the break, the powertrain shall be switched off.
3.4.4.1.2. REESS Current and Voltage Measurement
From the beginning of the test until the break-off criterion is reached, the electric current of
all REESSs shall be measured according to Appendix 3 to this Annex and the electric
voltage shall be determined according to Appendix 3 to this Annex.
3.4.4.1.3. Break-off Criterion
The break-off criterion is reached when the vehicle exceeds the prescribed speed trace
tolerance as specified in Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6 for 4 consecutive seconds or more.
The accelerator control shall be deactivated. The vehicle shall be braked to standstill within
60s.
3.4.4.2. Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure
3.4.4.2.1. Speed Trace
The shortened Type 1 test procedure consists of two dynamic segments (DS and DS )
combined with two constant speed segments (CSS and CSS ) as shown in Figure A8/2.
Figure A8/2
Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure Speed Trace
The dynamic segments DS and DS are used to calculate the energy consumption of the
phase considered, the applicable WLTP city cycle and the applicable WLTP test cycle.
The constant speed segments CSS and CSS are intended to reduce test duration by
depleting the REESS more rapidly than the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure.

3.4.4.2.1.3. Breaks
Breaks for the driver and/or operator are permitted only in the constant speed segments as
prescribed in Table A8/4.
Table A8/4
Breaks for the Driver and/or Test Operator
Distance Driven in Constant Speed
Segment CSS (km)
Maximum Total Break (min)
Up to 100
10
Up to 150
20
Up to 200
30
Up to 300
60
More than 300
Shall be based on the manufacturer's
recommendation
Note:
During a break, the powertrain shall be switched off.
3.4.4.2.2. REESS Current and Voltage Measurement
From the beginning of the test until the break-off criterion is reached, the electric current of
all REESSs and the electric voltage of all REESSs shall be determined according to
Appendix 3 to this Annex.
3.4.4.2.3. Break-off Criterion
The break-off criterion is reached when the vehicle exceeds the prescribed speed trace
tolerance as specified in Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6 for 4 consecutive seconds or more
in the second constant speed segment CSS . The accelerator control shall be deactivated.
The vehicle shall be braked to a standstill within 60s.
3.4.4.3. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.4.4.3.1. After coming to a standstill according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex for the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure and in Paragraph 3.4.4.2.3. of this Annex for the
shortened Type 1 test procedure, the vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 120min.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.4.4.3.2. The energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and the mains,
shall measure the recharged electric energy E delivered from the mains as well as its
duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the end-of-charge criterion,
as defined in Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.

Table A8/5
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Gaseous Emission Values
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Annex 6 Raw test results Charge-sustaining mass emissions
Paragraphs 3. to 3.2.2. inclusive of Annex 7.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
1
Output
from step
No. 1 of
this Table.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Calculation of combined charge-sustaining cycle
values:
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
2
Where:
M is the charge-sustaining mass
emission result over the total
cycle;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass
emission result over the total
cycle;
d
are the driven distances of the
cycle phases p.
Output
from steps
Nos. 1 and
2 of this
Table.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
REESS electric energy change correction
Paragraphs 4.1.1.2. to 4.1.1.5. inclusive of this
Annex.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
3
Output
from steps
Nos. 2 and
3 of this
Table.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Charge-sustaining mass emission correction for
all vehicles equipped with periodically
regenerating systems K according to Annex 6,
Appendix 1.
M = K × M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
4a
or
M = K + M
and
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
Additive offset or multiplicative factor to be used
according to K determination.
If K is not applicable:
M = M
M = M

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output
from step
No. 8 of
this table.
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
CO mass emission calculation according to
Paragraph 4.5.4.1. of this Annex for individual
vehicles in an interpolation family.
Final rounding of individual vehicle CO values
shall be performed according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR.
CO values shall be rounded to the nearest
whole number.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
9
Result of an
individual
vehicle.
Final CO
result.
Output is available for each individual vehicle.
4.1.1.2. In the case that the correction according to Paragraph 1.1.4. of Appendix 2 to this Annex
was not applied, the following charge-sustaining CO mass emission shall be used:
Where:
M = M
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
M is the non-balanced charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km.
4.1.1.3. If the correction of the charge-sustaining CO mass emission is required according to
Paragraph 1.1.3. of Appendix 2 to this Annex or in the case that the correction according to
Paragraph 1.1.4. of Appendix 2 to this Annex was applied, the CO mass emission
correction coefficient shall be determined according to Paragraph 2. of Appendix 2 to this
Annex. The corrected charge-sustaining CO mass emission shall be determined using the
following equation:
Where:
M = M − K × EC
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
M is the non-balanced CO mass emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test,
not corrected for the energy balance, determined according to Table A8/5,
step No. 2, g/km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.2.
of Appendix 2 to this Annex, (g/km)/(Wh/km).

4.1.2. Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission M shall be calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of Annex 7 of
phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
UF
j
k
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k shall be the number of phases driven
up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L, n .
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, by an individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family, n , is lower than the transition cycle
number driven by vehicle L, n , the confirmation cycle of vehicle H and, if applicable, an
individual vehicle shall be included in the calculation. The CO mass emission of each
phase of the confirmation cycle shall be subsequently corrected to an electric energy
consumption of zero (EC = 0) by using the CO correction coefficient according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex.
4.1.3. Utility Factor-weighted Mass Emissions of Gaseous Compounds, Particulate Matter
Emission and Particle Number Emission for OVC-HEVs
4.1.3.1. The utility factor-weighted mass emission of gaseous compounds shall be calculated using
the following equation:
Where:
M is the utility factor-weighted mass emission compound i, g/km;
i
UF
is the index of the considered gaseous emission compound;
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;

4.1.3.3. The utility factor-weighted particulate matter emission shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
PM is the utility factor-weighted particulate matter emission, mg/km;
UF
is the utility factor of cycle c according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
PM
is the charge-depleting particulate matter emission during cycle c determined
according to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 7 for the charge-depleting Type 1 test,
mg/km;
PM
is the particulate matter emission of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Paragraph 4.1.1. of this Annex, mg/km;
c
n
is the index number of the cycle considered;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven until the end of the
transition cycle n according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
4.2. Calculation of Fuel Consumption
4.2.1. Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs
4.2.1.1. The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs shall be
calculated stepwise according to Table A8/6.
Table A8/6
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output
from step
Nos. 6 and
7 of
Table A8/5
of this
Annex.
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
Calculation of fuel consumption according to
Paragraph 6. of Annex 7.
The calculation of fuel consumption shall be
performed separately for the applicable cycle
and its phases.
For that purpose:
FC
FC
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km
1
FC results
of a Type 1
test for a
test vehicle.
(a)
(b)
The applicable phase or cycle CO values
shall be used;
The criteria emission over the complete
cycle shall be used.

Table A8/7
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for NOVC-FCHVs
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Appendix 7
to this
Annex.
Non-balanced
charge-sustaining
fuel consumption
FC
, kg/100km
Charge-sustaining fuel consumption according
to Paragraph 2.2.6. of Appendix 7 to this
Annex (phase-specific values only, if required
by the Contracting Party according to
Paragraph 2.2.7. of Appendix 7 to this Annex).
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
1
Output
from step
No. 1 of
this Table.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
REESS electric energy change correction.
Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.2. to 4.2.1.2.5. inclusive of
this Annex.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
2
Output
from step
No. 2 of
this Table.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
Placeholder for additional corrections, if
applicable.
Otherwise:
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
3
Result of a
single test.
FC = FC
FC = FC
Output
from step
No. 3 of
this Table.
For every test:
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
Averaging of tests and declared value
according to Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3.
inclusive of Annex 6.
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
4
Output
from step
No. 4 of
this Table.
FC
, kg/100km;
FC
, kg/100km;
FC
,
kg/100km.
Alignment of phase values. Paragraph 1.2.4.
of Annex 6,
and:
FC = FC
FC
FC
, kg/100km;
, kg/100km.
5
FC results
of a Type 1
test for a
test vehicle.
FC values shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the second
place of decimal.
4.2.1.2.2. In the case that the correction according to Paragraph 1.1.4. of Appendix 2 to this Annex
was not applied, the following charge-sustaining fuel consumption shall be used:
Where:
FC = FC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according
to Table A8/7, step No. 1, kg/100km.

4.2.1.2.5. In the case that phase-specific fuel consumption correction coefficients have been
determined, the phase-specific fuel consumption shall be calculated using the following
equation:
where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
FC
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7,
step No. 1, kg/100km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the fuel consumption correction coefficient for the correction of the phase p
according to Paragraph 2.3.1.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex, (kg/100km)/
(Wh/km);
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.2.2. Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting fuel consumption FC shall be calculated using
the following equation:
Where:
FC is the utility factor weighted charge-depleting fuel consumption, 1/100km;
FC
is the fuel consumption for phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test,
determined according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, 1/100km;
UF
j
k
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k shall be the number of phases driven
up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L n .
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n
, and, if applicable, by an individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family, n
, is lower than the transition cycle
number driven by vehicle L n
the confirmation cycle of vehicle H and, if applicable, an
individual vehicle shall be included in the calculation. The fuel consumption of each phase of
the confirmation cycle shall be calculated according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7 with the
criteria emission over the complete confirmation cycle and the applicable CO phase value
which shall be corrected to an electric energy consumption of zero, EC
= 0, by using
the CO mass correction coefficient (K
) according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.

4.3. Calculation of Electric Energy Consumption
For the determination of the electric energy consumption based on the current and voltage
determined according to Appendix 3 to this Annex, the following equations shall be used:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption over the considered period j based on the
REESS depletion, Wh/km;
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the considered period j, Wh;
d
is the distance driven in the considered period j, km;
and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of REESS i during the considered period j, Wh;
and
Where:
U(t)
is the voltage of REESS i during the considered period j determined according
to Appendix 3 to this Annex, V;
t is the time at the beginning of the considered period j, s;
t is the time at the end of the considered period j, s;
I(t)
i
n
j
is the electric current of REESS i during the considered period j determined
according to Appendix 3 to this Annex, A;
is the index number of the considered REESS;
is the total number of REESS;
is the index for the considered period, where a period can be any combination
of phases or cycles;
is the conversion factor from Ws to Wh.

4.3.2. Utility Factor-weighted Electric Energy Consumption based on the Recharged Electric
Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
EC is the utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains, Wh/km;
UF
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
EC
is the electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric energy from
the mains of phase j according to Paragraph 4.3.1. of this Annex, Wh/km;
j
k
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k is the number of phases driven up to
the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L, n .
4.3.3. Electric Energy Consumption for OVC-HEVs
4.3.3.1. Determination of Cycle-specific Electric Energy Consumption
The electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains
and the equivalent all-electric range shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on
the recharged electric energy from the mains and the equivalent all-electric
range, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.2.4.6.
of this Annex, Wh;
EAER
is the equivalent all-electric range according to Paragraph 4.4.4.1. of this
Annex, km.

4.3.4.3. Electric Energy Consumption Determination of the Applicable WLTP City Test Cycle
The electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP city test cycle based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for the applicable
WLTP city test cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP city test cycle based
on the recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for
the applicable WLTP city test cycle, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3.
of this Annex, Wh;
PER
is the pure electric range for the applicable WLTP city test cycle as calculated
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.2. or Paragraph 4.4.2.2.2. of this Annex,
depending on the PEV test procedure used, km.
4.3.4.4. Electric Energy Consumption Determination of the Phase-specific Values
The electric energy consumption of each individual phase based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains and the phase-specific pure electric range shall be calculated using
the following equation:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption of each individual phase p based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains and the phase-specific pure electric
range, Wh/km
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3.
of this Annex, Wh;
PER
is the phase-specific pure electric range as calculated according to
Paragraph 4.4.2.1.3. or Paragraph 4.4.2.2.3. of this Annex, depending on the
PEV test procedure used, km.

and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during phase j, Wh;
j
is the index number of the considered phase;
k+1 is the number of the phases driven from the beginning of the test until the point
in time when the combustion engine starts consuming fuel;
and
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the j pure electrically driven WLTP city
test cycle of the charge-depleting Type 1 test according to Paragraph 3.2.4.3.
of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycles, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the j pure electrically driven applicable WLTP city
test cycle of the charge-depleting Type 1 test according to Paragraph 3.2.4.3.
of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycles;
j
is the index number of the pure electrically driven applicable WLTP city test
cycle considered;
n is the number of pure electrically driven applicable WLTP city test cycles;
and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable WLTP
city test cycle of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, Wh;
and

and
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle of DS
of the shortened Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle of DS of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure;
and:
Where:
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle of DS of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure;
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the applicable WLTP
test cycle from DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.1.2. The pure electric range for the applicable WLTP city test cycle PER for PEVs shall be
calculated from the shortened Type 1 test procedure as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of
this Annex using the following equations:
Where:
PER is the pure electric range for the applicable WLTP city test cycle for PEVs, km;
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this Annex,
Wh;
EC
is the weighted electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP city test
cycle of DS and DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;

In the case that phase p = low and phase p = medium, the following equations shall be
used:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for phase p where the first phase p of DS is
indicated as j = 1, the second phase p of DS is indicated as j = 2, the first
phase p of DS is indicated as j = 3 and the second phase p of DS is indicated
as j = 4 of the shortened Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of
this Annex, Wh/km;
K
is the weighting factor for phase p where the first phase p of DS is indicated as
j = 1, the second phase p of DS is indicated as j = 2, the first phase p of DS is
indicated as j = 3, and the second phase p of DS is indicated as j = 4 of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure;
and
Where:
ΔE
is the energy change of all REESSs during the first phase p of DS of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
In the case that phase p = high and phase p = extra high, the following equations shall be
used:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for phase p of DS of the shortened Type 1
test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K
is the weighting factor for phase p of DS of the shortened Type 1 test
procedure
and
Where:
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first phase p of DS of
the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.

and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable
WLTP test cycle of the consecutive Type 1 test cycle procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.2.2. The pure electric range for the WLTP city test cycle PER for PEVs shall be calculated
from the Type 1 test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of this Annex using the following
equations:
Where:
PER is the pure electric range for the WLTP city test cycle for PEVs, km;
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this
Annex, Wh;
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP city test cycle
determined from completely driven applicable WLTP city test cycles of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;
and
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP city test cycle j
of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3.
of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP city test cycle j of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure;
j
is the index number of the applicable WLTP city test cycle;
n is the whole number of complete applicable WLTP city test cycles driven;
and
Where:
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable
WLTP city test cycle of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh.

4.4.4. Equivalent All-electric Range for OVC-HEVs
4.4.4.1. Determination of Cycle-specific Equivalent All-electric Range
The cycle-specific equivalent all-electric range shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
EAER
is the cycle-specific equivalent all-electric range, km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission according to Table A8/5,
step No. 7, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average charge-depleting CO mass emission according to the
equation below, g/km;
R is the charge-depleting cycle range according to Paragraph 4.4.2. of this
Annex, km;
and
Where:
M is the arithmetic average charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
d
j
k
is the distance driven in phase j of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle n according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.

and:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the considered phase p based on the
REESS depletion of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, Wh/km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the considered phase p of cycle c based
on the REESS depletion of the charge-depleting Type 1 test according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
d is the distance driven in the considered phase p of cycle c of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
c
p
n
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven up to the end of the
transition cycle n according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
The considered phase values shall be the low phase, medium phase, high phase, extra high
phase, and the city driving cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude
the extra high phase, this phase value shall be omitted.
4.4.5. Actual Charge-depleting Range for OVC-HEVs
The actual charge-depleting range shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
R is the actual charge-depleting range, km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission according to Table A8/5,
step No. 7, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission of the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average CO mass emission of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test from the beginning up to and including the applicable WLTP test
cycle (n-1), g/km;

Figure A8/3
Interpolation Range between Vehicle H and Vehicle L Applied to EVs
4.5.1.3. The allowed interpolation range defined in Paragraph 4.5.1.2. of this Annex may be
increased by 10g/km charge-sustaining CO if a vehicle M is tested within that family and
the conditions according to Paragraph 4.5.1.5. of this Annex are fulfilled. This increase is
allowed only once within an interpolation family. See Figure A8/4.
Figure A8/4
Interpolation Range for EVs with Vehicle M

Figure A8/6
Linearity Criterion for Vehicle M
If the linearity criterion is fulfilled, the interpolation method shall be applicable for all
individual vehicle values between vehicles L and H within the interpolation family.
If the linearity criterion is not fulfilled, the interpolation family shall be split into two
sub-families for vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles L and M, and
vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles M and H. In such a case, the final
values of e.g. the charge-sustaining CO mass emissions of vehicle M shall be determined
according to the same process as for vehicles L or H. See Table A8/5, Table A8/6,
Table A8/8 and Table A8/9 of Annex 8.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles L and M, each parameter
of vehicle H necessary for the application of the interpolation method on individual
OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEV values, shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of
vehicle M.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles M and H, each parameter
of vehicle L that is necessary for the application of the interpolation method on individual
OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEV values shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of
vehicle M.
4.5.2. Calculation of Energy Demand per Period
The energy demand E and distance driven d per period p applicable for individual
vehicles in the interpolation family shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, for the sets k of road load coefficients and masses according to
Paragraph 3.2.3.2.3. of Annex 7.

4.5.4.2. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for an individual vehicle
shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
M = M + K × (M − M )
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for an
individual vehicle, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for
vehicle L, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for
vehicle H, g/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.4.3. Individual Utility Factor-weighted CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle shall be calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
M = M + K × (M − M )
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle,
g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for vehicle L, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for vehicle H, g/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.5. Interpolation of the Fuel Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.5.1. Individual Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using
the following equation:
Where:
FC = FC + K × (FC − FC )
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle of the
considered period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 3, 1/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle L of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, 1/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle H of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, 1/100km;

4.5.6. Interpolation of Electric Energy Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.6.1. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption based on
the Recharged Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
Where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
an individual vehicle, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle L, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.6.2. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Electric Energy Consumption based on the Recharged
Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for an individual vehicle,
Wh/km;
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle L, Wh/km;
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.

Is fulfilled, the all-electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
Where:
AER = AER + K × (AER − AER )
AER is the all-electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable
WLTP test cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra high
phase, this phase value shall be omitted.
If the criterion defined in this Paragraph is not fulfilled, the AER determined for vehicle H is
applicable to all vehicles within the interpolation family.
4.5.7.2. Individual Pure Electric Range for PEVs
The pure electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
PER = PER + K × (PER − PER )
PER
is the pure electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p,
km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the low phase, medium phase, high phase, extra high
phase, the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable WLTP test cycle. In the case
that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra high phase, this phase value shall
be omitted.

Table A8/8
Calculation of Final Charge-depleting Values
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Annex 8
Charge-depleting
test results
Results measured according to
Appendix 3 to this Annex, pre-calculated
according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex.
ΔE
d , km;
, Wh;
1
Usable battery energy according to
Paragraph 4.4.1.2.2. of this Annex.
UBE
, Wh;
Recharged electric energy according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.6. of this Annex.
Cycle energy according to Paragraph 5.
of Annex 7.
CO mass emission according to
Paragraph 3.2.1. of Annex 7.
Mass of gaseous emission compound i
according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7.
E
E
M
M
, Wh;
, Ws;
, g/km;
, g/km;
Particle number emissions (if applicable)
according to Paragraph 4. of Annex 7.
PN , particles per
kilometer;
Particulate matter emissions according
to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 7.
PM
, mg/km;
All-electric range determined according
to Paragraph 4.4.1.1. of this Annex.
AER, km;
In the case that the applicable WLTC city
test cycle was driven: all-electric range
city according to Paragraph 4.4.1.2.1. of
this Annex.
AER
, km.
CO mass emission K correction
coefficient might be necessary according
to Appendix 2 to this Annex.
K ,(g/km)/
(Wh/km).
Output step 1
ΔE
, Wh;
E
, Ws.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, the output (except of K ) is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
Calculation of relative electric energy
change for each cycle according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.5.2. of this Annex.
Output is available for each test and
each applicable WLTP test cycle.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, the output is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
REEC . 2

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 1
Output step 3
Output step 4
Output step 1
Output step 3
Output step 4
Output step 8
Output step 1
Output step 3
Output step 4
Output step 8
Output step 1
Output step 3
Output step 4
Output step 8
d , km;
n ;
n ;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
E , Wh;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
M , g/km;
K , (g/km)/
(Wh/km);
ΔE Wh;
d , km;
n ;
n ;
UF .
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
K , (g/km)/
(Wh/km).
n ;
n ;
UF ;
Phase-specific and cycle-specific UF
calculation.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, the output is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
Calculation of the electric energy
consumption based on the recharged
energy according. to Paragraphs 4.3.1.
and 4.3.2. of this Annex.
In the case of interpolation, n cycles
shall be used. Therefore, due to the
required correction of the CO mass
emission, the electric energy
consumption of the confirmation cycle
and its phases shall be set to zero.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, the output is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
Calculation of the charge-depleting CO
mass emission according to
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, n cycles shall be used.
With reference to Paragraph 4.1.2. of
this Annex, the confirmation cycle shall
be corrected according to Appendix 2 to
this Annex.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, the output is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
Calculation of the charge-depleting fuel
consumption according to
Paragraph 4.2.2. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, n cycles shall be used.
With reference to Paragraph 4.1.2. of
this Annex, M of the confirmation
cycle shall be corrected according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex. The
phase-specific fuel consumption FC
shall be calculated using the corrected
CO mass emission according to
Paragraph 6. of Annex 7.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, the output is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
UF
;
UF
.
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
M , g/km; 10
FC
FC
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km.
8
9
11

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 15
Output step 14
Output step 13
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
M
, g/km;
EC
,
Wh/km;
FC
, 1/100km;
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, intermediate
rounding shall be performed
according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR.
M shall be rounded to the
second place of decimal.
EC and EC shall be
rounded to the first place of decimal.
Regional option:
EC shall be rounded to the
first place of decimal.
FC shall be rounded to the third
place of decimal.
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
M , g/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
FC , 1/100km;
16
Interpolation
family result.
If the
interpolation
method is not
applied, step
No. 17 is not
required and
the output of
this step is
the final
result.
Output is available for vehicles H and
for vehicle L and, if applicable, for
vehicle M.
In case that the interpolation method
is not applied, final rounding shall be
applied according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR.
EC , EC and M
shall be rounded to the nearest whole
number.
Regional option:
EC shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.
FC shall be rounded to the first
place of decimal.
Output step 16 EC ,
Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
M , g/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
FC , 1/100km;
Interpolation of individual values
based on input from vehicles H and L
and, if applicable, vehicle M.
Final rounding of individual vehicle
values shall be performed according
to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR.
EC , EC and M
shall be rounded to the nearest whole
number.
Regional option:
EC shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.
FC shall be rounded to the first
place of decimal.
Output is available for each individual
vehicle.
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
M , g/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
FC , 1/100km;
17
Result of an
individual
vehicle.
Final test
result.

Table A8/9
Calculation of Final Charge-depleting and Charge-sustaining Weighted Values
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 1,
Table A8/8
Output step 7,
Table A8/8
Output step 3,
Table A8/8
Output step 4,
Table A8/8
M , g/km;
PN , particles per
kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
M , g/km;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
, km;
Input from CD and CS
postprocessing.
M , g/km;
PN , particles per
kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
M , g/km;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER , km;
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
UF ;
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
1
Output step 8,
Table A8/8
UF
;
UF
;
Output step 6,
Table A8/5
M
, g/km;
Output step 7,
Table A8/5
M
, g/km;
Output in the case of CD is available
for each CD test. Output in the case of
CS is available once due to CS test
averaged values.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output (except
of K ) is available for vehicle H, L
and, if applicable, M.
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).
CO mass emission correction
coefficient K might be necessary
according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).
Output step 1, M , g/km;
PN , particles per
kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
UF ;
M , g/km;
Calculation of weighted emission
(except M ) compounds
according to Paragraphs 4.1.3.1. to
4.1.3.3. inclusive of this Annex.
Remark:
M includes PN and PM .
Output is available for each CD test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle L, H and, if
applicable, M.
M , g/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
2

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 1
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
n
;
n
;
UF
;
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
Calculation of weighted CO mass
emission and fuel consumption
according to Paragraphs 4.1.3.1. and
4.2.3. of this Annex.
Output is available for each CD test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, n cycles shall
be used. With reference to
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex,
M of the confirmation cycle
shall be corrected according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex.
M
FC
, g/km;
, 1/100km;
6
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle H, vehicle
LH and, if applicable, vehicle M.
Output step 1
Output step 3
E , Wh;
EAER, km;
EAER , km;
Calculation of the electric energy
consumption based in EAER
according to Paragraphs 4.3.3.1. and
4.3.3.2. of this Annex.
EC, Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
7
Output is available for each CD test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for each vehicle H, vehicle L
and, if applicable, vehicle M.

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 5
Output step 8
Output step 4
AER
, km;
AER
, km;
M
, g/km;
FC
,
1/100km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EAER
, km;
EAER
, km;
AER-interpolation
availability.
Interpolation of individual values
based on input from vehicle low,
medium and high according to
Paragraph 4.5. of this Annex, and final
rounding according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR.
AER ,AER , EAER and
EAER ,ind shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.
M shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.
AER
, km;
AER
, km;
M
, g/km;
FC
,
1/100km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EAER
, km;
EAER
, km.
9
Result of an
individual
vehicle.
Final test
result.
EC shall be rounded to the
first place of decimal.
FC shall be rounded to the
first place of decimal.
EC and EC shall be rounded to
the nearest whole number.
Output available for each individual
vehicles.
Output step 1
R
R shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the
nearest whole number.
R
4.7. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of PEVs
The results shall be calculated in the order described in Table A8/10 of the consecutive
cycle procedure and in the order described in Table A8/11 in case of the shortened test
procedure. All applicable results in the column "Output" shall be recorded. The column
"Process" describes the paragraphs to be used for calculation or contains additional
calculations.
4.7.1. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of PEVs in Case of the
Consecutive Cycles Procedure
For the purpose of this Table, the following nomenclature within the questions and results is
used:
j
index for the considered period.

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 1
Output step 2
Output step 3
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
UBE , Wh.
n ;
n ;
n ;
n ;
n ;
n .
All weighting factors
Calculation of electric energy
consumption at the REESSs
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of this
Annex.
Regional option:
EC
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
4
Output step 1
Output step 4
UBE
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, Wh;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
Calculation of pure electric range
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of this
Annex.
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km.
5
Output step 1
Output step 5
E
, Wh;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km.
Calculation of electric energy
consumption at the mains according
to Paragraph 4.3.4. of this Annex.
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
6
Output step 5
Output step 6
Output step 4
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km.
EC
, Wh/km.
Averaging of tests for all input values.
Regional option:
EC
Declaration of PER
and
EC
based on PER
and
EC
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicles H and vehicle L.
PER as well as EC
shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the
number of places of decimal as
specified in Table A6/1 of Annex 6.
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
7
If the
interpolation
method is not
applied, step
No. 10 is not
required and
the output of
this step for
PER
and
EC is
the final
result.
In the case that the interpolation
method is not applied, PER
and EC shall be rounded
according to Paragraph 7. of this UN
GTR to the nearest whole number.

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 7
Output step 9
PER
EC
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, km;
, Wh/km
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
Interpolation of individual values
based on input from vehicle H and
vehicle L according to Paragraph 4.5.
of this Annex, and final rounding
according to Paragraph 7. of this UN
GTR.
PER , PER , and PER shall
be rounded to the nearest whole
number.
EC , EC and EC shall be
rounded to the nearest whole number.
Regional option:
EC shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
10
Result of an
individual
vehicle.
Final test
result.
The output is available for each
individual vehicle.
4.7.2. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of PEVs in Case of the Shortened
Test Procedure
For the purpose of this table, the following nomenclature within the questions and results is
used:
j
index for the considered period.
Table A8/11
Calculation of Final PEV Values Determined by Application the Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure
Source Input Process Output Step No.
Annex 8
Test results
Results measured according to
Appendix 3 to this Annex, and
pre-calculated according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex.
ΔE
d , km;
, Wh;
1
Usable battery energy according to
Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this Annex.
UBE
, Wh;
Recharged electric energy according
to Paragraph 3.4.4.3. of this Annex.
Output is available for each test.
E shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the
first place of decimal.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle L and vehicle H.
E
, Wh.

Source Input Process Output Step No.
Output step 4
Output step 5
Output step 3
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
PER
, km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km.
EC
, Wh/km.
Averaging of tests for all input values.
Regional option:
EC
Declaration of PER
and
EC
based on PER
and
EC
.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.
PER as well as EC
shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the
number of places of decimal specified
in Table A6/1 of Annex 6.
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
6
If the
interpolation
method is not
applied, step
No. 9 is not
required and
the output of
this step for
PER
and EC
is the final
result.
In the case that the interpolation
method is not applied, PER
and EC shall be rounded
according to Paragraph 7. of this UN
GTR to the nearest whole number.
Output step 6 EC
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
Regional option:
Determination of the adjustment
factor and application to EC .
EC , Wh/km. 7
For example:
EC = EC × AF
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle L.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 1
REESS STATE OF CHARGE PROFILE
1. TEST SEQUENCES AND REESS PROFILES: OVC-HEVS, CHARGE-DEPLETING AND
CHARGE-SUSTAINING TEST
1.1. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs according to Option 1
Charge-depleting Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1 test
(Figure A8.App1/1).
Figure A8.App1/1
OVC-HEVs, Charge-depleting Type 1 Test
1.2. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs according to Option 2
Charge-sustaining Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-depleting Type 1 test
(Figure A8.App1/2).
Figure A8.App1/2
OVC-HEVs, Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test

1.4. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs according to Option 4
Charge-sustaining
Type
1
test
with
subsequent
charge-depleting
Type
1
test
(Figure A8.App1/4)
Figure A8.App1/4
OVC-HEVs, Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test with Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 1 Test

3. TEST SEQUENCES PEV
3.1. Consecutive Cycles Procedure (Figure A8.App1/6)
Figure A8.App1/6
Consecutive Cycles Test Sequence PEV
3.2. Shortened Test Procedure (Figure A8.App1/7)
Figure A8.App1/7
Shortened Test Procedure Test Sequence for PEVs

1.2.1. Charge-sustaining Fuel Energy for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel for NOVC-HEVs and
OVC-HEVs shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
E = 10 × HV × FC × d
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel of the applicable
WLTP test cycle of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, Wh;
HV
is the heating value according to Table A6.App2/1, kWh/l;
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, using the gaseous emission
compound values according to Table A8/5, step No. 2, 1/100km;
d is the distance driven over the corresponding applicable WLTP test cycle, km;
10 conversion factor to Wh.
1.2.2. Charge-sustaining Fuel Energy for NOVC-FCHVs
The charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel for NOVC-FCHVs shall be
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel of the applicable
WLTP test cycle of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, Wh;
121 is the lower heating value of hydrogen, MJ/kg;
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Table A8/7, step No.1, kg/100km;
d is the distance driven over the corresponding applicable WLTP test cycle, km;
Applicable Type 1 Test Cycle
conversion factor to Wh.
Table A8.App2/1
RCB Correction Criteria Thresholds
Low + Medium
Low + Medium +
High
Thresholds for correction criterion c 0.015 0.01 0.005
Low + Medium +
High + Extra High

The correction coefficients determined by the manufacturer shall be reviewed and approved
by the responsible authority prior to its application.
If the set of at least five tests does not fulfil criterion (a) or criterion (b) or both, the
manufacturer shall provide evidence to the responsible authority as to why the vehicle is not
capable of meeting either or both criteria. If the responsible authority is not satisfied with the
evidence, it may require additional tests to be performed. If the criteria after additional tests
are still not fulfilled, the responsible authority shall determine a conservative correction
coefficient, based on the measurements.
2.3. Calculation of Correction Coefficients K and K
2.3.1. Determination of the Fuel Consumption Correction Coefficient K
For NOVC-FCHVs, the fuel consumption correction coefficient K , determined by
driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined using the following equation:
Where:
K is the fuel consumption correction coefficient, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
EC
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km
EC
is the mean charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of n
tests based
on the REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of test n, not corrected for the energy
balance, according to Table A8/7, step No. 1, kg/100km;
FC is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of n tests
based on the fuel consumption, not corrected for the energy balance, according
to the equation below, kg/100km;
n
is the index number of the considered test;
n is the total number of tests;
and:
and:

and:
The CO mass emission correction coefficient shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR to four significant figures. The statistical significance of the CO mass emission
correction coefficient shall be evaluated by the responsible authority.
2.3.2.1. It is permitted to apply the CO mass emission correction coefficient developed from tests
over the whole applicable WLTP test cycle for the correction of each individual phase.
2.3.2.2. Additional to the requirements of Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix, at the request of the
manufacturer and upon approval of the responsible authority, separate CO mass emission
correction coefficients K for each individual phase may be developed. In this case, the
same criteria as described in Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix shall be fulfilled in each
individual phase and the procedure described in Paragraph 2.3.2. of this Appendix shall be
applied for each individual phase to determine phase-specific correction coefficients.
3. TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE CORRECTION
COEFFICIENTS
3.1. OVC-HEVs
For OVC-HEVs, one of the following test sequences according to Figure A8.App2/1 shall be
used to measure all values that are necessary for the determination of the correction
coefficients according to Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
Figure A8.App2/1
OVC-HEV Test Sequences

3.1.2.3. Test Procedure
3.1.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected according
to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex shall
be driven.
3.1.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the Type 1
test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.2.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraphs 3.1.2.2. and
3.1.2.3. of this Appendix.
3.2. NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs
For NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs, one of the following test sequences according to
Figure A8.App2/2 shall be used to measure all values that are necessary for the
determination of the correction coefficients according to Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
3.2.1. Option 1 Test Sequence
3.2.1.1. Preconditioning and Soaking
Figure A8.App2/2
NOVC-HEV and NOVC-FCHV test sequences
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned and soaked according to Paragraph 3.3.1. of this
Annex.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 3
DETERMINATION OF REESS CURRENT AND REESS VOLTAGE FOR
NOVC-HEVS, OVC-HEVS, PEVS AND NOVC-FCHVS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Appendix defines the method and required instrumentation to determine the REESS
current and the REESS voltage of NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs, PEVs and NOVC-FCHVs.
1.2. Measurement of REESS current and REESS voltage shall start at the same time as the test
starts and shall end immediately after the vehicle has finished the test.
1.3. The REESS current and the REESS voltage of each phase shall be determined.
1.4. A list of the instrumentation used by the manufacturer to measure REESS voltage and
current (including instrument manufacturer, model number, serial number, last calibration
dates (where applicable)) during:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The Type 1 test according to Paragraph 3 of this Annex;
The procedure to determine the correction coefficients according to Appendix 2 of this
Annex (where applicable);
Any procedure which may be required by a Contracting Party
Shall be provided to the responsible authority.
2. REESS CURRENT
REESS depletion is considered as a negative current.
2.1. External REESS Current Measurement
2.1.1. The REESS current(s) shall be measured during the tests using a clamp-on or closed type
current transducer. The current measurement system shall fulfil the requirements specified
in Table A8/1 of this Annex. The current transducer(s) shall be capable of handling the peak
currents at engine starts and temperature conditions at the point of measurement.
In order to have an accurate measurement, zero adjustment and degaussing shall be
performed before the test according to the instrument manufacturer's instructions.
2.1.2. Current transducers shall be fitted to any of the REESS on one of the cables connected
directly to the REESS and shall include the total REESS current.
In case of shielded wires, appropriate methods shall be applied in accordance with the
responsible authority.
In order to easily measure the REESS current using external measuring equipment, the
manufacturer should provide appropriate, safe and accessible connection points in the
vehicle. If that is not feasible, the manufacturer is obliged to support the responsible
authority in connecting a current transducer to one of the cables directly connected to the
REESS in the manner described above in this Paragraph.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 4
PRECONDITIONING, SOAKING AND REESS CHARGING CONDITIONS OF PEVS AND OVC-HEVS
1. This Appendix describes the test procedure for REESS and combustion engine
preconditioning in preparation for:
(a)
(b)
Electric range, charge-depleting and charge-sustaining measurements when testing
OVC-HEVs; and
Electric range measurements as well as electric energy consumption measurements
when testing PEVs.
2. OVC-HEV PRECONDITIONING AND SOAKING
2.1. Preconditioning and Soaking when the Test Procedure Starts with a
Charge-sustaining Test
2.1.1. For preconditioning the combustion engine, the vehicle shall be driven over at least one
applicable WLTP test cycle. During each driven preconditioning cycle, the charging balance
of the REESS shall be determined. The preconditioning shall be stopped at the end of the
applicable WLTP test cycle during which the break-off criterion is fulfilled according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.5. of this Annex.
2.1.2. As an alternative to Paragraph 2.1.1. of this Appendix, at the request of the manufacturer
and upon approval of the responsible authority, the state of charge of the REESS for the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test may be set according to the manufacturer's recommendation
in order to achieve a test under charge-sustaining operating condition.
In such a case, a preconditioning procedure, such as that applicable to pure ICE vehicles as
described in Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6, shall be applied.
2.1.3. Soaking of the vehicle shall be performed according to Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6.
2.2. Preconditioning and Soaking when the Test Procedure Starts with a Charge-depleting
Test
2.2.1. OVC-HEVs shall be driven over at least one applicable WLTP test cycle. During each driven
preconditioning cycle, the charging balance of the REESS shall be determined. The
preconditioning shall be stopped at the end of the applicable WLTP test cycle during which
the break-off criterion is fulfilled according to Paragraph 3.2.4.5. of this Annex.
2.2.2. Soaking of the vehicle shall be performed according to Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6. Forced
cooling down shall not be applied to vehicles preconditioned for the Type 1 test. During
soak, the REESS shall be charged using the normal charging procedure as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3. of this Appendix.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 5
UTILITY FACTORS (UF) FOR OVC-HEVS
1. Each Contracting Party may develop its own UFs.
2. The methodology recommended for the determination of a UF curve based on driving
statistics is described in SAE J2841 (September 2010, Issued 2009-03, Revised 2010-09).
3. For the calculation of a fractional utility factor UFj for the weighting of period j, the following
equation shall be applied by using the coefficients from Table A8.App5/1.
Where:
UF utility factor for period j;
d
C
d
k
j
i
measured distance driven at the end of period j, km;
i coefficient (see Table A8.App5/1);
normalized distance (see Table A8.App5/1), km;
number of terms and coefficients in the exponent;
number of period considered;
number of considered term/coefficient;
sum of calculated utility factors up to period (j-1).
Table A8.App5/1
Parameters for the Regional Determination of Fractional UFs
Parameter
Europe
Japan
USA (fleet)
USA (individual)
d
800km
400km
399.9miles
400miles
C1
26.25
11.8
10.52
13.1
C2
-38.94
-32.5
-7.282
-18.7
C3
-631.05
89.5
-26.37
5.22
C4
5964.83
-134
79.08
8.15
C5
-25095
98.9
-77.36
3.53
C6
60380.2
-29.1
26.07
-1.34
C7
-87517
NA
NA
-4.01
C8
75513.8
NA
NA
-3.9
C9
-35749
NA
NA
-1.15
C10
7154.94
NA
NA
3.88

2.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 2.1. and Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9 of Annex 1:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle under charge-depleting operating conditions, this mode shall be
selected.
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow the
modified reference test cycle under charge-depleting operating condition, the mode
with the highest electric energy consumption shall be selected.
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test cycle
under charge-depleting operating condition, the mode or modes with the highest cycle
energy demand shall be identified and the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle can be replaced by the
applicable WLTP city test cycle and the mode with the highest electric energy
consumption shall be selected.
Figure A8.App6/1
Selection of Driver-selectable Mode for OVC-HEVs Under Charge-depleting Operating Condition

Figure A8.App6/2
Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode for OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs
Under Charge-sustaining Operating Condition
4. PEVS EQUIPPED WITH A DRIVER-SELECTABLE MODE
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the test shall be selected
according to the following conditions.
The flow chart in Figure A8.App6/3 illustrates the mode selection according to this
Paragraph.
4.1. If there is a predominant mode that enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle,
this mode shall be selected.
4.2. If there is no predominant mode or if there is a predominant mode but this mode does not
enable the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the mode for the test shall be selected
according to the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
If there is only one mode which allows the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle,
this mode shall be selected;
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle, the most electric
energy consuming mode of those shall be selected.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 7
FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF
COMPRESSED HYDROGEN FUEL CELL HYBRID VEHICLES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Fuel consumption shall be measured using the gravimetric method in accordance with
Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, fuel
consumption may be measured using either the pressure method or the flow method. In this
case, the manufacturer shall provide technical evidence that the method yields equivalent
results. The pressure and flow methods are described in ISO 23828.
2. GRAVIMETRIC METHOD
Fuel consumption shall be calculated by measuring the mass of the fuel tank before and
after the test.
2.1. Equipment and Setting
2.1.1. An example of the instrumentation is shown in Figure A8.App7/1. One or more off-vehicle
tanks shall be used to measure the fuel consumption. The off-vehicle tank(s) shall be
connected to the vehicle fuel line between the original fuel tank and the fuel cell system.
2.1.2. For preconditioning, the originally installed tank or an external source of hydrogen may be
used.
2.1.3. The refuelling pressure shall be adjusted to the manufacturer's recommended value.
2.1.4. Difference of the gas supply pressures in lines shall be minimized when the lines are
switched.
2.1.5. Balance
In the case that influence of pressure difference is expected, the manufacturer and the
responsible authority shall agree whether correction is necessary or not.
2.1.5.1. The balance used for fuel consumption measurement shall meet the specification of
Table A8.App7/1.
Table A8.App7/1
Analytical Balance Verification Criteria
Measurement System Resolution Precision
Balance 0.1g maximum ±0.02 maximum

2.2.3. The test shall be conducted by fuelling from the off-vehicle tank.
2.2.4. The off-vehicle tank shall be removed from the line.
2.2.5. The mass of the tank and fuel consumed after the test shall be measured.
2.2.5.1. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, the
change in weight of the hydrogen in the auxiliary line between points 2 and 4 in
Figure A8.App7/1 due to changes in temperature and pressure may be taken into
consideration.
2.2.6. The non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption FC from the measured mass
before and after the test shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
FC
is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption measured during the test,
kg/100km;
g
g
d
is the mass of the tank at the start of the test, kg;
is the mass of the tank at the end of the test, kg;
is the distance driven during the test, km.
2.2.7. If required by a Contracting Party, separate fuel consumption FC as defined in
Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.4. and 4.2.1.2.5. of this Annex shall be calculated for each individual
phase in accordance with Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix. The test procedure shall be
conducted with off-vehicle tanks and connections to the vehicle fuel line which are
individually prepared for each phase.

Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).