Global Technical Regulation No. 15

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 15
Description:Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).
Official Title:Global Technical Regulation No. 15 on Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2014-05-12
Amendment Level:Amendment 6 of January 18, 2021
Number of Pages:632
Vehicle Types:Car, Component, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

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Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.15/Amend.6
January 18, 2021
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum 15:
UN GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION No. 15
WORLDWIDE HARMONIZED LIGHT VEHICLES TEST PROCEDURE (WLTP)
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 12, 2014)
Incorporating:
Amendment 1
dated March 8, 2017
Amendment 2
dated August 24, 2017
Amendment 3
dated Feburary 1, 2018
Amendment 4
dated September 20, 2018
Amendment 5
dated September 23, 2019
Amendment 6
dated January 18, 2021

7. Calculations
8. Pure Electric, Hybrid Electric and Compressed Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
REESS State of Charge Profile
REESS Energy Change-based Correction Procedure
Determination of REESS Current and REESS Voltage for NOVC-HEVs,
OVC-HEVs, PEVs, OVC-FCHVs and NOVC-FCHVs
Preconditioning, Soaking and REESS Charging Conditions of PEVs, OVC-HEVs
and OVC-FCHVs
Utility Factors (UF) for OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs
Selection of Driver-selectable Modes
Fuel Consumption Measurement of Compressed Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid
Vehicles
Calculation of Additional Values Required for Checking the Conformity of
Production of Electric Energy Consumption of PEVs and OVC-HEVs
9. Determination of Method Equivalency
10. Requirements for Vehicles that use a Reagent for the Exhaust After-treatment System
11. On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)
Appendix 1
Functional Aspects of On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Systems
12. Type 5 Test (optional annex)
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3a
Appendix 3b
Appendix 4
Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) (if applicable)
Standard Diesel Bench Cycle (SDBC) (if applicable)
Standard Road Cycle (SRC)
The Kilometre Accumulation Cycles (if applicable)
Special Requirements for Hybrid Vehicles

UN GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION No. 15
WORLDWIDE HARMONIZED LIGHT VEHICLES TEST PROCEDURE (WLTP)
I. STATEMENT OF TECHNICAL RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION
A. INTRODUCTION
1. The compliance with emission standards is a central issue of vehicle certification worldwide.
Emissions comprise criteria emissions having a direct (mainly local) negative impact on
health and environment, as well as pollutants having a negative environmental impact on a
global scale. Regulatory emission standards typically are complex documents, describing
measurement procedures under a variety of well-defined conditions, setting limit values for
emissions, but also defining other elements such as the durability and on-board monitoring
of emission control devices.
2. Most manufacturers produce vehicles for a global clientele or at least for several regions.
Albeit vehicles are not identical worldwide since vehicle types and models tend to cater to
local tastes and living conditions, the compliance with different emission standards in each
region creates high burdens from an administrative and vehicle design point of view. Vehicle
manufacturers, therefore, have a strong interest in harmonising vehicle emission test
procedures and performance requirements as much as possible on a global scale.
Regulators also have an interest in global harmonization since it offers more efficient
development and adaptation to technical progress, potential collaboration at market
surveillance and facilitates the exchange of information between authorities.
3. As a consequence, stakeholders launched the work for this United Nations global technical
regulation (UN GTR) on Worldwide harmonized Light vehicle Test Procedures (WLTP) that
aims at harmonising emission-related test procedures for light duty vehicles to the extent
this is possible. Vehicle test procedures need to represent real driving conditions as much
as possible to make the performance of vehicles at certification and in real life comparable.
Unfortunately, this aspect puts some limitations on the level of harmonization to be
achieved, since for instance, ambient temperatures vary widely on a global scale. In
addition, due to the different levels of development, different population densities and the
costs associated with emission control technology, the regulatory stringency of legislation is
expected to be different from region to region for the foreseeable future. The setting of
emission limit values, therefore, is not part of this UN GTR for the time being.
4. The purpose of a UN GTR is its implementation into regional legislation by as many
Contracting Parties as possible. However, the scope of regional legislations in terms of
vehicle categories concerned depends on regional conditions and cannot be predicted for
the time being. On the other hand, according to the rules of the 1998 UNECE agreement,
Contracting Parties implementing a UN GTR must include all equipment falling into the
formal UN GTR scope. Care must be taken, so that an unduly large formal scope of the
UN GTR does not prevent its regional implementation. Therefore, the formal scope of this
UN GTR is kept to the core of light duty vehicles. However, this limitation of the formal
UN GTR scope does not indicate that it could not be applied to a larger group of vehicle
categories by regional legislation. In fact, Contracting Parties are encouraged to extend the
scope of regional implementations of this UN GTR if this is technically, economically and
administratively appropriate.
5. This version of the WLTP UN GTR, in particular, does not contain any specific test
requirements for dual fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles not based on a combination of an
internal combustion engine and an electric machine. Thus these vehicles are not included in
the scope of the WLTP UN GTR. Contracting Parties may, however, apply the WLTP UN
GTR provisions to such vehicles to the extent possible and complement them by additional
provisions, e.g. emission testing with different fuel grades and types, in regional legislation.

9. During the work of the DTP group it became clear that a number of issues, in particular but
not only in relation to electric and hybrid-electric vehicles, could not be resolved in time for
an adoption of the first version of the WLTP UN GTR by WP.29 in March 2014. Therefore, it
was agreed that the work of Phase 1 would be divided into 2 sub-phases:
(a)
(b)
Phase 1a (2009 – 2013): development of the worldwide harmonized light duty driving
cycle and the basic test procedure. This led to the first version of this UN GTR, which
was published as official working document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2013/13 and
a series of amendments published as informal document GRPE-67-04-Rev.1;
Phase 1b (2013 – 2015): further development and refinement of the test procedure,
while including additional items into the UN GTR.
10. The work for Phase 1b was structured according to the following expert groups under the
WLTP informal working group:
(a)
(b)
(c)
UN GTR drafting: coordination over all groups, to ensure that the UN GTR is robust,
coherent, and consistent;
E-lab: specific test conditions and measurement procedures for electric and
hybrid-electric vehicles. This was a continuation of the EV-HEV group under
Phase 1a;
Taskforces: for each specific topic that has to be integrated in the UN GTR, the
informal working group would designate a taskforce leader, who would work in a
group with interested stakeholders on developing a testing methodology and a
UN GTR text proposal.
An overview of the main topics that were addressed in Phase 1b and added to the UN GTR
is presented below:
(a)
Pure Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Normalisation methods and speed trace index;
Number of tests;
Wind tunnel as alternative method for road load determination;
Road load matrix family;
Interpolation family and road load family concept;
On-board anemometry and wind speed conditions;
Alternative vehicle warm-up procedure;
(viii) Calculation and interpolation of fuel consumption.
(b)
Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (E-lab expert group):
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Fuel cell vehicle test procedure;
Shortened test procedure for Pure Electric Vehicle (PEV) range test;
Phase-specific CO (fuel consumption) for Off-Vehicle Charging Hybrid Electric
Vehicles (OVC-HEVs);

C. BACKGROUND ON DRIVING CYCLES AND TEST PROCEDURES
12. The development of the worldwide harmonized light duty vehicle driving cycle was based on
experience gained from work on the Worldwide Heavy-Duty Certification procedure
(WHDC), Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and national cycles.
13. The WLTC is a transient cycle by design. To construct WLTC, driving data from all
participating Contracting Parties were collected and weighted according to the relative
contribution of regions to the globally driven mileage and data collected for WLTP purpose.
14. The resulting driving data were subsequently cut into idling periods and "short trips"
(i.e. driving events between two idling periods). With the above-mentioned weightings the
following unified frequency distributions were calculated:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Short trip duration distribution;
Stop phase duration distribution;
Joint vehicle speed acceleration (v, a) distribution.
These distributions together with the averages of vehicle speed, short trip and stop phase
durations built the basis for the development of the WLTC speed trace.
By randomised combinations of these segments, a large number of "draft cycles" were
generated. From the latter "draft cycle" family, the cycle best fitting the
averages/distributions described above was selected as a first "raw WLTC". In the
subsequent work, the "raw WLTC" was further processed, in particular with respect to its
driveability and better representativeness, to obtain the final WLTC.
15. The driveability of WLTC was assessed extensively during the development process and
was supported by three distinct validation phases. Specific cycle versions for certain
vehicles with limited driving capabilities due to a low power-to-mass ratio or limited
maximum vehicle speed have been introduced. In addition, the speed trace to be followed
by a test vehicle will be downscaled according to a mathematically prescribed method if the
vehicle would have to encounter an unduly high proportion of "full throttle" driving in order to
follow the original speed trace. For vehicles equipped with a manual transmission gear shift
points are determined according to a mathematical procedure that is based on the
characteristics of individual vehicles, which also enhances the driveability of WLTC.
16. For the development of the test procedures, the DTP subgroup took into account existing
emissions and energy consumption legislation, in particular those of the 1958 and
1998 Agreements, those of Japan and the United States Environmental Protection Agency
(US EPA) Standard Part 1066. These test procedures were critically reviewed, compared to
each other, updated to technical progress and complemented by new elements where
necessary.

II.
TEXT OF THE UN GTR
1. PURPOSE
This United Nations global technical regulation (UN GTR) aims at providing a
worldwide harmonized method to determine the levels of emissions of gaseous
compounds, particulate matter, particle number, CO emissions, fuel consumption,
fuel efficiency, electric energy consumption and electric range from light-duty vehicles
in a repeatable and reproducible manner designed to be representative of real-world
vehicle operation. The results will provide the basis for the regulation of these
vehicles within regional type approval and certification procedures.
2. SCOPE AND APPLICATION
This UN GTR applies to vehicles of Categories 1-2 and 2, both having a technically
permissible maximum laden mass not exceeding 3,500kg, and to all vehicles of
Category 1-1.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.0.1. Reserved
3.0.2. "Engine capacity" means:
For reciprocating piston engines, the nominal engine swept volume.
For rotary piston engines (Wankel), twice the nominal swept volume of a combustion
chamber per piston.
3.0.3. "Engine displacement" means:
3.0.4. Reserved
For reciprocating piston engines, the nominal engine swept volume.
For rotary piston engines (Wankel), the nominal swept volume of a combustion
chamber per piston.
3.1. Test Equipment
3.1.1. "Accuracy" means the difference between a measured value and a reference value,
traceable to a national standard and describes the correctness of a result. See
Figure 1.
3.1.2. "Calibration" means the process of setting a measurement system's response so
that its output agrees with a range of reference signals.
3.1.3. "Calibration gas" means a gas mixture used to calibrate gas analysers.
3.1.4. "Double dilution method" means the process of separating a part of the diluted
exhaust flow and mixing it with an appropriate amount of dilution air prior to the
particulate sampling filter.

Figure 1
Definition of Accuracy, Precision and Reference Value
3.2. Road Load and Dynamometer Setting
3.2.1. "Aerodynamic drag" means the force opposing a vehicle's forward motion through
air.
3.2.2. "Aerodynamic stagnation point" means the point on the surface of a vehicle where
wind velocity is equal to zero.
3.2.3. "Anemometer blockage" means the effect on the anemometer measurement due to
the presence of the vehicle where the apparent air speed is different than the vehicle
speed combined with wind speed relative to the ground.
3.2.4. "Constrained analysis" means the vehicle's frontal area and aerodynamic drag
coefficient have been independently determined and those values shall be used in the
equation of motion.
3.2.5. "Mass in running order" means the mass of the vehicle, with its fuel tank(s) filled to
at least 90% of its or their capacity/capacities, including the mass of the driver, fuel
and liquids, fitted with the standard equipment in accordance with the manufacturer's
specifications and, when they are fitted, the mass of the bodywork, the cabin, the
coupling and the spare wheel(s) as well as the tools.
3.2.6. "Mass of the driver" means a mass rated at 75kg located at the driver's seating
reference point.

3.2.18. "Standard equipment" means the basic configuration of a vehicle which is equipped
with all the features that are required under the regulatory acts of the Contracting
Party including all features that are fitted without giving rise to any further
specifications on configuration or equipment level.
3.2.19. "Target road load" means the road load to be reproduced on the chassis
dynamometer.
3.2.20. "Target running resistance" means the running resistance to be reproduced.
3.2.21. "Vehicle coastdown mode" means a system of operation enabling an accurate and
repeatable determination of road load and an accurate dynamometer setting.
3.2.22. "Wind correction" means correction of the effect of wind on road load based on
input of the stationary or on-board anemometry.
3.2.23. "Technically permissible maximum laden mass" means the maximum mass
allocated to a vehicle on the basis of its construction features and its design
performances.
3.2.24. "Actual mass of the vehicle" means the mass in running order plus the mass of the
fitted optional equipment to an individual vehicle.
3.2.25. "Test mass of the vehicle" means the sum of the actual mass of the vehicle, 25kg
and the mass representative of the vehicle load.
3.2.26. "Mass representative of the vehicle load" means x per cent of the maximum
vehicle load where x is 15% for Category 1 vehicles and 28% for Category 2 vehicles.
3.2.27. "Technically permissible maximum laden mass of the combination" (MC) means
the maximum mass allocated to the combination of a motor vehicle and one or more
trailers on the basis of its construction features and its design performances or the
maximum mass allocated to the combination of a tractor unit and a semi-trailer.
3.2.28. "n/v ratio" means the engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed.
3.2.29. "Single roller dynamometer" means a dynamometer where each wheel on a
vehicle's axle is in contact with one roller.
3.2.30. "Twin-roller dynamometer" means a dynamometer where each wheel on a
vehicle's axle is in contact with two rollers.
3.2.31. "Powered axle" means an axle of a vehicle which is able to deliver propulsion
energy and/or recuperate energy, independent of whether that is only temporarily or
permanently possible and/or selectable by the driver.
3.2.32. "2WD dynamometer" means a dynamometer where only the wheels on one vehicle
axle are in contact with the roller(s).
3.2.33. "4WD dynamometer" means a dynamometer where all wheels on both vehicle axles
are in contact with the rollers.

3.3.9. "Energy converter" means a system where the form of energy output is different
from the form of energy input.
3.3.9.1. "Propulsion energy converter" means an energy converter of the powertrain which
is not a peripheral device whose output energy is used directly or indirectly for the
purpose of vehicle propulsion.
3.3.9.2. "Category of propulsion energy converter" means (i) an internal combustion
engine, or (ii) an electric machine, or (iii) a fuel cell.
3.3.10. "Energy storage system" means a system which stores energy and releases it in
the same form as was input.
3.3.10.1. "Propulsion energy storage system" means an energy storage system of the
powertrain which is not a peripheral device and whose output energy is used directly
or indirectly for the purpose of vehicle propulsion.
3.3.10.2. "Category of propulsion energy storage system" means (i) a fuel storage system,
or (ii) a rechargeable electric energy storage system, or (iii) a rechargeable
mechanical energy storage system.
3.3.10.3. "Form of energy" means (i) electrical energy, or (ii) mechanical energy, or (iii)
chemical energy (including fuels).
3.3.10.4. "Fuel storage system" means a propulsion energy storage system that stores
chemical energy as liquid or gaseous fuel.
3.3.11. "Equivalent All-electric Range" (EAER) means that portion of the total
charge-depleting actual range (R ) attributable to the use of electricity from the
REESS over the charge-depleting range test.
3.3.12. "Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (HEV) means a hybrid vehicle where one of the propulsion
energy converters is an electric machine.
3.3.13. "Hybrid Vehicle" (HV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing at
least two different categories of propulsion energy converters and at least two
different categories of propulsion energy storage systems.
3.3.14. "Net energy change" means the ratio of the REESS energy change divided by the
cycle energy demand of the test vehicle.
3.3.15. "Not Off-vehicle Charging Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (NOVC-HEV) means a hybrid
electric vehicle that cannot be charged from an external source.
3.3.16. "Off-vehicle Charging Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (OVC-HEV) means a hybrid electric
vehicle that can be charged from an external source.
3.3.17. "Pure Electric Vehicle" (PEV) means a vehicle equipped with a powertrain
containing exclusively electric machines as propulsion energy converters and
exclusively rechargeable electric energy storage systems as propulsion energy
storage systems.
3.3.18. "Fuel cell" means an energy converter transforming chemical energy (input) into
electrical energy (output) or vice versa.

3.4.3. "Peripheral devices" means any energy consuming, converting, storing or supplying
devices, where the energy is not directly or indirectly used for the purpose of vehicle
propulsion but which are essential to the operation of the powertrain and are therefore
considered to be part of the powertrain.
3.4.4. "Drivetrain" means the connected elements of the powertrain for transmission of the
mechanical energy between the propulsion energy converter(s) and the wheels.
3.4.5. "Manual transmission" means a transmission where gears can only be shifted by
action of the driver.
3.5. General
3.5.1. "Criteria emissions" means those emission compounds for which limits are set in
regional legislation.
3.5.2. "Category 1 vehicle" means a power-driven vehicle with four or more wheels
designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of one or more persons.
3.5.3. "Category 1-1 vehicle" means a Category 1 vehicle comprising not more than
eight seating positions in addition to the driver's seating position. A Category 1-1
vehicle may not have standing passengers.
3.5.4. "Category 1-2 vehicle" means a Category 1 vehicle designed for the carriage of
more than eight passengers, whether seated or standing, in addition to the driver.
3.5.5. "Category 2 vehicle" means a power-driven vehicle with four or more wheels
designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of goods. This category shall also
include:
(a)
(b)
Tractive units;
Chassis designed specifically to be equipped with special equipment.
3.5.6. "Cycle energy demand" means the calculated positive energy required by the
vehicle to drive the prescribed cycle.
3.5.7. "Defeat device" means any element of design which senses temperature, vehicle
speed, engine speed (RPM), transmission gear, manifold vacuum or any other
parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying or deactivating the
operation of any part of the emission control system, that reduces the effectiveness of
the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to
be encountered in normal vehicle operation and use.
3.5.8. "Driver-selectable mode" means a distinct driver-selectable condition which could
affect emissions, or fuel and/or energy consumption.
3.5.9. "Predominant mode" for the purpose of this UN GTR means a single
driver-selectable mode that is always selected when the vehicle is switched on,
regardless of the driver-selectable mode in operation when the vehicle was previously
shut down, and which cannot be redefined to another mode. After the vehicle is
switched on, the predominant mode can only be switched to another driver-selectable
mode by an intentional action of the driver.
3.5.10. "Reference conditions (with regards to calculating mass emissions)" means the
conditions upon which gas densities are based, namely 101.325kPa and 273.15K
(0°C).

3.10.4. "Malfunction indicator (MI)" means a visible or audible indicator that clearly informs
the driver of the vehicle in the event of a malfunction of any emission-related
component connected to the OBD system, or the OBD system itself.
3.10.5. "Malfunction" means the failure of an emission-related component or system that
would result in emissions exceeding the OBD thresholds as defined by the
Contracting Party or if the OBD system is unable to fulfil the basic monitoring
requirements of this annex.
3.10.6. "Secondary air" refers to air introduced into the exhaust system by means of a pump
or aspirator valve or other means that is intended to aid in the oxidation of HC and
CO contained in the exhaust gas stream.
3.10.7. "Engine misfire" means lack of combustion in the cylinder of a positive ignition
engine due to absence of spark, poor fuel metering, poor compression or any other
cause.
3.10.8. An "OBD driving cycle" consists of key-on, a driving mode where a malfunction
would be detected if present, and key-off.
3.10.9. A "warm-up cycle" means sufficient vehicle operation such that the coolant
temperature has risen by at least 22K from engine starting and reaches a minimum
temperature of 343K (70°C).
3.10.10. A "Fuel trim" refers to feedback adjustments to the base fuel schedule. Short-term
fuel trim refers to dynamic or instantaneous adjustments. Long-term fuel trim refers to
much more gradual adjustments to the fuel calibration schedule than short-term trim
adjustments. These long-term adjustments compensate for vehicle differences and
gradual changes that occur over time.
3.10.11. Reserved
3.10.12. "Permanent emission default mode" refers to a case where the engine
management controller permanently switches to a setting that does not require an
input from a failed component or system where such a failed component or system
would result in an increase in emissions from the vehicle to a level above the OBD
thresholds as defined by the Contracting Party.
3.10.12.1. "Permanent" in this context means that the default mode is not recoverable, i.e. the
diagnostic or control strategy that caused the emission default mode cannot run in the
next driving cycle and cannot confirm that the conditions that caused the emission
default mode is not present anymore. All other emission default modes are
considered not to be permanent.
3.10.13. "Power take-off unit" means an engine-driven output provision for the purposes of
powering auxiliary, vehicle mounted, equipment.
3.10.14. Reserved
3.10.15. Reserved

4. ABBREVIATIONS
4.1. General Abbreviations
AC
CAL ID
CFD
CFV
CFO
CLA
CVS
DC
EAF
ECD
ET
Extra High
Extra High
FCHV
FID
FSD
FTIR
GC
HEPA
HFID
High
High
High
ICE
LoD
LoQ
Low
Low
Alternating current
Software calibration identification
Computational fluid dynamics
Critical flow venturi
Critical flow orifice
Chemiluminescent analyser
Constant volume sampler
Direct current
Sum of ethanol, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde
Electron capture detector
Evaporation tube
Class 2 WLTC extra high speed phase
Class 3 WLTC extra high speed phase
Fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Flame ionization detector
Full scale deflection
Fourier transform infrared analyser
Gas chromatograph
High efficiency particulate air (filter)
Heated flame ionization detector
Class 2 WLTC high speed phase
Class 3a WLTC high speed phase
Class 3b WLTC high speed phase
Internal combustion engine
Limit of detection
Limit of quantification
Class 1 WLTC low speed phase
Class 2 WLTC low speed phase

PND
PND
PTS
PTT
QCL-IR
First particle number dilution device
Second particle number dilution device
Particle transfer system
Particle transfer tube
Infrared quantum cascade laser
R Charge-depleting actual range
RCB
REESS
RRC
SSV
UBE
USFM
V
V
VPR
WLTC
REESS charge balance
Rechargeable electric energy storage system
Rolling resistance coefficient
Subsonic venture
Usable Battery (REESS) Energy
Ultrasonic flow meter
Vehicle High
Vehicle Low
Volatile particle remover
Worldwide light-duty test cycle
4.2. Chemical Symbols and Abbreviations
C
CH
C H
C H OH
C H
CH CHO
CO
CO
DOP
H O
Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon
Methane
Ethane
Ethanol
Propane
Acetaldehyde
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Di-octylphthalate
Water

5.4. Fuel Tank Inlet Orifices
5.4.1. Subject to Paragraph 5.4.2. of this UN GTR, the inlet orifice of the petrol or ethanol
tank shall be so designed as to prevent the tank from being filled from a fuel pump
delivery nozzle that has an external diameter of 23.6mm or greater.
At the request of the Contracting Party, this requirement need not be applied.
5.4.2. Paragraph 5.4.1. of this UN GTR shall not apply to a vehicle in respect of which both
of the following conditions are satisfied:
(a)
(b)
The vehicle is so designed and constructed that no device designed to control
the emissions shall be adversely affected by leaded petrol; and
The vehicle is conspicuously, legibly and indelibly marked with the symbol for
unleaded petrol, specified in ISO 2575:2010 "Road vehicles – Symbols for
controls, indicators and tell-tales", in a position immediately visible to a person
filling the petrol tank. Additional markings are permitted.
5.5. Provisions for Electronic System Security
5.5.1. Any vehicle with an emission control computer shall include features to deter
modification, except as authorised by the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall
authorise modifications if those modifications are necessary for the diagnosis,
servicing, inspection, retrofitting or repair of the vehicle. Any reprogrammable
computer codes or operating parameters shall be resistant to tampering and afford a
level of protection at least as good as the provisions in ISO 15031-7: 2013. Any
removable calibration memory chips shall be potted, encased in a sealed container or
protected by electronic algorithms and shall not be changeable without the use of
specialized tools and procedures.
5.5.2. Computer-coded engine operating parameters shall not be changeable without the
use of specialized tools and procedures (e.g. soldered or potted computer
components or sealed (or soldered) enclosures).
5.5.3. Manufacturers may seek approval from the responsible authority for an exemption to
one of these requirements for those vehicles that are unlikely to require protection.
The criteria that the responsible authority shall evaluate in considering an exemption
shall include, but are not limited to, the current availability of performance chips, the
high-performance capability of the vehicle and the projected sales volume of the
vehicle.
5.5.4. Manufacturers using programmable computer code systems shall deter unauthorised
reprogramming. Manufacturers shall include enhanced tamper protection strategies
and write-protect features requiring electronic access to an off-site computer
maintained by the manufacturer. Methods giving an adequate level of tamper
protection shall be approved by the responsible authority.

5.6.2. Interpolation Family for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 5.6.1. of this UN GTR, only OVC-HEVs
and NOVC-HEVs that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may
be part of the same interpolation family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Type and number of electric machines: construction type (asynchronous/
synchronous, etc.), type of coolant (air, liquid) and any other characteristics
having a non-negligible influence on CO mass emission and electric energy
consumption under WLTP conditions;
Type of traction REESS (model, capacity, nominal voltage, nominal power,
type of coolant (air, liquid));
Type of electric energy converter between the electric machine and traction
REESS, between the traction REESS and low voltage power supply and
between the recharge-plug-in and traction REESS, and any other
characteristics having a non-negligible influence on CO mass emission and
electric energy consumption under WLTP conditions;
The difference between the number of charge-depleting cycles from the
beginning of the test up to and including the transition cycle shall not be more
than one.
5.6.3. Interpolation Family for PEVs
Only PEVs that are identical with respect to the following electric
powertrain/transmission characteristics may be part of the same interpolation family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Type and number of electric machines: construction type (asynchronous/
synchronous, etc.), type of coolant (air, liquid) and any other characteristics
having a non-negligible influence on electric energy consumption and range
under WLTP conditions;
Type of traction REESS (type of cell, capacity, nominal voltage, nominal power,
type of coolant (air, liquid));
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g.
torque rating, number of gears, numbers of clutches, etc.);
Number of powered axles;
Type of electric energy converter between the electric machine and traction
REESS, between the traction REESS and low voltage power supply and
between the recharge-plug-in and traction REESS, and any other
characteristics having a non-negligible influence on electric energy
consumption and range under WLTP conditions;
Operation strategy of all components influencing the electric energy
consumption within the powertrain;
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement
shall be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the
difference with respect to the n/v ratios of the most commonly installed
transmission type and model is within 8%.

5.7. Road Load Family
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be
part of the same road load family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT) and transmission model (e.g.
torque rating, number of gears, number of clutches, etc.). At the request of the
manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a transmission
with lower power losses may be included in the family;
n/v ratios (engine rotational speed divided by vehicle speed). This requirement
shall be considered fulfilled if, for all transmission ratios concerned, the
difference with respect to the transmission ratios of the most commonly
installed transmission type is within 25%;
Number of powered axles.
If at least one electric machine is coupled in the gearbox position neutral and the
vehicle is not equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode (Paragraph 4.2.1.8.5. of
Annex 4) such that the electric machine has no influence on the road load, the criteria
in Paragraph 5.6.2. (a) of this UN GTR and Paragraph 5.6.3. (a) of this UN GTR shall
apply.
If there is a difference, apart from vehicle mass, rolling resistance and aerodynamics,
that has a non-negligible influence on road load, that vehicle shall not be considered
to be part of the family unless approved by the responsible authority.
5.8. Road Load Matrix Family
The road load matrix family may be applied for vehicles with a technically permissible
maximum laden mass ≥3,000kg.
Vehicles with a technically permissible maximum laden mass ≥2,500kg may be part
of the road load matrix family provided the driver seat R-point height is above 850mm
from the ground.
"R-point" means "R" point or "seating reference point" as defined in Paragraph 2.4. of
Annex 1 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3.).
Only vehicles which are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be
part of the same road load matrix family:
(a)
(b)
Transmission type (e.g. manual, automatic, CVT);
Number of powered axles.

(e)
(f)
(g)
If fitted with a catalyst, it has the same type of catalyst i.e. three way, oxidation,
de-NO ;
It has a gas fuelling system (including the pressure regulator) from the same
system manufacturer and of the same type: induction, vapour injection (single
point, multipoint), liquid injection (single point, multipoint);
This gas fuelling system is controlled by an ECU of the same type and
technical specification, containing the same software principles and control
strategy. The vehicle may have a second ECU compared to the GFV parent
vehicle, provided that the ECU is only used to control the injectors, additional
shut-off valves and the data acquisition from additional sensors.
5.10.3.2. With regard to requirements of Paragraph 5.10.3.1. (c) and (d):
In the case where a demonstration shows that two gas-fuelled vehicles could be
members of the same family with the exception of their certified power output,
respectively P1 and P2 (P1 < P2), and both are tested as if were parent vehicles the
family relation will be considered valid for any vehicle with a certified power output
between 0.7 P1 and 1.15 P2.
5.11. Exhaust After-treatment System using Reagent (ER) Family Definition (as
applicable)
Only vehicles that are identical with respect to the following characteristics may be
part of the same ER family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Reagent injector (principle, construction)
Reagent injector location
Detection strategies (for reagent level, dosing and quality or for reagent level
and monitoring NO emissions)
Warning display: messages, tell-tales lighting sequences and audible
component sequences, if any
Inducement option
NO sensor (application of option described in Paragraph 6 of Annex 10) or
reagent quality sensor (application of option described in Paragraphs 4 and 5
of Annex 10)
The manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree which vehicle model is
representative for the ER family.

5.13. Durability Family (if applicable)
Only vehicles whose engine or pollution control system parameters are identical or
remain within the prescribed tolerances with reference to the vehicle used for the
determination of the Deterioration Factor may be part of the same Durability family:
(a)
Engine
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
Ratio between engine cylinder capacity and the volume of each catalytic
component and/or filter (-10 to +5%);
Difference in engine capacity within either ±15% of the capacity of the
tested vehicle or 820cm whichever value is lower;
Cylinder configuration (number of cylinders, shape, distance between
bores and other configurations);
Number of valves, control of valves, and camshaft driven method;
Fuel type and fuel system;
Combustion process.
(b)
Pollution control system parameters:
(i)
Catalytic converters and particulate filters:
number and layout of catalytic converters, filters and elements,
type of catalytic activity (oxidizing, three-way, lean NO trap, SCR, lean
NO catalyst or other), and filtering characteristics;
precious metal load (identical or higher),
precious metal type and ratio (±15%),
substrate (structure and material),
cell density.
(ii)
Air injection:
with or without
type (pulsair, air pumps, other(s))
(iii)
EGR:
with or without
type (cooled or non-cooled, active or passive control, high pressure/
low pressure/combined pressure)
(iv)
Other devices having an influence on durability.

5.14.2. Low Temperature Family for PEVs
Only vehicles which are identical with respect to all the following characteristics are
permitted to be part of the same low temperature UBE Family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Type of traction REESS (type of cell, type of coolant (air, liquid));
Battery management system (BMS);
Pre-heating of the REESS;
Interior heating system;
REESS insulation.
5.15. K Correction Factor Family for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs (for 4-phase
WLTC only)
It is allowed to merge two or more interpolation families into the same K correction
factor family at which K shall be determined with vehicle H of one of the included
interpolation families. The interpolation family that is used for the vehicle H selection
shall be agreed by the responsible authority.
At the request of the responsible authority, the manufacturer shall provide evidence
on the justification and technical criteria for merging these interpolation families for
example in the following cases:
Two or more interpolation families are merged:
(a)
(b)
Which were split because the maximum interpolation range of 20g/km CO is
exceeded (in case vehicle M measured: 30g/km);
Which were split due to different engine power ratings of the same physical
combustion engine (different power only related to software)
(c) Which were split because the n/v ratios are just outside the tolerance of 8%;
(d)
(e)
Which were split, but still fulfil all the family criteria of a single IP family.
Which were split because there is different number of powered axles
Different electric energy converters between recharge-plug-in and traction REESS
shall not be considered as a criterion in the context of the correction factor family.

7. ROUNDING
7.1. When the digit immediately to the right of the last place to be retained is less than 5,
that last digit retained shall remain unchanged.
Example:
If a result is 1.234g but only two places of decimal are to be retained, the final result
shall be 1.23g.
7.2. When the digit immediately to the right of the last place to be retained is greater than
or equal to 5, that last digit retained shall be increased by 1.
Example:
If a result is 1.236g but only two places of decimal are to be retained, and because 6
is greater than 5, the final result shall be 1.24g.

3.3. Class 3 Cycle
Class 3 cycles are divided into 2 subclasses to reflect the subdivision of Class 3 vehicles.
3.3.1. Class 3a Cycle
3.3.1.1. A complete Class 3a cycle shall consist of a low phase (Low ), a medium phase (Medium ),
a high phase (High ) and an extra high phase (Extra High ).
3.3.1.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/7 and Table A1/7.
3.3.1.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/8 and Table A1/8.
3.3.1.4. The High phase is described in Figure A1/10 and Table A1/10.
3.3.1.5. The Extra High phase is described in Figure A1/12 and Table A1/12.
3.3.1.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High phase may be excluded.
3.3.2. Class 3b Cycle
3.3.2.1. A complete Class 3b cycle shall consist of a low phase (Low ) phase, a medium phase
(Medium ), a high phase (High ) and an extra high phase (Extra High ).
3.3.2.2. The Low phase is described in Figure A1/7 and Table A1/7.
3.3.2.3. The Medium phase is described in Figure A1/9 and Table A1/9.
3.3.2.4. The High phase is described in Figure A1/11 and Table A1/11.
3.3.2.5. The Extra High phase is described in Figure A1/12 and Table A1/12.
3.3.2.6. At the option of the Contracting Party, the Extra High phase may be excluded.
3.4. Duration of the Cycle Phases
3.4.1. Class 1 Cycle.
The first low speed phase starts at second 0 (t
) and ends at second 589 (t
,
duration 589s)
The medium speed phase starts at second 589 (t ) and ends at second 1,022
(t , duration 433s)
The second low speed phase starts at second 1022 (t ) and ends at second 1,611
(t , duration 589s)

4. WLTC CLASS 1 CYCLE
Figure A1/1
WLTC, Class 1 Cycle, Phase Low
Figure A1/2a
WLTC, Class 1 Cycle, Phase Medium

Time in s
Table A1/1
WLTC, Class 1 Cycle, Phase Low
(Second 589 is the end of phase Low and the start of phase Medium )
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
264 29.4 297 23.2 330 14.1 363 6.6
265 30.4 298 23.1 331 14.3 364 8.6
266 31.2 299 23.0 332 14.4 365 10.6
267 31.9 300 22.8 333 14.4 366 12.5
268 32.5 301 22.5 334 14.4 367 14.4
269 33.0 302 22.1 335 14.3 368 16.3
270 33.4 303 21.7 336 14.3 369 17.9
271 33.8 304 21.1 337 14.0 370 19.1
272 34.1 305 20.4 338 13.0 371 19.9
273 34.3 306 19.5 339 11.4 372 20.3
274 34.3 307 18.5 340 10.2 373 20.5
275 33.9 308 17.6 341 8.0 374 20.7
276 33.3 309 16.6 342 7.0 375 21.0
277 32.6 310 15.7 343 6.0 376 21.6
278 31.8 311 14.9 344 5.5 377 22.6
279 30.7 312 14.3 345 5.0 378 23.7
280 29.6 313 14.1 346 4.5 379 24.8
281 28.6 314 14.0 347 4.0 380 25.7
282 27.8 315 13.9 348 3.5 381 26.2
283 27.0 316 13.8 349 3.0 382 26.4
284 26.4 317 13.7 350 2.5 383 26.4
285 25.8 318 13.6 351 2.0 384 26.4
286 25.3 319 13.5 352 1.5 385 26.5
287 24.9 320 13.4 353 1.0 386 26.6
288 24.5 321 13.3 354 0.5 387 26.8
289 24.2 322 13.2 355 0.0 388 26.9
290 24.0 323 13.2 356 0.0 389 27.2
291 23.8 324 13.2 357 0.0 390 27.5
292 23.6 325 13.4 358 0.0 391 28.0
293 23.5 326 13.5 359 0.0 392 28.8
294 23.4 327 13.7 360 0.0 393 29.9
295 23.3 328 13.8 361 2.2 394 31.0
296 23.3 329 14.0 362 4.5 395 31.9

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
528 46.3 544 48.1 560 12.3 576 0.0
529 47.2 545 47.5 561 10.3 577 0.0
530 47.8 546 46.7 562 7.8 578 0.0
531 48.2 547 45.7 563 6.5 579 0.0
532 48.5 548 44.6 564 4.4 580 0.0
533 48.7 549 42.9 565 3.2 581 0.0
534 48.9 550 40.8 566 1.2 582 0.0
535 49.1 551 38.2 567 0.0 583 0.0
536 49.1 552 35.3 568 0.0 584 0.0
537 49.0 553 31.8 569 0.0 585 0.0
538 48.8 554 28.7 570 0.0 586 0.0
539 48.6 555 25.8 571 0.0 587 0.0
540 48.5 556 22.9 572 0.0 588 0.0
541 48.4 557 20.2 573 0.0 589 0.0
542 48.3 558 17.3 574 0.0
543 48.2 559 15.0 575 0.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
718 53.1 751 57.5 784 58.1 817 41.3
719 53.2 752 57.2 785 57.2 818 41.9
720 53.3 753 57.0 786 56.3 819 42.7
721 53.3 754 56.8 787 55.3 820 43.4
722 53.4 755 56.6 788 54.4 821 44.2
723 53.5 756 56.6 789 53.4 822 45.0
724 53.7 757 56.7 790 52.4 823 45.9
725 54.0 758 57.1 791 51.4 824 46.8
726 54.4 759 57.6 792 50.4 825 47.7
727 54.9 760 58.2 793 49.4 826 48.7
728 55.6 761 59.0 794 48.5 827 49.7
729 56.3 762 59.8 795 47.5 828 50.6
730 57.1 763 60.6 796 46.5 829 51.6
731 57.9 764 61.4 797 45.4 830 52.5
732 58.8 765 62.2 798 44.3 831 53.3
733 59.6 766 62.9 799 43.1 832 54.1
734 60.3 767 63.5 800 42.0 833 54.7
735 60.9 768 64.2 801 40.8 834 55.3
736 61.3 769 64.4 802 39.7 835 55.7
737 61.7 770 64.4 803 38.8 836 56.1
738 61.8 771 64.0 804 38.1 837 56.4
739 61.8 772 63.5 805 37.4 838 56.7
740 61.6 773 62.9 806 37.1 839 57.1
741 61.2 774 62.4 807 36.9 840 57.5
742 60.8 775 62.0 808 37.0 841 58.0
743 60.4 776 61.6 809 37.5 842 58.7
744 59.9 777 61.4 810 37.8 843 59.3
745 59.4 778 61.2 811 38.2 844 60.0
746 58.9 779 61.0 812 38.6 845 60.6
747 58.6 780 60.7 813 39.1 846 61.3
748 58.2 781 60.2 814 39.6 847 61.5
749 57.9 782 59.6 815 40.1 848 61.5
750 57.7 783 58.9 816 40.7 849 61.4

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
982 5.6 993 0.0 1,004 0.0 1,015 0.0
983 3.7 994 0.0 1,005 0.0 1,016 0.0
984 1.9 995 0.0 1,006 0.0 1,017 0.0
985 1.0 996 0.0 1,007 0.0 1,018 0.0
986 0.0 997 0.0 1,008 0.0 1,019 0.0
987 0.0 998 0.0 1,009 0.0 1,020 0.0
988 0.0 999 0.0 1,010 0.0 1,021 0.0
989 0.0 1,000 0.0 1,011 0.0 1,022 0.0
990 0.0 1,001 0.0 1,012 0.0
991 0.0 1,002 0.0 1,013 0.0
992 0.0 1,003 0.0 1,014 0.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,147 25.0 1,180 42.2 1,213 42.4 1,246 34.7
1,148 26.8 1,181 42.3 1,214 42.5 1,247 35.1
1,149 28.2 1,182 42.6 1,215 42.7 1,248 35.5
1,150 30.0 1,183 43.0 1,216 42.9 1,249 35.9
1,151 31.4 1,184 43.3 1,217 43.1 1,250 36.4
1,152 32.5 1,185 43.7 1,218 43.2 1,251 36.9
1,153 33.2 1,186 44.0 1,219 43.3 1,252 37.4
1,154 33.4 1,187 44.3 1,220 43.4 1,253 37.9
1,155 33.7 1,188 44.5 1,221 43.4 1,254 38.3
1,156 33.9 1,189 44.6 1,222 43.2 1,255 38.7
1,157 34.2 1,190 44.6 1,223 42.9 1,256 39.1
1,158 34.4 1,191 44.5 1,224 42.6 1,257 39.3
1,159 34.7 1,192 44.4 1,225 42.2 1,258 39.5
1,160 34.9 1,193 44.3 1,226 41.9 1,259 39.7
1,161 35.2 1,194 44.2 1,227 41.5 1,260 39.9
1,162 35.4 1,195 44.1 1,228 41.0 1,261 40.0
1,163 35.7 1,196 44.0 1,229 40.5 1,262 40.1
1,164 35.9 1,197 43.9 1,230 39.9 1,263 40.2
1,165 36.6 1,198 43.8 1,231 39.3 1,264 40.3
1,166 37.5 1,199 43.7 1,232 38.7 1,265 40.4
1,167 38.4 1,200 43.6 1,233 38.1 1,266 40.5
1,168 39.3 1,201 43.5 1,234 37.5 1,267 40.5
1,169 40.0 1,202 43.4 1,235 36.9 1,268 40.4
1,170 40.6 1,203 43.3 1,236 36.3 1,269 40.3
1,171 41.1 1,204 43.1 1,237 35.7 1,270 40.2
1,172 41.4 1,205 42.9 1,238 35.1 1,271 40.1
1,173 41.6 1,206 42.7 1,239 34.5 1,272 39.7
1,174 41.8 1,207 42.5 1,240 33.9 1,273 38.8
1,175 41.8 1,208 42.3 1,241 33.6 1,274 37.4
1,176 41.9 1,209 42.2 1,242 33.5 1,275 35.6
1,177 41.9 1,210 42.2 1,243 33.6 1,276 33.4
1,178 42.0 1,211 42.2 1,244 33.9 1,277 31.2
1,179 42.0 1,212 42.3 1,245 34.3 1,278 29.1

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,411 27.2 1,443 0.0 1,475 0.0 1,507 7.8
1,412 27.5 1,444 0.0 1,476 0.0 1,508 9.5
1,413 28.0 1,445 0.0 1,477 0.0 1,509 11.3
1,414 28.8 1,446 0.0 1,478 0.0 1,510 13.2
1,415 29.9 1,447 0.0 1,479 0.0 1,511 15.0
1,416 31.0 1,448 0.0 1,480 0.0 1,512 16.8
1,417 31.9 1,449 0.0 1,481 0.0 1,513 18.4
1,418 32.5 1,450 0.0 1,482 0.0 1,514 20.1
1,419 32.6 1,451 0.0 1,483 0.0 1,515 21.6
1,420 32.4 1,452 0.0 1,484 0.0 1,516 23.1
1,421 32.0 1,453 0.0 1,485 0.0 1,517 24.6
1,422 31.3 1,454 0.0 1,486 0.0 1,518 26.0
1,423 30.3 1,455 0.0 1,487 0.0 1,519 27.5
1,424 28.0 1,456 0.0 1,488 0.0 1,520 29.0
1,425 27.0 1,457 0.0 1,489 0.0 1,521 30.6
1,426 24.0 1,458 0.0 1,490 0.0 1,522 32.1
1,427 22.5 1,459 0.0 1,491 0.0 1,523 33.7
1,428 19.0 1,460 0.0 1,492 0.0 1,524 35.3
1,429 17.5 1,461 0.0 1,493 0.0 1,525 36.8
1,430 14.0 1,462 0.0 1,494 0.0 1,526 38.1
1,431 12.5 1,463 0.0 1,495 0.0 1,527 39.3
1,432 9.0 1,464 0.0 1,496 0.0 1,528 40.4
1,433 7.5 1,465 0.0 1,497 0.0 1,529 41.2
1,434 4.0 1,466 0.0 1,498 0.0 1,530 41.9
1,435 2.9 1,467 0.0 1,499 0.0 1,531 42.6
1,436 0.0 1,468 0.0 1,500 0.0 1,532 43.3
1,437 0.0 1,469 0.0 1,501 0.0 1,533 44.0
1,438 0.0 1,470 0.0 1,502 0.0 1,534 44.6
1,439 0.0 1,471 0.0 1,503 1.6 1,535 45.3
1,440 0.0 1,472 0.0 1,504 3.1 1,536 45.5
1,441 0.0 1,473 0.0 1,505 4.6 1,537 45.5
1,442 0.0 1,474 0.0 1,506 6.1 1,538 45.2

5. WLTC CLASS 2 CYCLE
Figure A1/3
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Low
Figure A1/4
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Medium

Time in s
Table A1/3
WLTC, Class 2 Cycle, Phase Low
(Second 589 is the end of phase Low and the start of phase Medium )
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
260 46.2 293 15.1 326 33.9 359 0.0
261 46.4 294 13.7 327 31.9 360 1.4
262 46.6 295 13.4 328 30.0 361 3.2
263 46.8 296 13.9 329 29.0 362 5.6
264 47.0 297 15.0 330 27.9 363 8.1
265 47.3 298 16.3 331 27.1 364 10.3
266 47.5 299 17.4 332 26.4 365 12.1
267 47.9 300 18.2 333 25.9 366 12.6
268 48.3 301 18.6 334 25.5 367 13.6
269 48.3 302 19.0 335 25.0 368 14.5
270 48.2 303 19.4 336 24.6 369 15.6
271 48.0 304 19.8 337 23.9 370 16.8
272 47.7 305 20.1 338 23.0 371 18.2
273 47.2 306 20.5 339 21.8 372 19.6
274 46.5 307 20.2 340 20.7 373 20.9
275 45.2 308 18.6 341 19.6 374 22.3
276 43.7 309 16.5 342 18.7 375 23.8
277 42.0 310 14.4 343 18.1 376 25.4
278 40.4 311 13.4 344 17.5 377 27.0
279 39.0 312 12.9 345 16.7 378 28.6
280 37.7 313 12.7 346 15.4 379 30.2
281 36.4 314 12.4 347 13.6 380 31.2
282 35.2 315 12.4 348 11.2 381 31.2
283 34.3 316 12.8 349 8.6 382 30.7
284 33.8 317 14.1 350 6.0 383 29.5
285 33.3 318 16.2 351 3.1 384 28.6
286 32.5 319 18.8 352 1.2 385 27.7
287 30.9 320 21.9 353 0.0 386 26.9
288 28.6 321 25.0 354 0.0 387 26.1
289 25.9 322 28.4 355 0.0 388 25.4
290 23.1 323 31.3 356 0.0 389 24.6
291 20.1 324 34.0 357 0.0 390 23.6
292 17.3 325 34.6 358 0.0 391 22.6

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
524 18.1 541 42.7 558 26.5 575 0.0
525 20.8 542 44.5 559 23.5 576 0.0
526 21.5 543 46.3 560 20.4 577 0.0
527 22.5 544 47.6 561 17.5 578 0.0
528 23.4 545 48.8 562 14.5 579 0.0
529 24.5 546 49.7 563 11.5 580 0.0
530 25.6 547 50.6 564 8.5 581 0.0
531 26.0 548 51.4 565 5.6 582 0.0
532 26.5 549 51.4 566 2.6 583 0.0
533 26.9 550 50.2 567 0.0 584 0.0
534 27.3 551 47.1 568 0.0 585 0.0
535 27.9 552 44.5 569 0.0 586 0.0
536 30.3 553 41.5 570 0.0 587 0.0
537 33.2 554 38.5 571 0.0 588 0.0
538 35.4 555 35.5 572 0.0 589 0.0
539 38.0 556 32.5 573 0.0
540 40.1 557 29.5 574 0.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
718 60.7 751 27.5 784 18.1 817 45.1
719 60.3 752 25.3 785 16.9 818 46.9
720 59.9 753 23.4 786 16.0 819 48.7
721 59.6 754 22.0 787 14.8 820 50.5
722 59.3 755 20.8 788 14.5 821 52.4
723 59.0 756 19.8 789 13.7 822 54.1
724 58.6 757 18.9 790 13.5 823 55.7
725 58.0 758 18.0 791 12.9 824 56.8
726 57.5 759 17.0 792 12.7 825 57.9
727 56.9 760 16.1 793 12.5 826 59.0
728 56.3 761 15.5 794 12.5 827 59.9
729 55.9 762 14.4 795 12.6 828 60.7
730 55.6 763 14.9 796 13.0 829 61.4
731 55.3 764 15.9 797 13.6 830 62.0
732 55.1 765 17.1 798 14.6 831 62.5
733 54.8 766 18.3 799 15.7 832 62.9
734 54.6 767 19.4 800 17.1 833 63.2
735 54.5 768 20.4 801 18.7 834 63.4
736 54.3 769 21.2 802 20.2 835 63.7
737 53.9 770 21.9 803 21.9 836 64.0
738 53.4 771 22.7 804 23.6 837 64.4
739 52.6 772 23.4 805 25.4 838 64.9
740 51.5 773 24.2 806 27.1 839 65.5
741 50.2 774 24.3 807 28.9 840 66.2
742 48.7 775 24.2 808 30.4 841 67.0
743 47.0 776 24.1 809 32.0 842 67.8
744 45.1 777 23.8 810 33.4 843 68.6
745 43.0 778 23.0 811 35.0 844 69.4
746 40.6 779 22.6 812 36.4 845 70.1
747 38.1 780 21.7 813 38.1 846 70.9
748 35.4 781 21.3 814 39.7 847 71.7
749 32.7 782 20.3 815 41.6 848 72.5
750 30.0 783 19.1 816 43.3 849 73.2

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
982 8.8 993 0.0 1,004 0.0 1,015 0.0
983 6.0 994 0.0 1,005 0.0 1,016 0.0
984 3.6 995 0.0 1,006 0.0 1,017 0.0
985 1.6 996 0.0 1,007 0.0 1,018 0.0
986 0.0 997 0.0 1,008 0.0 1,019 0.0
987 0.0 998 0.0 1,009 0.0 1,020 0.0
988 0.0 999 0.0 1,010 0.0 1,021 0.0
989 0.0 1,000 0.0 1,011 0.0 1,022 0.0
990 0.0 1,001 0.0 1,012 0.0
991 0.0 1,002 0.0 1,013 0.0
992 0.0 1,003 0.0 1,014 0.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,151 71.2 1,184 51.3 1,217 82.2 1,250 50.9
1,152 70.9 1,185 53.0 1,218 83.0 1,251 49.4
1,153 71.0 1,186 54.9 1,219 83.7 1,252 48.1
1,154 71.5 1,187 56.7 1,220 84.4 1,253 47.1
1,155 72.3 1,188 58.6 1,221 84.9 1,254 46.5
1,156 73.2 1,189 60.2 1,222 85.1 1,255 46.3
1,157 74.1 1,190 61.6 1,223 85.2 1,256 45.1
1,158 74.9 1,191 62.2 1,224 84.9 1,257 43.0
1,159 75.4 1,192 62.5 1,225 84.4 1,258 40.6
1,160 75.5 1,193 62.8 1,226 83.6 1,259 38.1
1,161 75.2 1,194 62.9 1,227 82.7 1,260 35.4
1,162 74.5 1,195 63.0 1,228 81.5 1,261 32.7
1,163 73.3 1,196 63.0 1,229 80.1 1,262 30.0
1,164 71.7 1,197 63.1 1,230 78.7 1,263 29.9
1,165 69.9 1,198 63.2 1,231 77.4 1,264 30.0
1,166 67.9 1,199 63.3 1,232 76.2 1,265 30.2
1,167 65.7 1,200 63.5 1,233 75.4 1,266 30.4
1,168 63.5 1,201 63.7 1,234 74.8 1,267 30.6
1,169 61.2 1,202 63.9 1,235 74.3 1,268 31.6
1,170 59.0 1,203 64.1 1,236 73.8 1,269 33.0
1,171 56.8 1,204 64.3 1,237 73.2 1,270 33.9
1,172 54.7 1,205 66.1 1,238 72.4 1,271 34.8
1,173 52.7 1,206 67.9 1,239 71.6 1,272 35.7
1,174 50.9 1,207 69.7 1,240 70.8 1,273 36.6
1,175 49.4 1,208 71.4 1,241 69.9 1,274 37.5
1,176 48.1 1,209 73.1 1,242 67.9 1,275 38.4
1,177 47.1 1,210 74.7 1,243 65.7 1,276 39.3
1,178 46.5 1,211 76.2 1,244 63.5 1,277 40.2
1,179 46.3 1,212 77.5 1,245 61.2 1,278 40.8
1,180 46.5 1,213 78.6 1,246 59.0 1,279 41.7
1,181 47.2 1,214 79.7 1,247 56.8 1,280 42.4
1,182 48.3 1,215 80.6 1,248 54.7 1,281 43.1
1,183 49.7 1,216 81.5 1,249 52.7 1,282 43.6

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,415 69.0 1,431 56.7 1,447 12.4 1,463 0.0
1,416 69.3 1,432 54.8 1,448 9.6 1,464 0.0
1,417 69.3 1,433 53.0 1,449 6.6 1,465 0.0
1,418 69.2 1,434 51.3 1,450 3.8 1,466 0.0
1,419 68.8 1,435 49.6 1,451 1.6 1,467 0.0
1,420 68.2 1,436 47.8 1,452 0.0 1,468 0.0
1,421 67.6 1,437 45.5 1,453 0.0 1,469 0.0
1,422 67.4 1,438 42.8 1,454 0.0 1,470 0.0
1,423 67.2 1,439 39.8 1,455 0.0 1,471 0.0
1,424 66.9 1,440 36.5 1,456 0.0 1,472 0.0
1,425 66.3 1,441 33.0 1,457 0.0 1,473 0.0
1,426 65.4 1,442 29.5 1,458 0.0 1,474 0.0
1,427 64.0 1,443 25.8 1,459 0.0 1,475 0.0
1,428 62.4 1,444 22.1 1,460 0.0 1,476 0.0
1,429 60.6 1,445 18.6 1,461 0.0 1,477 0.0
1,430 58.6 1,446 15.3 1,462 0.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,606 106.4 1,639 119.7 1,672 119.3 1,705 120.6
1,607 107.0 1,640 119.5 1,673 119.4 1,706 120.4
1,608 107.5 1,641 119.3 1,674 119.5 1,707 120.2
1,609 107.9 1,642 119.2 1,675 119.5 1,708 120.1
1,610 108.4 1,643 119.0 1,676 119.6 1,709 119.9
1,611 108.9 1,644 118.8 1,677 119.6 1,710 119.8
1,612 109.5 1,645 118.8 1,678 119.6 1,711 119.8
1,613 110.2 1,646 118.8 1,679 119.4 1,712 119.9
1,614 110.9 1,647 118.8 1,680 119.3 1,713 120.0
1,615 111.6 1,648 118.8 1,681 119.0 1,714 120.2
1,616 112.2 1,649 118.9 1,682 118.8 1,715 120.4
1,617 112.8 1,650 119.0 1,683 118.7 1,716 120.8
1,618 113.3 1,651 119.0 1,684 118.8 1,717 121.1
1,619 113.7 1,652 119.1 1,685 119.0 1,718 121.6
1,620 114.1 1,653 119.2 1,686 119.2 1,719 121.8
1,621 114.4 1,654 119.4 1,687 119.6 1,720 122.1
1,622 114.6 1,655 119.6 1,688 120.0 1,721 122.4
1,623 114.7 1,656 119.9 1,689 120.3 1,722 122.7
1,624 114.7 1,657 120.1 1,690 120.5 1,723 122.8
1,625 114.7 1,658 120.3 1,691 120.7 1,724 123.1
1,626 114.6 1,659 120.4 1,692 120.9 1,725 123.1
1,627 114.5 1,660 120.5 1,693 121.0 1,726 122.8
1,628 114.5 1,661 120.5 1,694 121.1 1,727 122.3
1,629 114.5 1,662 120.5 1,695 121.2 1,728 121.3
1,630 114.7 1,663 120.5 1,696 121.3 1,729 119.9
1,631 115.0 1,664 120.4 1,697 121.4 1,730 118.1
1,632 115.6 1,665 120.3 1,698 121.5 1,731 115.9
1,633 116.4 1,666 120.1 1,699 121.5 1,732 113.5
1,634 117.3 1,667 119.9 1,700 121.5 1,733 111.1
1,635 118.2 1,668 119.6 1,701 121.4 1,734 108.6
1,636 118.8 1,669 119.5 1,702 121.3 1,735 106.2
1,637 119.3 1,670 119.4 1,703 121.1 1,736 104.0
1,638 119.6 1,671 119.3 1,704 120.9 1,737 101.1

6. WLTC CLASS 3 CYCLE
Figure A1/7
WLTC, Class 3 Cycle, Phase Low
Figure A1/8
WLTC, Class 3a Cycle, Phase Medium

Figure A1/11
WLTC, Class 3b Cycle, Phase High
Figure A1/12
WLTC, Class 3 Cycle, Phase Extra High

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
128 0.0 161 23.4 194 12.2 227 55.3
129 0.0 162 25.5 195 12.0 228 55.8
130 0.0 163 27.6 196 12.0 229 56.2
131 0.0 164 29.5 197 12.0 230 56.5
132 0.0 165 31.1 198 12.0 231 56.5
133 0.0 166 32.1 199 12.5 232 56.2
134 0.0 167 33.2 200 13.0 233 54.9
135 0.0 168 35.2 201 14.0 234 52.9
136 0.0 169 37.2 202 15.0 235 51.0
137 0.0 170 38.0 203 16.5 236 49.8
138 0.2 171 37.4 204 19.0 237 49.2
139 1.9 172 35.1 205 21.2 238 48.4
140 6.1 173 31.0 206 23.8 239 46.9
141 11.7 174 27.1 207 26.9 240 44.3
142 16.4 175 25.3 208 29.6 241 41.5
143 18.9 176 25.1 209 32.0 242 39.5
144 19.9 177 25.9 210 35.2 243 37.0
145 20.8 178 27.8 211 37.5 244 34.6
146 22.8 179 29.2 212 39.2 245 32.3
147 25.4 180 29.6 213 40.5 246 29.0
148 27.7 181 29.5 214 41.6 247 25.1
149 29.2 182 29.2 215 43.1 248 22.2
150 29.8 183 28.3 216 45.0 249 20.9
151 29.4 184 26.1 217 47.1 250 20.4
152 27.2 185 23.6 218 49.0 251 19.5
153 22.6 186 21.0 219 50.6 252 18.4
154 17.3 187 18.9 220 51.8 253 17.8
155 13.3 188 17.1 221 52.7 254 17.8
156 12.0 189 15.7 222 53.1 255 17.4
157 12.6 190 14.5 223 53.5 256 15.7
158 14.1 191 13.7 224 53.8 257 14.5
159 17.2 192 12.9 225 54.2 258 15.4
160 20.1 193 12.5 226 54.8 259 17.9

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
392 0.5 425 19.1 458 0.0 491 0.0
393 2.1 426 22.6 459 0.0 492 0.0
394 4.8 427 27.4 460 0.0 493 0.0
395 8.3 428 31.6 461 0.0 494 0.0
396 12.3 429 33.4 462 0.0 495 0.0
397 16.6 430 33.5 463 0.0 496 0.0
398 20.9 431 32.8 464 0.0 497 0.0
399 24.2 432 31.9 465 0.0 498 0.0
400 25.6 433 31.3 466 0.0 499 0.0
401 25.6 434 31.1 467 0.0 500 0.0
402 24.9 435 30.6 468 0.0 501 0.0
403 23.3 436 29.2 469 0.0 502 0.0
404 21.6 437 26.7 470 0.0 503 0.0
405 20.2 438 23.0 471 0.0 504 0.0
406 18.7 439 18.2 472 0.0 505 0.0
407 17.0 440 12.9 473 0.0 506 0.0
408 15.3 441 7.7 474 0.0 507 0.0
409 14.2 442 3.8 475 0.0 508 0.0
410 13.9 443 1.3 476 0.0 509 0.0
411 14.0 444 0.2 477 0.0 510 0.0
412 14.2 445 0.0 478 0.0 511 0.0
413 14.5 446 0.0 479 0.0 512 0.5
414 14.9 447 0.0 480 0.0 513 2.5
415 15.9 448 0.0 481 0.0 514 6.6
416 17.4 449 0.0 482 0.0 515 11.8
417 18.7 450 0.0 483 0.0 516 16.8
418 19.1 451 0.0 484 0.0 517 20.5
419 18.8 452 0.0 485 0.0 518 21.9
420 17.6 453 0.0 486 0.0 519 21.9
421 16.6 454 0.0 487 0.0 520 21.3
422 16.2 455 0.0 488 0.0 521 20.3
423 16.4 456 0.0 489 0.0 522 19.2
424 17.2 457 0.0 490 0.0 523 17.8

Time in s
Table A1/8
WLTC, Class 3a Cycle, Phase Medium
(Second 589 is the end of phase Low and the start of phase Medium )
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
590
0.0
622
44.4
654
50.1
686
21.3
591
0.0
623
44.3
655
47.2
687
23.9
592
0.0
624
44.5
656
43.2
688
25.9
593
0.0
625
45.1
657
39.2
689
28.4
594
0.0
626
45.7
658
36.5
690
30.3
595
0.0
627
46.0
659
34.3
691
30.9
596
0.0
628
46.0
660
31.0
692
31.1
597
0.0
629
46.0
661
26.0
693
31.8
598
0.0
630
46.1
662
20.7
694
32.7
599
0.0
631
46.7
663
15.4
695
33.2
600
0.0
632
47.7
664
13.1
696
32.4
601
1.0
633
48.9
665
12.0
697
28.3
602
2.1
634
50.3
666
12.5
698
25.8
603
5.2
635
51.6
667
14.0
699
23.1
604
9.2
636
52.6
668
19.0
700
21.8
605
13.5
637
53.0
669
23.2
701
21.2
606
18.1
638
53.0
670
28.0
702
21.0
607
22.3
639
52.9
671
32.0
703
21.0
608
26.0
640
52.7
672
34.0
704
20.9
609
29.3
641
52.6
673
36.0
705
19.9
610
32.8
642
53.1
674
38.0
706
17.9
611
36.0
643
54.3
675
40.0
707
15.1
612
39.2
644
55.2
676
40.3
708
12.8
613
42.5
645
55.5
677
40.5
709
12.0
614
45.7
646
55.9
678
39.0
710
13.2
615
48.2
647
56.3
679
35.7
711
17.1
616
48.4
648
56.7
680
31.8
712
21.1
617
48.2
649
56.9
681
27.1
713
21.8
618
47.8
650
56.8
682
22.8
714
21.2
619
47.0
651
56.0
683
21.1
715
18.5
620
45.9
652
54.2
684
18.9
716
13.9
621
44.9
653
52.1
685
18.9
717
12.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
850 60.1 883 73.9 916 55.2 949 56.2
851 61.1 884 72.7 917 56.2 950 56.1
852 61.7 885 71.3 918 56.1 951 55.1
853 62.3 886 70.4 919 56.1 952 52.7
854 62.9 887 70.0 920 56.5 953 48.4
855 63.3 888 70.0 921 57.5 954 43.1
856 63.4 889 69.0 922 59.2 955 37.8
857 63.5 890 68.0 923 60.7 956 32.5
858 63.9 891 67.3 924 61.8 957 27.2
859 64.4 892 66.2 925 62.3 958 25.1
860 65.0 893 64.8 926 62.7 959 27.0
861 65.6 894 63.6 927 62.0 960 29.8
862 66.6 895 62.6 928 61.3 961 33.8
863 67.4 896 62.1 929 60.9 962 37.0
864 68.2 897 61.9 930 60.5 963 40.7
865 69.1 898 61.9 931 60.2 964 43.0
866 70.0 899 61.8 932 59.8 965 45.6
867 70.8 900 61.5 933 59.4 966 46.9
868 71.5 901 60.9 934 58.6 967 47.0
869 72.4 902 59.7 935 57.5 968 46.9
870 73.0 903 54.6 936 56.6 969 46.5
871 73.7 904 49.3 937 56.0 970 45.8
872 74.4 905 44.9 938 55.5 971 44.3
873 74.9 906 42.3 939 55.0 972 41.3
874 75.3 907 41.4 940 54.4 973 36.5
875 75.6 908 41.3 941 54.1 974 31.7
876 75.8 909 42.1 942 54.0 975 27.0
877 76.6 910 44.7 943 53.9 976 24.7
878 76.5 911 46.0 944 53.9 977 19.3
879 76.2 912 48.8 945 54.0 978 16.0
880 75.8 913 50.1 946 54.2 979 13.2
881 75.4 914 51.3 947 55.0 980 10.7
882 74.8 915 54.1 948 55.8 981 8.8

Time in s
Table A1/9
WLTC, Class 3b Cycle, Phase Medium
(Second 589 is the end of phase Low and the start of phase Medium )
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
590
0.0
622
44.4
654
50.1
686
21.3
591
0.0
623
44.3
655
47.2
687
23.9
592
0.0
624
44.5
656
43.2
688
25.9
593
0.0
625
45.1
657
39.2
689
28.4
594
0.0
626
45.7
658
36.5
690
30.3
595
0.0
627
46.0
659
34.3
691
30.9
596
0.0
628
46.0
660
31.0
692
31.1
597
0.0
629
46.0
661
26.0
693
31.8
598
0.0
630
46.1
662
20.7
694
32.7
599
0.0
631
46.7
663
15.4
695
33.2
600
0.0
632
47.7
664
13.1
696
32.4
601
1.0
633
48.9
665
12.0
697
28.3
602
2.1
634
50.3
666
12.5
698
25.8
603
4.8
635
51.6
667
14.0
699
23.1
604
9.1
636
52.6
668
19.0
700
21.8
605
14.2
637
53.0
669
23.2
701
21.2
606
19.8
638
53.0
670
28.0
702
21.0
607
25.5
639
52.9
671
32.0
703
21.0
608
30.5
640
52.7
672
34.0
704
20.9
609
34.8
641
52.6
673
36.0
705
19.9
610
38.8
642
53.1
674
38.0
706
17.9
611
42.9
643
54.3
675
40.0
707
15.1
612
46.4
644
55.2
676
40.3
708
12.8
613
48.3
645
55.5
677
40.5
709
12.0
614
48.7
646
55.9
678
39.0
710
13.2
615
48.5
647
56.3
679
35.7
711
17.1
616
48.4
648
56.7
680
31.8
712
21.1
617
48.2
649
56.9
681
27.1
713
21.8
618
47.8
650
56.8
682
22.8
714
21.2
619
47.0
651
56.0
683
21.1
715
18.5
620
45.9
652
54.2
684
18.9
716
13.9
621
44.9
653
52.1
685
18.9
717
12.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
850 60.1 883 68.0 916 58.1 949 56.2
851 61.1 884 68.0 917 59.2 950 56.1
852 61.7 885 68.1 918 59.0 951 55.1
853 62.3 886 68.4 919 59.1 952 52.7
854 62.9 887 68.6 920 59.5 953 48.4
855 63.3 888 68.7 921 60.5 954 43.1
856 63.4 889 68.5 922 62.3 955 37.8
857 63.5 890 68.1 923 63.9 956 32.5
858 64.5 891 67.3 924 65.1 957 27.2
859 65.8 892 66.2 925 64.1 958 25.1
860 66.8 893 64.8 926 62.7 959 26.0
861 67.4 894 63.6 927 62.0 960 29.3
862 68.8 895 62.6 928 61.3 961 34.6
863 71.1 896 62.1 929 60.9 962 40.4
864 72.3 897 61.9 930 60.5 963 45.3
865 72.8 898 61.9 931 60.2 964 49.0
866 73.4 899 61.8 932 59.8 965 51.1
867 74.6 900 61.5 933 59.4 966 52.1
868 76.0 901 60.9 934 58.6 967 52.2
869 76.6 902 59.7 935 57.5 968 52.1
870 76.5 903 54.6 936 56.6 969 51.7
871 76.2 904 49.3 937 56.0 970 50.9
872 75.8 905 44.9 938 55.5 971 49.2
873 75.4 906 42.3 939 55.0 972 45.9
874 74.8 907 41.4 940 54.4 973 40.6
875 73.9 908 41.3 941 54.1 974 35.3
876 72.7 909 42.1 942 54.0 975 30.0
877 71.3 910 44.7 943 53.9 976 24.7
878 70.4 911 48.4 944 53.9 977 19.3
879 70.0 912 51.4 945 54.0 978 16.0
880 70.0 913 52.7 946 54.2 979 13.2
881 69.0 914 54.0 947 55.0 980 10.7
882 68.0 915 57.0 948 55.8 981 8.8

Table A1/10
WLTC, Class 3a Cycle, Phase High
(Second 1,022 is the start of this phase)
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,023
0.0
1,055
40.3
1,087
58.6
1,119
64.7
1,024
0.0
1,056
36.0
1,088
58.7
1,120
63.6
1,025
0.0
1,057
30.7
1,089
58.8
1,121
62.9
1,026
0.0
1,058
25.4
1,090
58.8
1,122
62.4
1,027
0.8
1,059
21.0
1,091
58.8
1,123
61.7
1,028
3.6
1,060
16.7
1,092
59.1
1,124
60.1
1,029
8.6
1,061
13.4
1,093
60.1
1,125
57.3
1,030
14.6
1,062
12.0
1,094
61.7
1,126
55.8
1,031
20.0
1,063
12.1
1,095
63.0
1,127
50.5
1,032
24.4
1,064
12.8
1,096
63.7
1,128
45.2
1,033
28.2
1,065
15.6
1,097
63.9
1,129
40.1
1,034
31.7
1,066
19.9
1,098
63.5
1,130
36.2
1,035
35.0
1,067
23.4
1,099
62.3
1,131
32.9
1,036
37.6
1,068
24.6
1,100
60.3
1,132
29.8
1,037
39.7
1,069
27.0
1,101
58.9
1,133
26.6
1,038
41.5
1,070
29.0
1,102
58.4
1,134
23.0
1,039
43.6
1,071
32.0
1,103
58.8
1,135
19.4
1,040
46.0
1,072
34.8
1,104
60.2
1,136
16.3
1,041
48.4
1,073
37.7
1,105
62.3
1,137
14.6
1,042
50.5
1,074
40.8
1,106
63.9
1,138
14.2
1,043
51.9
1,075
43.2
1,107
64.5
1,139
14.3
1,044
52.6
1,076
46.0
1,108
64.4
1,140
14.6
1,045
52.8
1,077
48.0
1,109
63.5
1,141
15.1
1,046
52.9
1,078
50.7
1,110
62.0
1,142
16.4
1,047
53.1
1,079
52.0
1,111
61.2
1,143
19.1
1,048
53.3
1,080
54.5
1,112
61.3
1,144
22.5
1,049
53.1
1,081
55.9
1,113
61.7
1,145
24.4
1,050
52.3
1,082
57.4
1,114
62.0
1,146
24.8
1,051
50.7
1,083
58.1
1,115
64.6
1,147
22.7
1,052
48.8
1,084
58.4
1,116
66.0
1,148
17.4
1,053
46.5
1,085
58.8
1,117
66.2
1,149
13.8
1,054
43.8
1,086
58.8
1,118
65.8
1,150
12.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,283 87.4 1,316 76.8 1,349 81.4 1,382 28.7
1,284 86.7 1,317 77.1 1,350 80.7 1,383 29.3
1,285 86.0 1,318 77.1 1,351 79.6 1,384 30.5
1,286 85.3 1,319 77.2 1,352 78.2 1,385 31.7
1,287 84.7 1,320 77.2 1,353 76.8 1,386 32.9
1,288 84.1 1,321 77.6 1,354 75.3 1,387 35.0
1,289 83.5 1,322 78.0 1,355 73.8 1,388 38.0
1,290 82.9 1,323 78.4 1,356 72.1 1,389 40.5
1,291 82.3 1,324 78.8 1,357 70.2 1,390 42.7
1,292 81.7 1,325 79.2 1,358 68.2 1,391 45.8
1,293 81.1 1,326 80.3 1,359 66.1 1,392 47.5
1,294 80.5 1,327 80.8 1,360 63.8 1,393 48.9
1,295 79.9 1,328 81.0 1,361 61.6 1,394 49.4
1,296 79.4 1,329 81.0 1,362 60.2 1,395 49.4
1,297 79.1 1,330 81.0 1,363 59.8 1,396 49.2
1,298 78.8 1,331 81.0 1,364 60.4 1,397 48.7
1,299 78.5 1,332 81.0 1,365 61.8 1,398 47.9
1,300 78.2 1,333 80.9 1,366 62.6 1,399 46.9
1,301 77.9 1,334 80.6 1,367 62.7 1,400 45.6
1,302 77.6 1,335 80.3 1,368 61.9 1,401 44.2
1,303 77.3 1,336 80.0 1,369 60.0 1,402 42.7
1,304 77.0 1,337 79.9 1,370 58.4 1,403 40.7
1,305 76.7 1,338 79.8 1,371 57.8 1,404 37.1
1,306 76.0 1,339 79.8 1,372 57.8 1,405 33.9
1,307 76.0 1,340 79.8 1,373 57.8 1,406 30.6
1,308 76.0 1,341 79.9 1,374 57.3 1,407 28.6
1,309 75.9 1,342 80.0 1,375 56.2 1,408 27.3
1,310 76.0 1,343 80.4 1,376 54.3 1,409 27.2
1,311 76.0 1,344 80.8 1,377 50.8 1,410 27.5
1,312 76.1 1,345 81.2 1,378 45.5 1,411 27.4
1,313 76.3 1,346 81.5 1,379 40.2 1,412 27.1
1,314 76.5 1,347 81.6 1,380 34.9 1,413 26.7
1,315 76.6 1,348 81.6 1,381 29.6 1,414 26.8

Table A1/11
WLTC, Class 3b Cycle, Phase High
(Second 1,022 is the start of this phase)
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,023
0.0
1,055
40.3
1,087
58.6
1,119
68.1
1,024
0.0
1,056
36.0
1,088
58.7
1,120
66.9
1,025
0.0
1,057
30.7
1,089
58.8
1,121
66.2
1,026
0.0
1,058
25.4
1,090
58.8
1,122
65.7
1,027
0.8
1,059
21.0
1,091
58.8
1,123
64.9
1,028
3.6
1,060
16.7
1,092
59.1
1,124
63.2
1,029
8.6
1,061
13.4
1,093
60.1
1,125
60.3
1,030
14.6
1,062
12.0
1,094
61.7
1126
55.8
1,031
20.0
1,063
12.1
1,095
63.0
1,127
50.5
1,032
24.4
1,064
12.8
1,096
63.7
1,128
45.2
1,033
28.2
1,065
15.6
1,097
63.9
1,129
40.1
1,034
31.7
1,066
19.9
1,098
63.5
1,130
36.2
1,035
35.0
1,067
23.4
1,099
62.3
1,131
32.9
1,036
37.6
1,068
24.6
1,100
60.3
1,132
29.8
1,037
39.7
1,069
25.2
1,101
58.9
1,133
26.6
1,038
41.5
1,070
26.4
1,102
58.4
1,134
23.0
1,039
43.6
1,071
28.8
1,103
58.8
1,135
19.4
1,040
46.0
1,072
31.8
1,104
60.2
1136
16.3
1,041
48.4
1,073
35.3
1,105
62.3
1,137
14.6
1,042
50.5
1,074
39.5
1,106
63.9
1,138
14.2
1,043
51.9
1,075
44.5
1,107
64.5
1,139
14.3
1,044
52.6
1,076
49.3
1,108
64.4
1,140
14.6
1,045
52.8
1,077
53.3
1,109
63.5
1,141
15.1
1,046
52.9
1,078
56.4
1,110
62.0
1,142
16.4
1,047
53.1
1,079
58.9
1,111
61.2
1,143
19.1
1,048
53.3
1,080
61.2
1,112
61.3
1144
22.5
1,049
53.1
1,081
62.6
1,113
62.6
1,145
24.4
1,050
52.3
1,082
63.0
1,114
65.3
1,146
24.8
1,051
50.7
1,083
62.5
1,115
68.0
1,147
22.7
1,052
48.8
1,084
60.9
1,116
69.4
1,148
17.4
1,053
46.5
1,085
59.3
1,117
69.7
1,149
13.8
1,054
43.8
1,086
58.6
1,118
69.3
1,150
12.0

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,283 87.4 1,316 74.7 1,349 81.4 1,382 27.3
1,284 86.7 1,317 74.1 1,350 80.7 1,383 29.3
1,285 86.0 1,318 73.7 1,351 79.6 1,384 32.9
1,286 85.3 1,319 73.3 1,352 78.2 1,385 35.6
1,287 84.7 1,320 73.5 1,353 76.8 1,386 36.7
1,288 84.1 1,321 74.0 1,354 75.3 1,387 37.6
1,289 83.5 1,322 74.9 1,355 73.8 1,388 39.4
1,290 82.9 1,323 76.1 1,356 72.1 1,389 42.5
1,291 82.3 1,324 77.7 1,357 70.2 1,390 46.5
1,292 81.7 1,325 79.2 1,358 68.2 1,391 50.2
1,293 81.1 1,326 80.3 1,359 66.1 1,392 52.8
1,294 80.5 1,327 80.8 1,360 63.8 1,393 54.3
1,295 79.9 1,328 81.0 1,361 61.6 1,394 54.9
1,296 79.4 1,329 81.0 1,362 60.2 1,395 54.9
1,297 79.1 1,330 81.0 1,363 59.8 1,396 54.7
1,298 78.8 1,331 81.0 1,364 60.4 1,397 54.1
1,299 78.5 1,332 81.0 1,365 61.8 1,398 53.2
1,300 78.2 1,333 80.9 1,366 62.6 1,399 52.1
1,301 77.9 1,334 80.6 1,367 62.7 1,400 50.7
1,302 77.6 1,335 80.3 1,368 61.9 1,401 49.1
1,303 77.3 1,336 80.0 1,369 60.0 1,402 47.4
1,304 77.0 1,337 79.9 1,370 58.4 1,403 45.2
1,305 76.7 1,338 79.8 1,371 57.8 1,404 41.8
1,306 76.0 1,339 79.8 1,372 57.8 1,405 36.5
1,307 76.0 1,340 79.8 1,373 57.8 1,406 31.2
1,308 76.0 1,341 79.9 1,374 57.3 1,407 27.6
1,309 75.9 1,342 80.0 1,375 56.2 1,408 26.9
1,310 75.9 1,343 80.4 1,376 54.3 1,409 27.3
1,311 75.8 1,344 80.8 1,377 50.8 1,410 27.5
1,312 75.7 1,345 81.2 1,378 45.5 1,411 27.4
1,313 75.5 1,346 81.5 1,379 40.2 1,412 27.1
1,314 75.2 1,347 81.6 1,380 34.9 1,413 26.7
1,315 75.0 1,348 81.6 1,381 29.6 1,414 26.8

Time in s
Table A1/12
WLTC, Class 3 Cycle, Phase Extra High (Second 1,477 is the start of this phase)
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,478
0.0
1,510
57.2
1,542
81.8
1,574
122.6
1,479
2.2
1,511
58.5
1,543
84.9
1,575
123.2
1,480
4.4
1,512
60.2
1,544
87.4
1,576
123.6
1,481
6.3
1,513
62.3
1,545
89.0
1,577
123.7
1,482
7.9
1,514
64.7
1,546
90.0
1,578
123.6
1,483
9.2
1,515
67.1
1,547
90.6
1,579
123.3
1,484
10.4
1,516
69.2
1,548
91.0
1,580
123.0
1,485
11.5
1,517
70.7
1,549
91.5
1,581
122.5
1,486
12.9
1,518
71.9
1,550
92.0
1,582
122.1
1,487
14.7
1,519
72.7
1,551
92.7
1,583
121.5
1,488
17.0
1,520
73.4
1,552
93.4
1,584
120.8
1,489
19.8
1,521
73.8
1,553
94.2
1,585
120.0
1,490
23.1
1,522
74.1
1,554
94.9
1,586
119.1
1,491
26.7
1,523
74.0
1,555
95.7
1,587
118.1
1,492
30.5
1,524
73.6
1,556
96.6
1,588
117.1
1,493
34.1
1,525
72.5
1,557
97.7
1,589
116.2
1,494
37.5
1,526
70.8
1,558
98.9
1,590
115.5
1,495
40.6
1,527
68.6
1,559
100.4
1,591
114.9
1,496
43.3
1,528
66.2
1,560
102.0
1,592
114.5
1,497
45.7
1,529
64.0
1,561
103.6
1,593
114.1
1,498
47.7
1,530
62.2
1,562
105.2
1,594
113.9
1,499
49.3
1,531
60.9
1,563
106.8
1,595
113.7
1,500
50.5
1,532
60.2
1,564
108.5
1,596
113.3
1,501
51.3
1,533
60.0
1,565
110.2
1,597
112.9
1,502
52.1
1,534
60.4
1,566
111.9
1,598
112.2
1,503
52.7
1,535
61.4
1,567
113.7
1,599
111.4
1,504
53.4
1,536
63.2
1,568
115.3
1,600
110.5
1,505
54.0
1,537
65.6
1,569
116.8
1,601
109.5
1,506
54.5
1,538
68.4
1,570
118.2
1,602
108.5
1,507
55.0
1,539
71.6
1,571
119.5
1,603
107.7
1,508
55.6
1,540
74.9
1,572
120.7
1,604
107.1
1,509
56.3
1,541
78.4
1,573
121.8
1,605
106.6

Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
Time in s
Speed in
km/h
1,738 104.8 1,754 87.6 1,770 72.3 1,786 26.3
1,739 102.5 1,755 87.1 1,771 69.1 1,787 24.4
1,740 100.4 1,756 86.6 1,772 65.9 1,788 22.5
1,741 98.6 1,757 86.1 1,773 62.7 1,789 20.5
1,742 97.2 1,758 85.5 1,774 59.7 1,790 18.2
1,743 95.9 1,759 85.0 1,775 57.0 1,791 15.5
1,744 94.8 1,760 84.4 1,776 54.6 1,792 12.3
1,745 93.8 1,761 83.8 1,777 52.2 1,793 8.7
1,746 92.8 1,762 83.2 1,778 49.7 1,794 5.2
1,747 91.8 1,763 82.6 1,779 46.8 1,795 0.0
1,748 91.0 1,764 82.0 1,780 43.5 1,796 0.0
1,749 90.2 1,765 81.3 1,781 39.9 1,797 0.0
1,750 89.6 1,766 80.4 1,782 36.4 1,798 0.0
1,751 89.1 1,767 79.1 1,783 33.2 1,799 0.0
1,752 88.6 1,768 77.4 1,784 30.5 1,800 0.0
1,753 88.1 1,769 75.1 1,785 28.3

8. CYCLE MODIFICATION
This Paragraph shall not apply to OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs.
8.1. General Remarks
Driveability problems may occur for vehicles with power to mass ratios close to the
borderlines between Class 1 and Class 2, Class 2 and Class 3 vehicles, or very low
powered vehicles in Class 1.
Since these problems are related mainly to cycle phases with a combination of high vehicle
speed and high accelerations rather than to the maximum speed of the cycle, the
downscaling procedure shall be applied to improve driveability.
8.2. This Paragraph describes the method to modify the cycle profile using the downscaling
procedure. The modified vehicle speed values calculated according to Paragraphs 8.2.1 to
8.2.3. shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to 1 place of decimal in a
final step.
8.2.1. Downscaling Procedure for Class 1 Cycles
Figure A1/14 shows an example of a downscaled medium speed phase of the Class 1
WLTC.
Figure A1/14
Downscaled Medium Speed Phase of the Class 1 WLTC

8.2.2. Downscaling Procedure for Class 2 Cycles
Since the driveability problems are exclusively related to the extra high speed phases of the
Class 2 and Class 3 cycles, the downscaling is related to those time periods of the extra
high speed phases where driveability problems are expected to occur (see Figures A1/15
and A1/16).
Figure A1/15
Downscaled Extra High Speed Phase of the Class 2 WLTC
For the Class 2 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 1,520 and
second 1,742. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 1,520 and second 1,742.

For the Class 3 cycle, the downscaling period is the time period between second 1,533 and
second 1,762. Within this time period, the acceleration for the original cycle shall be
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
i is the time between second 1,533 and second 1,762.
The downscaling shall be applied first in the time period between second 1,533 and
second 1,724. Second 1,724 is the time when the maximum speed of the extra high speed
phase is reached. The downscaled speed trace shall be subsequently calculated using the
following equation:
For i = 1,533 to 1,723.
For i = 1,533, v =v .
In order to meet the original vehicle speed at second 1,763, a correction factor for the
deceleration shall be calculated using the following equation:
82.6km/h is the original vehicle speed at second 1,763.
The downscaled vehicle speed between second 1,725 and second 1,762 shall be
subsequently calculated using the following equation:
For i = 1,725 to 1,762.

The resulting f shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to 3 places of
decimal and shall be applied onlyy if it exceeds
0.010.
The following data shall be recorded:
(a)
f
;
(b)
v
;
(c)
d
(distance driven), m.
The distance shall be
calculated using the following equation:
, for
i = t + 1 to t
t is the
time at which the applicable test cycle starts (see Paragraphh 3. of this Annex), s;
t is the
time at which the applicable test cycle ends (seee Paragraph 3. of this Annex), s.
8.4.
Additional Requirements
For different vehicle configuration
ns in terms of test mass and driving resistance coefficients,
downscaling shall be applied individually.
If, after application of downscaling, the vehicle's maximum speed is lower than the
maximumm speed of the cycle, thee process described in Paragraph P 9. of this Annex shall be
applied with the applicable cycle.
If the vehicle cannot follow the speed trace of the applicable cycle within the tolerance at
speeds lower than its
maximum speed, it shall be driven with the accelerator control fully
activated
during these periods. During such
periods of operation, speed trace violations
shall be permitted.
9.
9.1.
CYCLE MODIFICATIONS FOR VEHICLES WITH A MAXIMUM SPEED LOWER THAN
THE MAXIMUM SPEED OF THEE CYCLE SPECIFIED INN THE PREVIOUS PARAGRAPHS
OF THIS ANNEX
General Remarks
This Paragraph applies, if required by regional legislation, to vehicles that are technically
able to follow the speed trace of the applicable cycle specified in Paragraph 1. of this t Annex
(base cycle) at speeds lower thann its maximum speed, but whose maximum speed
is limited
to a value lower than the maximum speed of the basee cycle for other reasons. For the
purposess of this Paragraph, this applicable cycle specified in Paragraph 1. shall be referred
to as the "base cycle" " and is usedd to determine the capped speed cycle.
In the cases where downscaling
according to
Paragraphh 8.2. of this s Annex is applied, the
downscaled cycle shall be used as the base cycle.
The maximum speed of the base cycle shall be referred too as v ,
.
The maximum speed of the vehicle shall be referred to as its capped speed v .

9.2.2.1. Additional Time Period for the Medium Speed Phase
If v < v , the additional time period to be added to the medium speed phase of the
interim capped speed cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
The number of time samples n with v = v to be added to the medium speed
phase of the interim capped speed cycle equals Δt , rounded according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR to the nearest integer.
9.2.2.2. Additional Time Period for the High Speed Phase
If v < v , the additional time period to be added to the high speed phases of the
interim capped speed cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
The number of time samples n with v = v to be added to the high speed phase of
the interim capped speed cycle equals Δt , rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR to the nearest integer.
9.2.2.3. The additional time period to be added to the extra high speed phase of the interim capped
speed cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
The number of time samples n with v = v to be added to the extra high speed
phase of the interim capped speed cycle equals Δt , rounded according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR to the nearest integer.
9.2.3. Construction of the Final Capped Speed Cycle
9.2.3.1. Class 1 Cycle
The first part of the final capped speed cycle consists of the vehicle speed trace of the
interim capped speed cycle up to the last sample in the medium speed phase where
v = v . The time of this sample is referred to as t .
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n ).
The remaining part of the medium speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,022 + n ).

9.2.3.2.2. v ≤ v < v
The first part of the final capped speed cycle consists of the vehicle speed trace of the
interim capped speed cycle up to the last sample in the high speed phase where v = v .
The time of this sample is referred to as t .
Then, n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n ).
The remaining part of the high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which is
identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,477 + n ).
In a next step, the first part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle
up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where v = v
shall be added. The time
of this sample in the interim capped speed is referred to as t
, so that the time of this
sample in the final capped speed cycle is (t
+ n
).
Then n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n + n ).
The remaining part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which
is identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,800 + n + n ).
The length of the final capped speed cycle is equivalent to the length of the base cycle
except for differences caused by the rounding process according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR for n and n .
9.2.3.2.3. v ≤ v < v
The first part of the final capped speed cycle consists of the vehicle speed trace of the
interim capped speed cycle up to the last sample in the extra high speed phase where
v = v . The time of this sample is referred to as t .
Then, n samples with v = v shall be added, so that the time of the last sample is
(t + n ).
The remaining part of the extra high speed phase of the interim capped speed cycle, which
is identical with the same part of the base cycle, shall then be added, so that the time of the
last sample is (1,800 + n ).
The length of the final capped speed cycle is equivalent to the length of the base cycle
except for differences caused by the rounding process according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR for n .
10. ALLOCATION OF CYCLES TO VEHICLES
10.1. A vehicle of a certain class shall be tested on the cycle of the same class, i.e. Class 1
vehicles on the Class 1 cycle, Class 2 vehicles on the Class 2 cycle, Class 3a vehicles on
the Class 3a cycle, and Class 3b vehicles on the Class 3b cycle. However, at the request of
the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, a vehicle may be tested on
a numerically higher cycle class, e.g. a Class 2 vehicle may be tested on a Class 3 cycle. In
this case the differences between Classes 3a and 3b shall be respected and the cycle may
be downscaled according to Paragraphs 8. to 8.4. inclusive of this Annex.

(e)
(f)
(n/v) , the ratio obtained by dividing the engine speed n by the vehicle speed v for
each gear i, for i = 1 to ng, min /(km/h). (n/v) shall be calculated according to the
equations in Paragraph 8. of Annex 7;
f , f , f , road load coefficients selected for testing, N, N/(km/h), and N/(km/h)
respectively;
(g) n
n = n , the maximum engine speed where 95% of rated power is reached,
min ;
If n cannot be determined because the engine speed is limited to a lower value
n for all gears and the corresponding full load power is higher than 95% of rated
power, n shall be set to n .
n = (n/v)(ng ) × v
n = (n/v)(ng ) × v
Where:
v is the maximum speed of the vehicle speed trace according to
Annex 1, km/h;
v is the maximum speed of the vehicle according to Paragraph 2.(i) of
this Annex, km/h;
(n/v)(ng ) is the ratio obtained by dividing engine speed n by the vehicle speed
v for the gear ng , min /(km/h);
ng is defined in Paragraph 2.(i) of this Annex;
n is the maximum of n , n and n , min .
(h) P (n), the full load power curve over the engine speed range
The power curve shall consist of a sufficient number of data sets (n,P ) so that the
calculation of interim points between consecutive data sets can be performed by
linear interpolation. Deviation of the linear interpolation from the full load power curve
according to Regulation No. 85 shall not exceed 2%. The first data set shall be at
n (see (k)(3) below) or lower. The last data set shall be at n or higher
engine speed. Data sets need not be spaced equally but all data sets shall be
reported.
The data sets and the values P
and n
shall be taken from the power curve as
declared by the manufacturer.
The full load power at engine speeds not covered by UN Regulation No. 85 shall be
determined according to the method described in UN Regulation No. 85;

Figure A2/1a
An Example Where ng is the Highest Gear
Figure A2/1b
An Example Where ng is the 2 Highest Gear

(ii)
For decelerations to standstill:
n = n ,
(iii)
For all other driving conditions:
n = 0.9 × n .
(3) For n > 2, n shall be determined by:
n = n + 0.125 ×(n – n ).
This value shall be referred to as n .
n shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to the nearest
integer.
Values higher than n may be used for n > 2 if requested by the
manufacturer. In this case, the manufacturer may specify one value for
acceleration/constant speed phases (n ) and a different value for deceleration
phases (n ).
Samples which have acceleration values ≥ -0.1389m/s shall belong to the
acceleration/constant speed phases. This phase specification shall only be used for
the determination of the initial gear according to Paragraph 3.5. of this Annex and
shall not be applied to the requirements specified in Paragraph 4. of this Annex.
In addition, for an initial period of time (t ), the manufacturer may specify higher
values (n or n and n ) for the values n or
n and n for n > 2 than specified above.
The initial time period shall be specified by the manufacturer but shall not exceed the
low speed phase of the cycle and shall end in a stop phase so that there is no change
of n within a short trip.
All individually chosen n
values shall be equal to or higher than n
but
shall not exceed (2 × n
).
All individually chosen n values and t shall be recorded.
Only n shall be used as the lower limit for the full load power curve
according to Paragraph 2(h) above.
(l)
TM, test mass of the vehicle, kg.

3.3. Selection of Possible Gears with respect to Engine Speed
The following gears may be selected for driving the speed trace at v :
(a) All gears i < ng where n ≤ n ≤ n ;
(b) All gears i ≥ ng where n ≤ n ≤ n ;
(c) Gear 1, if n < n .
If a < 0 and n ≤ n , n shall be set to n and the clutch shall be disengaged.
If a ≥ 0 and n < max(1.15 × n
; min. engine speed of the P
(n) curve), n shall be set to
the maximum of (1.15 × n
) or the min. engine speed of the P
(n) curve, and the clutch
shall be set to "undefined".
"Undefined" covers any status of the clutch between disengaged and engaged, depending
on the individual engine and transmission design. In such a case, the real engine speed
may deviate from the calculated engine speed.
With regard to the definition of n in Paragraph 2.(k) the requirements (a) to (c)
specified above can be expressed as follows for deceleration phases:
During a deceleration phase, gears with n > 2 shall be used as long as the engine speed
does not drop below n .
Gear 2 shall be used during a deceleration phase within a short trip of the cycle (not at the
end of a short trip) as long as the engine speed does not drop below (0.9 × n ).
If the engine speed drops below n
, the clutch shall be disengaged.
If the deceleration phase is the last part of a short trip shortly before a stop phase, the
second gear shall be used as long as the engine speed does not drop below n . This
requirement shall be applied to the whole deceleration phase ending at standstill.
A deceleration phase is a time period of more than 2s with a vehicle speed ≥ 1km/h and with
strictly monotonic decrease of vehicle speed (see Paragraph 4. of this Annex).
3.4. Calculation of Available Power
For each engine speed value n of the full load power curve as specified in Paragraph 2 (h)
of this Annex the available power, P , shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
P = P (n ) × (1 − (SM + ASM))
P is the power available at n at full load condition from the full load power curve;
SM
ASM
is a safety margin accounting for the difference between the stationary full load
condition power curve and the power available during transition conditions. SM
shall be set to 10%;
is an additional power safety margin which may be applied at the request of the
manufacturer.

4. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CORRECTIONS AND/OR MODIFICATIONS OF
GEAR USE
The initial gear selection shall be checked and modified in order to avoid too frequent
gearshifts and to ensure driveability and practicality.
An acceleration phase is a time period of more than 2s with a vehicle speed ≥ 1km/h and
with strictly monotonic increase of vehicle speed. A deceleration phase is a time period of
more than 2s with a vehicle speed ≥ 1km/h and with strictly monotonic decrease of vehicle
speed. A constant speed phase is a time period of more than 2s with a constant vehicle
speed ≥1km/h.
The end of an acceleration/deceleration phase is determined by the last time sample in
which the vehicle speed is higher/lower than the vehicle speed of the previous time sample.
In this context the end of a deceleration phase could be the beginning of an acceleration
phase. In this case the requirements for acceleration phases overrule the requirements for
deceleration phases.
Corrections and/or modifications shall be made according to the following requirements:
The modification check described in Paragraph 4.(a) of this Annex shall be applied to the
complete cycle trace twice prior to the application of Paragraphs 4.(b) to 4.(f) of this Annex.
(a)
If a one step higher gear (n + 1) is required for only 1s and the gears before and after
are the same (n) or one of them is one step lower (n – 1), gear (n + 1) shall be
corrected to gear n.
Examples:
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1.
If, during acceleration or constant speed phases or transitions from constant speed to
acceleration or acceleration to constant speed phases where these phases only
contain upshifts, a gear is used for only one second, the gear in the following second
shall be corrected to the gear before, so that a gear is used for at least 2s.
Examples:
Gear sequence 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3 shall be replaced by:
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3.
Gear sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6 shall be replaced by:
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6.

with an initial gear use of
3 3 2 2 3 3 3,
the gear in the fifth second (the 2nd second of the acceleration phase) shall be
corrected to a one step lower gear in order to ensure the use of a gear within the
acceleration phase for at least 2s, so that the correction results in the following gear
sequence
3 3 2 2 2 3 3
Gears shall not be skipped during upshifts within acceleration phases.
However, an upshift by two gears is permitted at the transition from an acceleration
phase to a constant speed phase if the duration of the constant speed phase exceeds
5s.
(b)
If a downshift is required during an acceleration phase or at the beginning of the
acceleration phase, the gear required during this downshift shall be noted (i ). The
starting point of a correction procedure is defined by either the last previous second
when i was identified or by the starting point of the acceleration phase if all time
samples before have gears > i . The highest gear of the time samples before the
downshift determines the reference gear i for the downshift. A downshift where i =
i – 1 is referred to as a one step downshift, a downshift where i = i – 2 is referred
to as a two step downshift, a downshift where i = i – 3 is referred to as a three
step downshift. The following check shall then be applied.
(i)
One step downshifts
Working forward from the starting point of the correction procedure to the end
of the acceleration phase, the latest occurrence of a 10s window containing i
for either 2 or more consecutive seconds, or 2 or more individual seconds, shall
be identified. The last usage of i in this window defines the end point of the
correction procedure. Between the start and end of the correction period, all
requirements for gears greater than i shall be corrected to a requirement of
i .
From the end of the correction period (in case of 10s windows containing i for
either 2 or more consecutive seconds, or 2 or more individual seconds) or from
the starting point of the correction procedure (in case that all 10s windows
contain i only for 1s or some 10s windows contain no i at all) to the end of
the acceleration phase all downshifts with a duration of only 1s shall be
removed.
(ii)
Two or three step downshifts
Working forward from the starting point of the correction procedure to the end
of the acceleration phase, the latest occurrence of i shall be identified. From
the starting point of the correction procedure all requirements for gears greater
than or equal to i up to the latest occurrence of i shall be corrected to
(i + 1).

Table A2/2
Time j j + 1 j + 2 j + 3 j + 4 j + 5 j + 6 j + 7 j + 8 j + 9 j + 10 j + 11 j + 12 j + 13 j + 14 j + 15 j + 16 j + 17 j + 18
Initial gear
use
Start
of
accel.
Down
shift,
i = 3
Down
shift,
i = 3
2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4
Start of
correction
check
First 10s window for the correction check
i = 4
Last 10s window for the correction check
Latest 10s window containing i twice
End of
correction
Correction 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Removal
Final gear
use
2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4
End
of
accel.

Table A2/4
Time j j + 1 j + 2 j + 3 j + 4 j + 5 j + 6 j + 7 j + 8 j + 9 j + 10 j + 11 j + 12 j + 13 j + 14 j + 15 j + 16 j + 17 j + 18
Initial gear
use
Correction
Start
of
accel.
Down
shift,
i = 3
Down
shift,
i = 3
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 5
Start of
correction
check
First 10s window for the correction check
i = 4
No 10s window containing i twice
Last 10s window for the correction check
Removal 4 4
Final gear
use
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
End
of
accel.

Table A2/6
Time j j + 1 j + 2 j + 3 j + 4 j + 5 j + 6 j + 7 j + 8 j + 9 j + 10 j + 11 j + 12 j + 13
Initial
gear use
Correctio
n
Removal
Final
gear use
Start
of
accel.
Downshift,
i = 3
Down
-shift,
i =
4
Down
-shift,
i =
5
4 3 3 4 5 5 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6
Start of
correctio
n check
i
End of
correctio
n i
Start of
correctio
n check
i
Start of
correctio
n check
i
i = 4 i = 5 i = 6
Latest 10s window containing i twice or more
Latest 10s window containing i = twice or more
End of
correctio
n i
j +
14
j +
15
Latest 10s window containing i twice or more
End of
correctio
n i
3 4 4 5 5 5 5
3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6
j +
16
j +
17
j + 18
End
of
accel.

(iv)
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1.
(v)
Gear sequence i - 1, i, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i – 1, i - 1;
Gear sequence i-1, i, i, i, i, i, i - 2 shall be replaced by:
i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 2;
Gear sequence i - 2, i, i, i, i, i, i - 1 shall be replaced by:
i - 2, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1, i - 1.
In all cases (i) to (v), i-1 ≥ i shall be fulfilled.
(d)
(e)
No upshift to a higher gear shall be performed within a deceleration phase.
No upshift to a higher gear at the transition from an acceleration or constant speed
phase to a deceleration phase shall be performed if one of the gears in the first 2s
following the end of the deceleration phase is lower than the upshifted gear or is
gear 0.
Example:
If v ≤ v and v < v and gear i = 4 and gear (i + 1 = 5) and gear (i + 2 = 5), then
gear (i + 1) and gear (i + 2) shall be set to 4 if the gear for the phase following the
deceleration phase is gear 4 or lower. For all following cycle trace points with gear 5
within the deceleration phase, the gear shall also be set to 4. If the gear following the
deceleration phase is gear 5, an upshift shall be performed.
If there is an upshift during the transition and the initial deceleration phase by
2 gears, an upshift by 1 gear shall be performed instead. In this case, no further
modifications shall be performed in the following gear use checks.

If gear (i – 2) is more than two steps below i for second 3 of this sequence, a gear
sequence j, 0, i, i, i - 2, k with j > (i + 1) and k ≤ (i – 2) but k > 0 shall be changed to
j, 0, 0, k, k, k.
In all cases specified above in this Sub-paragraph (Paragraph 4.(f) of this Annex), the
clutch disengagement (gear 0) for 1s is used in order to avoid too high engine speeds
for this second. If this is not an issue and, if requested by the manufacturer, it is
allowed to use the lower gear of the following second directly instead of gear 0 for
downshifts of up to 3 steps. The use of this option shall be recorded.
If the deceleration phase is the last part of a short trip shortly before a stop phase and
the last gear > 0 before the stop phase is used only for a period of up to 2s, gear 0
shall be used instead and the gear lever shall be placed in neutral and the clutch shall
be engaged.
Examples: A gear sequence of 4, 0, 2, 2, 0 for the last 5s before a stop phase shall
be replaced by 4, 0, 0, 0, 0. A gear sequence of 4, 3, 3, 0 for the last 4s before a stop
phase shall be replaced by 4, 0, 0, 0.
5. FINAL REQUIREMENTS
(a)
(b)
Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive of this Annex shall be applied sequentially,
scanning the complete cycle trace in each case. Since modifications to
Paragraphs 4.(a) to 4.(f) inclusive of this Annex may create new gear use sequences,
these new gear sequences shall be checked three times and modified if necessary.
After the application of Paragraph 4.(b) of this Annex, a downshift by more than one
gear could occur at the transition from a deceleration or constant speed phase to an
acceleration phase.
In this case, the gear for the last sample of the deceleration or constant speed phase
shall be replaced by gear 0 and the clutch shall be disengaged. If the "suppress gear
0 during downshifts" option according to Paragraph 4.(f) of this Annex is chosen, the
gear of the following second (first second of the acceleration phase) shall be used
instead of gear 0.
(c)
In order to enable the assessment of the correctness of the calculation, the checksum
of v*gear for v ≥ 1km/h, rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to four
places of decimal, shall be calculated and recorded.

ANNEX 3
REFERENCE FUELS
1. As there are regional differences in the market specifications of fuels, regionally different
reference fuels need to be recognised. Example reference fuels are however required in this
UN GTR for the calculation of hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption. Reference
fuels are therefore given as examples for such illustrative purposes.
2. It is recommended that Contracting Parties select their reference fuels from this Annex and
bring any regionally agreed amendments or alternatives into this UN GTR by amendment.
This does not however limit the right of Contracting Parties to define individual reference
fuels to reflect local market fuel specifications.
PART I
REFERENCE FUELS FOR TYPE 1 TEST
3. LIQUID FUELS FOR POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES
3.1. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)

3.2. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 91 RON, E0)
Fuel Property or Substance
Name
Table A3/2
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 91 RON, E0)
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Research octane number, RON 91 94 KS M 2039
Vapour pressure
Distillation:
kPa
Summer 44 60
Winter 44 96
Test Method
KS M ISO 3007
– 10% distillation temperature °C – 70 ASTM D86
– 50% distillation temperature °C – 125 ASTM D86
– 90% distillation temperature °C – 170 ASTM D86
– Final boiling point °C – 225 ASTM D86
Residue % v/v – 2.0 ASTM D86
Water content % v/v – 0.01 KS M 2115
– Olefins % v/v – 16 (19)
– Aromatics % v/v – 24 (21)
– Benzene % v/v – 0.7
Oxygen content wt % – 2.3
Unwashed gum mg/100ml – 5 KS M 2041
KS M 2085, ASTM D6296,
D6293, D6839
KS M 2407, ASTM D3606,
D5580, D6293, D6839,
PIONA
KS M 2407, ASTM D3606,
D5580, D6293, D6839,
PIONA
KS M 2408, ASTM D4815,
D6839
Sulphur content wt ppm – 10 KS M 2027, ASTM D5453
Lead content mg/l – 13 KS M 2402, ASTM D3237
Phosphorus content mg/l – 1.3 KS M 2403, ASTM D3231
Methanol wt % – 0.01 KS M 2408
Oxidation stability min 480 – KS M 2043
Copper corrosion 50°C, 3h – 1 KS M 2018
Colour Yellow – – Sensory test
(a) The standard in brackets may apply for olefins. In this case, the value in brackets for aromatics shall
apply.

3.4. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 94 RON, E0)
Fuel Property or Substance
Name
Table A3/4
Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 94 RON, E0)
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Research octane number, RON 94 – KS M 2039
Vapour pressure
Distillation:
kPa
Summer 44 60
Winter 44 96
Test Method
KS M ISO 3007
– 10% distillation temperature °C – 70 ASTM D86
– 50% distillation temperature °C – 125 ASTM D86
– 90% distillation temperature °C – 170 ASTM D86
– Final boiling point °C – 225 ASTM D86
Residue % v/v 2.0 ASTM D86
Water content % v/v 0.01 KS M 2115
– Olefins % v/v 16 (19)
– Aromatics % v/v 24 (21)
– Benzene % v/v 0.7
Oxygen content wt % 2.3
Unwashed gum mg/100ml 5 KS M 2041
KS M 2085, ASTM D6296,
D6293, D6839
KS M 2407, ASTM D3606,
D5580, D6293, D6839,
PIONA
KS M 2407, ASTM D3606,
D5580 D6293, D6839,
PIONA
KS M 2408, ASTM D4815,
D6839
Sulphur content wt ppm 10 KS M 2027, ASTM D5453
Lead content mg/L 13 KS M 2402, ASTM D3237
Phosphorus content mg/L 1.3 KS M 2403, ASTM D3231
Methanol wt % 0.01 KS M 2408
Oxidation stability min 480 – KS M 2043
Copper corrosion 50°C, 3h 1 KS M 2018
Colour Green – – Sensory Test
(a) The standard in brackets may apply for olefins. In this case, the value in brackets for aromatics shall
apply.

(a) The values quoted in the specifications are 'true values'. In establishing of their limit values the
terms of ISO 4259 "Petroleum products – Determination and application of precision data in relation
to methods of test" have been applied and in fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R
above zero has been taken into account; in fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum
difference is 4R (R = reproducibility). Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical
reasons, the manufacturer of fuels shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated
maximum value is 2R and at the mean value in the case of quotations of maximum and minimum
limits. Should it be necessary to clarify whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications,
the terms of ISO 4259 shall be applied.
(b) The fuel may contain oxidation inhibitors and metal deactivators normally used to stabilise refinery
gasoline streams, but detergent/dispersive additives and solvent oils shall not be added.
(c) Ethanol meeting the specification of EN 15376 is the only oxygenate that shall be intentionally
added to the reference fuel.
(d) The actual sulphur content of the fuel used for the Type 1 test shall be recorded.
(e) There shall be no intentional addition of compounds containing phosphorus, iron, manganese, or
lead to this reference fuel.

(a) The values quoted in the specifications are 'true values'. In establishing of their limit values the
terms of ISO 4259 "Petroleum products – Determination and application of precision data in relation
to methods of test" have been applied and in fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R
above zero has been taken into account; in fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum
difference is 4R (R = reproducibility).
Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical reasons, the manufacturer of fuels
shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated maximum value is 2R and at the mean
value in the case of quotations of maximum and minimum limits. Should it be necessary to clarify
whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications, the terms of ISO 4259 shall be applied.
(b) Equivalent EN/ISO methods will be adopted when issued for properties listed above.
(c) A correction factor of 0.2 for MON and RON shall be subtracted for the calculation of the final result
in accordance with
EN 228:2008.
(d) The fuel may contain oxidation inhibitors and metal deactivators normally used to stabilise refinery
gasoline streams, but detergent/dispersive additives and solvent oils shall not be added.
(e) Ethanol is the only oxygenate that shall be intentionally added to the reference fuel. The Ethanol
used shall conform to
EN 15376.
(f) The actual sulphur content of the fuel used for the Type 1 test shall be recorded.
(g) There shall be no intentional addition of compounds containing phosphorus, iron, manganese, or
lead to this reference fuel.

(a) The values quoted in the specifications are 'true values'. In establishing of their limit values the
terms of ISO 4259 "Petroleum products – Determination and application of precision data in relation
to methods of test" have been applied and in fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R
above zero has been taken into account; in fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum
difference is 4R (R = reproducibility). Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical
reasons, the manufacturer of fuels shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated
maximum value is 2R and at the mean value in the case of quotations of maximum and minimum
limits. Should it be necessary to clarify whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications,
the terms of ISO 4259 shall be applied.
(b) In cases of dispute, the procedures for resolving the dispute and interpretation of the results based
on test method precision, described in EN ISO 4259 shall be used.
(c) In cases of national dispute concerning sulphur content, either EN ISO 20846 or EN ISO 20884
shall be called up (similar to the reference in the national Annex of EN 228).
(d) The actual sulphur content of the fuel used for the Type 1 test shall be recorded.
(e) The unleaded petrol content can be determined as 100 minus the sum of the percentage content of
water and alcohols.
(f)
There shall be no intentional addition of compounds containing phosphorus, iron, manganese, or
lead to this reference fuel.
(g) Ethanol to meet specification of EN 15376 is the only oxygenate that shall be intentionally added to
this reference fuel.

4.2. NG/Biomethane
4.2.1. "G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
Table A3/9
"G20" "High Gas" (Nominal 100% Methane)
Characteristics Units Basis
Composition:
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Methane % mole 100 99 100 ISO 6974
Balance % mole – – 1 ISO 6974
N % mole ISO 6974
Test Method
Sulphur content mg/m – – 10 ISO 6326-5
Wobbe Index (net) MJ/m 48.2 47.2 49.2
Inerts (different from N ) + C2 + C2+.
Value to be determined at 293.15K (20°C) and 101.325kPa.
Value to be determined at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa.
4.2.2. "K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)
Table A3/10
"K-Gas" (Nominal 88% Methane)
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Minimum
Maximum
Methane
% v/v
88.0

Ethane
% v/v

7.0
C + hydrocarbon
% v/v

5.0
C + hydrocarbon
% v/v

0.2
Sulphur content
ppm

40
Inert gas (CO , N , etc.)
vol %

4.5
Test Method
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114
KS M ISO 6326-1, KS M ISO 19739,
ASTM D5504, JIS K 0127
KS M ISO 6974, ASTM D1946,
ASTM D1945-81, JIS K 0114

4.2.5. Hydrogen
Table A3/13
Hydrogen
Characteristics
Units
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test Method
Hydrogen purity % mole 98 100 ISO 14687-1
Total hydrocarbon μmol/mol 0 100 ISO 14687-1
Water μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
Oxygen μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
Argon μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
Nitrogen μmol/mol 0 ISO 14687-1
CO μmol/mol 0 1 ISO 14687-1
Sulphur μmol/mol 0 2 ISO 14687-1
Permanent particulates ISO 14687-1
Not to be condensed.
Combined water, oxygen, nitrogen and argon: 1.900μmol/mol.
The hydrogen shall not contain dust, sand, dirt, gums, oils, or other substances in an amount
sufficient to damage the fuelling station equipment or the vehicle (engine) being fuelled.

5.2. E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Table A3/15
E-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Parameter
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test Method
Cetane number 52.0 54.0 EN-ISO 5165
Density at 15°C kg/m 833 837 EN-ISO 3675
Distillation:
– 50% point °C 245 – EN-ISO 3405
– 95% point °C 345 350 EN-ISO 3405
– Final boiling point °C – 370 EN-ISO 3405
Flash point °C 55 – EN 22719
CFPP °C – -5 EN 116
Viscosity at 40°C mm /s 2.3 3.3 EN-ISO 3104
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons % m/m 2.0 6.0 EN 12916
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10
EN ISO 20846/EN ISO
20884
Copper corrosion – Class 1 EN-ISO 2160
Conradson carbon residue (10% DR) % m/m – 0.2 EN-ISO10370
Ash content % m/m – 0.01 EN-ISO 6245
Water content % m/m – 0.02 EN-ISO12937
Neutralization (strong acid) number mg KOH/g – 0.02 ASTM D 974
Oxidation stability mg/ml – 0.025 EN-ISO12205
Lubricity (HFRR wear scan diameter
at 60°C)
μm – 400 EN ISO 12156
Oxidation stability at 110°C h 20.0 EN 14112
FAME % v/v 4.5 5.5 EN 14078

5.3. K-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Table A3/16
K-Diesel (Nominal 52 Cetane, B5)
Fuel Property or Substance Name
Units
Specification
Minimum
Pour point °C –
Maximum
0.0
(winter:
-17.5°C)
Test Method
ASTM D6749
Flash point °C 40 – KS M ISO 2719
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C mm /s 1.9 5.5 KS M 2014
90% distillation temperature °C – 360 ASTM D86
10% carbon residue wt % – 0.15
KS M 2017, ISO 4262,
IP 14, ASTM D524
Water content vol % – 0.02 KS M 2115
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10 KS M 2027, ASTM D5453
Ash wt % – 0.02 KS M ISO 6245
Cetane number 52 – KS M 2610,
Copper corrosion 100°C, 3h – 1 KS M 2018
Lubricity (60°C, micron) (HFRR) – 400 CFC F-06-A, ASTM D6079
Density (15°C) kg/cm 815 835 KS M 2002, ASTM D4052
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons wt % – 5 KS M 2456
All aromatic series wt % – 30 IP 391, ASTM D5186
Fatty acid methyl esters content vol % – 5 EN 14078

(a) The values quoted in the specifications are 'true values'. In establishing of their limit values the
terms of ISO 4259 Petroleum products – Determination and application of precision data in relation
to methods of test have been applied and in fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R
above zero has been taken into account; in fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum
difference is 4R (R = reproducibility).
Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical reasons, the manufacturer of fuels
shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated maximum value is 2R and at the mean
value in the case of quotations of maximum and minimum limits. Should it be necessary to clarify
whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications, the terms of ISO 4259 shall be applied.
(b) The range for cetane number is not in accordance with the requirements of a minimum range of 4R.
However, in the case of a dispute between fuel supplier and fuel user, the terms of ISO 4259 may
be used to resolve such disputes provided replicate measurements, of sufficient number to archive
the necessary precision, are made in preference to single determinations.
(c) Even though oxidation stability is controlled, it is likely that shelf life will be limited. Advice shall be
sought from the supplier as to storage conditions and life.
(d) FAME content to meet the specification of EN 14214.

Parameter
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test Method (as
applicable)
Lubricity (HFRR wear scan diameter at 60°C) μm – 400 EN ISO 12156
Oxidation stability at 110°C h 20.0 EN 15751
FAME % v/v 6.0 7.0 EN 14078
The values quoted in the specifications are 'true values'. In establishing of their limit values the
terms of ISO 4259 Petroleum products – Determination and application of precision data in relation
to methods of test have been applied and in fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R
above zero has been taken into account; in fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum
difference is 4R (R = reproducibility). Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical
reasons, the manufacturer of fuels shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated
maximum value is 2R and at the mean value in the case of quotations of maximum and minimum
limits. Should it be necessary to clarify whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications,
the terms of ISO 4259 shall be applied.
The range for cetane number is not in accordance with the requirements of a minimum range of 4R.
However, in the case of a dispute between fuel supplier and fuel user, the terms of ISO 4259 may
be used to resolve such disputes provided replicate measurements, of sufficient number to archive
the necessary precision, are made in preference to single determinations.
Even though oxidation stability is controlled, it is likely that shelf life will be limited. Advice shall be
sought from the supplier as to storage conditions and life.
FAME content to meet the specification of EN 14214.
6. FUELS FOR FUEL CELL VEHICLES
6.1. Compressed Hydrogen Gas for Fuel Cell Vehicles
Table A3/19
Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Minimum
Maximum
Hydrogen fuel index
% mole
99.97
Total non-hydrogen gases
μmol/mol
300
Maximum Concentration of Individual Contaminants
Water (H O)
μmol/mol
5
Total hydrocarbons
(Methane basis)
μmol/mol
2
Oxygen (O )
μmol/mol
5
Helium (He)
μmol/mol
300
Total Nitrogen (N ) and Argon (Ar)
μmol/mol
100
Carbon dioxide (CO )
μmol/mol
2
Carbon monoxide (CO)
μmol/mol
0.2
Test Method

PART II
SPECIFICATIONS OF REFERENCE FUEL TO BE USED FOR TESTING VEHICLES
EQUIPPED WITH POSITIVE IGNITION ENGINES AT LOW AMBIENT TEMPERATURE –
TYPE 6 TEST
7.1. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)
Table A3/20
Type: Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 90 RON, E0)
Fuel Property or Substance Name
Research octane number, RON
Unit
Standard
Test Method
Minimum
Maximum
90
92
JIS K2280
Motor octane number, MON 80 82 JIS K2280
Density g/cm 0.720 0.734 JIS K2249
Vapour pressure kPa 70 90 JIS K2258
Distillation:
– 10% distillation temperature K (°C) 309 (36) 326 (53) JIS K2254
– 50% distillation temperature K (°C) 353 (80) 373 (100) JIS K2254
– 90% distillation temperature K (°C) 413 (140) 443 (170) JIS K2254
– Final boiling point K (°C) 488 (215) JIS K2254
– olefins % v/v 15 25
– aromatics % v/v 20 45
– benzene % v/v 1.0
Oxygen content
not to be detected
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
Existent gum mg/100ml 5 JIS K2261
Sulphur content wt ppm 10
JIS K2541-1
JIS K2541-2
JIS K2541-6
JIS K2541-7
Lead content not to be detected JIS K2255

7.2. Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)
Fuel Property or Substance Name
Table A3/21
Type: Gasoline/Petrol (Nominal 100 RON, E0)
Unit
Minimum
Standard
Maximum
Research octane number, RON 99 101 JIS K2280
Motor octane number, MON 86 88 JIS K2280
Density g/cm 0.740 0.754 JIS K2249
Vapour pressure kPa 70 90 JIS K2258
Distillation:
– 10% distillation temperature K (°C) 309 (36) 326 (53) JIS K2254
– 50% distillation temperature K (°C) 353 (80) 373 (100) JIS K2254
– 90% distillation temperature K (°C) 413 (140) 443 (170) JIS K2254
– Final boiling point K (°C) 488 (215) JIS K2254
– olefins % v/v 15 25
– aromatics % v/v 20 45
– benzene % v/v 1.0
Oxygen content
not to be detected
Test Method
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-1
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-3
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-2
JIS K2536-4
JIS K2536-6
Existent gum mg/100ml 5 JIS K2261
Sulphur content wt ppm 10
JIS K2541-1
JIS K2541-2
JIS K2541-6
JIS K2541-7
Lead content not to be detected JIS K2255

7.3. Type: Petrol (E10)
Parameter
Table A3/22
Type: Petrol (E10)
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test Method
Research octane number, RON 95.0 98.0 EN ISO 5164
Motor octane number, MON 85.0 89.0 EN ISO 5163
Density at 15°C kg/m 743.0 756.0 EN ISO 12185
Vapour pressure (DVPE) kPa 70.0 90.0 EN 13016-1
Water content
Distillation:
max 0.05
Appearance at -7°C:
Clear & Bright
EN 12937
evaporated at 70°C % v/v 34.0 46.0 EN ISO 3405
evaporated at 100°C % v/v 54.0 62.0 EN ISO 3405
evaporated at 150°C % v/v 86.0 94.0 EN ISO 3405
final boiling point °C 170 195 EN ISO 3405
Residue % v/v – 2.0 EN ISO 3405
Hydrocarbon analysis:
olefins % v/v 6.0 13.0 EN 22854
aromatics % v/v 25.0 32.0 EN22854
benzene % v/v – 1.00
EN 22854
EN 238
saturates % v/v report EN 22854
Carbon/hydrogen ratio
Carbon/oxygen ratio
report
report
Induction period minutes 480 – EN ISO 7536
Oxygen content % m/m 3.3 3.7 EN 22854
Solvent washed gum
(Existent gum content)
mg/100ml – 4 EN ISO 6246
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10
EN ISO 20846
EN ISO 20884

7.4. Type: Ethanol (E75)
Parameter
Table A3/23
Type: Ethanol (E75)
Unit
Minimum
Limits
Maximum
Test Method
Research octane number, RON 95 – EN ISO 5164
Motor octane number, MON 85 – EN ISO 5163
Density at 15°C kg/m report EN ISO 12185
Vapour pressure kPa 50 60
Sulphur content mg/kg – 10
EN ISO 1 30 16-1
(DVPE)
EN ISO 20846
EN ISO 20884
Oxidation stability minutes 360 – EN ISO 7536
Existent gum content (solvent
washed)
Appearance shall be determined at
ambient temperature or 15°C
whichever is higher
mg/100ml – 4 EN ISO 6246
Clear and bright, visibly
free of suspended or
precipitated
contaminants
Ethanol and higher alcohols % (V/V) 70 80
Higher alcohols (C – C ) % (V/V) – 2
Methanol – 0.5
Visual inspection
EN 1601
EN 13132
EN 1541 7
Petrol % (V/V) Balance EN 228
Phosphorus mg/l 0.3
Water content % (V/V) – 0.3
EN 15487
ASTM D 3231
ASTM E 1064
EN 15 489
Inorganic chloride content mg/l – 1 ISO 6227 – EN 15492
pHe 6.5 9
ASTM D 6423
EN 15490
Copper strip corrosion (3h at 50°C) Rating Class I EN ISO 2160

7.5. Type: LPG (B)
Table A3/24
Type: LPG (B)
Parameter
Unit
Fuel E2
Fuel J
Fuel K
Test Method
Composition:
ISO 7941
C3-content
% vol
85 ± 2
Winter:
min. 15,
KS M ISO 7941
max. 35
Propane and propylene
content
% mole
Min 80
JIS K2240
C4-content
% vol
Balance
Winter:
min.60
KS M ISO 7941
Butane and butylene
content
Max 20
JIS K2240
Butadiene
max. 0.5 KS M ISO 7941
C4
% vol
Max. 2
Olefins
% vol
Max. 15
Evaporation residue
mg/kg
Max. 50
EN 15470
Evaporation residue
(100ml)
ml
0.05
ASTM D2158
Water at 0°C
Free
EN 15469
mg/kg
Max 10
ASTM 6667
Total sulphur content
Max 40
KS M 2150,
ASTM D4486,
ASTM D5504
Hydrogen sulphide
None
ISO 8819
Copper strip corrosion
rating
Class 1
ISO 6251
Copper corrosion
40°C,
1h

1
KS M ISO 6251
Odour
Characteristic
Motor octane number
Min. 89
EN 589 Annex B
Vapour pressure (40°C)
MPa
1.27
KS M ISO 4256
KS M ISO 8973
Density (15°C)
kg/m
620
KS M 2150,
KS M ISO 3993
KS M ISO 8973
This method may not accurately determine the presence of corrosive materials if the sample
contains corrosion inhibitors or other chemicals which diminish the corrosivity of the sample to the
copper strip. Therefore, the addition of such compounds for the sole purpose of biasing the test
method is prohibited.

2.5. Rotational Mass
2.5.1. Determination of m
m is the equivalent effective mass of all the wheels and vehicle components rotating with
the wheels on the road while the gearbox is placed in neutral, in kilograms (kg). m shall be
measured or calculated using an appropriate technique agreed upon by the responsible
authority. Alternatively, m may be estimated to be 3% of the sum of the mass in running
order and 25kg.
2.5.2. Application of Rotational Mass to the Road Load
Coastdown times shall be transferred to forces and vice versa by taking into account the
applicable test mass plus m . This shall apply to measurements on the road as well as on a
chassis dynamometer.
2.5.3. Application of Rotational Mass for the Inertia Setting
If the vehicle is tested on a dynamometer in 4WD operation, the equivalent inertia mass of
the chassis dynamometer shall be set to the applicable test mass.
Otherwise, the equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer shall be set to the test
mass plus either the equivalent effective mass of the wheels not influencing the
measurement results or 50% of m .
2.6. Additional masses for setting the test mass shall be applied such that the weight distribution
of that vehicle is approximately the same as that of the vehicle with its mass in running
order. In the case of Category 2 vehicles or passenger vehicles derived from Category 2
vehicles, the additional masses shall be located in a representative manner and shall be
justified to the responsible authority upon their request. The weight distribution of the vehicle
shall be recorded and shall be used for any subsequent road load determination testing.
3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The manufacturer shall be responsible for the accuracy of the road load coefficients and
shall ensure this for each production vehicle within the road load family. Tolerances within
the road load determination, simulation and calculation methods shall not be used to
underestimate the road load of production vehicles. At the request of the responsible
authority, the accuracy of the road load coefficients of an individual vehicle shall be
demonstrated.
3.1. Overall Measurement Accuracy, Precision, Resolution and Frequency
The required overall measurement accuracy shall be as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Vehicle speed accuracy: ±0.2km/h with a measurement frequency of at least 10Hz;
Time: min. accuracy: ±10ms; min. precision and resolution:10ms;
Wheel torque accuracy: ±6Nm or ±0.5% of the maximum measured total torque,
whichever is greater, for the whole vehicle, with a measurement frequency of at least
10Hz;
Wind speed accuracy: ±0.3m/s, with a measurement frequency of at least 1Hz;
Wind direction accuracy: ±3°, with a measurement frequency of at least 1Hz;

3.2.4. Solid Blockage Ratio
The vehicle blockage ratio ε expressed as the quotient of the vehicle frontal area and the
area of the nozzle outlet as calculated using the following equation, shall not exceed 0.35.
Where:
ε
is the vehicle blockage ratio;
A is the frontal area of the vehicle, m ;
A is the nozzle outlet area, m .
3.2.5. Rotating Wheels
3.2.6. Moving Belt
To properly determine the aerodynamic influence of the wheels, the wheels of the test
vehicle shall rotate at such a speed that the resulting vehicle velocity is within ±3km/h of the
wind velocity.
To simulate the fluid flow at the underbody of the test vehicle, the wind tunnel shall have a
moving belt extending from the front to the rear of the vehicle. The speed of the moving belt
shall be within ±3km/h of the wind velocity.
3.2.7. Fluid Flow Angle
At nine equally distributed points over the nozzle area, the root mean square deviation of
both the pitch angle α and the yaw angle β (Y-, Z-plane) at the nozzle outlet shall not
exceed 1°.
3.2.8. Air Pressure
At nine equally distributed points over the nozzle outlet area, the standard deviation of the
total pressure at the nozzle outlet shall be less than or equal to 0.02.
Where:
σ is the standard deviation of the pressure ratio ;
ΔP is the variation of total pressure between the measurement points, N/m ;
q is the dynamic pressure, N/m .

4. ROAD LOAD MEASUREMENT ON ROAD
4.1. Requirements for Road Test
4.1.1. Atmospheric Conditions for Road Test
Atmospheric conditions (wind conditions, atmospheric temperature and atmospheric
pressure) shall be measured according to Paragraph 3.1. of this Annex. Only those
atmospheric conditions measured during coastdown time measurements and/or torque
measurement shall be used for checking data validity and corrections.
4.1.1.1. Permissible Wind Conditions when using Stationary Anemometry and On-board
Anemometry
4.1.1.1.1. Permissible Wind Conditions when using Stationary Anemometry
The wind speed shall be measured at a location and height above the road level alongside
the test road where the most representative wind conditions will be experienced. In cases
where tests in opposite directions cannot be performed at the same part of the test track
(e.g. on an oval test track with an obligatory driving direction), the wind speed and direction
shall be measured at the opposite parts of the test track.
The wind conditions during run pairs shall meet all of the following criteria:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Wind speed shall be less than 5m/s over a 5s moving average period;
Peak wind speeds shall not exceed 8m/s for more than 2 consecutive seconds;
The arithmetic average vector component of the wind speed across the test road shall
be less than 2m/s.
The wind correction shall be calculated according to Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex.
4.1.1.1.2. Permissible Wind Conditions when using On-board Anemometry
For testing with an on-board anemometer, a device as described in Paragraph 4.3.2. of this
Annex shall be used.
The wind conditions during run pairs shall meet all of the following criteria:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The arithmetic average of the wind speed shall be less than 7m/s;
Peak wind speeds shall not exceed 10m/s for more than 2 consecutive seconds;
The arithmetic average vector component of the wind speed across the road shall be
less than 4m/s.
4.1.1.2. Atmospheric Temperature
The atmospheric temperature should be within the range of 5°C up to and including 40°C.
Contracting parties may deviate from the upper range by ±5°C on a regional level.
At the option of the manufacturer coastdowns may be performed between 1°C and 5°C. If
the difference between the highest and the lowest measured temperature during the
coastdown test is more than 5°C, the temperature correction shall be applied separately for
each run with the arithmetic average of the ambient temperature of that run.

In the case where individual vehicles can be supplied with a complete set of standard
wheels and tyres and in addition a complete set of snow tyres (marked with 3 Peaked
Mountain and Snowflake – 3PMS) with or without wheels, the additional wheels/tyres shall
not be considered as optional equipment.
4.2.1.1.2.1. The following requirements between vehicles H and L shall be fulfilled for the road load
relevant characteristics:
(a)
To allow extrapolating road load coefficients:
(i) If f is below f* or above f as defined in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.4. while
performing the calculation in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.4. of Annex 7, the following
minimum differences between H and L are required:
Rolling resistance of at least 1.0kg/t and a mass of at least 30kg; in case of RR
between 0 and 1.0, the minimum of the mass difference is replaced with 100kg
instead of 30kg;
(ii) If f is below f* or above f as defined in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.4. while
performing the calculation in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.4. of Annex 7, the following
minimum difference between H and L is required:
Aerodynamic drag (C × A) of at least 0.05m². If the manufacturer can
demonstrate that the results after an extrapolation are still rational, the
minimum criteria in points (i) to (iii) above can be waived.
(b)
For each road load characteristic (i.e. mass, aerodynamic drag and tyre rolling
resistance) as well as for the road load coefficients f and f , the value of vehicle H
shall be higher than that of vehicle L, otherwise the worst case shall be applied for
that road load relevant characteristic. At the request of the manufacturer and upon
approval by the responsible authority the requirements of this point can be waived.
4.2.1.1.2.2. To achieve a sufficient difference between vehicle H and vehicle L on a particular road load
relevant characteristic, or in order to fulfil criteria of Paragraph 4.2.1.1.2.1. of this Annex, the
manufacturer may artificially worsen vehicle H, e.g. by applying a higher test mass.
4.2.1.2. Requirements for Families
4.2.1.2.1. Requirements for Applying the Interpolation Family without using the Interpolation Method
For the criteria defining an interpolation family, see Paragraph 5.6. of this UN GTR.
4.2.1.2.2. Requirements for Applying the Interpolation Family using the Interpolation Method are:
(a)
Fulfilling the interpolation family criteria listed in Paragraph 5.6. of this UN GTR;
(b) Fulfilling the requirements in Paragraphs 2.3.1. and 2.3.2. of Annex 6;
(c) Performing the calculations in Paragraph 3.2.3.2. of Annex 7.

4.2.1.3. Allowable Combinations of Test Vehicle Selection and Family Requirements
Requirements
to be fulfilled:
Road load test
vehicle
Table A4/1 shows the permissible combinations of test vehicle selection and family
requirements as described in Paragraphs 4.2.1.1. and 4.2.1.2. of this Annex.
Table A4/1
Permissible Combinations of Test Vehicle Selection and Family Requirements
(1) w/o
interpolation
method
Paragraph 4.2.1.1.1.
of this Annex.
Family Paragraph 4.2.1.2.1.
of this Annex.
(2) Interpolation
method w/o
road load
family
Paragraph 4.2.1.1.2.
of this Annex.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.2.
of this Annex.
(3) Applying the
road load
family
Paragraph 4.2.1.1.2.
of this Annex.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.3.
of this Annex.
(4) Interpolation
method using
one or more
road load
families
n.a.
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.2.
of this Annex.
Additional
None
None
None
Application of
column (3)
"Applying the road
load family" and
application of
Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.
of this Annex.
4.2.1.3.1. Deriving Road Loads of an Interpolation Family from a Road Load Family
Road loads H and/or L shall be determined according to this Annex.
The road load of vehicle H (and L) of an interpolation family within the road load family shall
be calculated according to Paragraphs 3.2.3.2.2. to 3.2.3.2.2.4. inclusive of Annex 7 by:
(a)
Using H and L of the road load family instead of H and L as inputs for the
equations;
(b) Using the road load parameters (i.e. test mass, Δ(C ×A) compared to vehicle L ,
and tyre rolling resistance) of vehicle H (or L) of the interpolation family as inputs for
the individual vehicle;
(c)
Repeating this calculation for each H and L vehicle of every interpolation family within
the road load family.
The road load interpolation shall only be applied on those road load-relevant characteristics
that were identified to be different between test vehicle L and H . For other road
load-relevant characteristic(s), the value of vehicle H shall apply.
H and L of the interpolation family may be derived from different road load families. If that
difference between these road load families comes from applying the delta method, refer to
Paragraph 4.2.1.2.3.4. of this Annex.

4.2.1.8. Test Vehicle Condition
4.2.1.8.1. Run-in
The test vehicle shall be suitably run-in for the purpose of the subsequent test for at least
10,000 but no more than 80,000km.
At the request of the manufacturer, a vehicle with a minimum of 3,000km may be used.
4.2.1.8.2. Manufacturer's Specifications
The vehicle shall conform to the manufacturer's intended production vehicle specifications
regarding tyre pressures described in Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, wheel alignment
described in Paragraph 4.2.1.8.3. of this Annex, ground clearance, vehicle height, drivetrain
and wheel bearing lubricants, and brake adjustment to avoid unrepresentative parasitic
drag.
4.2.1.8.3. Wheel Alignment
Toe and camber shall be set to the maximum deviation from the longitudinal axis of the
vehicle in the range defined by the manufacturer. If a manufacturer prescribes values for toe
and camber for the vehicle, these values shall be used. At the request of the manufacturer,
values with higher deviations from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle than the prescribed
values may be used. The prescribed values shall be the reference for all maintenance
during the lifetime of the vehicle.
Other adjustable wheel alignment parameters (such as caster) shall be set to the values
recommended by the manufacturer. In the absence of recommended values, they shall be
set to the arithmetic average of the range defined by the manufacturer.
Such adjustable parameters and set values shall be recorded.
4.2.1.8.4. Closed Panels
During the road load determination, the engine compartment cover, luggage compartment
cover, manually-operated movable panels and all windows shall be closed.
4.2.1.8.5. Vehicle Coastdown Mode
If the determination of dynamometer settings cannot meet the criteria described in
Paragraphs 8.1.3. or 8.2.3. of this Annex due to non-reproducible forces, the vehicle shall
be equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode. The vehicle coastdown mode shall be
approved and its use shall be recorded by the responsible authority.
If a vehicle is equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode, it shall be engaged both during road
load determination and on the chassis dynamometer.

4.2.2.2. Tyre Condition
Tyres used for the test shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Not be older than 2 years after the production date;
Not be specially conditioned or treated (e.g. heated or artificially aged), with the
exception of grinding in the original shape of the tread;
Be run-in on a road for at least 200km before road load determination;
Have a constant tread depth before the test between 100 and 80% of the original
tread depth at any point over the full tread width of the tyre.
After measurement of tread depth, the driving distance shall be limited to 500km. If 500km
are exceeded, the tread depth shall be measured again.
4.2.2.3. Tyre Pressure
The front and rear tyres shall be inflated to the lower limit of the tyre pressure range for the
respective axle for the selected tyre at the coastdown test mass, as specified by the vehicle
manufacturer.
4.2.2.3.1. Tyre Pressure Adjustment
If the difference between ambient and soak temperature is more than 5°C, the tyre pressure
shall be adjusted as follows:
(a)
(b)
The tyres shall be soaked for more than 1h at 10% above the target pressure;
Prior to testing, the tyre pressure shall be reduced to the inflation pressure as
specified in Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, adjusted for difference between the
soaking environment temperature and the ambient test temperature at a rate of
0.8kPa per 1°C using the following equation:
Δp = 0.8 ×(T − T )
Where:
Δp
is the tyre pressure adjustment added to the tyre pressure defined in
Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex, kPa;
0.8 is the pressure adjustment factor, kPa/°C;
T is the tyre soaking temperature, °C;
T is the test ambient temperature, °C.
(c)
Between the pressure adjustment and the vehicle warm-up, the tyres shall be
shielded from external heat sources including sun radiation.

4.3. Measurement and Calculation of Road Load using the Coastdown Method
The road load shall be determined by using either the stationary anemometry
(Paragraph 4.3.1. of this Annex) or the on-board anemometry (Paragraph 4.3.2. of this
Annex) method.
4.3.1. Coastdown Method using Stationary Anemometry
4.3.1.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Road Load Curve Determination
Reference speeds for road load determination shall be selected according to Paragraph 2.2.
of this Annex.
4.3.1.2. Data Collection
During the test, elapsed time and vehicle speed shall be measured at a minimum frequency
of 10Hz.
4.3.1.3. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
4.3.1.3.1. Following the vehicle warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex and
immediately prior to each coastdown run, the vehicle shall be accelerated to 10 to 15km/h
above the highest reference speed and shall be driven at that speed for a maximum of
1min. After that, the coastdown run shall be started immediately.
4.3.1.3.2. During a coastdown run the transmission shall be in neutral. Any movement of the steering
wheel shall be avoided as much as possible, and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.
4.3.1.3.3. The test shall be repeated until the coastdown data satisfy the statistical precision
requirements as specified in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex.
4.3.1.3.4. Although it is recommended that each coastdown run should be performed without
interruption, if data cannot be collected in a single run for all the reference speed points, the
coastdown test may be performed with coastdown runs where the first and last reference
speeds are not necessarily the highest and lowest reference speeds. In this case, the
following additional requirements shall apply:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
At least one reference speed in each coastdown run shall overlap with the
immediately higher speed range coastdown run. This reference speed shall be
referred to as a split point;
At each overlapped reference speed, the average force of the immediately lower
speed coastdown run shall not deviate from the average force of the immediately
higher speed coastdown run by ±10N or ±5%, whichever is greater;
Overlapped reference speed data of the lower speed coastdown run shall be used
only for checking criterion (b) and shall be excluded from evaluation of the statistical
precision as defined in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex;
The overlapped speed may be less than 10km/h but shall not be less than 5km/h. In
this case, overlap criterion (b) shall be checked by either extrapolating the polynomial
curves for the lower and higher speed segment to a 10km/h overlap, or by comparing
the average force in the specific speed range.

Table A4/4
Coefficient h as a Function of n
n h n h
3 4.3 17 2.1
4 3.2 18 2.1
5 2.8 19 2.1
6 2.6 20 2.1
7 2.5 21 2.1
8 2.4 22 2.1
9 2.3 23 2.1
10 2.3 24 2.1
11 2.2 25 2.1
12 2.2 26 2.1
13 2.2 27 2.1
14 2.2 28 2.1
15 2.2 29 2.0
16 2.1 30 2.0
4.3.1.4.3. If during a measurement in one direction any external factor or driver action occurs that
obviously influences the road load test, that measurement and the corresponding
measurement in the opposite direction shall be rejected. All the rejected data and the
reason for rejection shall be recorded, and the number of rejected pairs of measurement
shall not exceed 1/3 of the total number of measurement pairs. In the case of split runs, the
rejection criteria shall be applied at each split run speed range.
Due to uncertainty of data validity and for practical reasons, more than the minimum number
of run pairs required in Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex may be performed, but the total
number of run pairs shall not exceed 30 runs including the rejected pairs as described in this
Paragraph. In this case, data evaluation shall be carried out as described in
Paragraph 4.3.1.4.2. of this Annex starting from the first run pair, then including as many
consecutive run pairs as needed to reach the statistical precision on a data set containing
no more than 1/3 of rejected pairs. The remaining run pairs shall be disregarded.

4.3.2. Coastdown Method using On-board Anemometry
The vehicle shall be warmed up and stabilised according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex.
4.3.2.1. Additional Instrumentation for On-board Anemometry
The on-board anemometer and instrumentation shall be calibrated by means of operation
on the test vehicle where such calibration occurs during the warm-up for the test.
4.3.2.1.1. Relative wind speed shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and to an accuracy
of 0.3m/s. Vehicle blockage shall be accounted for in the calibration of the anemometer.
4.3.2.1.2. Wind direction shall be relative to the direction of the vehicle. The relative wind direction
(yaw) shall be measured with a resolution of 1° and an accuracy of 3°; the dead band of the
instrument shall not exceed 10° and shall be directed towards the rear of the vehicle.
4.3.2.1.3. Before the coastdown, the anemometer shall be calibrated for speed and yaw offset as
specified in ISO 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A.
4.3.2.1.4. Anemometer blockage shall be corrected for in the calibration procedure as described in
ISO 10521-1:2006(E) Annex A in order to minimise its effect.
4.3.2.2. Selection of Vehicle Speed Range for Road Load Curve Determination
The test vehicle speed range shall be selected according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
4.3.2.3. Data Collection
During the procedure, elapsed time, vehicle speed, and air velocity (speed, direction)
relative to the vehicle, shall be measured at a minimum frequency of 5Hz. Ambient
temperature shall be synchronised and sampled at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz.
4.3.2.4. Vehicle Coastdown Procedure
The measurements shall be carried out in run pairs in opposite directions until a minimum of
ten consecutive runs (five pairs) have been obtained. Should an individual run fail to satisfy
the required on-board anemometry test conditions, that pair, i.e. that run and the
corresponding run in the opposite direction, shall be rejected. All valid pairs shall be
included in the final analysis with a minimum of 5 pairs of coastdown runs. See
Paragraph 4.3.2.6.10. of this Annex for statistical validation criteria.
The anemometer shall be installed in a position such that the effect on the operating
characteristics of the vehicle is minimised.
The anemometer shall be installed according to one of the options below:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Using a boom approximately 2m in front of the vehicle's forward aerodynamic
stagnation point;
On the roof of the vehicle at its centreline. If possible, the anemometer shall be
mounted within 30cm from the top of the windshield;
On the engine compartment cover of the vehicle at its centreline, mounted at the
midpoint position between the vehicle front and the base of the windshield.

Table A4/5
Symbols used in the On-board Anemometer Equations of Motion
Symbol Units Description
A m frontal area of the vehicle
a … a degrees aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of yaw angle
A N mechanical drag coefficient
B N/(km/h) mechanical drag coefficient
C N/(km/h) mechanical drag coefficient
C (Y)
D N drag
D N aerodynamic drag
aerodynamic drag coefficient at yaw angle Y
D N front axle drag (including driveline)
D N gravitational drag
D N mechanical drag
D N rear axle drag (including driveline)
D N tyre rolling resistance
(dh/ds) –
(dv/dt) m/s acceleration
g m/s gravitational constant
m
kg
sine of the slope of the track in the direction of travel (+ indicates
ascending)
arithmetic average mass of the test vehicle before and after road load
determination
m kg effective vehicle mass including rotating components
ρ kg/m air density
t s time
T K temperature
v km/h vehicle speed
v km/h relative wind speed
Y degrees yaw angle of apparent wind relative to direction of vehicle travel

4.3.2.5.4. Final Equation of Motion
Through substitution, the final form of the equation of motion becomes:
4.3.2.6. Data Reduction
A three-term equation shall be generated to describe the road load force as a function of
velocity, F = A + Bv + Cv , corrected to standard ambient temperature and pressure
conditions, and in still air. The method for this analysis process is described in
Paragraphs 4.3.2.6.1. to 4.3.2.6.10. inclusive of this Annex.
4.3.2.6.1. Determining Calibration Coefficients
If not previously determined, calibration factors to correct for vehicle blockage shall be
determined for relative wind speed and yaw angle. Vehicle speed v, relative wind velocity v
and yaw Y measurements during the warm-up phase of the test procedure shall be
recorded. Paired runs in alternate directions on the test track at a constant velocity of
80km/h shall be performed, and the arithmetic average values of v, v and Y for each run
shall be determined. Calibration factors that minimize the total errors in head and cross
winds over all the run pairs, i.e. the sum of (head – head ) , etc., shall be selected where
head and head refer to wind speed and wind direction from the paired test runs in
opposing directions during the vehicle warm-up/stabilization prior to testing.
4.3.2.6.2. Deriving Second by Second Observations
From the data collected during the coastdown runs, values for v, , v , and Y shall
be determined by applying calibration factors obtained in Paragraphs 4.3.2.1.3. and
4.3.2.1.4. of this Annex. Data filtering shall be used to adjust samples to a frequency of 1Hz.
4.3.2.6.3. Preliminary Analysis
Using a linear least squares regression technique, all data points shall be analysed at once
to determine A , B , C , a , a , a , a and a given m , ,v,v , and ρ.
4.3.2.6.4. Data Outliers
A predicted force m shall be calculated and compared to the observed data points.
Data points with excessive deviations, e.g., over three standard deviations, shall be flagged.
4.3.2.6.5. Data Filtering (optional)
Appropriate data filtering techniques may be applied and the remaining data points shall be
smoothed out.

4.4. Measurement and Calculation of Running Resistance using the Torque Meter Method
As an alternative to the coastdown methods, the torque meter method may also be used in
which the running resistance is determined by measuring wheel torque on the driven wheels
at the reference speed points for time periods of at least 5s.
4.4.1. Installation of Torque Meters
Wheel torque meters shall be installed between the wheel hub and the wheel of each driven
wheel, measuring the required torque to keep the vehicle at a constant speed.
The torque meter shall be calibrated on a regular basis, at least once a year, traceable to
national or international standards, in order to meet the required accuracy and precision.
4.4.2. Procedure and Data Sampling
4.4.2.1. Selection of Reference Speeds for Running Resistance Curve Determination
Reference speed points for running resistance determination shall be selected according to
Paragraph 2.2. of this Annex.
The reference speeds shall be measured in descending order. At the request of the
manufacturer, there may be stabilization periods between measurements but the
stabilization speed shall not exceed the speed of the next reference speed.
4.4.2.2. Data Collection
Data sets consisting of actual speed v actual torque C and time over a period of at least 5s
shall be measured for every v at a sampling frequency of at least 10Hz. The data sets
collected over one time period for a reference speed v shall be referred to as one
measurement.
4.4.2.3. Vehicle Torque Meter Measurement Procedure
Prior to the torque meter method test measurement, a vehicle warm-up shall be performed
according to Paragraph 4.2.4. of this Annex.
During test measurement, steering wheel movement shall be avoided as much as possible,
and the vehicle brakes shall not be operated.
The test shall be repeated until the running resistance data satisfy the measurement
precision requirements as specified in Paragraph 4.4.3.2. of this Annex.
4.4.2.4. Velocity Deviation
During a measurement at a single reference speed point, the velocity deviation from the
arithmetic average velocity (v - v ) calculated according to Paragraph 4.4.3. of this Annex,
shall be within the values in Table A4/6.
Additionally, the arithmetic average velocity v at every reference speed point shall not
deviate from the reference speed v by more than ±1km/h or 2% of the reference speed v ,
whichever is greater.

m
r
is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to Paragraph 2.5.1.
of this Annex, kg;
is the dynamic
radius of the tyre determined at a reference point of 80km/ h or at the
highest reference speed point of the vehicle if this t speed is lower than 80km/h,
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
n
α
is the rotational frequency of the driven tyre, s ;
is the arithmetic average acceleration, m/s , calculated using thee following equation:
Where:
t
is the time at which the i data set was sampled, s.
4.4.3.2.
Measurement Precision
The measurements shall be carried out in opposite directions until a minimum of three t pairs
of measurements at each reference speed v have been obtained, o forr which C̅ satisfies the
precision
P according
to the following equation:
Where:
n

is the number pairs of measurements for C ;
is the running resistance r att the speed v , Nm, given by the equation:
Where:
C is the arithmetic average torque of the i pair of measurementss at speed v , Nm, and
given by:
Where:
C
and C
are the t arithmetic average torques of the i measurement att speed v
determined in Paragraph 4.4.3.1. of this Annex for each direction, a and b
respectively, Nm; ;

4.5.3. Wind Correction
4.5.3.1. Wind Correction with Stationary Anemometry
Wind correction may be waived when the arithmetic average wind speed for each valid run
pair is 2m/s or less. In the case that wind speed is measured at more than one part of the
test track, such as when the test is performed on an oval test track (see
Paragraph 4.1.1.1.1. of this Annex), the wind speed shall be averaged at each
measurement location and the higher of two average wind speeds shall be used to
determine whether a wind speed correction is to be applied or may be waived.
4.5.3.1.1. The wind correction resistance w for the coastdown method or w for the torque meter
method shall be calculated using the following equations:
Where:
w = 3.6 × f × v
or: w = 3.6 × c × v
w is the wind correction resistance for the coastdown method, N;
f is the coefficient of the aerodynamic term determined according to
Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex;
v
v
w
c
in the case that wind speed is measured at only one point, v is the arithmetic
average vector component of the wind speed parallel to the test road during all valid
run pairs m/s;
in the case that the wind speed is measured at two points, v is the lower of the two
arithmetic average vector components of the wind speed parallel to the test road
during all valid run pairs, m/s;
is the wind correction resistance for the torque meter method, Nm;
is the coefficient of the aerodynamic term for the torque meter method determined
according to Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex.
4.5.3.2. Wind Correction when using On-board Anemometry
In the case that the coastdown method is based on on-board anemometry, w and w in the
equations in Paragraph 4.5.3.1.1. of this Annex shall be set to zero, as the wind correction is
already applied according to Paragraph 4.3.2. of this Annex.
4.5.4. Test Mass Correction Factor
The correction factor K for the test mass of the test vehicle shall be determined using the
following equation:
Where:
TM
m
is the test mass of the test vehicle, kg;
is the arithmetic average of the test vehicle masses at the beginning and end of road
load determination, kg.

4.5.5.2. The curve determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex shall be corrected to reference
conditions and measurement equipment installed according to the following procedure.
4.5.5.2.1. Correction to Reference Conditions
Where:
C = ((c (1 − K ) − w ) + c v) × (1 + K (T − 20)) + K f v
C
c
c
c
K
K
K
v
T
w
is the corrected running resistance, Nm;
is the constant term as determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex, Nm;
is the coefficient of the first order term as determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this
Annex, Nm/(km/h);
is the coefficient of the second order term as determined in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this
Annex, Nm/(km/h) ;
is the correction factor for rolling resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.2. of this
Annex;
is the test mass correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.4. of this Annex;
is the correction factor for air resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.1. of this Annex;
is the vehicle velocity, km/h;
is the arithmetic average atmospheric temperature during all valid run pairs, °C;
is the wind correction resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex.
4.5.5.2.2. Correction for Installed Torque Meters
If the running resistance is determined according to the torque meter method, the running
resistance shall be corrected for effects of the torque measurement equipment installed
outside the vehicle on its aerodynamic characteristics.
The running resistance coefficient c shall be corrected using the following equation:
Where:
c = K × c × (1 + (Δ(C × A ))/(C × A ))
Δ(C × A ) = (C × A ) - (C × A ) ;
C × A is the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by the frontal area of
the vehicle with the torque meter measurement equipment installed measured in a
wind tunnel fulfilling the criteria of Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex, m ;
C × A
is the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied by the frontal area of
the vehicle with the torque meter measurement equipment not installed measured
in a wind tunnel fulfilling the criteria of Paragraph 3.2. of this Annex, m .

f
f
f
is the constant road load coefficient of the representative vehicle of the road load
matrix family, N;
is the first order road load coefficient, N/(km/h), and shall be set to zero;
is the second order road load coefficient, N/(km/h) , defined by the equation:
f = Max((0.05 × f + 0.95 × f × A / A ); (0.2 × f + 0.8 × f × A / A ))
f
v
TM
TM
is the second order road load coefficient of the representative vehicle of the road load
matrix family, N/(km/h) ;
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
is the actual test mass of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
is the test mass of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, kg;
A is the frontal area of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ,
A is the frontal area of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix family, m ;
RR
RR
is the tyre rolling resistance of the individual vehicle of the road load matrix family,
kg/tonne;
is the tyre rolling resistance of the representative vehicle of the road load matrix
family, kg/tonne.
For the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle, the value of the rolling resistance RR shall be set
to the class value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class according to Table A4/2 of
Annex 4.
If the tyres on the front and rear axles belong to different energy efficiency classes, the
weighted mean shall be used, calculated using the equation in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.2. of
Annex 7.
If the same tyres were fitted to test vehicles L and H, the value of RR when using the
interpolation method shall be set to RR .
5.1.2. For the calculation of the running resistance of vehicles of a road load matrix family, the
vehicle parameters described in Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of this Annex and the running resistance
coefficients of the representative test vehicle determined in Paragraph 4.4. of this Annex
shall be used.
5.1.2.1. The running resistance for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
C = c + c × v + c × v
C
is the calculated running resistance as a function of vehicle velocity, Nm;

f
is the constant road load coefficient, N, defined by the following equation:
f = 0.140 × TM;
f
f
is the first order road load coefficient, N/(km/h), and shall be set to zero;
is the second order road load coefficient, N/(km/h) , defined by the following
equation:
f = (2.8 × 10 × TM) + (0.0170 × width × height);
v
TM
is vehicle velocity, km/h;
test mass, kg;
width vehicle width as defined in 6.2. of Standard ISO 612:1978, m;
height vehicle height as defined in 6.3. of Standard ISO 612:1978, m.
6. WIND TUNNEL METHOD
The wind tunnel method is a road load measurement method using a combination of a wind
tunnel and a chassis dynamometer or of a wind tunnel and a flat belt dynamometer. The test
benches may be separate facilities or integrated with one another.
6.1. Measurement Method
6.1.1. The road load shall be determined by:
(a)
(b)
Adding the road load forces measured in a wind tunnel and those measured using a
flat belt dynamometer; or
Adding the road load forces measured in a wind tunnel and those measured on a
chassis dynamometer.
6.1.2. Aerodynamic drag shall be measured in the wind tunnel.
6.1.3. Rolling resistance and drivetrain losses shall be measured using a flat belt or a chassis
dynamometer, measuring the front and rear axles simultaneously.
6.2. Approval of the Facilities by the Responsible Authority
The results of the wind tunnel method shall be compared to those obtained using the
coastdown method to demonstrate qualification of the facilities and recorded.
6.2.1. Three vehicles shall be selected by the responsible authority. The vehicles shall cover the
range of vehicles (e.g. size, weight) planned to be measured with the facilities concerned.
6.2.2. Two separate coastdown tests shall be performed with each of the three vehicles according
to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, and the resulting road load coefficients, f , f and f , shall be
determined according to that Paragraph and corrected according to Paragraph 4.5.5. of this
Annex. The coastdown test result of a test vehicle shall be the arithmetic average of the
road load coefficients of its two separate coastdown tests. If more than two coastdown tests
are necessary to fulfil the approval of facilities' criteria, all valid tests shall be averaged.

6.3. Vehicle Preparation and Temperature
Conditioning and preparation of the vehicle shall be performed according to
Paragraphs 4.2.1. and 4.2.2. of this Annex and applies to both the flat belt or roller chassis
dynamometers and the wind tunnel measurements.
In the case that the alternative warm-up procedure described in Paragraph 6.5.2.1. of this
Annex is applied, the target test mass adjustment, the weighing of the vehicle and the
measurement shall all be performed without the driver in the vehicle.
The flat belt or the chassis dynamometer test cells shall have a temperature set point of
20°C with a tolerance of ±3°C. At the request of the manufacturer, the set point may also be
23°C with a tolerance of ±3°C.
6.4. Wind Tunnel Procedure
6.4.1. Wind Tunnel Criteria
The wind tunnel design, test methods and the corrections shall provide a value of (C × A)
representative of the on-road (C × A ) value and with a repeatability of ±0.015m .
For all (C × A) measurements, the wind tunnel criteria listed in Paragraph 3.2. of this
Annex shall be met with the following modifications:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The solid blockage ratio described in Paragraph 3.2.4. of this Annex shall be less
than 25%;
The belt surface contacting any tyre shall exceed the length of that tyre's contact area
by at least 20% and shall be at least as wide as that contact patch;
The standard deviation of total air pressure at the nozzle outlet described in
Paragraph 3.2.8. of this Annex shall be less than 1%;
The restraint system blockage ratio described in Paragraph 3.2.10. of this Annex shall
be less than 3%;
Additionally to the requirement defined in Paragraph 3.2.11. of this Annex, when
measuring Class 1 vehicles, the precision of the measured force shall not exceed
±2.0N.
6.4.2. Wind Tunnel Measurement
The vehicle shall be in the condition described in Paragraph 6.3. of this Annex.
The vehicle shall be placed parallel to the longitudinal centre line of the tunnel with a
maximum tolerance of ±10mm.
The vehicle shall be placed with a yaw angle of 0° within a tolerance of ±0.1°.
Aerodynamic drag shall be measured for at least for 60s and at a minimum frequency of
5Hz. Alternatively, the drag may be measured at a minimum frequency of 1Hz and with at
least 300 subsequent samples. The result shall be the arithmetic average of the drag.

6.5.1.2.3. Vertical Force
The restraint system shall be designed so as to impose no vertical force on the drive
wheels.
6.5.1.3. Accuracy of Measured Forces
Only the reaction force for turning the wheels shall be measured. No external forces shall be
included in the result (e.g. force of the cooling fan air, vehicle restraints, aerodynamic
reaction forces of the flat belt, dynamometer losses, etc.).
The force in the x-direction shall be measured with an accuracy of ±5N.
6.5.1.4. Flat Belt Speed Control
The belt speed shall be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.1km/h.
6.5.1.5. Flat Belt Surface
6.5.1.6. Cooling
The flat belt surface shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that might cause tyre
slippage.
A current of air of variable speed shall be blown towards the vehicle. The set point of the
linear velocity of the air at the blower outlet shall be equal to the corresponding
dynamometer speed above measurement speeds of 5km/h. The linear velocity of the air at
the blower outlet shall be within ±5km/h or ±10% of the corresponding measurement speed,
whichever is greater.
6.5.2. Flat Belt Measurement
The measurement procedure may be performed according to either Paragraph 6.5.2.2. or
Paragraph 6.5.2.3. of this Annex.
6.5.2.1. Preconditioning
The vehicle shall be conditioned on the dynamometer as described in Paragraphs 4.2.4.1.1.
to 4.2.4.1.3. inclusive of this Annex.
The dynamometer load setting F for the preconditioning shall be:
F = a + (b × v) + (c × v )
Where in the case of applying Paragraph 6.7.2.1.:
a = 0
b = f ;
c = f
or, where in the case of applying Paragraph 6.7.2.2.:
a = 0
b = 0

6.5.2.3.3. The force f at each reference speed v shall be calculated by removing the simulated
dynamometer set force:
Where:
f = f – f
f is the force determined according to the equation calculating F in
Paragraph 4.3.1.4.4. of this Annex at reference speed point j, N;
f
is the force determined to the equation calculating F in Paragraph 6.5.2.1. of this
Annex at reference speed point j, N.
Alternatively, at the request of the manufacturer, c may be set to zero during the coastdown
and for calculating f .
6.5.2.4. Measurement Conditions
The vehicle shall be in the condition described in Paragraph 4.3.1.3.2. of this Annex.
6.5.3. Measurement Result of the Flat Belt Method
The result of the flat belt dynamometer f shall be referred to as f for the further
calculations in Paragraph 6.7. of this Annex.
6.6. Chassis Dynamometer applied for the Wind Tunnel Method
6.6.1. Criteria
In addition to the descriptions in Paragraphs 1. and 2. of Annex 5, the criteria described in
Paragraphs 6.6.1.1. to 6.6.1.6. shall apply.
6.6.1.1. Description of a Chassis Dynamometer
The front and rear axles shall be equipped with a single roller with a diameter of not less
than 1.2m.
6.6.1.2. Vehicle Restraint System
The dynamometer shall be equipped with a centring device aligning the vehicle. The
restraint system shall maintain the centred drive wheel position within the following
recommended limits throughout the coastdown runs of the road load determination:
6.6.1.2.1. Vehicle Position
The vehicle to be tested shall be installed on the chassis dynamometer roller as defined in
Paragraph 7.3.3. of this Annex.
6.6.1.2.2. Vertical Force
The restraint system shall fulfil the requirements of Paragraph 6.5.1.2.3. of this Annex.

As an alternative the following conservative equation may be used:
C2 shall be 0.2 except that 2.0 shall be used if the road load delta method (see
Paragraph 6.8. of this Annex) is used and the road load delta calculated according to
Paragraph 6.8.1. of this Annex is negative.
6.7. Calculations
6.7.1. Correction of the Flat Belt and Chassis Dynamometer Results
The measured forces determined in Paragraphs 6.5. and 6.6. of this Annex shall be
corrected to reference conditions using the following equation:
Where:
F = (f (1 − K )) × (1 + K (T − 293))
F
is the corrected resistance measured at the flat belt or chassis dynamometer at
reference speed j, N;
f is the measured force at reference speed j, N;
K
is the correction factor for rolling resistance as defined in Paragraph 4.5.2. of this
Annex, K ;
K is the test mass correction as defined in Paragraph 4.5.4. of this Annex, N;
T is the arithmetic average temperature in the test cell during the measurement, K.
6.7.2. Calculation of the Aerodynamic Force
The calculation in Paragraph 6.7.2.1. shall be applied considering the results of both wind
speeds. However, if the difference of the product of the drag coefficient and frontal area
(C × A ) measured at the wind speeds v and v is less than 0.015m , the calculation in
Paragraph 6.7.2.2. may be applied at the request of the manufacturer.
6.7.2.1.
The aerodynamic force of each wind speed F
, F
, and F
shall be calculated using
the equation below.
Where:
(C ×A ) is the product of the drag coefficient and frontal area measured in the wind tunnel
at a certain reference speed point j, if applicable, m ;
ρ is the dry air density defined in Paragraph 3.2.10. of this UN GTR, kg/m ;

For all calculated F , the coefficients f , f and f in the road load equation shall be
calculated with a least squares regression analysis and shall be used as the target
coefficients in Paragraph 8.1.1. of this Annex.
In the case that the vehicle tested according to the wind tunnel method is representative of a
road load matrix family vehicle, the coefficient f shall be set to zero and the coefficients f
and f shall be recalculated with a least squares regression analysis.
6.8. Road Load Delta Method
For the purpose of including options when using the interpolation method which are not
incorporated in the road load interpolation (i.e. aerodynamics, rolling resistance and mass),
a delta in vehicle friction may be measured by the road load delta method (e.g. friction
difference between brake systems). The following steps shall be performed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The friction of reference vehicle R shall be measured;
The friction of the vehicle with the option (vehicle N) causing the difference in friction
shall be measured;
The difference shall be calculated according to Paragraph 6.8.1. of this Annex.
These measurements shall be performed on a flat belt according to Paragraph 6.5. of this
Annex or on a chassis dynamometer according to Paragraph 6.6. of this Annex, and the
correction of the results (excluding aerodynamic force) calculated according to
Paragraph 6.7.1. of this Annex.
The application of this method is permitted only if the following criterion is fulfilled:
Where:
F is the corrected resistance of vehicle R measured on the flat belt or chassis
dynamometer at reference speed j calculated according to Paragraph 6.7.1. of this
Annex, N;
F is the corrected resistance of vehicle N measured on the flat belt or chassis
dynamometer at reference speed j calculated according to Paragraph 6.7.1. of this
Annex, N;
n
is the total number of speed points.
This alternative road load determination method may only be applied if vehicles R and N
have identical aerodynamic resistance and if the measured delta appropriately covers the
entire influence on the vehicle's energy consumption. This method shall not be applied if the
overall accuracy of the absolute road load of vehicle N is compromised in any way.

7.1.1. Laboratory Conditions
7.1.1.1. Roller(s)
The chassis dynamometer roller(s) shall be clean, dry and free from foreign material that
might cause tyre slippage. The dynamometer shall be run in the same coupled or uncoupled
state as the subsequent Type 1 test. Chassis dynamometer speed shall be measured from
the roller coupled to the power absorption unit.
7.1.1.1.1. Tyre Slippage
Additional weight may be placed on or in the vehicle to eliminate tyre slippage. The
manufacturer shall perform the load setting on the chassis dynamometer with the additional
weight. The additional weight shall be present for both load setting and the emissions and
fuel consumption tests. The use of any additional weight shall be recorded.
7.1.1.2. Room Temperature
The laboratory atmospheric temperature shall be at a set point of 23°C and shall not deviate
by more than ±5°C during the test unless otherwise required by any subsequent test.
7.2. Preparation of Chassis Dynamometer
7.2.1. Inertia Mass Setting
The equivalent inertia mass of the chassis dynamometer shall be set according to
Paragraph 2.5.3. of this Annex. If the chassis dynamometer is not capable to meet the
inertia setting exactly, the next higher inertia setting shall be applied with a maximum
increase of 10kg.
7.2.2. Chassis Dynamometer Warm-up
The chassis dynamometer shall be warmed up in accordance with the dynamometer
manufacturer's recommendations, or as appropriate, so that the frictional losses of the
dynamometer may be stabilized.
7.3. Vehicle Preparation
7.3.1. Tyre Pressure Adjustment
The tyre pressure at the soak temperature of a Type 1 test shall be set to no more than 50%
above the lower limit of the tyre pressure range for the selected tyre, as specified by the
vehicle manufacturer (see Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of this Annex), and shall be recorded.
7.3.2. If the determination of dynamometer settings cannot meet the criteria described in
Paragraph 8.1.3. of this Annex due to non-reproducible forces, the vehicle shall be equipped
with a vehicle coastdown mode. The vehicle coastdown mode shall be approved by the
responsible authority and its use shall be recorded.
If a vehicle is equipped with a vehicle coastdown mode, it shall be engaged both during road
load determination and on the chassis dynamometer.

Table A4/7
Vehicle Warm-up
Vehicle
Class
Applicable WLTC Adopt Next Higher Phase Warm-up Cycle
Class 1 Low + Medium NA Low + Medium
Class 2
Class 3
Low + Medium + High +
Extra High
Low + Medium + High
Low + Medium + High +
Extra High
Low + Medium + High
NA Low + Medium + High +
Extra High
Yes (Extra High )
No
Low + Medium + High
Low + Medium + High +
Extra High Low + Medium + High +
Extra High
Yes (Extra High )
No
Low + Medium + High
7.3.4.2. If the vehicle is already warmed up, the WLTC phase applied in Paragraph 7.3.4.1. of this
Annex, with the highest speed, shall be driven.
7.3.4.3. Alternative Warm-up Procedure
7.3.4.3.1. At the request of the vehicle manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, an
alternative warm-up procedure may be used. The approved alternative warm-up procedure
may be used for vehicles within the same road load family and shall satisfy the requirements
outlined in Paragraphs 7.3.4.3.2. to 7.3.4.3.5. inclusive of this Annex.
7.3.4.3.2. At least one vehicle representing the road load family shall be selected.
7.3.4.3.3. The cycle energy demand calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7 with corrected
road load coefficients f , f and f , for the alternative warm-up procedure shall be equal to
or higher than the cycle energy demand calculated with the target road load coefficients f ,
f , and f , for each applicable phase.
The corrected road load coefficients f , f and f , shall be calculated according to the
following equations:
Where:
f = f + A − A
f = f + B − B
f = f + C − C
A
, B
and C
are the chassis dynamometer setting coefficients after the
alternative warm-up procedure;

8.1.2. Coastdown
8.1.3. Verification
The coastdown test on the chassis dynamometer shall be performed with the procedure
given in Paragraphs 8.1.3.4.1. or 8.1.3.4.2. of this Annex and shall start no later than 120s
after completion of the warm-up procedure. Consecutive coastdown runs shall be started
immediately. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible
authority, the time between the warm-up procedure and coastdowns using the iterative
method may be extended to ensure a proper vehicle setting for the coastdown. The
manufacturer shall provide the responsible authority with evidence for requiring additional
time and evidence that the chassis dynamometer load setting parameters (e.g. coolant
and/or oil temperature, force on a dynamometer) are not affected.
8.1.3.1. The target road load value shall be calculated using the target road load coefficient, A , B
and C , for each reference speed, v :
Where:
F = A + B v + C v
A , B and C
are the target road load parameters;
F is the target road load at reference speed v , N;
v
is the j reference speed, km/h.
8.1.3.2. The measured road load shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
Δv
is 5km/h;
F is the measured road load for each reference speed v , N;
TM
m
is the test mass of the vehicle, kg;
is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to
Paragraph 2.5.1. of this Annex, kg;
Δt is the coastdown time corresponding to speed v , s.
8.1.3.3. The coefficients A , B and C in the road load equation of the simulated road load on the
chassis dynamometer shall be calculated using a least squares regression analysis:
F = A + (B × v) + (C × v )
The simulated road load for each reference speed v shall be determined using the following
equation, using the calculated A , B and C :
F = A + (B × v ) + (C × v )

8.1.4. Adjustment
The chassis dynamometer setting load shall be adjusted according to the following
equations:
F = F – F = F – F + F
Therefore:
= (A + B v + C v ) − (A + B v + C v ) + (A + B v + C v )
= (A + A − A ) + (B + B − B ) v + (C + C − C ) v
A = A + A − A
B = B + B − B
C = C + C − C
Where:
F is the initial chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F is the adjusted chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F is the adjustment road load equal to (F − F ), N;
F is the simulated road load at reference speed v , N;
F is the target road load at reference speed v , N;
A , B and C
are the new chassis dynamometer setting coefficients.
8.1.5. A, B and C shall be used as the final values of f , f and f , and shall be used for the
following purposes:
(a) Determination of downscaling, Paragraph 8. of Annex 1;
(b) Determination of gearshift points, Annex 2;
(c) Interpolation of CO and fuel consumption, Paragraph 3.2.3. of Annex 7;
(d) Calculation of results of electric and hybrid-electric vehicles, Paragraph 4. of Annex 8.

8.2.3.2. The simulated running resistance (torque) curve on the chassis dynamometer shall be
calculated according to the method described and the measurement precision specified in
Paragraph 4.4.3.2. of this Annex, and the running resistance (torque) curve determination
as described in Paragraph 4.4.4. of this Annex with applicable corrections according to
Paragraph 4.5. of this Annex, all with the exception of measuring in opposite directions,
resulting in a simulated running resistance curve:
8.2.3.3. Adjustment
C = C + C × v + C × v
The simulated running resistance (torque) shall be within a tolerance of ±10 N×r' from the
target running resistance at every speed reference point where r' is the dynamic radius of
the tyre in metres on the chassis dynamometer obtained at 80km/h.
If the tolerance at any reference speed does not satisfy the criterion of the method
described in this Paragraph, the procedure specified in Paragraph 8.2.3.3. of this Annex
shall be used to adjust the chassis dynamometer load setting.
The chassis dynamometer load setting shall be adjusted using the following equation:
Therefore:
Where:
F is the new chassis dynamometer setting load, N;
F
F
F
A , B and C
r'
is the adjustment road load equal to (F - F ), Nm;
is the simulated road load at reference speed v , Nm;
is the target road load at reference speed v , Nm;
are the new chassis dynamometer setting coefficients;
is the dynamic radius of the tyre on the chassis dynamometer obtained
at 80km/h, m.
Paragraphs 8.2.2. and 8.2.3. of this Annex shall be repeated until the tolerance in
Paragraph 8.2.3.2. of this Annex is met.

8.2.4.3. The road load F at reference speed v , N, shall be determined using the following equation:
Where:
F is the road load at reference speed v , N;
TM
is the test mass of the vehicle, kg;
m is the equivalent effective mass of rotating components according to Paragraph 2.5.1.
of this Annex, kg;
Δv = 5km/h
Δ is the coastdown time corresponding to speed v , s.
8.2.4.4. The coefficients f , f and f in the road load equation shall be calculated with a least
squares regression analysis over the reference speed range.

Figure A5/2
Fan with Circular Outlet
These measurements shall be made with no vehicle or other obstruction in front of the fan.
The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall be located between 0 and
20cm from the air outlet.
1.1.3. The outlet of the fan shall have the following characteristics:
(a)
(b)
An area of at least 0.3m ; and
A width/diameter of at least 0.8m.
1.1.4. The position of the fan shall be as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Height of the lower edge above ground: approximately 20cm;
Distance from the front of the vehicle: approximately 30cm;
Approximately on the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle.
1.1.5. At the request of the manufacturer and if considered appropriate by the responsible
authority, the height, lateral position and distance from the vehicle of the cooling fan may be
modified.
If the specified fan configuration is impractical for special vehicle designs, such as vehicles
with rear-mounted engines or side air intakes, or it does not provide adequate cooling to
properly represent in-use operation, at the request of the manufacturer and if considered
appropriate by the responsible authority, the height, capacity, longitudinal and lateral
position of the cooling fan may be modified and additional fans which may have different
specifications (including constant speed fans) may be used.
1.1.6. In the cases described in Paragraph 1.1.5. of this Annex, the position and capacity of the
cooling fan(s) and details of the justification supplied to the responsible authority shall be
recorded. For any subsequent testing, similar positions and specifications shall be used in
consideration of the justification to avoid non-representative cooling characteristics.

2.3.1.2. Upon initial installation and after major maintenance, the requirements of
Paragraph 2.3.1.2.1. of this Annex and of either Paragraph 2.3.1.2.2. or 2.3.1.2.3. of this
Annex shall be satisfied. The speed difference between the front and rear rollers shall be
assessed by applying a 1s moving average filter to roller speed data acquired at a minimum
frequency of 20Hz.
2.3.1.2.1. The difference in distance covered by the front and rear rollers shall be less than 0.2% of
the distance driven over the WLTC. The absolute number shall be integrated for the
calculation of the total difference in distance over the WLTC.
2.3.1.2.2. The difference in distance covered by the front and rear rollers shall be less than 0.1m in
any 200ms time period.
2.3.1.2.3. The speed difference of all roller speeds shall be within ±0.16km/h.
2.3.2. Vehicle Restraint System for Single Roller Chassis Dynamometers
2.3.2.1. Vertical Force
In addition to the requirement of Paragraph 7.3.3.1.3. of Annex 4, the restraint system shall
be designed so that the vertical force imposed to the vehicle is minimised and is the same
during the chassis dynamometer setting and all tests. This criteria is fulfilled, if either the
restraint system is designed such that it cannot impose any different vertical force, or if a
procedure to demonstrate how this requirement can be met is agreed between the
responsible authority and the manufacturer.
2.3.2.2. Restraint Stiffness
The restraint system shall exhibit sufficient stiffness in order to minimize any movements
and rotations. Only limited movements along the z-axis and rotations over the y-axis are
allowed to avoid non-negligible effects towards the test results and to fulfil the requirements
of Paragraph 2.3.2.1. of this Annex.
2.4. Chassis Dynamometer Calibration
2.4.1. Force Measurement System
The accuracy of the force transducer shall be at least ±10N for all measured increments.
This shall be verified upon initial installation, after major maintenance and within 370 days
before testing.
2.4.2. Dynamometer Parasitic Loss Calibration
The dynamometer's parasitic losses shall be measured and updated if any measured value
differs from the current loss curve by more than 9.0N. This shall be verified upon initial
installation, after major maintenance and within 35 days before testing.
2.4.3. Verification of Road Load Simulation without a Vehicle
The dynamometer performance shall be verified by performing an unloaded coastdown test
upon initial installation, after major maintenance, and within 7 days before testing. The
arithmetic average coastdown force error shall be less than 10N or 2%, whichever is
greater, at each reference speed point.

3.3. Specific Requirements
3.3.1. Connection to Vehicle Exhaust
3.3.1.1. The start of the connecting tube is the exit of the tailpipe. The end of the connecting tube is
the sample point, or first point of dilution.
For multiple tailpipe configurations where all the tailpipes are combined, the start of the
connecting tube shall be taken at the last joint of where all the tailpipes are combined. In this
case, the tube between the exit of the tailpipe and the start of the connecting tube may or
may not be insulated or heated.
3.3.1.2. The connecting tube between the vehicle and dilution system shall be designed so as to
minimize heat loss.
3.3.1.3. The connecting tube shall satisfy the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Be less than 3.6m long, or less than 6.1m long if heat-insulated. Its internal diameter
shall not exceed 105mm; the insulating materials shall have a thickness of at least
25mm and thermal conductivity shall not exceed 0.1W/m K at 400°C. Optionally,
the tube may be heated to a temperature above the dew point. This may be assumed
to be achieved if the tube is heated to 70°C;
Not cause the static pressure at the exhaust outlets on the vehicle being tested to
differ by more than ±0.75kPa at 50km/h, or more than ±1.25kPa for the duration of
the test from the static pressures recorded when nothing is connected to the vehicle
exhaust pipes. The pressure shall be measured in the exhaust outlet or in an
extension having the same diameter and as near as possible to the end of the
tailpipe. Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within
±0.25kPa may be used if a written request from a manufacturer to the responsible
authority substantiates the need for the tighter tolerance;
No component of the connecting tube shall be of a material that might affect the
gaseous or solid composition of the exhaust gas. To avoid generation of any particles
from elastomer connectors, elastomers employed shall be as thermally stable as
possible and have minimum exposure to the exhaust gas. It is recommended not to
use elastomer connectors to bridge the connection between the vehicle exhaust and
the connecting tube.
3.3.2. Dilution Air Conditioning
3.3.2.1. The dilution air used for the primary dilution of the exhaust in the CVS tunnel shall pass
through a medium capable of reducing particles of the most penetrating particle size in the
filter material by ≤99.95%, or through a filter of at least Class H13 of EN 1822:2009. This
represents the specification of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The dilution air
may optionally be charcoal-scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It is
recommended that an additional coarse particle filter be situated before the HEPA filter and
after the charcoal scrubber, if used.
3.3.2.2. At the vehicle manufacturer's request, the dilution air may be sampled according to good
engineering practice to determine the tunnel contribution to background particulate and, if
applicable, particle levels, which can be subsequently subtracted from the values measured
in the diluted exhaust. See Paragraph 2.1.3. of Annex 6.

3.3.5.2. If necessary, some form of protection for the volume measuring device may be used e.g. a
cyclone separator, bulk stream filter, etc.
3.3.5.3. A temperature sensor shall be installed immediately before the volume measuring device.
This temperature sensor shall have an accuracy of ±1°C and a response time of 1s or less
at 62% of a given temperature variation (value measured in water or silicone oil).
3.3.5.4. Measurement of the pressure difference from atmospheric pressure shall be taken upstream
from and, if necessary, downstream from the volume measuring device.
3.3.5.5. The pressure measurements shall have a precision and an accuracy of ±0.4kPa during the
test. See Table A5/5.
3.3.6. Recommended System Description
Figure A5/3 is a schematic drawing of exhaust dilution systems that meet the requirements
of this Annex.
The following components are recommended:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
A dilution air filter, which may be pre-heated if necessary. This filter shall consist of
the following filters in sequence: an optional activated charcoal filter (inlet side), and a
HEPA filter (outlet side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter be
situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The purpose of
the charcoal filter is to reduce and stabilize the hydrocarbon concentrations of
ambient emissions in the dilution air;
A connecting tube by which vehicle exhaust is admitted into a dilution tunnel;
An optional heat exchanger as described in Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of this Annex;
A mixing device in which exhaust gas and dilution air are mixed homogeneously, and
which may be located close to the vehicle so that the length of the connecting tube is
minimized;
A dilution tunnel from which particulate and, if applicable, particles are sampled;
Some form of protection for the measurement system may be used e.g. a cyclone
separator, bulk stream filter, etc.;
A suction device of sufficient capacity to handle the total volume of diluted exhaust
gas.
Exact conformity with these figures is not essential. Additional components such as
instruments, valves, solenoids and switches may be used to provide additional information
and co-ordinate the functions of the component system.

3.3.6.3. Subsonic Flow Venturi (SSV)
3.3.6.3.1. The use of an SSV (Figure A5/4) for a full flow exhaust dilution system is based on the
principles of flow mechanics. The variable mixture flow rate of dilution and exhaust gas is
maintained at a subsonic velocity that is calculated from the physical dimensions of the
subsonic venturi and measurement of the absolute temperature (T) and pressure (P) at the
venturi inlet and the pressure in the throat of the venturi. Flow is continually monitored,
computed and integrated throughout the test.
3.3.6.3.2. An SSV shall measure the flow volume of the diluted exhaust gas.
3.3.6.4. Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM)
Figure A5/4
Schematic of a Subsonic Venturi Tube (SSV)
3.3.6.4.1. A UFM measures the velocity of the diluted exhaust gas in the CVS piping using the
principle of ultrasonic flow detection by means of a pair, or multiple pairs, of ultrasonic
transmitters/receivers mounted within the pipe as in Figure A5/5. The velocity of the flowing
gas is determined by the difference in the time required for the ultrasonic signal to travel
from transmitter to receiver in the upstream direction and the downstream direction. The gas
velocity is converted to standard volumetric flow using a calibration factor for the tube
diameter with real time corrections for the diluted exhaust temperature and absolute
pressure.
3.3.6.4.2. Components of the System include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A suction device fitted with speed control, flow valve or other method for setting the
CVS flow rate and also for maintaining constant volumetric flow at standard
conditions;
A UFM;
Temperature and pressure measurement devices, T and P, required for flow
correction;
An optional heat exchanger for controlling the temperature of the diluted exhaust to
the UFM. If installed, the heat exchanger shall be capable of controlling the
temperature of the diluted exhaust to that specified in Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of this
Annex. Throughout the test, the temperature of the air/exhaust gas mixture measured
at a point immediately upstream of the suction device shall be within ±6°C of the
arithmetic average operating temperature during the test.

3.4.2. Calibration of a Positive Displacement Pump (PDP)
3.4.2.1. The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration and the
various parameters that are measured to establish the flow rate of the CVS pump. All the
parameters related to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters related to
the flow meter that is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flow rate (given in
m /min at pump inlet for the measured absolute pressure and temperature) shall be
subsequently plotted versus a correlation function that includes the relevant pump
parameters. The linear equation that relates the pump flow and the correlation function shall
be subsequently determined. In the case that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a
calibration for each range used shall be performed.
3.4.2.2. This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the pump
and flow meter parameters relating the flow rate at each point. The following conditions shall
be maintained to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration curve:
3.4.2.2.1. The pump pressures shall be measured at tappings on the pump rather than at the external
piping on the pump inlet and outlet. Pressure taps that are mounted at the top centre and
bottom centre of the pump drive head plate are exposed to the actual pump cavity
pressures, and therefore reflect the absolute pressure differentials.
3.4.2.2.2. Temperature stability shall be maintained during the calibration. The laminar flow meter is
sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations that cause data points to be scattered. Gradual
changes of ±1°C in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of
several minutes.
3.4.2.2.3. All connections between the flow meter and the CVS pump shall be free of leakage.
3.4.2.3. During an exhaust emissions test, the measured pump parameters shall be used to
calculate the flow rate from the calibration equation.
3.4.2.4. Figure A5/6 of this Annex shows an example of a calibration set-up. Variations are
permissible, provided that the responsible authority approves them as being of comparable
accuracy. If the set-up shown in Figure A5/6 is used, the following data shall be found within
the limits of accuracy given:
Barometric pressure (corrected), P
Ambient temperature, T
Air temperature at LFE, ETI
Pressure depression upstream of LFE, EPI
Pressure drop across the LFE matrix, EDP
Air temperature at CVS pump inlet, PTI
Air temperature at CVS pump outlet, PTO
Pressure depression at CVS pump inlet, PPI
Pressure head at CVS pump outlet, PPO
Pump revolutions during test period, n
Elapsed time for period (minimum 250s), t
±0.03kPa
±0.2°C
±0.15°C
±0.01kPa
±0.0015kPa
±0.2°C
±0.2°C
±0.22kPa
±0.22kPa
±1min
±0.1s

3.4.2.5.4. To compensate for the interaction of pump speed pressure variations at the pump and the
pump slip rate, the correlation function x between the pump speed n, the pressure
differential from pump inlet to pump outlet and the absolute pump outlet pressure shall be
calculated using the following equation:
Where:
x
ΔP
P
is the correlation function;
is the pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, kPa;
absolute outlet pressure (PPO + P ), kPa.
A linear least squares fit shall be performed to generate the calibration equations having the
following form:
V = D – M × x
n = A − B × ΔP
Where B and M are the slopes, and A and D are the intercepts of the lines.
3.4.2.6. A CVS system having multiple speeds shall be calibrated at each speed used. The
calibration curves generated for the ranges shall be approximately parallel and the intercept
values D shall increase as the pump flow range decreases.
3.4.2.7. The calculated values from the equation shall be within 0.5% of the measured value of V .
Values of M will vary from one pump to another. A calibration shall be performed at initial
installation and after major maintenance.
3.4.3. Calibration of a Critical Flow Venturi (CFV)
3.4.3.1. Calibration of a CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi:
Where:
Q
K
P
T
is the flow, m /min;
is the calibration coefficient;
is the absolute pressure, kPa;
is the absolute temperature, Kelvin (K).
Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature.
The calibration procedure described in Paragraphs 3.4.3.2. to 3.4.3.3.3.4. inclusive of this
Annex establishes the value of the calibration coefficient at measured values of pressure,
temperature and air flow.

3.4.3.3.1. The variable-flow restrictor shall be set to the open position, the suction device shall be
started and the system stabilized. Data from all instruments shall be collected.
3.4.3.3.2. The flow restrictor shall be varied and at least eight readings across the critical flow range of
the venturi shall be made.
3.4.3.3.3. The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculation:
3.4.3.3.3.1. The air flow rate Q at each test point shall be calculated from the flow meter data using the
manufacturer's prescribed method.
Values of the calibration coefficient shall be calculated for each test point:
Where:
Q
T
P
is the flow rate, m /min at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325, kPa;
is the temperature at the venturi inlet, Kelvin (K);
is the absolute pressure at the venturi inlet, kPa.
3.4.3.3.3.2. K shall be plotted as a function of venturi inlet pressure P . For sonic flow K will have a
relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes
unchoked and K decreases. These values of K shall not be used for further calculations.
3.4.3.3.3.3. For a minimum of eight points in the critical region, an arithmetic average K and the
standard deviation shall be calculated.
3.4.3.3.3.4. If the standard deviation exceeds 0.3% of the arithmetic average K , corrective action shall
be taken.
3.4.4. Calibration of a Subsonic Venturi (SSV)
3.4.4.1. Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is a
function of inlet pressure and temperature, and the pressure drop between the SSV inlet
and throat.

3.4.4.2.2. Because Q is an input to the Re equation, the calculations shall be started with an initial
estimate for Q or C of the calibration venturi, and repeated until Q converges. The
convergence method shall be accurate to at least 0.1%.
3.4.4.2.3. For a minimum of sixteen points in the region of subsonic flow, the calculated values of C
from the resulting calibration curve fit equation shall be within ±0.5% of the measured C for
each calibration point.
3.4.5. Calibration of an Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM)
3.4.5.1. The UFM shall be calibrated against a suitable reference flow meter.
3.4.5.2. The UFM shall be calibrated in the CVS configuration that will be used in the test cell
(diluted exhaust piping, suction device) and checked for leaks. See Figure A5/8.
3.4.5.3. A heater shall be installed to condition the calibration flow in the event that the UFM system
does not include a heat exchanger.
3.4.5.4. For each CVS flow setting that will be used, the calibration shall be performed at
temperatures from room temperature to the maximum that will be experienced during
vehicle testing.
3.4.5.5. The manufacturer's recommended procedure shall be followed for calibrating the electronic
portions (temperature (T) and pressure (P) sensors) of the UFM.
3.4.5.6. Measurements for flow calibration of the ultrasonic flow meter are required and the following
data (in the case that a laminar flow element is used) shall be found within the limits of
accuracy given:
Barometric pressure (corrected), P
LFE air temperature, flow meter, ETI
Pressure depression upstream of LFE, EPI
Pressure drop across (EDP) LFE matrix
±0.03kPa,
±0.15°C,
±0.01kPa,
±0.0015kPa,
Air flow, Q ±0.5%,
UFM inlet depression, P ±0.02kPa,
Temperature at UFM inlet, T ±0.2°C.

3.5. System Verification Procedure
3.5.1. General Requirements
3.5.1.1. The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined
by introducing a known mass of an emissions gas compound into the system whilst it is
being operated under normal test conditions and subsequently analysing and calculating the
emission gas compounds according to the equations of Annex 7. The CFO method
described in Paragraph 3.5.1.1.1. of this Annex and the gravimetric method described in
Paragraph 3.5.1.1.2. of this Annex are both known to give sufficient accuracy.
The maximum permissible deviation between the quantity of gas introduced and the quantity
of gas measured is ±2%.
3.5.1.1.1. Critical Flow Orifice (CFO) Method
The CFO method meters a constant flow of pure gas (CO, CO , or C H ) using a critical flow
orifice device.
A known mass of pure carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or propane gas shall be introduced
into the CVS system through the calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high
enough, the flow rate q which is restricted by means of the critical flow orifice, is
independent of orifice outlet pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as in
a normal exhaust emissions test and enough time shall be allowed for subsequent analysis.
The gas collected in the sample bag shall be analysed by the usual equipment (see
Paragraph 4.1. of this Annex) and the results compared to the concentration of the known
gas samples. If deviations exceed ±2%, the cause of the malfunction shall be determined
and corrected.
3.5.1.1.2. Gravimetric Method
The gravimetric method weighs a quantity of pure gas (CO, CO , or C H ).
The weight of a small cylinder filled with either pure carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or
propane shall be determined with a precision of ±0.01g. The CVS system shall operate
under normal exhaust emissions test conditions while the pure gas is injected into the
system for a time sufficient for subsequent analysis. The quantity of pure gas involved shall
be determined by means of differential weighing. The gas accumulated in the bag shall be
analysed by means of the equipment normally used for exhaust gas analysis as described
in Paragraph 4.1. of this Annex. The results shall be subsequently compared to the
concentration figures computed previously. If deviations exceed ±2%, the cause of the
malfunction shall be determined and corrected.

4.1.3. Sampling Systems
4.1.3.1. Hydrocarbon Sampling System (Heated Flame Ionisation Detector, HFID)
4.1.3.1.1. The hydrocarbon sampling system shall consist of a heated sampling probe, line, filter and
pump. The sample shall be taken upstream of the heat exchanger (if fitted). The sampling
probe shall be installed at the same distance from the exhaust gas inlet as the particulate
sampling probe and in such a way that neither interferes with samples taken by the other. It
shall have a minimum internal diameter of 4mm.
4.1.3.1.2. All heated parts shall be maintained at a temperature of 190°C ± 10°C by the heating
system.
4.1.3.1.3. The arithmetic average concentration of the measured hydrocarbons shall be determined by
integration of the second-by-second data divided by the phase or test duration.
4.1.3.1.4. The heated sampling line shall be fitted with a heated filter F having a 99% efficiency for
particles ≥0.3μm to extract any solid particles from the continuous flow of gas required for
analysis.
4.1.3.1.5. The sampling system delay time (from the probe to the analyser inlet) shall be no more than
4s.
4.1.3.1.6. The HFID shall be used with a constant mass flow (heat exchanger) system to ensure a
representative sample, unless compensation for varying CVS volume flow is made.
4.1.3.2. NO or NO Sampling System (where applicable)
4.1.3.2.1. A continuous sample flow of diluted exhaust gas shall be supplied to the analyser.
4.1.3.2.2. The arithmetic average concentration of the NO or NO shall be determined by integration of
the second-by-second data divided by the phase or test duration.
4.1.3.2.3. The continuous NO or NO measurement shall be used with a constant flow (heat
exchanger) system to ensure a representative sample, unless compensation for varying
CVS volume flow is made.
4.1.4. Analysers
4.1.4.1. General Requirements for Gas Analysis
4.1.4.1.1. The analysers shall have a measuring range compatible with the accuracy required to
measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas sample compounds.
4.1.4.1.2. If not defined otherwise, measurement errors shall not exceed ±2% (intrinsic error of
analyser) disregarding the reference value for the calibration gases.
4.1.4.1.3. The ambient air sample shall be measured on the same analyser with the same range.
4.1.4.1.4. No gas drying device shall be used before the analysers unless it is shown to have no effect
on the content of the compound in the gas stream.

4.1.4.9. Nitrous Oxide (N O) Analysis with GC-ECD (if applicable)
A gas chromatograph with an electron-capture detector (GC-ECD) may be used to measure
N O concentrations of diluted exhaust by batch sampling from exhaust and ambient bags.
Refer to Paragraph 7.2. of this Annex.
4.1.4.10. Nitrous Oxide (N O) Analysis with IR-absorption Spectrometry (if applicable)
The analyser shall be a laser infrared spectrometer defined as modulated high resolution
narrow band infrared analyser (e.g. QCL). An NDIR or FTIR may also be used but water,
CO and CO interference shall be taken into consideration.
4.1.4.10.1. If the analyser shows interference to compounds present in the sample, this interference
shall be corrected. Analysers shall have combined interference within 0.0 ± 0.1ppm.
4.1.4.11. Hydrogen (H ) Analysis (if applicable)
The analyser shall be of the sector field mass spectrometer type, calibrated with hydrogen.
4.1.4.12. Water (H O) Analysis (if applicable)
The analyser shall be of the non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) absorption type. The
NDIR shall be calibrated either with water vapour or with propylene (C H ). If the NDIR is
calibrated with water vapour, it shall be ensured that no water condensation can occur in
tubes and connections during the calibration process. If the NDIR is calibrated with
propylene, the manufacturer of the analyzer shall provide the information for converting the
concentration of propylene to its corresponding concentration of water vapour.
The values for conversion shall be periodically checked by the manufacturer of the analyzer,
and at least once per year.
4.1.5. Recommended System Descriptions
4.1.5.1. Figure A5/9 is a schematic drawing of the gaseous emissions sampling system.

4.1.5.3. Additional components required for hydrocarbon sampling using a heated flame ionization
detector (HFID) as shown in Figure A5/10.
4.1.5.3.1. Heated sample probe in the dilution tunnel located in the same vertical plane as the
particulate and, if applicable, particle sample probes.
4.1.5.3.2. Heated filter located after the sampling point and before the HFID.
4.1.5.3.3. Heated selection valves between the zero/calibration gas supplies and the HFID.
4.1.5.3.4. Means of integrating and recording instantaneous hydrocarbon concentrations.
4.1.5.3.5. Heated sampling lines and heated components from the heated probe to the HFID.
Figure A5/10
Components required for Hydrocarbon Sampling using an HFID
4.2. PM Measurement Equipment
4.2.1. Specification
4.2.1.1. System Overview
4.2.1.1.1. The particulate sampling unit shall consist of a sampling probe (PSP), located in the dilution
tunnel, a particle transfer tube (PTT), a filter holder(s) (FH), pump(s), flow rate regulators
and measuring units. See Figures A5/11, A5/12 and A5/13.
4.2.1.1.2. A particle size pre-classifier (PCF), (e.g. cyclone or impactor) may be used. In such case, it
is recommended that it be employed upstream of the filter holder.

4.2.1.2.7. Temperatures required for the measurement of PM shall be measured with an accuracy of
±1°C and a response time (t – t ) of 15s or less.
4.2.1.2.8. The sample flow from the dilution tunnel shall be measured with an accuracy of ±2.5% of
reading or ±1.5% full scale, whichever is the least.
The accuracy specified above of the sample flow from the CVS tunnel is also applicable
where double dilution is used. Consequently, the measurement and control of the secondary
dilution air flow and diluted exhaust flow rates through the filter shall be of a higher
accuracy.
4.2.1.2.9. All data channels required for the measurement of PM shall be logged at a frequency of 1Hz
or faster. Typically, these would include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Diluted exhaust temperature at the particulate sampling filter;
Sampling flow rate;
Secondary dilution air flow rate (if secondary dilution is used);
Secondary dilution air temperature (if secondary dilution is used).
4.2.1.2.10. For double dilution systems, the accuracy of the diluted exhaust transferred from the dilution
tunnel V defined in Paragraph 3.3.2. of Annex 7 in the equation is not measured directly
but determined by differential flow measurement.
The accuracy of the flow meters used for the measurement and control of the double diluted
exhaust passing through the particulate sampling filters and for the measurement/control of
secondary dilution air shall be sufficient so that the differential volume V shall meet the
accuracy and proportional sampling requirements specified for single dilution.
The requirement that no condensation of the exhaust gas occur in the CVS dilution tunnel,
diluted exhaust flow rate measurement system, CVS bag collection or analysis systems
shall also apply in the case that double dilution systems are used.
4.2.1.2.11. Each flow meter used in a particulate sampling and double dilution system shall be
subjected to a linearity verification as required by the instrument manufacturer.

4.2.1.3. Specific Requirements
4.2.1.3.1. Sample Probe
Figure A5/13
Double Dilution Particulate Sampling System
4.2.1.3.1.1. The sample probe shall deliver the particle size classification performance specified in
Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.4. of this Annex. It is recommended that this performance be
achieved by the use of a sharp-edged, open-ended probe facing directly into the
direction of flow plus a pre-classifier (cyclone impactor, etc.). An appropriate sample
probe, such as that indicated in Figure A5/11, may alternatively be used provided it
achieves the pre-classification performance specified in Paragraph 4.2.1.3.1.4. of this
Annex.
4.2.1.3.1.2. The sample probe shall be installed at least 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the
exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least 8mm.
If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sample probe, the flow
drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flows to avoid sampling artefacts.
If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and facing
directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced around the central
longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel, with a spacing between probes of at least 5cm.
4.2.1.3.1.3. The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at least five probe
diameters, but shall not exceed 2,000mm.

4.2.1.3.5. Filter and Filter Holder
4.2.1.3.5.1. A valve shall be located downstream of the filter in the direction of flow. The valve shall
open and close within 1s of the start and end of test.
4.2.1.3.5.2. For a given test, the gas filter face velocity shall be set to an initial value within the range
20cm/s to 105cm/s and shall be set at the start of the test so that 105cm/s will not be
exceeded when the dilution system is being operated with sampling flow proportional to
CVS flow rate.
4.2.1.3.5.3. Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon membrane filters shall be used.
All filter types shall have a 0.3μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) or PAO (poly-alpha-olefin)
CS 68649-12-7 or CS 68037-01-4 collection efficiency of at least 99% at a gas filter face
velocity of 5.33cm/s measured according to one of the following standards:
(a) U.S.A. Department of Defense Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-282 method 102.8:
DOP-Smoke Penetration of Aerosol-Filter Element;
(b) U.S.A. Department of Defense Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-282 method 502.1.1:
DOP-Smoke Penetration of Gas-Mask Canisters;
(c)
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, IEST-RP-CC021: Testing HEPA
and ULPA Filter Media.
4.2.1.3.5.4. The filter holder assembly shall be of a design that provides an even flow distribution across
the filter stain area. The filter shall be round and have a stain area of at least 1,075mm .
4.2.2. Weighing Chamber (or Room) and Analytical Balance Specifications
4.2.2.1. Weighing Chamber (or Room) Conditions
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The temperature of the weighing chamber (or room) in which the particulate sampling
filters are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained to within 22°C ± 2°C
(22°C ± 1°C if possible) during all filter conditioning and weighing;
Humidity shall be maintained at a dew point of less than 10.5°C and a relative
humidity of 45% ± 8%;
Limited deviations from weighing chamber (or room) temperature and humidity
specifications shall be permitted provided their total duration does not exceed 30min
in any one filter conditioning period;
The levels of ambient contaminants in the weighing chamber (or room) environment
that would settle on the particulate sampling filters during their stabilisation shall be
minimised;
During the weighing operation no deviations from the specified conditions are
permitted.

The following equation shall be used:
Where:
Pe
is the corrected particulate sample mass, mg;
Pe
is the uncorrected particulate sample mass, mg;
ρ
is the density of the air, kg/m ;
ρ
is the density of balance calibration weight, kg/m ;
ρ
is the density of the particulate sampling filter, kg/m .
The density of the air ρ shall be calculated using the following equation:
p
T
is the total atmospheric pressure, kPa;
is the air temperature in the balance environment, Kelvin (K);
M is the molar mass of air in a balanced environment, 28.836g mol ;
R is the molar gas constant, 8.3144J mol K .
4.3. PN Measurement Equipment (if applicable)
This regulation allows for 2 optional settings for the measurement of PN, differentiated by
the particle electrical mobility diameter at which the PNC's detection efficiency is stated. The
two values included are 23nm and 10nm.
While most of the paragraphs and sub-paragraphs are common to the two different settings
and have to be applied for both 23nm and 10nm PN measurement, some contain two
different options starting respectively with the markings "SPN23" and "SPN10".
Where such options exist, a Contracting Party wishing to apply the 23nm value should
select the requirements starting with the marking "SPN23" whereas a Contracting Party
wishing to apply the 10nm value should select the requirements starting with the marking
"SPN10".

4.3.1.2.1.3. SPN23:
Any other sampling configuration for the PTS for which equivalent particle penetration at
30nm can be demonstrated shall be considered acceptable.
SPN10:
Any other sampling configuration for the PTS for which equivalent solid particle penetration
at 15nm can be demonstrated shall be considered acceptable.
4.3.1.2.1.4. The outlet tube (OT), conducting the diluted sample from the VPR to the inlet of the PNC,
shall have the following properties:
(a)
(b)
An internal diameter ≥4mm;
A sample gas flow residence time of ≤0.8s.
4.3.1.2.1.5. SPN23:
Any other sampling configuration for the OT for which equivalent solid particle penetration at
30nm can be demonstrated shall be considered acceptable.
SPN10:
Any other sampling configuration for the OT for which equivalent solid particle penetration at
15nm can be demonstrated shall be considered acceptable
4.3.1.2.2. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution and for volatile particle removal.
4.3.1.2.3. All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the
PNC, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, shall be made of electrically
conductive materials, shall be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects and
designed to minimize deposition of the particles.
4.3.1.2.4. The particle sampling system shall incorporate good aerosol sampling practice that includes
the avoidance of sharp bends and abrupt changes in cross-section, the use of smooth
internal surfaces and the minimization of the length of the sampling line. Gradual changes in
the cross-section are permitted.
4.3.1.3. Specific Requirements
4.3.1.3.1. The particle sample shall not pass through a pump before passing through the PNC.
4.3.1.3.2. A sample pre-classifier is recommended.
4.3.1.3.3. The sample preconditioning unit shall:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Be capable of diluting the sample in one or more stages to achieve a particle number
concentration below the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC;
Have a gas temperature at the inlet to the PNC below the maximum allowed inlet
temperature specified by the PNC manufacturer;
Include an initial heated dilution stage that outputs a sample at a temperature of
≥150°C and ≤350°C ± 10°C, and dilutes by a factor of at least 10;

N (d ) is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
d
is the particle electrical mobility diameter.
N (d ) and N
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor at a given dilution
setting f̅ shall be calculated using the following equation:
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit;
(h)
(i)
Be designed according to good engineering practice to ensure particle concentration
reduction factors are stable across a test;
SPN23:
Achieve more than 99.0% vaporization of 30nm tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH )
particles, with an inlet concentration of ≥10,000 per cm , by means of heating and
reduction of partial pressures of the tetracontane.
SPN10:
Achieve more than 99.9% vaporization of tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH ) particles with
count median diameter >50nm and mass >1mg/m , by means of heating and
reduction of partial pressures of the tetracontane.
4.3.1.3.3.1. The solid particle penetration P (d ) at a particle size, d , shall be calculated using the
following equation:
Where
P (d ) = DFN (d )/N (d )
N (d ) is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
N (d ) is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
d
is the particle electrical mobility diameter
DF
is the dilution factor between measurement positions of N (d ) and N
(d )
determined either with trace gases, or flow measurements.
4.3.1.3.4. The PNC shall:
(a)
(b)
Operate under full flow operating conditions;
Have a counting accuracy of ±10% across the range 1 per cm to the upper threshold
of the single particle count mode of the PNC against a suitable traceable standard. At
concentrations below 100 per cm , measurements averaged over extended sampling
periods may be required to demonstrate the accuracy of the PNC with a high degree
of statistical confidence;

SPN10:
Nominal Particle Electrical
Mobility Diameter (nm)
Table A5/2b
PNC Counting Efficiency
PNC Counting Efficiency
(per cent)
10 65 ± 15
15 > 90
4.3.1.3.5. If the PNC makes use of a working liquid, it shall be replaced at the frequency specified by
the instrument manufacturer.
4.3.1.3.6. Where not held at a known constant level at the point at which PNC flow rate is controlled,
the pressure and/or temperature at the PNC inlet shall be measured for the purposes of
correcting particle number concentration measurements to standard conditions. The
standard conditions are 101.325kPa pressure and 0°C temperature.
4.3.1.3.7. The sum of the residence time of the PTS, VPR and OT plus the t response time of the
PNC shall be no greater than 20s.
4.3.1.4. Recommended System Description
The following Paragraph contains the recommended practice for measurement of PN.
However, systems meeting the performance specifications in Paragraphs 4.3.1.2. and
4.3.1.3. of this Annex are acceptable. See Figure A5/14a or Figure A5/14b (as applicable)

4.3.1.4.1. Sampling System Description
4.3.1.4.1.1. The particle sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe tip or particle sampling point
in the dilution system, a PTT, a PCF, and a VPR, upstream of the PNC unit.
4.3.1.4.1.2. The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution (particle number diluters: PND and
PND ) and particle evaporation (evaporation tube, ET).
4.3.1.4.1.3. SPN23:
The evaporation tube, ET, may be catalytically active.
SPN10:
The evaporation tube, ET, shall be catalytically active.
4.3.1.4.1.4. The sampling probe or sampling point for the test gas flow shall be arranged within the
dilution tunnel so that a representative sample gas flow is taken from a homogeneous
diluent/exhaust mixture.
5. CALIBRATION INTERVALS AND PROCEDURES
5.1. Calibration Intervals
All instruments in Table A5/3 shall be calibrated at/after major maintenance intervals.
Table A5/3
Instrument Calibration Intervals
Instrument Checks Interval Criterion
Gas analyser linearization (calibration) Every 6 months ±2% of reading
Mid-span Every 6 months ±2%
CO NDIR: CO /H O interference Monthly -1 to 3ppm
NO converter check Monthly >95%
CH cutter check Yearly 98% of ethane
FID CH response
FID air/fuel flow
NO/NO NDUV: H O, HC interference
Laser infrared spectrometers (modulated
high resolution narrow band infrared
analysers): interference check
Yearly
At major maintenance
At major maintenance
Yearly
See Paragraph 5.4.3. of this
Annex
According to the instrument
manufacturer.
According to the instrument
manufacturer.
According to the instrument
manufacturer.

5.2. Analyser Calibration Procedures
5.2.1. Each analyser shall be calibrated as specified by the instrument manufacturer or at least as
often as specified in Table A5/3.
5.2.2. Each normally used operating range shall be linearized by the following procedure:
5.2.2.1. The analyser linearization curve shall be established by at least five calibration points
spaced as uniformly as possible. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas of the
highest concentration shall be not less than 80% of the full scale.
5.2.2.2. The calibration gas concentration required may be obtained by means of a gas divider,
diluting with purified N or with purified synthetic air.
5.2.2.3. The linearization curve shall be calculated by the least squares method. If the resulting
polynomial degree is greater than 3, the number of calibration points shall be at least equal
to this polynomial degree plus 2.
5.2.2.4. The linearization curve shall not differ by more than ±2% from the nominal value of each
calibration gas.
5.2.2.5. From the trace of the linearization curve and the linearization points it is possible to verify
that the calibration has been carried out correctly. The different characteristic parameters of
the analyser shall be indicated, particularly:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Analyser and gas component;
Range;
Date of linearisation.
5.2.2.6. If the responsible authority is satisfied that alternative technologies (e.g. computer,
electronically controlled range switch, etc.) give equivalent accuracy, these alternatives may
be used.
5.3. Analyser Zero and Calibration Verification Procedure
5.3.1. Each normally used operating range shall be checked prior to each analysis in accordance
with Paragraphs 5.3.1.1. and 5.3.1.2. of this Annex.
5.3.1.1. The calibration shall be checked by use of a zero gas and by use of a calibration gas
according to Paragraph 2.14.2.3. of Annex 6.
5.3.1.2. After testing, zero gas and the same calibration gas shall be used for re-checking according
to Paragraph 2.14.2.4. of Annex 6.
5.4. FID Hydrocarbon Response Check Procedure
5.4.1. Detector Response Optimization
The FID shall be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. Propane in air shall
be used on the most common operating range.

5.5.1.3. The ozonator shall now be activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO
concentration down to 20% (minimum 10%) of the calibration concentration given in
Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex. The indicated concentration (d) shall be recorded.
5.5.1.4. The NO analyser shall be subsequently switched to the NO mode, whereby the gas
mixture (consisting of NO, NO , O and N ) now passes through the converter. The
indicated concentration (a) shall be recorded.
5.5.1.5. The ozonator shall now be deactivated. The mixture of gases described in
Paragraph 5.5.1.2. of this Annex shall pass through the converter into the detector. The
indicated concentration (b) shall be recorded.
Figure A5/15
NO Converter Efficiency Test Configuration
5.5.1.6. With the ozonator deactivated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air shall be shut off. The NO
reading of the analyser shall then be no more than 5% above the figure given in
Paragraph 5.5.1.1. of this Annex.
5.5.1.7. The per cent efficiency of the NO converter shall be calculated using the concentrations a,
b, c and d determined in Paragraphs 5.5.1.2. to 5.5.1.5. inclusive of this Annex using the
following equation:
The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 95%. The efficiency of the converter
shall be tested in the frequency defined in Table A5/3.

Figure A5/17
Extended PNC Annual Sequence (in the case that a full PNC calibration is delayed)
5.7.1.2. The PNC shall also be recalibrated and a new calibration certificate issued following any
major maintenance.
5.7.1.3. Calibration shall be undertaken according to ISO 27891:2015 and shall be traceable to a
national or international standard by comparing the response of the PNC under calibration
with that of:
(a)
(b)
A calibrated aerosol electrometer when simultaneously sampling electrostatically
classified calibration particles; or
SPN23:
A second full flow PNC with counting efficiency above 90% for 23nm equivalent
electrical mobility diameter particles that has been calibrated by the method described
above. The second PNC counting efficiency shall be taken into account in the
calibration.
SPN10:
A second full flow PNC with counting efficiency above 90% for 10nm equivalent
electrical mobility diameter particles that has been calibrated by the method described
above. The second PNC counting efficiency shall be taken into account in the
calibration.
5.7.1.3.1. For the requirements of Paragraphs 5.7.1.3.(a) and 5.7.1.3.(b), calibration shall be
undertaken using at least six standard concentrations across the PNC's measurement
range. These standard concentrations shall be as uniformly spaced as possible between the
standard concentration of 2,000 particles per cm or below and the maximum of the PNC's
range in single particle count mode.

SPN10:
5.7.2.2. SPN23:
Calibration of the VPR's particle concentration reduction factors across its full range of
dilution settings, at the instrument's fixed nominal operating temperatures, shall be required
when the unit is new and following any major maintenance. The periodic validation
requirement for the VPR's particle concentration reduction factor is limited to a check at a
single setting, typical of that used for measurement on particulate filter-equipped vehicles.
The responsible authority shall ensure the existence of a calibration or validation certificate
for the VPR within a 6-month period prior to the emissions test. If the VPR incorporates
temperature monitoring alarms, a 13-month validation interval is permitted.
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit.
The VPR shall be characterised for particle concentration reduction factor with solid
particles of 15, 30, 50 and 100nm electrical mobility diameter. Particle concentration
reduction factors f (d) for particles of 15nm, 30nm and 50nm electrical mobility diameters
shall be no more than 100%, 30% and 20% higher respectively, and no more than 5% lower
than that for particles of 100nm electrical mobility diameter. For the purposes of validation,
the arithmetic average of the particle concentration reduction factor calculated for particles
of 30nm, 50nm and 100nm electrical mobility diameters shall be within ±10% of the
arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor f̅ determined during the latest
complete calibration of the VPR.
The test aerosol for these measurements shall be solid particles of 30, 50 and 100nm
electrical mobility diameter and a minimum concentration of 5,000 particles per cm at the
VPR inlet. As an option, a polydisperse aerosol with an electrical mobility median diameter
of 50nm may be used for validation. The test aerosol shall be thermally stable at the VPR
operating temperatures. Particle number concentrations shall be measured upstream and
downstream of the components.
The particle concentration reduction factor for each monodisperse particle size, f (d ), shall
be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
N (d ) is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
N (d ) is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
d
N (d ) and N
is the particle electrical mobility diameter (30, 50 or 100nm).
(d ) shall be corrected to the same conditions.
The arithmetic average particle concentration reduction factor f̅ at a given dilution setting
shall be calculated using the following equation:

5.7.2.3. SPN23:
The VPR shall demonstrate greater than 99.0% removal of tetracontane (CH (CH ) CH )
particles of at least 30nm electrical mobility diameter with an inlet concentration
≥10,000 per cm when operated at its minimum dilution setting and manufacturer's
recommended operating temperature.
SPN10:
The VPR shall demonstrate greater than 99.9% removal efficiency of Tetracontane
(CH (CH ) CH ) particles with count median diameter >50nm and mass >1mg/m .
5.7.2.4. The instrument manufacturer shall provide the maintenance or replacement interval that
ensures that the removal efficiency of the VPR does not drop below the technical
requirements. If such information is not provided, the volatile removal efficiency shall be
checked yearly for each instrument.
5.7.2.5. The instrument manufacturer shall prove the solid particle penetration P (d ) by testing one
unit for each PN-system model. A PN-system model here covers all PN-systems with the
same hardware, i.e. same geometry, conduit materials, flows and temperature profiles in the
aerosol path. P (d ) at a particle size, d , shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where
P (d ) = DFN (d )/N (d )
N (d ) is the upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
N (d ) is the downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter d ;
d
is the particle electrical mobility diameter
DF
is the dilution factor between measurement positions of N (d ) and N
(d )
determined either with trace gases, or flow measurements.
5.7.3. PN Measurement System Check Procedures
On a monthly basis, the flow into the PNC shall have a measured value within 5% of the
PNC nominal flow rate when checked with a calibrated flow meter. Here the term 'nominal
flow rate' refers to the flow rate stated in the most recent calibration for the PNC by the
instrument manufacturer.
5.8. Accuracy of the Mixing Device
In the case that a gas divider is used to perform the calibrations as defined in
Paragraph 5.2. of this Annex, the accuracy of the mixing device shall be such that the
concentrations of the diluted calibration gases may be determined to within ±2%. A
calibration curve shall be verified by a mid-span check as described in Paragraph 5.3. of this
Annex. A calibration gas with a concentration below 50% of the analyser range shall be
within 2% of its certified concentration.

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
NO in nitrogen (the amount of NO contained in this calibration gas shall not exceed
5% of the NO content);
NO in synthetic air or nitrogen (tolerance: ±2%), if applicable;
N O in nitrogen (tolerance: ±2% or 0.25ppm, whichever is greater), if applicable;
NH in nitrogen (tolerance: ±3%), if applicable;
C H OH in synthetic air or nitrogen (tolerance: ±2%), if applicable;
HCHO (tolerance: ±10%), if applicable;
CH CHO (tolerance: ±5%), if applicable.
7. ADDITIONAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS
7.1. Sampling and Analysis Methods for NH (if applicable)
Two measurement principles are specified for NH measurement; either may be used
provided the criteria specified in Paragraphs 7.1.1. or 7.1.2. of this Annex are fulfilled.
Gas dryers are not permitted for NH measurement. For non-linear analysers, the use of
linearising circuits is permitted.
7.1.1. Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) or Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL)
7.1.1.1. Measurement Principle
7.1.1.2. Installation
The LDS/QCL employs the single line spectroscopy principle. The NH absorption line is
chosen in the near infrared (LDS) or mid-infrared spectral range (QCL).
The analyser shall be installed either directly in the exhaust pipe (in-situ) or within an
analyser cabinet using extractive sampling in accordance with the instrument
manufacturer's instructions.
Where applicable, sheath air used in conjunction with an in-situ measurement for protection
of the instrument shall not affect the concentration of any exhaust component measured
downstream of the device, or, if the sheath air affects the concentration, the sampling of
other exhaust components shall be made upstream of the device.
7.1.1.3. Cross Interference
The spectral resolution of the laser shall be within 0.5 per cm in order to minimize cross
interference from other gases present in the exhaust gas.

7.2. Sampling and Analysis Methods for N O
7.2.1. Gas Chromatographic Method
7.2.1.1. General Description
7.2.1.2. Sampling
Followed by gas chromatographic separation, N O shall be analysed by an electron capture
detector (ECD).
During each phase of the test, a gas sample shall be taken from the corresponding diluted
exhaust bag and dilution air bag for analysis. Alternatively, analysis of the dilution air bag
from Phase 1 or a single composite dilution background sample may be performed
assuming that the N O content of the dilution air is constant.
7.2.1.2.1. Sample Transfer
Secondary sample storage media may be used to transfer samples from the test cell to the
GC lab. Good engineering judgement shall be used to avoid additional dilution when
transferring the sample from sample bags to secondary sample bags.
7.2.1.2.2. Secondary Sample Storage Media
Gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers that minimise off-gassing and
permeation. Good engineering judgment shall be used to determine acceptable processes
and thresholds regarding storage media cleanliness and permeation.
7.2.1.2.3. Sample Storage
Secondary sample storage bags shall be analysed within 24h and shall be stored at room
temperature.
7.2.1.3. Instrumentation and Apparatus
7.2.1.3.1. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) shall be used to measure
N O concentrations of diluted exhaust for batch sampling.
7.2.1.3.2. The sample may be injected directly into the GC or an appropriate pre-concentrator may be
used. In the case of pre-concentration, this shall be used for all necessary verifications and
quality checks.
7.2.1.3.3. A porous layer open tubular or a packed column phase of suitable polarity and length shall
be used to achieve adequate resolution of the N O peak for analysis.
7.2.1.3.4. Column temperature profile and carrier gas selection shall be taken into consideration when
setting up the method to achieve adequate N O peak resolution. Whenever possible, the
operator shall aim for baseline separated peaks.
7.2.1.3.5. Good engineering judgement shall be used to zero the instrument and to correct for drift.
Example: A calibration gas measurement may be performed before and after sample
analysis without zeroing and using the arithmetic average area counts of the pre-calibration
and post-calibration measurements to generate a response factor (area counts/calibration
gas concentration), which shall be subsequently multiplied by the area counts from the
sample to generate the sample concentration.

7.2.1.8. Limit of Detection, Limit of Quantification
The detection limit shall be based on the noise measurement close to the retention time of
N O (reference DIN 32645, 01.11.2008):
Limit of Detection: LoD = avg. (noise) + 3 × std.dev.
Where std.dev. is considered to be equal to noise.
Limit of Quantification: LoQ = 3 × LoD
For the purpose of calculating the mass of N O, the concentration below LoD shall be
considered to be zero.
7.2.1.9. Interference Verification
Interference is any component present in the sample with a retention time similar to that of
the target compound described in this method. To reduce interference error, proof of
chemical identity may require periodic confirmations using an alternate method or
instrumentation.
7.3. Sampling and Analysis Methods for Ethanol (C H OH) (if applicable)
7.3.1. Impinger and Gas Chromatograph Analysis of the Liquid Sample
7.3.1.1. Sampling
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken for analysis from the diluted exhaust
and dilution air bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background
sample may be analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
7.3.1.2. Gas Chromatographic Method
A sample shall be introduced into a gas chromatograph, GC. The alcohols in the sample
shall be separated in a GC capillary column and ethanol shall be detected and quantified by
a flame ionization detector, FID.
7.3.1.2.1. Sample Transfer
Secondary sample storage media may be used to transfer samples from the test cell to the
GC lab. Good engineering judgement shall be used to avoid additional dilution when
transferring the sample from the sample bags to secondary sample bags.
7.3.1.2.1.1. Secondary Sample Storage Media
Gas volumes shall be stored in sufficiently clean containers that minimize off-gassing and
permeation. Good engineering judgment shall be used to determine acceptable processes
and thresholds regarding storage media cleanliness and permeation.

7.3.1.5. Peak Integration Procedure
7.3.1.6. Linearity
The peak integration procedure shall be performed as in Paragraph 7.2.1.5. of this Annex.
A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.6. of this Annex.
7.3.1.7. Quality Control
7.3.1.7.1. A nitrogen or air blank sample run shall be performed before running the calibration
standard.
A weekly blank sample run shall provide a check on contamination of the complete system.
A blank sample run shall be performed within one week of the test.
7.3.1.7.2. The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.3.1.7.3. A quality control standard shall be analysed within 24h before the analysis of the samples.
7.3.1.8. Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification
The limits of detection and quantification shall be determined according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.8. of this Annex.
7.3.1.9. Interference Verification
Interference and reducing interference error is described in Paragraph 7.2.1.9. of this
Annex.
7.3.2. Alternative Methods for the Sampling and Analysis of Ethanol (C H OH)
7.3.2.1. Sampling
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken for analysis from the diluted exhaust
and dilution air bag. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
Frequency of calibration and calibration methods will be adapted to each instrument for the
best practice and always respecting the quality control standards.

7.3.2.5.1. Calibration Frequency
Calibrating shall be performed once per week or after maintenance. No compensation is
needed.
7.4. Sampling and Analysis Methods for Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde (if applicable)
7.4.1.1. Sampling
7.4.1.2. Cartridges
Aldehydes shall be sampled with DNPH-impregnated cartridges. Elution of the cartridges
shall be done with acetonitrile. Analysis shall be carried out by high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), with an ultraviolet (UV) detector at 360nm or diode array detector
(DAD). Carbonyl masses ranging between 0.02 to 200μg are measured using this method.
Depending on the analytical method, samples may be taken from the diluted exhaust from
the CVS.
From each test phase, a gas sample shall be taken from the diluted exhaust and dilution air
bag for analysis. Alternatively, a single composite dilution background sample may be
analysed.
The temperature of the diluted exhaust sample lines shall be more than 3°C above the
maximum dew point of the diluted exhaust and less than 121°C.
DNPH-impregnated cartridges shall be sealed and refrigerated at a temperature less than
4°C upon receipt from manufacturer until ready for use.
7.4.1.2.1. System Capacity
The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling system shall be of sufficient capacity so as to
enable the collection of samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on
the volume of the diluted exhaust passing through the CVS.
7.4.1.2.2. Sample Storage
Samples not analysed within 24h of being taken shall be refrigerated at a temperature below
4°C. Refrigerated samples shall not be analysed after more than 30 days of storage.
7.4.1.2.3. Sample Preparation
The cartridges shall be eluted by removing their caps, extracting with acetonitrile and
running the extract into glass storage bottles. The solution shall be transferred from each
cartridge to glass vials and sealed with new septum screw caps.
7.4.1.2.4. Good engineering practice shall be used to avoid sample breakthrough.
7.4.1.3. Instrumentation
A liquid autosampler and either a HPLC-UV or HPLC-DAD shall be used.

7.4.1.6. Linearity
A multipoint calibration to confirm instrument linearity shall be performed according to
Paragraph 7.2.1.6.
7.4.1.7. Quality Control
7.4.1.7.1. Field Blank
One cartridge shall be analysed as a field blank for each emission test. If the field blank
shows a peak greater than the limit of detection (LoD) in the region of interest, the source of
the contamination shall be investigated and remedied.
7.4.1.7.2. Calibration Run
The calibration standard shall be analysed each day of analysis to generate the response
factors used to quantify the sample concentrations.
7.4.1.7.3. Control Standard
A quality control standard shall be analysed at least once every 7 days.
7.4.1.8. Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification
The LoD for the target analytes shall be determined:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For new instruments;
After making instrument modifications that could affect the LoD; and
At least once per year.
7.4.1.8.1. A multipoint calibration consisting of at least four "low" concentration levels, each above the
LoD, with at least five replicate determinations of the lowest concentration standard, shall be
performed.
7.4.1.8.2. The maxim allowable LoD of the hydrazine derivative is 0.0075μg/ml.
7.4.1.8.3. The calculated laboratory LoD shall be equal to or lower than the maximum allowable LoD.
7.4.1.8.4. All peaks identified as target compounds that are equal to or exceed the maximum
allowable LoD shall be recorded.
7.4.1.8.5. For the purpose of calculating the total mass of all species, the concentrations of the
compounds below the LoD are considered to be zero.
The final mass calculation shall be calculated according to the equation in
Paragraph 3.2.1.7. of Annex 7.
7.4.1.9. Interference Verification
To reduce interference error, proof of chemical identity may require periodic confirmations
using an alternate method and/or instrumentation, e.g. alternative HPLC columns or mobile
phase compositions

ANNEX 6
TYPE 1 TEST PROCEDURES AND TEST CONDITIONS
1.
1.1.
1.1.1.
1.1.2.
1.1.2.1.
1.1.2.1.1.
1.1.2.1.2.
1.1.2.1.3.
DESCRIPTION OF TESTS
The Type
1 test is used to verifyy the emissions of gaseous compounds, particulate matter,
particle number (if applicable),
CO mass emission, fuel f consumption, electric energy
consumption and electric ranges over the applicable WLTP test cycle.
The testss shall be carried out according to the method described inn Paragraph
2. of this
Annex or Paragraph
3. of Annex 8 for pure electric, hybrid electric and compressed
hydrogen
fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Exhaust gases, particulate matter and particle number
(if applicable) shall be
sampled and analysed by the prescribed methods.
When the
reference fuel f to be used is LPG or
NG/biomethane, the following provisions shall
apply additionally.
Exhaust Emissions Approval of a Parent Vehicle
The parent vehicle should demonstrate its capability to adapt a to anyy fuel composition that
may occur across the
market. In the case of LPG there are variations in C3/C4 composition.
In the case of NG/biomethane
there are generally twoo types of fuel, high calorific fuel
(H-gas) and low calorific fuel (Lgas), but with
a significant spread within both ranges; they
differ significantly in Wobbe index. These variations are reflected in thee reference fuels. f
In the case of vehicles fuelled by LPG, NG/biomethane, the parent vehicle(s) shall be tested
in the Type 1 test on the twoo extreme reference fuels of Annex 3. In the
case of
NG/biomethane, if the
transition from one fuel to another is in practicee aided through the use
of a switch, this switch shall not be used during type approval. Inn such a case on the
manufacturer's request and with the agreement
of the approval authority the
pre-conditioning cycle
referred in Paragraph 2.6. of this Annex may bee extended.
The vehicle is considered to conform if, under the tests and reference fuels mentioned in
Paragraph 1.1.2.1.2. of this Annex, the vehiclee complies with w the emission limits.
1.1.2.1.4.
In the case of vehicles fuelled byy LPG or NG/biomethane, the ratio
shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:
of emission results "r"
Type(s) of fuel
LPG and
petrol or LPG only
NG/biomethane and petrol or
NG/biomethane only
Fuel A
Fuel B
Fuel G
Fuel G
Reference fuels
Calculation of "r"

1.2.3.3. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The declared value of the electric energy consumption for OVC-HEVs under
charge-depleting operating condition shall not be determined according to Figure A6/1. It
shall be taken as the certification value if the declared CO value is accepted as the
approval value. If that is not the case, the measured value of electric energy consumption
shall be taken as the certification value. Evidence of a correlation between declared CO
mass emission and electric energy consumption shall be submitted to the responsible
authority in advance, if applicable.
Option B:
The declared value of the fuel efficiency for OVC-HEVs under charge-depleting operating
condition shall not be determined according to Figure A6/1. It shall be taken as the
certification value if the declared electric energy consumption value is accepted as the
approval value. If that is not the case, the measured value of fuel efficiency shall be taken
as the certification value. Evidence of a correlation between declared fuel efficiency and
electric energy consumption shall be submitted to the responsible authority in advance, if
applicable.
1.2.3.4. If after the first test all criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A6/2 are fulfilled, all values
declared by the manufacturer shall be accepted as the certification value. If any one of the
criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled, a second test shall be performed
with the same vehicle.
1.2.3.5. After the second test, the arithmetic average results of the two tests shall be calculated. If all
criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A6/2 are fulfilled by these arithmetic average results,
all values declared by the manufacturer shall be accepted as the certification value. If any
one of the criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled, a third test shall be
performed with the same vehicle.
1.2.3.6. After the third test, the arithmetic average results of the three tests shall be calculated. For
all parameters which fulfil the corresponding criterion in row 3 of the applicable Table A6/2,
the declared value shall be taken as the certification value. For any parameter which does
not fulfil the corresponding criterion in row 3 of the applicable Table A6/2, the arithmetic
average result shall be taken as the certification value.
1.2.3.7. In the case that any one of the criterion of the applicable Table A6/2 is not fulfilled after the
first or second test, at the request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the
responsible authority, the values may be re-declared as higher values for emissions or
consumption, or as lower values for electric ranges, in order to reduce the required number
of tests for type approval.
1.2.3.8. Determination of the Acceptance Values dCO2 , dCO2 and dCO2
1.2.3.8.1. Additional to the requirement of Paragraph 1.2.3.8.2., the Contracting Party shall determine
a value for dCO2 ranging from 0.990 to 1.020, a value for dCO2 ranging from 0.995 to
1.020, and a value for dCO2 ranging from 1.000 to 1.020 in the Table A6/2.
1.2.3.8.2. If the charge depleting Type 1 test for OVC-HEVs consists of two or more applicable WLTP
test cycles and the dCO2x value is below 1.0, the dCO2x value shall be replaced by 1.0.

Figure A6/1
Flowchart for the Number of Type 1 Tests

For OVC-FCHVs Charge-depleting Type 1 Test
Test Judgement Parameter FC,CD EC AER
Row 1 First test First test results
Row 2 Second
test
Row 3 Third
test
Test
Arithmetic average of the
first and second test
results
Arithmetic average of
three test results
≤ Declared value ×
1.0
≤ Declared value ×
1.0
≤ Declared value ×
1.0
≤ Declared value ×
1.0
≤ Declared value ×
1.0
≤ Declared value ×
1.0
For NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs in CD condition (as applicable)
Judgement Parameter
For 4 phase WLTP
test: FC
≥ Declared value
× 1.0
≥ Declared value
× 1.0
≥ Declared value
× 1.0
For 3 phase WLTP
test: FE (lower
value)
Row 1 First test First test results ≤ Declared value × 1.0 ≥ Declared value × 1.0
Row 2 Second test Arithmetic average of the first
and second test results
Row 3 Third test
Arithmetic average of three test
results
1.2.4. Determination of Phase-specific Values
1.2.4.1. Phase-specific Value for CO
≤ Declared value × 1.0 ≥ Declared value × 1.0
≤ Declared value × 1.0 ≥ Declared value × 1.0
1.2.4.1.1. After the total cycle declared value of the CO mass emission is accepted, the arithmetic
average of the phase-specific values of the test results in g/km shall be multiplied by the
adjustment factor CO2_AF to compensate for the difference between the declared value
and the test results. This corrected value shall be the certification value for CO .
Where:
Where:
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the L phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the M phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the H phase test
result(s), g/km;
CO2
is the arithmetic average CO mass emission result for the exH phase test
result(s), g/km;

2.1.3.1.3. Dilution tunnel background particulate mass level shall be determined by passing filtered
dilution air through the particulate background filter. This shall be drawn from the same point
as the particulate matter sample. Where secondary dilution is used for the test, the
secondary dilution system shall be active for the purposes of background measurement.
One measurement may be performed on the day of test, either prior to or after the test.
2.1.3.2. Background Particle Number Determination (if applicable)
2.1.3.2.1. Where the Contracting Party permits subtraction of either dilution air or dilution tunnel
background particle number from emissions measurements and a manufacturer requests a
background correction, these background levels shall be determined as follows:
2.1.3.2.1.1. The background value may be either calculated or measured. The maximum permissible
background correction shall be related to the maximum allowable leak rate of the particle
number measurement system (0.5 particles per cm ) scaled from the particle concentration
reduction factor, PCRF, and the CVS flow rate used in the actual test;
2.1.3.2.1.2. Either the Contracting Party or the manufacturer may request that actual background
measurements are used instead of calculated ones.
2.1.3.2.1.3. Where subtraction of the background contribution gives a negative result, the PN result shall
be considered to be zero.
2.1.3.2.2. The dilution air background particle number level shall be determined by sampling filtered
dilution air. This shall be drawn from a point immediately downstream of the dilution air
filters into the PN measurement system. Background levels in particles per cm shall be
determined as a rolling arithmetic average of least 14 measurements with at least one
measurement per week.
2.1.3.2.3. The dilution tunnel background particle number level shall be determined by sampling
filtered dilution air. This shall be drawn from the same point as the PN sample. Where
secondary dilution is used for the test the secondary dilution system shall be active for the
purposes of background measurement. One measurement may be performed on the day of
test, either prior to or after the test using the actual PCRF and the CVS flow rate utilised
during the test.
2.2. General Test Cell Equipment
2.2.1. Parameters to be Measured
2.2.1.1. The following temperatures shall be measured with an accuracy of ±1.5°C:
(a)
(b)
Test cell ambient air;
Dilution and sampling system temperatures as required for emissions measurement
systems defined in Annex 5.
2.2.1.2. Atmospheric pressure shall be measurable with a precision of ±0.1kPa.
2.2.1.3. Specific humidity H shall be measurable with a precision of ±1g H O/kg dry air.

2.3.2. CO Interpolation Range
2.3.2.1. The interpolation method shall only be used if the difference in CO over the applicable
cycle resulting from step 9 in Table A7/1 of Annex 7 between test vehicles L and H is
between a minimum of 5g/km and a maximum defined in Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of this Annex.
2.3.2.2. The maximum difference in CO emissions allowed over the applicable cycle resulting from
step 9 in Table A7/1 of Annex 7 between test vehicles L and H shall be 20% plus 5g/km of
the CO emissions from vehicle H, but at least 15g/km and not exceeding 30g/km. See
Figure A6/2.
Figure A6/2
Interpolation Range for Pure ICE Vehicles
This restriction does not apply for the application of a road load matrix family or when the
calculation of the road load of vehicles L and H is based on the default road load.
2.3.2.2.1. The allowed interpolation range defined in Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of this Annex may be
increased by 10g/km CO (see Figure A6/3) if a vehicle M is tested within that family and the
conditions according to Paragraph 2.3.2.4. of this Annex are fulfilled. This increase is
allowed only once within an interpolation family.

Figure A6/4
Limits for the Selection of Vehicle M
In case of a 4-phase calculation the linearity of the corrected measured and averaged CO
mass emission for vehicle M, M according to step 6 of Table A7/1 of Annex 7, shall
be verified against the linearly interpolated CO mass emission between vehicles L and H
over the applicable cycle by using the corrected measured and averaged CO mass
emission M of vehicle H and M of vehicle L, according to step 6 of Table A7/1
of Annex 7, for the linear CO mass emission interpolation.
In case of a 3-phase calculation an additional averaging of tests using the CO -output of
Step 4a is necessary (not described in Table A7/1). The linearity of the corrected measured
and averaged CO mass emission for vehicle M, M according to step 4a of
Table A7/1 of Annex 7, shall be verified against the linearly interpolated CO mass emission
between vehicles L and H over the applicable cycle by using the corrected measured and
averaged CO mass emission M values of vehicle H and M of vehicle L,
according to step 4a used in of Table A7/1 of Annex 7, for the linear CO mass emission
interpolation.The linearity criterion for vehicle M (see Figure A6/5) shall be considered
fulfilled, if the CO mass emission of the vehicle M over the applicable WLTC minus the CO
mass emission derived by interpolation is less than 2g/km or 3% of the interpolated value,
whichever value is lower, but at least 1g/km.

2.4.2.1.1. At the option of the Contracting Party, if the vehicle is equipped with a coasting functionality,
this functionality shall be deactivated either by a switch or by the vehicle's dynamometer
operation mode during chassis dynamometer testing, except for tests where the coasting
functionality is explicitly required by the test procedure.
2.4.2.2. The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode, if any, shall be activated by using the
manufacturer's instruction (e.g. using vehicle steering wheel buttons in a special sequence,
using the manufacturer's workshop tester, removing a fuse).
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The manufacturer shall provide the responsible authority a list of the deactivated devices
and/or functionalities and justification for the deactivation. The dynamometer operation
mode shall be approved by the responsible authority and the use of a dynamometer
operation mode shall be recorded.
Option B:
The manufacturer shall provide the responsible authority a list of the deactivated devices
and justification for the deactivation. The dynamometer operation mode shall be approved
by the responsible authority and the use of a dynamometer operation mode shall be
recorded.
2.4.2.3. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode shall not activate, modulate, delay or deactivate
the operation of any part (with the exclusion of the coasting functionality) that affects the
emissions and fuel consumption under the test conditions. Any device that affects the
operation on a chassis dynamometer shall be set to ensure a proper operation.
Option B:
The vehicle's dynamometer operation mode shall not activate, modulate, delay or deactivate
the operation of any part that affects the emissions and fuel consumption under the test
conditions. Any device that affects the operation on a chassis dynamometer shall be set to
ensure a proper operation.
2.4.2.4. Allocation of Dynamometer Type to Test Vehicle
2.4.2.4.1. If the test vehicle has two powered axles, and under WLTP conditions it is partially or
permanently operated with two axles being powered or recuperating energy over the
applicable cycle the vehicle shall be tested on a dynamometer in 4WD operation which
fulfils the specifications in Paragraphs 2.2. and 2.3. of Annex 5.
2.4.2.4.2. If the test vehicle is tested with only one powered axle, the test vehicle shall be tested on a
dynamometer in 2WD operation which fulfils the specifications in Paragraph 2.2. of Annex 5.
At the request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the approval authority a vehicle
with one powered axle may be tested on a 4WD dynamometer in 4WD operation mode.

(c)
(d)
A safe operation is ensured for the test (e.g. by removing a fuse or dismounting a
drive shaft) and an instruction is provided together with the dynamometer operation
mode;
The conversion is only applied to the vehicle tested at the chassis dynamometer, the
road load determination procedure shall be applied to the unconverted test vehicle.
2.4.2.5.2. This demonstration of equivalency shall apply to all vehicles in the same road load family. At
the request of the manufacturer, and with approval of the approval authority, this
demonstration of equivalency may be extended to other road load families upon evidence
that a vehicle from the worst-case road load family was selected as the test vehicle.
2.4.2.6. Information on whether the vehicle was tested on a 2WD dynamometer or a 4WD
dynamometer and whether it was tested on a dynamometer in 2WD operation or 4WD
operation shall be included in all relevant test reports. In the case that the vehicle was
tested on a 4WD dynamometer, with that dynamometer in 2WD operation, this information
shall also indicate whether or not the wheels on the non-powered wheels were rotating.
2.4.3. The vehicle's exhaust system shall not exhibit any leak likely to reduce the quantity of gas
collected.
2.4.4. The settings of the powertrain and vehicle controls shall be those prescribed by the
manufacturer for series production.
2.4.5. Tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer. Tyre
pressure may be increased by up to 50% above the pressure specified in
Paragraph 4.2.2.3. of Annex 4. The same tyre pressure shall be used for the setting of the
dynamometer and for all subsequent testing. The tyre pressure used shall be recorded.
2.4.6. Reference Fuel
The appropriate reference fuel as specified in Annex 3 shall be used for testing.
2.4.7. Test Vehicle Preparation
2.4.7.1. The vehicle shall be approximately horizontal during the test so as to avoid any abnormal
distribution of the fuel.
2.4.7.2. If necessary, the manufacturer shall provide additional fittings and adapters, as required to
accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tank(s) as installed on the
vehicle, and to provide for exhaust sample collection.
2.4.7.3. For PM sampling during a test when the regenerating device is in a stabilized loading
condition (i.e. the vehicle is not undergoing a regeneration), it is recommended that the
vehicle has completed more than 1/3 of the mileage between scheduled regenerations or
that the periodically regenerating device has undergone equivalent loading off the vehicle.
2.5. Preliminary Testing Cycles
Preliminary testing cycles may be carried out if requested by the manufacturer to follow the
speed trace within the prescribed limits.

2.6.3. Procedure
2.6.3.1. The test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and
operated through the applicable WLTCs. The vehicle need not be cold, and may be used to
set the dynamometer load.
2.6.3.2. The dynamometer load shall be set according to Paragraphs 7. and 8. of Annex 4. In the
case that a dynamometer in 2WD operation is used for testing, the road load setting shall be
carried out on a dynamometer in 2WD operation, and in the case that a dynamometer in
4WD operation is used for testing the road load setting shall be carried out on a
dynamometer in 4WD operation.
2.6.4. Operating the Vehicle
2.6.4.1. The powertrain start procedure shall be initiated by means of the devices provided for this
purpose according to the manufacturer's instructions.
A non-vehicle initiated switching of mode of operation during the test shall not be permitted
unless otherwise specified.
2.6.4.1.1. If the initiation of the powertrain start procedure is not successful, e.g. the engine does not
start as anticipated or the vehicle displays a start error, the test is void, preconditioning tests
shall be repeated and a new test shall be driven.
2.6.4.1.2. In the cases where LPG or NG/biomethane is used as a fuel, it is permissible that the
engine is started on petrol and switched automatically to LPG or NG/biomethane after a
predetermined period of time that cannot be changed by the driver. This period of time shall
not exceed 60s.
It is also permissible to use petrol only or simultaneously with gas when operating in gas
mode provided that the energy consumption of gas is higher than 80% of the total amount of
energy consumed during the Type 1 test. This percentage shall be calculated in accordance
with the method set out in Appendix 3 to this Annex.
2.6.4.2. The cycle starts on initiation of the powertrain start procedure.
2.6.4.3. For preconditioning, the applicable WLTC shall be driven.
At the request of the manufacturer or the responsible authority, additional WLTCs may be
performed in order to bring the vehicle and its control systems to a stabilized condition.
The extent of such additional preconditioning shall be recorded.
2.6.4.4. Accelerations
The vehicle shall be operated with the necessary accelerator control movement to
accurately follow the speed trace.
The vehicle shall be operated smoothly following representative shift speeds and
procedures.
For manual transmissions, the accelerator control shall be released during each shift and
the shift shall be accomplished in minimum time.
If the vehicle cannot follow the speed trace, it shall be operated at maximum available
power until the vehicle speed reaches the respective target speed again.

2.6.6.3. If the vehicle has no predominant mode or the requested predominant mode is not agreed
by the responsible authority as being a predominant mode, or there are not two or more
configurable start modes, the vehicle shall be tested for criteria emissions, CO emissions,
and fuel consumption in the best case mode and worst case mode. Best and worst case
modes shall be identified by the evidence provided on the CO emissions and fuel
consumption in all modes. CO emissions and fuel consumption shall be the arithmetic
average of the test results in both modes. Test results for both modes shall be recorded.
At the request of the manufacturer, the vehicle may alternatively be tested with the
driver-selectable mode in the worst case position for CO emissions.
2.6.6.4. On the basis of technical evidence provided by the manufacturer and with the agreement of
the responsible authority, the dedicated driver-selectable modes for very special limited
purposes shall not be considered (e.g. maintenance mode, crawler mode). All remaining
modes used for forward driving shall be considered and the criteria emissions limits shall be
fulfilled in all these modes.
2.6.6.5. Paragraphs 2.6.6.1. to 2.6.6.4. inclusive of this Annex shall apply to all vehicle systems with
driver-selectable modes, including those not solely specific to the transmission.
2.6.7. Voiding of the Type 1 Test and Completion of the Cycle
If the engine stops unexpectedly, the preconditioning or Type 1 test shall be declared void.
After completion of the cycle, the engine shall be switched off. The vehicle shall not be
restarted until the beginning of the test for which the vehicle has been preconditioned.
2.6.8. Data Required, Quality Control
2.6.8.1. Speed Measurement
During the preconditioning, speed shall be measured against time or collected by the data
acquisition system at a frequency of not less than 1Hz so that the actual driven speed can
be assessed.
2.6.8.2. Distance Travelled
The distance actually driven by the vehicle shall be recorded for each WLTC phase.
2.6.8.3. Speed Trace Tolerances
Vehicles that cannot attain the acceleration and maximum speed values required in the
applicable WLTC shall be operated with the accelerator control fully activated until they
once again reach the required speed trace. Speed trace violations under these
circumstances shall not void a test. Deviations from the driving cycle shall be recorded.

Vehicle operation Vehicle operation Pre-conditioning
Performance parameter
measurement test after
preconditioning
Annex 6 and 8;
Type 1 Tests
Annex 13;
Type 6 Tests
Annex 11 Appendix 1;
OBD Demonstration Tests
Tolerance (1) Tolerance (2)
Tolerance (2) and
Tolerance (3)
Not applicable Tolerance (2) Tolerance (2)
Tolerance (1) Tolerance (2) Tolerance (2)
COP Tests (Annex 14) Tolerance (1) Tolerance (2)
Derive run-in factor for COP
(Annex 14)
Tolerance (1) Tolerance (2)
The tolerance shall not be shown to the driver
Tolerance (2) and
Tolerance (4)
Tolerance (2) and
Tolerance (3)
If the speed trace is outside the respective validity range for any of the tests, those
individual tests shall be considered invalid.
Figure A6/6
Speed Trace Tolerances

2.9.1. The following steps shall be taken prior to each test:
2.9.1.1. The purged, evacuated sample bags shall be connected to the dilute exhaust and dilution
air sample collection systems.
2.9.1.2. Measuring instruments shall be started according to the instrument manufacturer's
instructions.
2.9.1.3. The CVS heat exchanger (if installed) shall be pre-heated or pre-cooled to within its
operating test temperature tolerance as specified in Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of Annex 5.
2.9.1.4. Components such as sample lines, filters, chillers and pumps shall be heated or cooled as
required until stabilised operating temperatures are reached.
2.9.1.5. CVS flow rates shall be set according to Paragraph 3.3.4. of Annex 5, and sample flow rates
shall be set to the appropriate levels.
2.9.1.6. Any electronic integrating device shall be zeroed and may be re-zeroed before the start of
any cycle phase.
2.9.1.7. For all continuous gas analysers, the appropriate ranges shall be selected. These may be
switched during a test only if switching is performed by changing the calibration over which
the digital resolution of the instrument is applied. The gains of an analyser's analogue
operational amplifiers may not be switched during a test.
2.9.1.8. All continuous gas analysers shall be zeroed and calibrated using gases fulfilling the
requirements of Paragraph 6. of Annex 5.
2.10. Sampling for PM Determination
2.10.1. The steps described in Paragraphs 2.10.1.1. to 2.10.1.2.2. inclusive of this Annex shall be
taken prior to each test.
2.10.1.1. Filter Selection
A single particulate sample filter without back-up shall be employed for the complete
applicable WLTC. In order to accommodate regional cycle variations, a single filter may be
employed for the first three phases and a separate filter for the fourth phase.
2.10.1.2. Filter Preparation
2.10.1.2.1. At least 1h before the test, the filter shall be placed in a petri dish protecting against dust
contamination and allowing air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber (or room) for
stabilization.
At the end of the stabilization period, the filter shall be weighed and its weight shall be
recorded. The filter shall subsequently be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter holder
until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within 8h of its removal from the weighing
chamber (or room).
The filter shall be returned to the stabilization room within 1h after the test and shall be
conditioned for at least 1h before weighing.
2.10.1.2.2. The particulate sample filter shall be carefully installed into the filter holder. The filter shall
be handled only with forceps or tongs. Rough or abrasive filter handling will result in
erroneous weight determination. The filter holder assembly shall be placed in a sample line
through which there is no flow.

2.12.5.2. Particulate
The requirements of Paragraph 2.10.1.1. of this Annex shall apply.
2.12.6. Dynamometer distance shall be recorded for each phase.
2.13. Ending the Test
2.13.1. The engine shall be turned off immediately after the end of the last part of the test.
2.13.2. The constant volume sampler, CVS, or other suction device shall be turned off, or the
exhaust tube from the tailpipe or tailpipes of the vehicle shall be disconnected.
2.13.3. The vehicle may be removed from the dynamometer.
2.14. Post-test Procedures
2.14.1. Gas Analyser Check
Zero and calibration gas reading of the analysers used for continuous diluted measurement
shall be checked. The test shall be considered acceptable if the difference between the
pre-test and post-test results is less than 2% of the calibration gas value.
2.14.2. Bag Analysis
2.14.2.1. Exhaust gases and dilution air contained in the bags shall be analysed as soon as possible.
Exhaust gases shall, in any event, be analysed not later than 30min after the end of the
cycle phase.
The gas reactivity time for compounds in the bag shall be taken into consideration.
2.14.2.2. As soon as practical prior to analysis, the analyser range to be used for each compound
shall be set to zero with the appropriate zero gas.
2.14.2.3. The calibration curves of the analysers shall be set by means of calibration gases of
nominal concentrations of 70 to 100% of the range.
2.14.2.4. The zero settings of the analysers shall be subsequently rechecked: if any reading differs by
more than 2% of the range from that set in Paragraph 2.14.2.2. of this Annex, the procedure
shall be repeated for that analyser.
2.14.2.5. The samples shall be subsequently analysed.
2.14.2.6. After the analysis, zero and calibration points shall be rechecked using the same gases. The
test shall be considered acceptable if the difference is less than 2% of the calibration gas
value.
2.14.2.7. The flow rates and pressures of the various gases through analysers shall be the same as
those used during calibration of the analysers.
2.14.2.8. The content of each of the compounds measured shall be recorded after stabilization of the
measuring device.

ANNEX 6 – APPENDIX 1
EMISSIONS TEST PROCEDURE FOR ALL VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH PERIODICALLY
REGENERATING SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
1.1. This Appendix defines the specific provisions regarding testing a vehicle equipped with
periodically regenerating systems as defined in Paragraph 3.8.1. of this UN GTR.
1.2. During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards need not apply. If a periodic
regeneration occurs at least once per Type 1 test and has already occurred at least once
during vehicle preparation or the distance between two successive periodic regenerations is
more than 4,000km of driving repeated Type 1 tests, it does not require a special test
procedure. In this case, this Appendix does not apply and a K factor of 1.0 shall be used.
1.3. The provisions of this Appendix shall not apply to PN emissions.
1.4. At the request of the manufacturer, and with approval of the responsible authority, the test
procedure specific to periodically regenerating systems need not apply to a regenerative
device if the manufacturer provides data demonstrating that, during cycles where
regeneration occurs, emissions remain below the emissions limits applied by the
Contracting Party for the relevant vehicle category. In this case, a fixed K value of 1.05 shall
be used for CO and fuel consumption.
2. TEST PROCEDURE
The test vehicle shall be capable of inhibiting or permitting the regeneration process
provided that this operation has no effect on original engine calibrations. Prevention of
regeneration is only permitted during loading of the regeneration system and during the
preconditioning cycles. It is not permitted during the measurement of emissions during the
regeneration phase. The emission test shall be carried out with the unchanged, original
equipment manufacturer's (OEM) control unit. At the request of the manufacturer and with
agreement of the responsible authority, an "engineering control unit" which has no effect on
original engine calibrations may be used during K determination.
2.1. Exhaust Emissions Measurement between Two WLTCs with Regeneration Events
2.1.1. The arithmetic average emissions between regeneration events and during loading of the
regenerative device shall be determined from the arithmetic mean of several approximately
equidistant (if more than two) Type 1 tests. As an alternative, the manufacturer may provide
data to show that the emissions remain constant (±15%) on WLTCs between regeneration
events. In this case, the emissions measured during the Type 1 test may be used. In any
other case, emissions measurements for at least two Type 1 cycles shall be completed: one
immediately after regeneration (before new loading) and one as close as possible prior to a
regeneration phase. All emissions measurements shall be carried out according to this
Annex and all calculations shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3. of this Appendix.

3. CALCULATIONS
3.1. Calculation of the exhaust and CO emissions, and fuel consumption of a single
regenerative system.
Where for each compound i considered:
M′ are the mass emissions of compound i over test cycle j without regeneration, g/km;
M′ are the mass emissions of compound i over test cycle j during regeneration, g/km
(if d > 1, the first WLTC test shall be run cold and subsequent cycles hot);
M
M
M
n
d
D
are the mean mass emissions of compound i without regeneration, g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of compound i during regeneration, g/km;
are the mean mass emissions of compound i, g/km;
is the number of test cycles, between cycles where regenerative events occur, during
which emissions measurements on Type 1 WLTCs are made, ≥ 1;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles required for regeneration;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles between two cycles where
regeneration events occur.
The calculation of M is shown graphically in Figure A6.App1/1.
Figure A6.App1/1
Parameters Measured during Emissions Test during and between Cycles where Regeneration
Occurs (Schematic Example, the Emissions during D may Increase or Decrease)

M
are the mean mass emission of all events k of compound i, g/km;
M are the mean mass emissions of event k of compound i without regeneration, g/km;
M
are the mean mass emissions of event k of compound i during regeneration, g/km;
M′ are the mass emissions of event k of compound i in g/km without regeneration
measured at point j where 1 ≤ j ≤ n , g/km;
M′ are the mass emissions of event k of compound i during regeneration (when j > 1, the
first Type 1 test is run cold, and subsequent cycles are hot) measured at test cycle j
where 1 ≤ j ≤ d , g/km;
n
d
D
x
are the number of complete test cycles of event k, between two cycles where
regenerative phases occur, during which emissions measurements (Type 1 WLTCs
or equivalent engine test bench cycles) are made, ≥ 2;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles of event k required for complete
regeneration;
is the number of complete applicable test cycles of event k between two cycles where
regenerative phases occur;
is the number of complete regeneration events.
The calculation of M is shown graphically in Figure A6.App1/2.

ANNEX 6 – APPENDIX 2
TEST PROCEDURE FOR RECHARGEABLE ELECTRIC ENERGY
STORAGE SYSTEM MONITORING
1. GENERAL
In the case that NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs are tested,
Appendices 2 and 3 to Annex 8 shall apply.
This Appendix defines the specific provisions regarding the correction of test results for CO
mass emission as a function of the energy balance ΔE for all REESSs.
The corrected values for CO mass emission shall correspond to a zero energy balance
(ΔE = 0), and shall be calculated using a correction coefficient determined as defined
below.
2. MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION
2.1. Current Measurement
REESS depletion shall be defined as negative current.
2.1.1. The REESS current(s) shall be measured during the tests using a clamp-on or closed type
current transducer. The current measurement system shall fulfil the requirements specified
in Table A8/1. The current transducer(s) shall be capable of handling the peak currents at
engine starts and temperature conditions at the point of measurement.
In order to have an accurate measurement, zero adjustment and degaussing shall be
performed before the test according to the instrument manufacturer's instructions.
2.1.2. Current transducers shall be fitted to any of the REESS on one of the cables connected
directly to the REESS and shall include the total REESS current.
In case of shielded wires, appropriate methods shall be applied in accordance with the
responsible authority.
In order to easily measure REESS current using external measuring equipment,
manufacturers should preferably integrate appropriate, safe and accessible connection
points in the vehicle. If this is not feasible, the manufacturer shall support the responsible
authority by providing the means to connect a current transducer to the REESS cables in
the manner described above.
2.1.3. The measured current shall be integrated over time at a minimum frequency of 20Hz,
yielding the measured value of Q, expressed in ampere-hours Ah. The measured current
shall be integrated over time, yielding the measured value of Q, expressed in ampere-hours
Ah. The integration may be done in the current measurement system.

3.4. Correction of CO Mass Emission over the Whole Cycle as a Function of the
Correction Criterion c
3.4.1. Calculation of the Correction Criterion c
The correction criterion c is the ratio between the absolute value of the electric energy
change ΔE and the fuel energy and shall be calculated using the following equations:
Where:
c
is the correction criterion;
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs over period j determined according
to Paragraph 4.1. of this Appendix, Wh;
j
is, in this Paragraph, the whole applicable WLTP test cycle;
E is the fuel energy according to the following equation:
Where:
E = 10 × HV × FC × d
E is the energy content of the consumed fuel over the applicable WLTP test
cycle, Wh;
HV
FC
d
is the heating value according to Table A6.App2/1, kWh/l;
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of the Type 1 test, not corrected for the
energy balance, determined according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, and using
the results for criteria emissions and CO calculated in step 2 in Table A7/1,
1/100km;
is the distance driven over the corresponding applicable WLTP test cycle, km;
10 conversion factor to Wh.
3.4.2. The correction shall be applied if ΔE is negative (corresponding to REESS discharging)
At the request of the manufacturer, the correction may be omitted and uncorrected values
may be used if:
(a) ΔE is positive (corresponding to REESS charging);
(b)
The manufacturer can prove to the responsible authority by measurement that there
is no relation between ΔE
and CO mass emission and ΔE
and fuel
consumption respectively.

t is the time at the beginning of the considered period j, s;
t is the time at the end of the considered period j, s.
i
n
j
is the index number of the considered REESS;
is the total amount of REESS;
is the index number for the considered period, where a period shall be any
applicable cycle phase, combination of cycle phases and the applicable total
cycle;
is the conversion factor from Ws to Wh.
4.2. For correction of CO mass emission, g/km, combustion process-specific Willans factors
from Table A6.App2/3 shall be used.
4.3. The correction shall be performed and applied for the total cycle and for each of its cycle
phases separately, and shall be recorded.
4.4. For this specific calculation, a fixed electric power supply system alternator efficiency shall
be used:
η = 0.67 for electric power supply system REESS alternators
4.5. The resulting CO mass emission difference for the considered period j due to load
behaviour of the alternator for charging a REESS shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
ΔM is the resulting CO mass emission difference of period j, g/km;
ΔE
is the REESS energy change of the considered period j calculated according to
Paragraph 4.1. of this Appendix, Wh;
d
j
is the driven distance of the considered period j, km;
is the index number for the considered period, where a period shall be any
applicable cycle phase, combination of cycle phases and the applicable total
cycle;
0.0036 is the conversion factor from Wh to MJ;
η is the efficiency of the alternator according to Paragraph 4.4. of this Appendix;
Willans is the combustion process-specific Willans factor as defined in
Table A6.App2/3, gCO /MJ;

ANNEX 6 – APPENDIX 3
CALCULATION OF GAS ENERGY RATIO FOR GASEOUS FUELS (LPG AND NG/BIOMETHANE)
1. MEASUREMENT OF THE MASS OF GASEOUS FUEL CONSUMED DURING THE
TYPE 1 TEST CYCLE
Measurement of the mass of gas consumed during the cycle shall be done by a fuel
weighing system capable of measuring the weight of the storage container during the test in
accordance with the following:
(a)
(b)
An accuracy of ±2% of the difference between the readings at the beginning and at
the end of the test or better.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors.
Such precautions shall at least include the careful installation of the device according
to the instrument manufacturer's recommendations and to good engineering practice.
(c)
Other measurement methods are permitted if an equivalent accuracy can be
demonstrated.
2. CALCULATION OF THE GAS ENERGY RATIO
The fuel consumption value shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon
monoxide, and carbon dioxide determined from the measurement results assuming that only
the gaseous fuel is burned during the test.
The gas ratio of the energy consumed in the cycle shall be determined using the following
equation:
Where:
G is the gas energy ratio, per cent;
M is the mass of the gaseous fuel consumed during the cycle, kg;
FC
is the fuel consumption (1/100km for LPG, m /100km for NG/biomethane)
calculated in accordance with Paragraphs 6.6. and 6.7. of Annex 7;
dist
ρ
is the distance recorded during the cycle, km;
is the gas density:
ρ = 0.654kg/m for NG/Biomethane;
ρ = 0.538kg/l for LPG;
cf
is the correction factor, assuming the following values:
cf = 1 in the case of LPG or G20 reference fuel;
cf = 0.78 in the case of G25 reference fuel.

Table A7/1
Procedure for Calculating Final Test Results (FE applicable for the 3-phase WLTP only)
Table A7/1 shall be performed separately for results after 4 phases and for results after 3 phases.
Step No. Source Input Process Output
1
Annex 6
Raw test results
Mass emissions
Paragraphs 3. to 3.2.2. inclusive of this
Annex.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
2 Output
Step 1
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Calculation of combined cycle values:
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Where:
M are the emission results over the
total cycle;
d
are the driven distances of the
cycle phases, p.
3 Output
Step 1 and
2
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
RCB correction
Appendix 2 to Annex 6.
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
4a
Output
Step 2 and
3
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Emissions test procedure for all vehicles
equipped with periodically regenerating
systems, K .
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
Annex 6, Appendix 1.
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
and
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
Additive offset or multiplicative factor to
be used according to K determination.
If K is not applicable:
M = M
M = M

Step No. Source Input Process Output
5
Result of
a single
test.
Output
Step 4b
and 4c
6 For results
after 4
phases
Output
Step 5
For results
after 3
phases
Output
step 5
7 For results
after 4
phases:
Output
Step 6
For results
after 3
phases:
Output
step 5 and
6
M
M
M
FE
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, km/l;
For every test:
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M , g/km.
Placeholder for additional corrections, if
applicable.
Otherwise:
M = M
M = M
Apply deterioration factors calculated in
accordance with Annex 12 to the criteria
emissions values.
In the case these values are used for
the purpose of conformity of production,
the further steps (6 to 10) are not
required and the output of this step is
the final result.
Averaging of tests and declared value.
Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3. inclusive of
Annex 6.
FE , km/l; Averaging of tests and declared value.
M , g/km;
M , g/km.
M ,
g/km.
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M ,
g/km.
Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3. inclusive of
Annex 6.
The conversion from FE to
M shall be performed for the
applicable cycle according to
Paragraph 6. of Annex 7. For that
purpose, the criteria emission over the
applicable cycle shall be used.
Alignment of phase values.
Paragraph 1.2.4. of Annex 6.
and:
M = M
Alignment of phase values.
Paragraph 1.2.4. of Annex 6.
M
M
M
FE
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, km/l;
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km.
M
,
, g/km.
FE
FE
M
M
M
M
, km/l
, km/l
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km.

Step No. Source Input Process Output
9
Interpolation
family result.
For results
after 4
phases
Final criteria
emission
result.
10
Result of an
individual
vehicle.
Final CO ,
FE and FC
result.
Output
Step 8
Output
Step 9
For each of the
test vehicles H
and L:
M
M
M
FC
FC
FE
FE
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km;
, km/l
, km/l
For results after 4 phases;
If in addition to a test vehicle H a test
vehicle L and, if applicable vehicle M
was also tested, the resulting criteria
emission value shall be the highest of
the two or, if applicable, three values
and referred to as M .
In the case of the combined THC + NO
emissions, the highest value of the sum
referring to either the vehicle H or
vehicle L or, if applicable, vehicle M is to
be taken as the certification value.
Otherwise, if no vehicle L was tested,
M = M
For CO , FE and FC, the values derived
in step 8 shall be used, and CO values
shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to two
places of decimal, and FE and FC
values shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to three
places of decimal.
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
FC
, 1/100km;
FC
FE
, 1/100km;
, km/l;
Paragraph 3.2.3. of this Annex.
FE
, km/l;
and if a vehicle
L was tested:
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km;
Paragraph 3.2.4. of this Annex.
FC
, 1/100km;
FC
, 1/100km.
FE
, km/l;
FE
, km/l.
Fuel consumption, fuel efficiency and
CO calculations for individual vehicles
in an interpolation family.
Fuel consumption, fuel efficiency and
CO calculations for individual vehicles
in a road load matrix family
CO emissions shall be expressed in
grams per kilometre (g/km) rounded to
the nearest whole number;
FC values shall be rounded according
to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to one
place of decimal, expressed in
(1/100km);
FE values shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to one
place of decimal, expressed in (lm/l).
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
FC , 1/100km;
FC , 1/100km;
FE , km/l;
FE , km/l;
and
if
a
vehicle
L
was
tested:
M
M
FC
FC
FE
FE
, g/km;
, g/km;
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km;
, km/l
, km/l.
M
g/km;
M
, g/km;
FC
1/100km;
FC
, 1/100km
FE
, km/l.
FE
, km/l

3.1.2. The mass M of gaseous compounds emitted by the vehicle during the test shall be
determined by the product of the volumetric concentration of the gas in question and the
volume of the diluted exhaust gas with due regard for the following densities under the
reference conditions of 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa:
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO )
ρ = 1.25g/l
ρ = 1.964g/l
Hydrocarbons:
For petrol (E0) (C H
)
ρ = 0.619g/l
For petrol (E5) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.632g/l
For petrol (E10) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.646g/l
For diesel (B0) (C H
)
ρ = 0.620g/l
For diesel (B5 and B5H) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.623g/l
For diesel (B7) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.625g/l
For LPG (C H
)
ρ = 0.649g/l
For NG/biomethane (CH )
ρ = 0.716g/l
For ethanol (E85) (C H
O
)
ρ = 0.934g/l
Formaldehyde (if applicable)
ρ = 1.34
Acetaldehyde (if applicable)
ρ = 1.96
Ethanol (if applicable)
ρ = 2.05
Nitrogen oxides (NO )
Nitrogen dioxide (NO ) (if applicable)
Nitrous oxide (N O) (if applicable)
ρ = 2.05g/l
ρ = 2.05g/l
ρ = 1.964g/l
The density for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total hydrocarbons at
273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa, and is fuel-dependent. The density for propane mass
calculations (see Paragraph 3.5. of Annex 5) is 1.967g/l at standard conditions.
If a fuel type is not listed in this Paragraph, the density of that fuel shall be calculated using
the equation given in Paragraph 3.1.3. of this Annex.

3.2.1.1. The concentration of a gaseous compound in the diluted exhaust gas shall be corrected by
the amount of the gaseous compound in the dilution air using the following equation:
Where:
C
C
C
DF
is the concentration of gaseous compound i in the diluted exhaust gas corrected by
the amount of gaseous compound i contained in the dilution air, ppm;
is the measured concentration of gaseous compound i in the diluted exhaust gas,
ppm;
is the concentration of gaseous compound i in the dilution air, ppm;
is the dilution factor.
3.2.1.1.1. The dilution factor DF shall be calculated using the equation for the concerned fuel:
for petrol (E5, E10) and diesel (B0)
for petrol (E0)
for diesel (B5, B5H and B7)
for LPG
for NG/biomethane
for ethanol (E85)
With respect to the equation for hydrogen:
for hydrogen
C is the concentration of H O in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample
bag, per cent volume;
C is the concentration of H O in the dilution air, per cent volume;
C is the concentration of H in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sample
bag, ppm.

3.2.1.1.3. Methane Measurement
3.2.1.1.3.1. For methane measurement using a GC-FID, NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
C = C − (Rf × C )
C is the corrected concentration of NMHC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm carbon
equivalent;
C is the concentration of THC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm carbon equivalent and
corrected by the amount of THC contained in the dilution air;
C is the concentration of CH in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm carbon equivalent and
corrected by the amount of CH contained in the dilution air;
Rf
is the FID response factor to methane determined and specified in
Paragraph 5.4.3.2. of Annex 5.
3.2.1.1.3.2. For methane measurement using an NMC-FID, the calculation of NMHC depends on the
calibration gas/method used for the zero/calibration adjustment.
The FID used for the THC measurement (without NMC) shall be calibrated with propane/air
in the normal manner.
For the calibration of the FID in series with an NMC, the following methods are permitted:
(a)
(b)
The calibration gas consisting of propane/air bypasses the NMC;
The calibration gas consisting of methane/air passes through the NMC.
It is highly recommended to calibrate the methane FID with methane/air through the NMC.
In case (a), the concentration of CH and NMHC shall be calculated using the following
equations:
If Rf < 1.05, it may be omitted from the equation above for C .

3.2.1.1.3.3.2. Ethane Conversion Efficiency, E
The ethane/air calibration gas shall be flowed to the FID through the NMC and bypassing
the NMC and the two concentrations recorded. The efficiency shall be determined using
the following equation:
Where:
C is the HC concentration with C H flowing through the NMC, ppm C;
C is the HC concentration with C H bypassing the NMC, ppm C.
If the ethane conversion efficiency of the NMC is 0.98 or above, E shall be set to 1 for
any subsequent calculation.
3.2.1.1.3.4. If the methane FID is calibrated through the cutter, E shall be 0.
The equation to calculate C in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in this Annex
becomes:
C = C
The equation to calculate C in Paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.2. (case (b)) in this Annex
becomes:
C = C − C × r
The density used for NMHC mass calculations shall be equal to that of total
hydrocarbons at 273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa and is fuel-dependent.
3.2.1.1.4. Flow-weighted Arithmetic Average Concentration Calculation
The following calculation method shall be applied for CVS systems that are not equipped
with a heat exchanger or for CVS systems with a heat exchanger that does not comply
with Paragraph 3.3.5.1. of Annex 5.
This flow weighted arithmetic average concentration calculation shall be used for all
continuous diluted measurements including PN (if applicable). It may be optionally
applied for CVS systems with a heat exchanger that complies with Paragraph 3.3.5.1 of
Annex 5.
Where:
C
is the flow-weighted arithmetic average concentration;
q (i) is the CVS flow rate at time t = i × Δt, m /s;
C(i)
is the concentration at time t = i × Δt, ppm;

3.2.1.3.1.2. The arithmetic average NO concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
is the integral of the recording of the continuous dilute NO analyser over the
test (t -t );
C
is the concentration of NO measured in the diluted exhaust, ppm;
3.2.1.3.1.3. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bag. A correction
shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.1.3.2. NO Concentrations (if applicable)
3.2.1.3.2.1. Determination NO Concentration from Direct Diluted Measurement
3.2.1.3.2.2. NO concentrations shall be calculated from the integrated NO analyser reading, corrected
for varying flow if necessary.
3.2.1.3.2.3. The arithmetic average NO concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
is the integral of the recording of the continuous dilute NO analyser over the
test (t -t );
C
is the concentration of NO measured in the diluted exhaust, ppm.
3.2.1.3.2.4. Dilution air concentration of NO shall be determined from the dilution air bags. Correction is
carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.

Mass = PeakArea × Rf × V × B
Where:
B
is the ratio of the molecular weight of the carbonyl compound to its
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative;
V is the volume of the sample, ml;
Rf
is the response factor for each carbonyl calculated during the calibration using the
following equation:
Rf = C (μg 2,4-DNPH species/ml) / PeakArea
3.2.1.8. Determining the Mass of Ethanol, Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde (if applicable)
As an alternative to measuring the concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and
formaldehyde, the M for ethanol petrol blends with less than 25% ethanol by volume may
be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
M = (0.0302 + 0.0071 × (percentage of ethanol)) × M
M is the mass emission of EAF per test, g/km;
M is the mass emission of NMHC per test, g/km;
Percentage of alcohol
is the volume percentage of ethanol in the test fuel.
3.2.2. Determination of the HC Mass Emissions from Compression-ignition Engines
3.2.2.1. To calculate HC mass emission for compression-ignition engines, the arithmetic average
HC concentration shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
is the integral of the recording of the heated FID over the test (t to t );
C
is the concentration of HC measured in the diluted exhaust in ppm of C and is
substituted for C in all relevant equations.
3.2.2.1.1. Dilution air concentration of HC shall be determined from the dilution air bags. Correction
shall be carried out according to Paragraph 3.2.1.1. of this Annex.

3.2.3.2.2.2.2. For the tyres fitted to an individual vehicle, the value of the rolling resistance coefficient
RR shall be set to the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4.
In the case where individual vehicles can be supplied with a complete set of standard
wheels and tyres and in addition a complete set of snow tyres (marked with 3 Peaked
Mountain and Snowflake – 3PMS) with or without wheels, the additional wheels/tyres
shall not be considered as optional equipment.
If the tyres on the front and rear axles belong to different energy efficiency classes, the
weighted mean shall be used and calculated using the equation in
Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.2.3. of this Annex.
If the same tyres, or tyres with the same rolling resistance coefficient were fitted to test
vehicles L and H, the value of RR for the interpolation method shall be set to RR .
3.2.3.2.2.2.3. Calculating the Weighted Mean of the Rolling Resistances
Where:
RR = (RR × mp ) + (RR × (1 − mp ))
x
represents vehicle L, H or an individual vehicle.
RR
and RR
are the actual RRCs of the front axle tyres on vehicles L and H
respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the front axle tyres on the
individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
RR
, and RR
are the actual RRCs of the rear axle tyres on vehicles L and H
respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the rear axle tyres on the
individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
mp
is the proportion of the vehicle mass in running order on the front
axle;
RRx shall not be rounded or categorised to tyre energy efficiency classes.
3.2.3.2.2.3. Aerodynamic Drag of an Individual Vehicle
3.2.3.2.2.3.1. Determination of Aerodynamic Influence of Optional Equipment
The aerodynamic drag shall be measured for each of the aerodynamic drag-influencing
items of optional equipment and body shapes in a wind tunnel fulfilling the requirements
of Paragraph 3.2. of Annex 4 verified by the responsible authority.

Figure A7/1a (as applicable)
Example of Application of the Alternative Method for Determination of Aerodynamic Influence of
Optional Equipment
3.2.3.2.2.3.2.1. The manufacturer shall submit the declared scope of applicable vehicles for the
alternative method and the declared scope shall be documented to relevant test reports
when evidence of equivalency is shown to the responsible authority. The responsible
authority may request the confirmation of equivalency for the alternative method by
selecting the vehicle from the scope declared by the manufacturer after equivalency was
demonstrated. The result shall fulfil an accuracy for Δ(C ×A ) of ±0.015m . This
procedure shall be based on wind tunnel measurements fulfilling the criteria of this
UN GTR. If this procedure is not satisfied, the approval of the alternative method is
regarded as invalidated. At the request of the Contracting Party, this paragraph may be
excluded.
3.2.3.2.2.3.3. Application of Aerodynamic Influence on the Individual Vehicle
Δ(C × A ) is the difference in the product of the aerodynamic drag coefficient multiplied
by frontal area between an individual vehicle and test vehicle L due to options and body
shapes on the vehicle that differ from those of test vehicle L, m ;
These differences in aerodynamic drag, Δ(C × A ), shall be determined with an accuracy
of ±0.015m .

3.2.3.2.2.4. Calculation of Road Load Coefficients for Individual Vehicles
The road load coefficients f , f and f (as defined in Annex 4) for test vehicles H and L
are referred to as f , f and f ,and f , f and f respectively. An adjusted road load
curve for the test vehicle L is defined as follows:
F (v) = f + f × v + f × v
Applying the least squares regression method in the range of the reference speed points,
adjusted road load coefficients f and f shall be determined for F (v) with the linear
coefficient f set to f . The road load coefficients f , f and f for an individual
vehicle in the interpolation family shall be calculated using the following equations:
Or, if (TM × RR – TM × RR ) = 0, the equation for f below shall apply:
f = f − Δf
f = f
Or, if Δ(C × A ) = 0, the equation for F below shall apply:
Where:
Δf = f – f
Δf = f – f
f = f − Δf
In the case of a road load matrix family, the road load coefficients f , f and f for an
individual vehicle shall be calculated according to the equations in Paragraph 5.1.1. of
Annex 4.
3.2.3.2.3. Calculation of Cycle Energy Demand
The cycle energy demand of the applicable WLTC E and the energy demand for all
applicable cycle phases E shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of this Annex for the following sets k of road load coefficients and masses:
k = 1: f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(test vehicle L)
k = 2: f = f , f = f , f = f , m = TM
(test vehicle H)

Option B:
Calculation of the fuel efficiency FE Value for an individual vehicle
family using the interpolation method
For each
cycle phase p of the applicable cycle, the fuel efficiency,
vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
within an interpolation
km/l, for an individual
The fuel efficiency in km/l, of the complete cycle for an individual vehicle shall be calculated
using the
following equation:
The terms E , E and E , and E , E and E respectively shall be calculated as
specified
in Paragraph 3.2.3.2. 3. of this Annex.
3.2.3.2.6.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the followingg options shall be selected:
Option A:
The individual CO value determined in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.4. 3 of f this Annex
may be
increased
by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). In such cases:
(a)
The CO phase values shall be increased by the ratio of thee increased
divided by the calculated CO value;
CO value
(b)
The fuel consumption values shall be
increased by b the ratio
value divided by the calculated CO value.
of the increased CO
This shall not compensate for technical elements that would effectively require a vehicle to
be excluded from the interpolationn family.
Option B:
The individual fuel efficiency value determined in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.5. of this Annex may be
decreased by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). In such cases:
(a)
The fuel efficiency phase values shall be decreasedd by the ratioo of the decreased fuel
efficiency value
divided by the calculated fuel efficiency value;
This shall not compensate for technical elements that would effectively require a vehicle to
be excluded from the interpolationn family.

If the tyres on the front and the rear axles belong to different energy efficiency classes,
the weighted mean shall be used and shall be calculated using the equation in
Paragraph 3.2.4.1.1.2.3. of this Annex.
If the same rolling resistance is used for vehicles L and H , the value of RR shall be
set to RR for the road load matrix family method.
3.2.4.1.1.2.3. Calculating the Weighed Mean of the Rolling Resistances
Where:
RR = (RR × mp ) + (RR × (1 − mp ))
x
represents vehicle L, H or an individual vehicle;
RR
and RR
are the actual RRCs of the front axle tyres on vehicles L and H
respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the front axle tyres on
the individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
RR
, and RR
are the actual rolling resistance coefficients of the rear axle
tyres on vehicles L and H respectively, kg/tonne;
RR
is the RRC value of the applicable tyre energy efficiency class
according to Table A4/2 of Annex 4 of the rear axle tyres on
the individual vehicle, kg/tonne;
mp
is the proportion of the vehicle mass in running order on the
front axle.
RR shall not be rounded or categorised to tyre energy efficiency classes.
3.2.4.1.1.3. Frontal Area of an Individual Vehicle
The frontal area for vehicle L , A , and vehicle H , A , selected under
Paragraph 4.2.1.4. of Annex 4 shall be used as input.
A
, in m , shall be the frontal area of the individual vehicle.
If the same frontal area is used for vehicles L and H , the value of A shall be set to
the frontal area of vehicle H for the road load matrix family method.

3.2.5.2. Alternative Calculation to Correct an Unrealistic Road Load Curve
Alternatively to the procedure defined in Paragraph 3.2.3.2.2.4. of this Annex, road load
coefficients may be calculated as follows:
F (v) = f + f × v + f × v
Applying the least squares regression method in the range of the reference speed points,
alternative adjusted road load coefficients f and f shall be determined for F (v) with the
linear coefficient f set to f . f is calculated as follow:
Where:
E
i
is the cycle energy demand as defined in Paragraph 5. of this Annex, Ws;
is the subscript denoting vehicles L, H or ind;
H is test vehicle H as described in Paragraph 4.2.1.2.3.2. of Annex 4;
L is test vehicle L as described in Paragraph 4.2.1.2.3.2. of Annex 4.
3.3. PM
3.3.1. Calculation
PM shall be calculated using the following two equations:
Where exhaust gases are vented outside tunnel;
and:
Where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
Where:
V is the volume of diluted exhaust gases (see Paragraph 2. of this Annex), under
standard conditions;
V
P
d
is the volume of diluted exhaust gas flowing through the particulate sampling filter
under standard conditions;
is the mass of particulate matter collected by one or more sample filters, mg;
is the distance driven corresponding to the test cycle, km.

4. DETERMINATION OF PN (IF APPLICABLE)
PN shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
PN
V
k

C


d
is the particle number emission, particles per kilometre;
is the volume of the diluted exhaust gas in litres per test (after primary dilution only in
the case of double dilution) and corrected to standard conditions (273.15K (0°C) and
101.325kPa);
is a calibration factor to correct the PNC measurements to the level of the reference
instrument where this is not applied internally within the PNC. Where the calibration
factor is applied internally within the PNC, the calibration factor shall be 1;
is the corrected particle number concentration from the diluted exhaust gas
expressed as the arithmetic average number of particles per cubic centimetre from
the emissions test including the full duration of the drive cycle. If the volumetric mean
concentration results C̅ from the PNC are not measured at standard conditions
(273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa), the concentrations shall be corrected to those
conditions C̅ ;
is either the dilution air or the dilution tunnel background particle number
concentration, as permitted by the responsible authority, in particles per cubic
centimetre, corrected to standard conditions (273.15K (0°C) and 101.325kPa);
is the mean particle concentration reduction factor of the VPR at the dilution setting
used for the test;
is the mean particle concentration reduction factor of the VPR at the dilution setting
used for the background measurement;
is the distance driven corresponding to the applicable test cycle, km.
C̅ shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
C
n
is a discrete measurement of particle number concentration in the diluted gas exhaust
from the PNC; particles per cm ;
is the total number of discrete particle number concentration measurements made
during the applicable test cycle and shall be calculated using the following equation:

a is the acceleration during time period (i-1) to (i), m/s ;
f , f , f
are the road load coefficients for the test vehicle under consideration (TM , TM or
TM ) in N, N/km/h and in N/(km/h) respectively.
Where:
d is the distance travelled in time period (i-1) to (i), m;
v
is the target velocity at time t , km/h;
t is time, s.
Where:
a is the acceleration during time period (i-1) to (i), m/s ;
v
is the target velocity at time t , km/h;
t is time, s.
6. CALCULATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AND FUEL EFFICIENCY (AS APPLICABLE)
6.1. The fuel characteristics required for the calculation of fuel consumption values shall be
taken from Annex 3 of this UN GTR.
6.2. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A
The fuel consumption values shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using the results of step 6 for criteria emissions and
step 7 for CO of Table A7/1.
Option B
The fuel efficiency values shall be calculated from the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon
monoxide, and carbon dioxide using the results of step 2 for criteria emissions and step 4a
for CO of Table A7/1.
6.2.1. The general equation in Paragraph 6.12. of this Annex using H/C and O/C ratios shall be
used for the calculation of fuel consumption.

6.6. For a Vehicle with a Positive Ignition Engine Fuelled with LPG
6.6.1. If the composition of the fuel used for the test differs from the composition that is assumed
for the calculation of the normalised consumption, on the manufacturer's request a
correction factor cf may be applied, using the following equation:
The correction factor, cf, which may be applied, is determined using the following equation:
cf = 0.825 + 0.0693 × n
Where:
n is the actual H/C ratio of the fuel used.
6.7. For a Vehicle with a Positive Ignition Engine Fuelled with NG/Biomethane
6.8. For a Vehicle with a Compression Engine Fuelled with Diesel (B0)
6.9. For a Vehicle with a Compression Engine Fuelled with Diesel (B5 and B5H)
6.10. For a Vehicle with a Compression Engine Fuelled with Diesel (B7)
6.11. For a Vehicle with a Positive Ignition Engine Fuelled with Ethanol (E85)
6.12. Fuel consumption for any test fuel may be calculated using the following equation:

6.14. Calculation of Fuel Efficiency (FE) (as applicable)
6.14.1. FE = 100/FC
where
FC
FE
is the fuel consumption of a specific fuel, l/100km (or m per 100km in the case of
natural gas or kg/100km in the case of hydrogen)
is fuel efficiency; km/l (or km/m in the case of natural gas, or km/kg in the case of
hydrogen)
7. DRIVE TRACE INDICES
7.1. General Requirement
The prescribed speed between time points in Tables A1/1 to A1/12 shall be determined by
linear interpolation at a frequency of 10Hz.
In the case that the accelerator control is fully activated, the prescribed speed shall be used
instead of the actual vehicle speed for drive trace index calculations during such periods of
operation.
The on-board diagnostics (OBD) or engine control unit (ECU) monitoring (data collection)
system may be used in order to detect the position of the accelerator control. The collection
of OBD and/or ECU data shall not influence the vehicle's emissions or performance.
7.2. Calculation of Drive Trace Indices
The following indices shall be calculated according to SAE J2951 (Revised JAN2014):
(a)
(b)
IWR: Inertial Work Rating, per cent;
RMSSE: Root Mean Squared Speed Error, km/h.
7.3. Reserved
7.4. Vehicle-specific Application of Drive Trace Indices
7.4.1. Pure ICE Vehicles, NOVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs
7.4.2. OVC-HEVs
The drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for the applicable test cycle
and recorded.
7.4.2.1. Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test (Paragraph 3.2.5. of Annex 8)
The drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for the applicable test cycle
and recorded.

Figure A7/2
Example with an Odd Number of Completed City Test Cycles before the City Cycle where the
Combustion Engine Start
7.4.3. PEV
If the number of cycles derived according to Figure A7/1 or Figure A7/2 is less than four, the
drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each individual cycle and
recorded.
If the number of cycles derived according to Figure A7/1 or Figure A7/2 is greater than or
equal to four, the drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each individual
cycle. In this case, the average IWR and the average RMSSE for the combination of any
two cycles shall be compared with the respective criteria specified in Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.3.
of Annex 6 and the IWR of any individual cycle shall not be less than -3.0 or greater than
+5.0%.
7.4.3.1. Consecutive Cycle Test
The consecutive cycle test procedure shall be performed according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of
Annex 8. The drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be calculated for each individual
test cycle of the consecutive cycle test procedure and recorded. The test cycle during which
the break-off criterion is reached, as specified in Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of Annex 8, shall be
combined with the preceding test cycle. The drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall be
calculated considering this as one cycle.
7.4.3.2. Shortened Type 1 Test
The drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE for the shortened Type 1 test procedure, as
performed according to Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of Annex 8, shall be calculated separately for
each dynamic segment 1 and 2, and recorded. The calculation of drive trace indices during
the constant speed segments shall be omitted.
7.4.3.3. City Cycle Test Procedure (Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of Annex 8 replacing WLTC with WLTC )
For the application of the drive trace index calculation, two consecutively driven city test
cycles shall be considered as one cycle.
For the city cycle during which the break-off criterion is reached as specified in
Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of Annex 8, the drive trace indices IWR and RMSSE shall not be
calculated individually. Instead, depending on the number of completed city cycles before
the city cycle when the break-off criterion is reached, the incomplete city cycle shall be
combined with previous city cycles and shall be considered as one cycle in the context of
the drive trace index calculations.

8. CALCULATING N/V RATIOS
n/v ratios shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
n is engine speed, min ;
v
is the vehicle speed, km/h;
r is the transmission ratio in gear i;
r is the axle transmission ratio.
U is the dynamic rolling circumference of the tyres of the drive axle and is calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
H/W
W
R
is the tyre's aspect ratio, e.g. "45" for a 225/45 R17 tyre;
is the tyre width, mm; e.g. "225" for a 225/45 R17 tyre;
is the wheel diameter, inch; e.g. "17" for a 225/45 R17 tyre.
U shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to whole millimetres.
If U is different for the front and the rear axles, the value of n/v for the mainly powered
axle shall be applied on a dynamometer in both 2WD and 4WD operation mode.
Upon request, the responsible authority shall be provided with the necessary information for
that selection.

1.3.3. For information not related to standards, good engineering judgement shall be used.
1.3.4. Rounding of range, CO , energy consumption and fuel consumption results is described in
the calculation tables of this Annex.
1.4. Vehicle Classification
All OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, PEVs, OVC-FCHVs and NOVC-FCHVs shall be classified as
Class 3 vehicles. The applicable test cycle for the Type 1 test procedure shall be
determined according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex based on the corresponding
reference test cycle as described in Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex.
1.4.1. Reference Test Cycle
1.4.1.1. The Class 3 reference test cycles are specified in Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 1.
1.4.1.2. For PEVs, the downscaling procedure, according to Paragraphs 8.2.3. and 8.3. of Annex 1,
may be applied on the test cycles according to Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 1 by replacing the
rated power with maximum net power according to Regulation No. 85. In such a case, the
downscaled cycle is the reference test cycle.
1.4.2. Applicable Test Cycle
1.4.2.1. Applicable WLTP Test Cycle
The reference test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex shall be the applicable
WLTP test cycle (WLTC) for the Type 1 test procedure.
In the case that Paragraph 9. of Annex 1 is applied based on the reference test cycle as
described in Paragraph 1.4.1. of this Annex, this modified test cycle shall be the applicable
WLTP test cycle (WLTC) for the Type 1 test procedure.
1.4.2.2. Applicable WLTP City Test Cycle
The Class 3 WLTP city test cycle (WLTC ) is specified in Paragraph 3.5. of Annex 1.
1.5. OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, OVC-FCHVs, NOVC-FCHVs and PEVs with Manual
Transmissions
The vehicles shall be driven according to the technical gear shift indicator, if available, or
according to instructions incorporated in the manufacturer's handbook.
2. RUN-IN OF TEST VEHICLE
The vehicle tested according to this Annex shall be presented in good technical condition
and shall be run-in in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. In the case
that the REESSs are operated above the normal operating temperature range, the operator
shall follow the procedure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer in order to keep the
temperature of the REESS in its normal operating range. The manufacturer shall provide
evidence that the thermal management system of the REESS is neither disabled nor
reduced.
2.1. OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs shall have been run-in according to the requirements of
Paragraph 2.3.3. of Annex 6.
2.2. NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs shall have been run-in at least 300km with their fuel cell
and REESS installed.
2.3. PEVs shall have been run-in at least 300km or one full charge distance, whichever is longer.

Figure A8/1
Possible Test Sequences in the Case of OVC-HEV and OVC-FCHV Testing
3.2.3. The driver-selectable mode shall be set as described in the following test sequences
(Option 1 to Option 4).
3.2.4. Charge-depleting Type 1 Test with no Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test
(Option 1)
The test sequence according to Option 1, described in Paragraphs 3.2.4.1. to 3.2.4.7.
inclusive of this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are
shown in Figure A8.App1/1 in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.4.1. Preconditioning
The vehicle shall be prepared according to the procedures in Paragraph 2.2. of Appendix 4
to this Annex.

3.2.4.5. Break-off Criterion
3.2.4.5.1. Whether the break-off criterion has been reached for each driven applicable WLTP test
cycle shall be evaluated.
3.2.4.5.2. The break-off criterion for the charge-depleting Type 1 test is reached when the relative
electric energy change REEC , as calculated using the following equation, is less than 0.04.
Where:
REEC
is the relative electric energy change of the applicable test cycle considered i of
the charge-depleting Type 1 test;
ΔE
is the change of electric energy of all REESSs for the considered
charge-depleting Type 1 test cycle i calculated according to Paragraph 4.3. of
this Annex, Wh;
E is the cycle energy demand of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle
calculated according to Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, Ws;
i
is the index number for the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is a conversion factor to Wh for the cycle energy demand.
3.2.4.6. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.2.4.6.1. The vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 120min after the applicable WLTP test
cycle n+1 in which the break-off criterion for the charge-depleting Type 1 test is reached for
the first time.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.2.4.6.2. The electric energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and the
mains, shall measure the recharged electric energy E delivered from the mains, as well as
its duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the end-of-charge criterion,
as defined in Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.2.4.7. Each individual applicable WLTP test cycle within the charge-depleting Type 1 test shall
fulfil the applicable criteria emission limits according to Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 6.

3.2.7. Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test with a Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 1 Test (Option 4)
The test sequence according to Option 4, described in Paragraphs 3.2.7.1. and 3.2.7.2. of
this Annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in
Figure A8.App1/4 of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.2.7.1. For the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, the procedure described in Paragraphs 3.2.5.1. to
3.2.5.3. inclusive of this Annex, as well as Paragraph 3.2.6.3.1. of this Annex, shall be
followed.
3.2.7.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in
Paragraphs 3.2.4.2. to 3.2.4.7. inclusive of this Annex shall be followed.
3.3. NOVC-HEVs
The test sequence described in Paragraphs 3.3.1. to 3.3.3. inclusive of this Annex, as well
as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in Figure A8.App1/5 of
Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.3.1. Preconditioning and Soaking
3.3.1.1. Vehicles shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6.
In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 2.6. of Annex 6, the level of the state of charge
of the traction REESS for the charge-sustaining test may be set according to the
manufacturer's recommendation before preconditioning in order to achieve a test under
charge-sustaining operating condition.
3.3.1.2. Vehicles shall be soaked according to Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6.
3.3.2. Test Conditions
3.3.2.1. Vehicles shall be tested under charge-sustaining operating condition as defined in
Paragraph 3.3.6. of this UN GTR.
3.3.2.2. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test shall be selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.3.3. Type 1 Test Procedure
3.3.3.1. Vehicles shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.3.3.2. If required, the CO mass emission shall be corrected according to Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
3.3.3.3. The charge-sustaining Type 1 test shall fulfil the applicable criteria emission limits according
to Paragraph 1.2. of Annex 6.

3.4.3. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the test shall be selected
according to Paragraph 4. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.4.4. PEV Type 1 Test Procedures
3.4.4.1. Consecutive Cycle Type 1 Test Procedure
3.4.4.1.1. Speed Trace and Breaks
The test shall be performed by driving consecutive applicable test cycles until the break-off
criterion according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex is reached.
Breaks for the driver and/or operator are permitted only between test cycles and with a
maximum total break time of 10min. During the break, the powertrain shall be switched off.
3.4.4.1.2. REESS Current and Voltage Measurement
From the beginning of the test until the break-off criterion is reached, the electric current of
all REESSs shall be measured according to Appendix 3 to this Annex and the electric
voltage shall be determined according to Appendix 3 to this Annex.
3.4.4.1.3. Break-off Criterion
The break-off criterion is reached when the vehicle exceeds the prescribed speed trace
tolerance as specified in Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.2. of Annex 6 for 4 consecutive seconds or
more. The accelerator control shall be deactivated. The vehicle shall be braked to standstill
within 60s.
3.4.4.2. Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure
3.4.4.2.1. Speed Trace
The shortened Type 1 test procedure consists of two dynamic segments (DS and DS )
combined with two constant speed segments (CSS and CSS ) as shown in Figure A8/2.
Figure A8/2
Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure Speed Trace

3.4.4.2.1.3. Breaks
Breaks for the driver and/or operator are permitted only in the constant speed segments as
prescribed in Table A8/4.
Table A8/4
Breaks for the Driver and/or Test Operator
Distance Driven in Constant Speed
Segment CSS (km)
Maximum Total Break (min)
Up to 100
10
Up to 150
20
Up to 200
30
Up to 300
60
More than 300
Shall be based on the manufacturer's
recommendation
Note:
During a break, the powertrain shall be switched off.
3.4.4.2.2. REESS Current and Voltage Measurement
From the beginning of the test until the break-off criterion is reached, the electric current of
all REESSs and the electric voltage of all REESSs shall be determined according to
Appendix 3 to this Annex.
3.4.4.2.3. Break-off Criterion
The break-off criterion is reached when the vehicle exceeds the prescribed speed trace
tolerance as specified in Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.2. of Annex 6 for 4 consecutive seconds or
more in the second constant speed segment CSS . The accelerator control shall be
deactivated. The vehicle shall be braked to a standstill within 60s.
3.4.4.3. REESS Charging and Measuring the Recharged Electric Energy
3.4.4.3.1. After coming to a standstill according to Paragraph 3.4.4.1.3. of this Annex for the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure and in Paragraph 3.4.4.2.3. of this Annex for the
shortened Type 1 test procedure, the vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 120min.
The REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in
Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.
3.4.4.3.2. The energy measurement equipment, placed between the vehicle charger and the mains,
shall measure the recharged electric energy E delivered from the mains as well as its
duration. Electric energy measurement may be stopped when the end-of-charge criterion,
as defined in Paragraph 2.2.3.2. of Appendix 4 to this Annex, is reached.

Table A8/5
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Gaseous Emission and Fuel Efficiency Values
(FE applicable for results after 3 phases only)
Step
No.
Source
Input
Process
Output
1
Annex 6
Raw test results
Charge-sustaining mass emissions
M
, g/km;
2 Output step
1
M , g/km;
M ,
g/km.
Paragraphs 3. to 3.2.2. inclusive of Annex
7.
Calculation of combined chargesustaining
cycle values:
M
M
M
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km.
Where:
M is the charge-sustaining
mass emission result over
the total cycle;
M is the charge-sustaining CO
mass emission result over
the total cycle;
3 Output step
1
Output step
2
4a Output step
2
Output step
3
M ,
g/km;
M ,
g/km.
M , g/km;
M ,
g/km.
d are the driven distances of
the cycle phases p.
REESS electric energy change correction
Paragraphs 4.1.1.2. to 4.1.1.5. inclusive
of this Annex.
Charge-sustaining mass emission
correction for all vehicles equipped with
periodically regenerating systems K
according to Annex 6, Appendix 1.
M
M
M
M
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km.
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
and
M = K × M
or
M = K + M
Additive offset or multiplicative factor to
be used according to K determination.
If K is not applicable:
M = M
M = M

Step No.
Source
Input
Process
Output
6
For results
For every test:
Averaging of tests and declared value M
, g/km;
M results
of a Type 1
test for a
test vehicle.
after 4 M
phases M
M
Output step 5
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km.
according to Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3. M
inclusive of Annex 6.
M
M
g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km;
,
7
M
results of a
Type 1 test
for a test
vehicle.
For results
after 4
phases only
8
Interpolation
family
result.
Final criteria
emission
result.
If the
interpolation
method is
not applied,
step No. 9 is
not required
and the
output of
this step is
the final
CO result.
For results
after 3
phases
Output step 5
For results
after 4
phases:
Output step 6
For results
after 3
phases:
Output step 5
Output step 6
Output step 6
Output step 7
FE
, km/l;
Averaging of tests and declared value.
Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3. inclusive of
Annex 6.
The
conversion
from
FE
to
M
shall be performed for the
applicable cycle. For that purpose, the
criteria emission over the complete cycle
shall be used.
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M ,
g/km.
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
M ,
g/km.
For each of the
test vehicles H
and L and, if
applicable,
vehicle M:
M , g/km;
For each of the
test vehicles H
and L and, if
applicable,
vehicle M:
M , g/km;
M , g/km.
Alignment of phase values. Paragraph
1.2.4. of Annex 6,
and:
M = M
Alignment of phase values.
Paragraph 1.2.4. of Annex 6.
If in addition to a test vehicle H a test
vehicle L and, if applicable vehicle M was
also tested, the resulting criteria emission
value shall be the highest of the two or, if
applicable, three values and referred to as
M .
In the case of the combined THC+NO
emissions, the highest value of the sum
referring to either the vehicle H or vehicle
L or, if applicable, vehicle M is to be taken
as the certification value.
Otherwise, if no vehicle L or if applicable
vehicle M was tested, M = M
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, intermediate rounding shall be
applied according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR:
CO values derived in step 7 of this Table
shall be rounded to two places of decimal.
Also, the output for CO is available for
vehicles H and vehicle L and, if
applicable, for vehicle M.
In the case that the interpolation method
is not applied, final rounding shall be
applied according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR.
CO values derived in step 7 of this table
shall be rounded to the nearest whole
number.
FE
M ,
g/km.
M
M
M
M
M
M
, km/l
, g/km;
, g/km.
, g/km.
, g/km;
, g/km;
, g/km;

4.1.1.4. In the case that phase-specific CO mass emission correction coefficients have not been
determined, the phase-specific CO mass emission shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
M = M − K × EC
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of phase p of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
M is the non-balanced CO mass emission of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, determined according to
Table A8/5, step No. 1, g/km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.2.
of Appendix 2 to this Annex, (g/km)/(Wh/km).
4.1.1.5. In the case that phase-specific CO mass emission correction coefficients have been
determined, the phase-specific CO mass emission shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
M = M − K × EC
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of phase p of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test according to Table A8/5, step No. 3, g/km;
M is the non-balanced CO mass emission of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, determined according to
Table A8/5, step No. 1, g/km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient according to
Paragraph 2.3.2.2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex, (g/km)/(Wh/km);
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.

i
UF
M
M
j
k
is the index of the considered gaseous emission compound (except CO );
is the utility factor of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
is the mass emission of the gaseous emission compound i determined
according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of Annex 7 of o phase j of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test, g/km;
is the charge-sustaining mass emission of gaseous g emission compound i for
the charge-sustaining Type 1 test according to t Table A8/5, step No. 6, g/km;
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven until the end of the transition cycle according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
For calculating the utility-factor weighted CO
used:
mass emission the following equation shall be
where:
M
M
M
is the utility-factor weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission, g/km.
is the declared charge-depleting CO mass emission according to
Table A8/8, step no. 14, g/ /km.
is the declared charge-sustaining CO C mass emission according to
Table A8/5, step no. 7, g/km.
is the averagee of the sum of utility factors of each charge-depleting test.
j
k
is the index number of the considered phase;
is the number of phasess driven until the end of the transition cycle
according to Paragraph 3. 2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied for COO , k shall be e the numberr of phases
driven up
to the end
of the transition cycle of vehicle L n for the application of both
equations
of this paragraph.
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, by an
individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family n is lower than the transition cycle number
driven by
vehicle L, n
, the confirmation cycle of vehiclee H and, if applicable, an
individual
vehicle shall be included in the calculation. The CO mass emissionn of each phase of the
confirmation cycle shall then be corrected to an electric energy consumption of zero
(EC = 0) by using the CO correction coefficient according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.

4.2. Calculation of Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency
4.2.1. Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency for OVC-HEVs, OVC-FCHVs,
NOVC-HEVs and NOVC-FCHVs
4.2.1.1. The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs shall be
calculated stepwise according to Table A8/6.
Table A8/6
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency for OVC-HEVs,
NOVC-HEVs
(FE applicable for results after 3 phases only)
Table A8/6 shall be performed separately for results after 4 phases and for results after 3 phases.
Step No. Source Input Process Output
1 Output step
6,
2
Interpolatio
n family
result.
If the
interpolatio
n method
is not
applied,
step No. 3
is not
required
and the
output of
this step is
the final
result.
Table A8/5
Output step
7,
Table A8/5
Output step
1
Calculation of fuel consumption FC
according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7
M
, g/km;
M
, g/km;
FE
,
km/l;
M
M
, g/km;
FE
, g/km.
, = FE
,
FC
,
1/100km;
FC
,
1/100km
FE
, km/l.
FE
, km/l
based on M
and conversion to
fuel efficiency FE
. for phase value
The calculation of fuel consumption
shall be performed separately for the
applicable cycle and its phases.
For that purpose:
(a)
(b)
The applicable phase or cycle
CO values shall be used;
The criteria emission over the
complete cycle shall be used.
For FC and FE, the values derived in
step No. 1 of this Table shall be used.
In the case that the interpolation method
is applied, intermediate rounding shall
be applied according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR.
FC and FE values shall be rounded to
three places of decimal.
Output is available for vehicles H and
vehicle L and, if applicable, for vehicle
M.
In the case that the interpolation method
is not applied, final rounding shall be
applied according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR.
FC and FE values shall be rounded to
first place of decimal.
FC
,
1/100km;
FE
, km/l;
FC
, 1/100km
FE
km/l
FC
FC
FE
FE
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km;
, km/l.
, km/l.

Table A8/7
Calculation of Final Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency for NOVC-FCHVs
and OVC-FCHVs (FE applicable for results after 3 phases only)
Table A8/7 shall be performed separately for results after 4 phases and for results after 3 phases.
For results after 4-phases all the calculations in this table shall be for the complete cycle
For the 3-phase WLTP all the calculations in this table shall be for the 3-phase cycle and also for
individual phases;
Step No. Source Input Process Output
1 Appendix
7 to this
Annex.
2 Output
step 1
3
Result of a
single test.
Output
step 2
4 Output
step 3
Non-balanced
charge-sustaining
fuel consumption
FC ,
kg/100km
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC ,
kg/100km.
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC ,
kg/100km.
For every test:
FC
,
kg/100km;
FC
,
kg/100km.
FE
, km/kg.
FE
, km/kg.
Charge-sustaining fuel consumption
FC according to Paragraph 2.2.6. of
Appendix 7 to this Annex.
The calculation of fuel consumption
shall be performed separately for the
applicable cycle and its phases.
For that purpose, the applicable phase
or cycle FC values shall be used;
Phase-specific values according to
Paragraph 2.2.7. of Appendix 7 to this
Annex.
REESS electric energy change
correction.
Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.2. to 4.2.1.2.5.
(where applicable) inclusive of this
Annex.
FC = FC
FC = FC
For results after 3 phases
Conversion of fuel consumption FC into
fuel efficiency FE
Averaging of tests and declared value
according to Paragraphs 1.2. to 1.2.3.
inclusive of Annex 6.
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC ,
kg/100km.
FC ,
kg/100km;
For results after 3
phases
FC ,
kg/100km.
FC
,
kg/100km;
FC
,
kg/100km.
FE
, km/kg.
FE
, km/kg.
FC
,
kg/100km;
FC
,
kg/100km.
FE
, km/kg.
FE
, km/kg.

4.2.1.2.3. If the correction of the fuel consumption is required according to Paragraph 1.1.3. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex or in the case that the correction according to Paragraph 1.1.4. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex was applied, the fuel consumption correction coefficient shall be
determined according to Paragraph 2. of Appendix 2 to this Annex. The corrected
charge-sustaining fuel consumption shall be determined using the following equation:
Where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
FC
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not
corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7, step No. 1,
kg/100km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test
according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the fuel consumption correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km).
4.2.1.2.4. In the case that phase-specific fuel consumption correction coefficients have not been
determined, the phase-specific fuel consumption shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
FC = FC − K × EC
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test according to Table A8/7, step No. 2, kg/100km;
FC
is the non-balanced fuel consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance, according to Table A8/7,
step No. 1, kg/100km;
EC
is the electric energy consumption of phase p of the charge-sustaining Type 1
test, determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh/km;
K is the fuel consumption correction coefficient according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of
Appendix 2 to this Annex, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
p
is the index of the individual phase within the applicable WLTP test cycle.

If the transition cyclee number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, by
an individual vehiclee within the vehicle interpolation family, n , is lower than
the transition cycle number driven by vehiclee L n thee confirmation cycle of
vehicle H and, if applicable, an individual vehicle shall be included in the
calculation. The fuel consumption of each phase of the confirmation
cycle shall
be calculated according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7 with the criteria
emission
over the
complete confirmationn cycle and the applicable CO phase value
which shall be corrected to an electricc energy consumption
of zero,
EC = 0, by using the CO mass correction coefficient (K ) according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex.
The charge-depletingg fuel efficiency FECD shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
FE
R
FE
c
n
is the charge-depleting fuel efficiency, km/l;
actual charge-depleting range defined in Paragraph 4.4.5. of this Annex, km;
is the fuel efficiency for cycle c of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, determined
according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, km/l;
is the index number for the considered cycle;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven up to the end of the
transitionn cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex
d
d
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
c of the
n of the
k

FC is the declared charge-depleting fuel consumption according to
Table A8/9a, step no. 11, kg/100km;
FC
is the average charge-depleting CO mass emission according to
Table A8/9a, step no. 10, kg/100km;
FC is the fuel consumption determined according to Table A8/7, step No. 1,
kg/100km;
j
k
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, k shall be the number of phases driven
up to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L n .
If the transition cycle number driven by vehicle H, n , and, if applicable, by an individual
vehicle within the vehicle interpolation family n is lower than the transition cycle number
driven by vehicle L, n , the confirmation cycle of vehicle H and, if applicable, an individual
vehicle shall be included in the calculation.
The fuel consumption of each phase of the confirmation cycle shall be calculated according
to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7 with the criteria emission over the complete confirmation cycle
and the applicable CO phase value which shall be corrected to an electric energy
consumption of zero EC = 0 by using the CO mass correction coefficient (K )
according to Appendix 2 to this Annex.
4.3. Calculation of Electric Energy Consumption
For the determination of the electric energy consumption based on the current and voltage
determined according to Appendix 3 to this Annex, the following equations shall be used:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption over the considered period j based on the
REESS depletion, Wh/km;
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the considered period j, Wh;
d
is the distance driven in the considered period j, km;
and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of REESS i during the considered period j, Wh;

and
Where:
EC
E
ΔE
j
k
is the electric energyy consumption based on the REESS depletion of phase j of
the charge-depletingg Type 1 test according to Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex,
Wh/km;
is the recharged r electric energy from thee mains determined according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.6. of this Annex, Wh;
is the electric energy change
of all REESSs of phase j according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex, Wh;
is the index number for the considered phase;
is the number of phases driven up to the end of the transition cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4
of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolationn method is applied, a k is
driven up
to the end of the transition cycle of L, n .
the number of phases
4.3.2.
Utility Factor-weighted Electric Energy Consumption based b on the Recharged Electric
Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs
The utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption
based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
EC
UF
EC
j
k
is the
utility factor-weighted
electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electricc energy from
the mains, Wh/km;
is the
utility factorr of phase j according to Appendix 5 to this Annex;
is the
declared charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for OVC-HEVs according to
Table
A8/8, step 14 and for OVC-FCHVs
according too Table A8/9a, step 11,
Wh/km;
is the
index number for the considered phase;
is the
number of phases driven up too the end of the transition cycle
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
In the
case that the interpolation method is applied, k is the
phases driven upp to the end of the transition cycle of vehicle L, n
number of
.

4.3.4.2. Electric Energy Consumption Determination of the Applicable WLTP Test Cycle
The electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on the recharged
electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range shall be calculated using the
following equation:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP test cycle based on
the recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for the
applicable WLTP test cycle, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3.
of this Annex, Wh;
PER
is the pure electric range for the applicable WLTP test cycle as calculated
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. or Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this Annex,
depending on the PEV test procedure used, km.
4.3.4.3. Electric Energy Consumption Determination of the Applicable WLTP City Test Cycle
The electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP city test cycle based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for the applicable
WLTP city test cycle shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption of the applicable WLTP city test cycle based
on the recharged electric energy from the mains and the pure electric range for
the applicable WLTP city test cycle, Wh/km;
E is the recharged electric energy from the mains according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3.
of this Annex, Wh;
PER
is the pure electric range for the applicable WLTP city test cycle as calculated
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.2. or Paragraph 4.4.2.2.2. of this Annex,
depending on the PEV test procedure used, km.

4.4.1.2.2. As an alternative to Paragraph 4.4.1.2.1. of this Annex, the all-electric range city AER
may be determined from the charge-depleting Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of
this Annex by driving the applicable WLTP test cycles according to Paragraph 1.4.2.1. of
this Annex. In that case, the charge-depleting Type 1 test by driving the applicable WLTP
city test cycle shall be omitted and the all-electric range city AER shall be calculated using
the following equation:
Where:
AER is the all-electric range city, km;
UBE
is the usable REESS energy determined from the beginning of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by
driving applicable WLTP test cycles until the point in time when the combustion
engine starts consuming fuel, Wh;
EC
is the weighted electric energy consumption of the pure electrically driven
applicable WLTP city test cycles of the charge-depleting Type 1 test described
in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycle(s),
Wh/km;
and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during phase j, Wh;
j
is the index number of the considered phase;
k+1 is the number of the phases driven from the beginning of the test until the point
in time when the combustion engine starts consuming fuel;
and
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the j pure electrically driven WLTP city
test cycle of the charge-depleting Type 1 test according to Paragraph 3.2.4.3.
of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycles, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the j pure electrically driven applicable WLTP city
test cycle of the charge-depleting Type 1 test according to Paragraph 3.2.4.3.
of this Annex by driving applicable WLTP test cycles;

and
Where:
UBE = ΔE + ΔE + ΔE + ΔE
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during DS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during DS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during CSS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during CSS of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
and
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle of DS
of the shortened Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle of DS of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure;
and:
Where:
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle of DS of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure;
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the applicable WLTP
test cycle from DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.

4.4.2.1.3. The phase-specific pure electric range PER for PEVs shall be calculated from the Type 1
test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.2. of this Annex by using the following equations:
Where:
PER
is the phase-specific pure electric range for PEVs, km;
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this Annex,
Wh;
EC
is the weighted electric energy consumption for each individual phase of DS
and DS of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh/km;
In the case that phase p = low and phase p = medium, the following equations shall be
used:
Where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption for phase p where the first phase p of DS is
indicated as j = 1, the second phase p of DS is indicated as j = 2, the first
phase p of DS is indicated as j = 3 and the second phase p of DS is indicated
as j = 4 of the shortened Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of
this Annex, Wh/km;
K
is the weighting factor for phase p where the first phase p of DS is indicated as
j = 1, the second phase p of DS is indicated as j = 2, the first phase p of DS is
indicated as j = 3, and the second phase p of DS is indicated as j = 4 of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure;
and
Where:
ΔE
is the energy change of all REESSs during the first phase p of DS of the
shortened Type 1 test procedure, Wh.

and
Where:
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during phase j of the consecutive
cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh;
j
k
is the index number of the phase;
is the number of phases driven from the beginning up to and including the
phase where the break-off criterion is reached;
and:
Where:
EC is the electric energy consumption for the applicable WLTP test cycle j of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K is the weighting factor for the applicable WLTP test cycle j of the consecutive
cycle Type 1 test procedure;
j
is the index number of the applicable WLTP test cycle;
n is the whole number of complete applicable WLTP test cycles driven;
and
Where:
ΔE is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first applicable
WLTP test cycle of the consecutive Type 1 test cycle procedure, Wh.

4.4.2.2.3. The phase-specific pure electric range PER for PEVs shall be calculated from the Type 1
test as described in Paragraph 3.4.4.1. of this Annex using the following equations:
Where:
PER
is the phase-specific pure electric range for PEVs, km;
UBE
is the usable REESS energy according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2.1. of this Annex,
Wh;
EC
is the electric energy consumption for the considered phase p determined from
completely driven phases p of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure,
Wh/km;
and
Where:
EC
is the j electric energy consumption for the considered phase p of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure according to Paragraph 4.3. of this
Annex, Wh/km;
K
is the j weighting factor for the considered phase p of the consecutive cycle
Type 1 test procedure;
j is the index number of the considered phase p;
n
is the whole number of complete WLTC phases p driven;
and
Where:
ΔE
is the electric energy change of all REESSs during the first driven phase p
during the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.3. Charge-depleting Cycle Range for OVC-HEVs
The charge-depleting cycle range R shall be determined from the charge-depleting
Type 1 test described in Paragraph 3.2.4.3. of this Annex as part of the Option 1 test
sequence and is referenced in Paragraph 3.2.6.1. of this Annex as part of the Option 3 test
sequence. The R is the distance driven from the beginning of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test to the end of the transition cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.

4.4.4.2. Determination of the Phase-specific Equivalent All-electricc Range
The phase-specific
equation:
equivalent all-electric range shall be b calculated using the
following
Where:
EAER
is the
phase-specific equivalent all-electric range for
p, km;
the considered phase
M
is the
phase-specific CO mass emission from the charge-sustaining Type 1
test for the considered phase p according to Table A8/ 8/5, step No. 7, g/km;
M
M
is the declaredd charge-depleting CO
Table
A8/8, step no. 14, g/km;
is the average charge-depleting CO
Table
A8/8, step no. 13, g/km;
mass emission according to
mass emission according to
ΔE
EC
j
are the electric energy changes of all REESSs duringg the considered phase
j, Wh. In the case of more than one charge-depleting test, the additional
average of each test shall be calculated;
is the
electric energy consumption over the considered phase p based on
the REESS depletion, Wh/km;
is the
index number of the considered phase;
k
and
is the
number of phases driven up to the end of
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4 of this Annex;
the transition cycle n
Where:
M
M
is the arithmetic average charge-depleting CO mass emission for the
considered phase p, , g/km. In the
case of more than one e charge-depleting test,
the additional average of each test shall be calculated;
is the CO mass emission determined according a to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of phase p in cycle c of the charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;

4.4.5. Actual Charge-depleting Range for OVC-HEVs
The actual charge-depleting range shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
R is the actual charge-depleting range, km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission according to Table A8/5,
step No. 7, g/km;
M is the CO mass emission of the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average CO mass emission of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test from the beginning up to and including the applicable WLTP test
cycle (n-1), g/km;
d
d
c
n
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle c of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle n of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven including the transition
cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex;
and:
Where:
M is the arithmetic average CO mass emission of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test from the beginning up to and including the applicable WLTP test
cycle (n-1), g/km;
M is the CO mass emission determined according to Paragraph 3.2.1. of
Annex 7 of the applicable WLTP test cycle c of the charge-depleting Type 1
test, g/km;
d
c
n
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle c of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven including the transition
cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.

4.4.6.2. Determination of the Phase-specific Equivalent All-electricc Range for OVC-FCHV
The phase-specific
equation:
equivalent all-electric range shall be b calculated using the
following
where:
EAER
FC
is the phase-specific equivalent all-electric rangee for the considered
phase
p, km;
is the
phase-specific fuel consumption from the charge-sustaining Type 1
test for the considered phase p according to Table A8/7, step No. 5,
kg/100km;
FC
is the
declared
charge-depleting
Table
A8/9a, stepp no. 11, kg/100km;
fuel
consumption
according
to
FC
ΔE
EC
j
is the
average charge-depleting fuel consumption according to Table A8/9a,
step no. 10, kg/100km;
are the t electric energy changes of all REESSs during the considered
phase
j, Wh. In the case of more than one charge-depletingg test, the
additional average of each test shall be calculated;
is the
electric energy consumption over the considered phase p based on
the REESS depletion, Wh/km;
is the
index number of the considered phase;
k
is the
number of phases driven up to the end of
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4 of this Annex;
the transition cycle n

4.4.7. Actual Charge-depleting Range for OVC-FCHVs
The actual charge-depleting range shall be calculated using the following equation:
where:
R
FC
is the actual charge-depleting fuel consumption according to Table A8/7, step no. 5,
range, km;
is the charge-sustaining
kg/100km;
FC
is the fuel consumption of the applicable WLTP
charge-depleting Type 1 test, kg/ /100km;
test cycle
n of the
FC
is the arithmetic average fuel consumption of o the charge-depleting Type 1 test
from the
beginning up to and ncluding the applicable WLTP test cycle (n-1),
kg/100km;
d
d
c
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
c of the
n of the
n
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven ncluding the
transition
cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex;
and
FC
is the arithmetic average fuel consumption of o the charge-depleting Type 1 test
from the
beginning up to and ncluding the applicable WLTP test cycle (n-1),
kg/100km;
FC
is the fuel consumption of the applicable WLTP
charge-depleting Type 1 test, kg/ /100km;
test cycle
c of the
d
c
is the distance driven in the applicable WLTP test cycle
charge-depleting Type 1 test, km;
is the index number of the considered applicable WLTP test cycle;
c of the
n
is the number of applicable WLTP test cycles driven ncluding the
transition
cycle according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.

Figure A8/4
Interpolation Range for EVs with Vehicle M
4.5.1.1.4. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, the
application of the interpolation method on individual vehicle values within a family may be
extended if the maximum extrapolation of an individual vehicle (step 9 in Table A8/5) is not
more than 3g/km above the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of vehicle H (step 8 in
Table A8/5) and/or is not more than 3g/km below the charge-sustaining CO mass emission
of vehicle L (step 8 in Table A8/5). This extrapolation is valid only within the absolute
boundaries of the interpolation range specified in this Paragraph.
4.5.1.1.5. Vehicle M
For the application of a road load matrix family, or when the calculation of the road load of
vehicles L and H is based on the default road load, extrapolation is not permitted.
Vehicle M is a vehicle within the interpolation family between vehicles L and H with a cycle
energy demand which is preferably closest to the average of vehicles L and H.
The limits of the selection of vehicle M (see Figure A8/5) are such that neither the difference
in CO mass emission between vehicles H and M nor the difference in charge-sustaining
CO mass emission between vehicles M and L is higher than the allowed charge-sustaining
CO range according to Paragraph 4.5.1.1.2. of this Annex. The defined road load
coefficients and the defined test mass shall be recorded.

Figure A8/6
Linearity Criterion for Vehicle M
If the linearity criterion is fulfilled, the interpolation method shall be applicable for all
individual vehicle values between vehicles L and H within the interpolation family.
If the linearity criterion is not fulfilled, the interpolation family shall be split into two
sub-families for vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles L and M, and
vehicles with a cycle energy demand between vehicles M and H. In such a case, the final
values of e.g. the charge-sustaining CO mass emissions of vehicle M shall be determined
according to the same process as for vehicles L or H. See Table A8/5, Table A8/6,
Table A8/8 and Table A8/9.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles L and M, each parameter
of vehicle H necessary for the application of the interpolation method on individual
OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEV values, shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of
vehicle M.
For vehicles with a cycle energy demand between that of vehicles M and H, each parameter
of vehicle L that is necessary for the application of the interpolation method on individual
OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEV values shall be substituted by the corresponding parameter of
vehicle M.
4.5.2. Calculation of Energy Demand per Period
The energy demand E and distance driven d per period p applicable for individual
vehicles in the interpolation family shall be calculated according to the procedure in
Paragraph 5. of Annex 7, for the sets k of road load coefficients and masses according to
Paragraph 3.2.3.2.3. of Annex 7.

4.5.4.2. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for an individual vehicle
shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
M = M + K × (M − M )
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for an
individual vehicle, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for
vehicle L, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting CO mass emission for
vehicle H, g/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.4.3. Individual Utility Factor-weighted CO Mass Emission for OVC-HEVs
The utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle shall be calculated
using the following equation:
Where:
M = M + K × (M − M )
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for an individual vehicle,
g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for vehicle L, g/km;
M is the utility factor-weighted CO mass emission for vehicle H, g/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.5. Interpolation of the Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency for Individual Vehicles
4.5.5.1. Individual Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency for OVC-HEVs,
NOVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs
4.5.5.1.1. Individual Charge-sustaining Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using
the following equation:
Where:
FC = FC + K × (FC − FC )
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle of the
considered period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 3, 1/100km;
FC
is the charge-sustaining fuel consumption for vehicle L of the considered
period p according to Table A8/6, step No. 2, 1/100km;

4.5.5.1.3.
Individual Charge-sustaining Fuell Consumption for OVC-FCHVs and NOVC-FCHVs
The charge-sustaining fuel consumption for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using
the following equation:
where:
FC
is the charge-susta
aining fuel consumption
for an individual vehicle of the
considered period p according to
Table A8/7, , step No. 6, kg/100km;
FC
FC
is the charge-susta
aining fuel consumption
for vehicle
period p according too Table A8/7, step No. 5, kg/100km;
is the charge-susta
aining fuel consumption
for vehicle
period p according too Table A8/7, step No. 5, kg/100km;
L of the considered
H of the considered
K
p
is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
is the index of the individual period within the applicable WLTP test cycle.
The considered periods shall bee the low phase, medium phase, high phase,
phase, and the applicable WLTP test cycle.
extra high
4.5.5.2.
Individual Charge Depleting Fuel Consumption for OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs
The utility
factor-weighted charge-depleting fuel consumption for an individual vehicle shall
be calculated using the following equation:
FC
= FC
+ K × (FC − FC
)
Where:
FC
FC
FC
K
is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting fuel consumption for an
individual vehicle, 1/100km
in the case of OVC-HEVs and kg/100km in
the case of OVC-FCHVs;
is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting
fuel consumption for
vehicle L, 1/100km in the case of OVC-HEVs and d kg/100km in the case
off OVC-FCHVs;
is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting
fuel consumption for
vehicle H, 1/100km in the case of OVC-HEVs andd kg/100km in the case
off OVC-FCHVs;
is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.

4.5.6. Interpolation of Electric Energy Consumption for Individual Vehicles
4.5.6.1. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption based on
the Recharged Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs
The utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
Where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
an individual vehicle, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle L, Wh/km;
EC is the utility factor-weighted charge-depleting electric energy
consumption based on the recharged electric energy from the mains for
vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.
4.5.6.2. Individual Utility Factor-weighted Electric Energy Consumption based on the Recharged
Electric Energy from the Mains for OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs
The utility factor-weighted electric energy consumption based on the recharged electric
energy from the mains for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for an individual vehicle,
Wh/km;
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle L, Wh/km;
EC
is the utility factor weighted electric energy consumption based on the
recharged electric energy from the mains for vehicle H, Wh/km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle.

Is fulfilled, the all-electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the
following equation:
Where:
AER = AER + K × (AER − AER )
AER is the all-electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
AER is the all-electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable
WLTP test cycle. In the case that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra high
phase, this phase value shall be omitted.
If the criterion defined in this Paragraph is not fulfilled, the AER determined for vehicle H is
applicable to all vehicles within the interpolation family.
4.5.7.2. Individual Pure Electric Range for PEVs
The pure electric range for an individual vehicle shall be calculated using the following
equation:
Where:
PER = PER + K × (PER − PER )
PER
is the pure electric range for an individual vehicle for the considered period p,
km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle L for the considered period p, km;
PER is the pure electric range for vehicle H for the considered period p, km;
K is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for period p;
p
is the index of the individual period within the applicable test cycle.
The considered periods shall be the low phase, medium phase, high phase, extra high
phase, the applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable WLTP test cycle. In the case
that the Contracting Party requests to exclude the extra high phase, this phase value shall
be omitted.

4.6.1. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of the Charge-depleting Type 1
Test for OVC-HEVs
The results shall be calculated in the order described in Table A8/8. All applicable results in
the column "Output" shall be recorded. The column "Process" describes the paragraphs to
be used for calculation or contains additional calculations.
For the purpose of Table A8/8, the following nomenclature within the equations and results
is used:
c
complete applicable test cycle;
p
every applicable cycle phase; for the purpose of EAER
calculation (as
applicable), p shall represent the city driving cycle;
i
CS
CO
applicable criteria emission component;
charge-sustaining;
CO mass emission.

Step No. Source Input Process Output
2 Output step ΔE , Wh; Calculation of relative electric energy REEC .
1
E , Ws. change for each cycle according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.5.2. of this Annex.
Output is available for each test and
each applicable WLTP test cycle.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
3 Output step
2
REEC .
Determination of the transition and
confirmation cycle according to
Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this Annex.
n ;
In the case that more than one
charge-depleting test is available for
one vehicle, for the purpose of
averaging, each test shall have the
same transition cycle number n .
Determination of the chargedepleting
cycle range according to
Paragraph 4.4.3. of this Annex.
Output is available for each test.
R
; km.
4 Output step
3
For results
after 4
phases
5
Output step
1
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
n ; In the case that the interpolation
method is used, the transition cycle
shall be determined for vehicle H, L
and, if applicable, M.
M , g/km;
PM , mg/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer.
Check whether the interpolation
criterion according to Paragraph
6.3.2.2. (d) of this UN GTR is
fulfilled.
Calculation of combined values for
emissions for n cycles; in the case
of interpolation for n cycles for
each vehicle.
Output is available for each test.
n ;
n ;
if applicable
n .
M , g/km;
PM , mg/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
For results
after 4
phases
6
Output step
5
M , g/km;
PM , mg/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer.
Emission averaging of tests for each
applicable WLTP test cycle within
the charge-depleting Type 1 test and
check with the limits according to
Table A6/2 of Annex 6.
M , g/km;
PM ,
mg/km;
PN ,
particles per
kilometer.

Step No. Source Input Process Output
10 Output step
1
Output step
3
Output step
4
Output step
8
M , g/km;
K , (g/km)/
(Wh/km);
ΔE Wh;
d , km;
n ;
n ;
UF .
d , km;
n ;
n ;
UF .
Calculation of the charge-depleting
CO mass emission according to
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, n cycles shall
be used. With reference to
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex, the
confirmation cycle shall be corrected
according to Appendix 2 to this
Annex.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
M
, g/km;
11 Output step
1
Output step
3
Output step
4
Output step
8
M , g/km;
M , g/km;
K , (g/km)/
(Wh/km).
n ;
n ;
UF ;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
Calculation of the charge-depleting
fuel consumption and fuel efficiency
according to Paragraph 4.2.2. of this
Annex.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, n cycles shall
be used. With reference to
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this Annex,
M of the confirmation cycle
shall be corrected according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex.
For results after 4 phases, the
phase-specific fuel consumption
FC shall be calculated using the
corrected CO mass emission
according to Paragraph 6. of Annex
7.
For results after 4
phases,
FC
FC
, 1/100km;
, 1/100km.
For results after 3
phases,
FE
, km/l.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.

Step No. Source Input Process Output
16
Interpolation
family
result.
If the
interpolation
method is
not applied,
step No. 17
is not
required
and the
output of
this step is
the final
result.
Output step
15
Output step
14
Output step
13
If applicable:
EC , Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
FE , km/l;
M
, g/km
FC
, l/100km;
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, intermediate
rounding shall be performed
according to Paragraph 7. of
this
UN GTR.
M shall be rounded to the
second place of decimal.
EC and EC
shall be rounded to the first
place of decimal.
If applicable:
EC shall be rounded to
the first place of decimal.
FC and FE shall be
rounded to the third place of
decimal.
If applicable:
EC ,
Wh/km;
For results after 4
phases,
EC ,
Wh/km;
, g/km;
M
EC ,
Wh/km;
FC ,
1/100km;
For results after 3
phases,
FE , km/l;
Output is available for vehicles
H and for vehicle L and, if
applicable, for vehicle M.
In case that the interpolation
method is not applied, final
rounding shall be applied
according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR:
EC , EC and
M shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.
If applicable:
EC shall be rounded to
the nearest whole number.
FC and FE shall be
rounded to the first place of
decimal.

Table A8/9
Calculation of Final Charge-depleting and Charge-sustaining Weighted Values
(FE applicable for results after 3 phases only)
Table A8/9 shall be performed separately for results after 4 phases and for results after 3 phases.
Step No. Source Input Process Output
1 Output step 1,
Table A8/8
Output step 7,
Table A8/8
Output step 3,
Table A8/8
Output step 4,
Table A8/8
Output step 8,
Table A8/8
Output step 6,
Table A8/5
Output step 7,
Table A8/5
Output step
14, Table
A8/5
Output step
13, Table
A8/8
M , g/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
M , g/km;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
UF
;
UF
;
M
, km;
, g/km;
M ,
g/km;
M
M ,
g/km;
M
, g/km;
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).
Input from CD and CS
postprocessing.
Output in the case of CD is
available for each CD test. Output
in the case of CS is available
once due to CS test averaged
values.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output
(except of K ) is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
CO mass emission correction
coefficient K might be
necessary according to Appendix
2 to this Annex.
M , g/km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
M ,
g/km;
M ,
g/km;
M , g/km;
For results after 4
phases
M , g/km;
PN , particles
per kilometer;
PM , mg/km;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
AER , km;
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
UF ;
M , g/km;
M
K ,
(g/km)/(Wh/km).

Step No. Source Input Process Output
5
Interpolatio
n family
result.
If the
interpolatio
n method is
not applied,
step no. 9
is not
required
and the
output of
this step is
the final
result.
Output step
AER, km. Averaging AER and AER
1
declaration.
The declared AER shall be
rounded according to Paragraph
7. of this UN GTR to the number
of decimal places specified in
Table A6/1 of Annex 6.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied and the AER
interpolation availability criterion is
fulfilled, AER shall be rounded
according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR to the first place of
decimal.
The output is available for each
vehicles H and L and, if
applicable, for vehicle M.
If the case that the interpolation
method is applied but the criterion
is not fulfilled, AER of vehicle H
shall be applied for the whole
interpolation family and shall be
rounded according to Paragraph
7. of this UN GTR to the nearest
whole number.
In the case that the interpolation
method is not applied, AER shall
be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to
the nearest whole number.
AER
, km;
For results after 4
phases
AER , km.

Step No.
8
Interpolation
family
result.
Source
Input
Output step AER
1
, km;
M , g/km;
Output step FC ,
6 1/100km;
Process
For results after 3 phases
Averaging EC and EC E declaration.
Output
For results after 3
phases
EC , Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
EAER , km;
If the
interpolation
method is
not applied,
step No. 9
is not
required
and the
output of
this step
is
the final
result.
EC, Wh/km;
Output step EC , Wh/km;
7
Output step EAER, km;
3EAER , km.
For results after 3 phases and 4 For results after 4
phases
phases
Averaging
and intermediate
AER , km;
rounding
according to Paragraph
M
,
7. of this
UN GTR.
g/km;
FC ,
In the case that thee interpolation
1/100km;
method is applied, , intermediate
rounding
shall be
performed
according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR.
Output step AER
5AER
, km;
, km.
AER , EAER and EAER shall
be rounded to the first place of
decimal.
EC , Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;
M shall be rounded to EAER , km;
the second place of decimal.
EAER , km.
FC shall be rounded to the
third place of decimal.
EC and EC shall be b rounded
the first place of decimal.
to
The output is available for each
vehicle H, vehiclee L and, if
applicable, vehicle M. M
In case
that the interpolation
method is not applied, a final
rounding
of the test results shall
be applied
according
to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR.
AER , EAER and EAER shall
be rounded to the nearest whole
number.
M shall be rounded
the nearest whole number.
to
FC shall be rounded to the
first place of decimal.
EC and EC shall be b rounded
the nearest whole number.
to

4.6.3. The requirements in this paragraph and sub-paragraphs are at the option of the Contracting
Party
Stepwise procedure for calculating the final test results of OVC-FCHVs
This annex describes the stepwise calculation of the final charge-depleting as well as the
final charge-sustaining and charge-depleting weighted test results.
4.6.3.1. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of the Charge-depleting Type 1
Test for OVC-FCHVs
The results shall be calculated in the order described in Table A8/9a. All applicable results
in the column "Output" shall be recorded. The column "Process" describes the paragraphs
to be used for calculation or contains additional calculations.
For the purpose of Table A8/8, the following nomenclature within the equations and results
is used:
c
complete applicable test cycle;
p
every applicable cycle phase; for the purpose of EAER
calculation (as applicable),
p shall represent the city driving cycle;
CS
charge-sustaining;

Step No. Source Input Process Output
3
Output step 2
REEC .
Determination of the transition
and confirmation cycle according
to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of this
Annex.
In the case that more than one
charge-depleting test is available
for one vehicle, for the purpose of
averaging, each test shall have
the same transition cycle number
n .
Determination of the chargedepleting
cycle range according to
Paragraph 4.4.3. of this Annex.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
n ;
R
; km.
4
Output step 3
n
;
In the case that the interpolation
method is used, the transition
cycle shall be determined for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable, M.
5
Output step 1
ΔE
, Wh;
d , km;
UBE
, Wh.
Check whether the interpolation
criterion according to
Paragraph 6.3.2.2. of this UN
GTR is fulfilled.
In the case that AER is derived
from the Type 1 test by driving the
applicable WLTP test cycles, the
value shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 4.4.1.2.2.
of this Annex.
In the case of more than one test,
n shall be equal for each test.
Output available for each test.
Averaging of AER .
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H, L and, if
applicable, M.
n ;
n ;
if applicable
n .
AER
AER
, km;
, km.

Step No.
Source
Input
Process
Output
10
Output step 7
EC
, Wh/km;
Averaging of tests for each
EC
,
EC
, Wh/km;
vehicle.
Wh/km;
Output step 8
FC
, kg/100km.
EC
, Wh/km;
In the case that the
FC
, kg/100km.
interpolation method is
applied, the output is
available for each vehicle
H, L and, if applicable, M.
11
Output step
EC
, Wh/km;
Declaration of chargedepleting
EC
, Wh/km;
10
FC
, kg/100km;
electric energy
FC
,
consumption and fuel
kg/100km;
consumption for each
vehicle.
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, the output is
available for each vehicle
H, L and, if applicable, M.
[reserved]
13
Interpolatio
n family
result.
If the
interpolatio
n method is
not applied,
step No. 17
is not
required
and the
output of
this step is
the final
result.
Output step
11
Output step
10
EC ,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km;
FC , kg/100km;
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, intermediate
rounding shall be
performed according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN
GTR.
M shall be rounded to
the second place of
decimal.
EC and EC
shall be rounded to the first
place of decimal.
Output is available for
vehicles H and for vehicle
L and, if applicable, for
vehicle M.
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
,
Wh/km;
FC
, l/100km;
In case that the
interpolation method is not
applied, final rounding shall
be applied according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN
GTR.
EC , EC and
M shall be rounded to
the nearest whole number.

Table A8/9b
Calculation of Final Charge-depleting and Charge-sustaining Weighted Values for OVC-FCHVs
Step No.
Source
Input
Process
Output
1
Output step 1,
Table A8/9a
Output step 5,
Table A8/9a
Output step 3,
Table A8/9a
Output step 4,
Table A8/9a
FC , kg/100km
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER , km;
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
Input from CD and CS
postprocessing.
Output in the case of CD is
available for each CD test.
Output in the case of CS is
available once due to CS test
averaged values.
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, the output (except of
K ) is available for
vehicle H, L and, if applicable,
M.
FC , kg/100km;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
AER, km;
E , Wh;
AER , km;
n ;
R , km;
n ;
n ;
UF ;
UF ;
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC , kg/100km;
Output step 6,
Table A8/9a
Output step 5
Table A8/7
Output step
11, Table
A8/9a
UF ;
UF ;
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC , kg/100km;
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC , kg/100km;
Output step
10, Table
A8/9a
FC
, kg/100km;
K ,
(kg/100km)/
(Wh/100km).
2
Output step 1
FC , kg/100km;
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
n ;
R , km
H correction coefficient
K might be necessary
according to Appendix 2 to
this Annex.
Calculation of equivalent
all-electric range according to
Paragraphs 4.4.4.1. and
4.4.4.2. of this Annex, and
actual
charge-depleting range
according to Paragraph 4.4.5.
of this Annex.
Output is available for each
CD test.
RCDA shall be rounded
according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR to the nearest
whole number.
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, the output is available
for each vehicle L, H and, if
applicable, M.
K ,
(kg/100km)/
(Wh/100km).
EAER, km;
EAER , km;
R , km.

Step No. Source Input Process Output
5 Output step
1
FC , kg/100km
n ;
n ;
UF ;
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC ,
kg/100km;
FC , kg/100km;
Calculation of weighted CO
mass emission and fuel
consumption according to
Paragraphs 4.1.3.1. and 4.2.3.
of this Annex.
Output is available for each
CD test.
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, n cycles shall be
used. With reference to
Paragraph 4.1.2. of this
Annex, M of the
confirmation cycle shall be
corrected according to
Appendix 2 to this Annex.
FC
, kg/100km;
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, the output is available
for each vehicle H, vehicle LH
and, if applicable, vehicle M.
6 Output step
1
Output step
2
E
, Wh;
EAER, km;
EAER , km;
Calculation of the electric
energy consumption based on
EAER according to
Paragraphs 4.3.3.1. and
4.3.3.2. of this Annex.
Output is available for each
CD test.
In the case that the
interpolation method is
applied, the output is available
for each vehicle H, vehicle L
and, if applicable, vehicle M.
EC, Wh/km;
EC , Wh/km;

Step No. Source Input Process Output
8 Output step
5
Output step
7
Output step
4
Output step
1
AER
, km;
AER
, km;
FC
,
kg/100km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EAER
, km;
EAER
, km;
AER-interpolation
availability.
R
Interpolation of individual
values based on input from
vehicle low, medium and
high according to
Paragraph 4.5. of this
Annex, and final rounding
according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR.
AER , AER , EAER
and EAER shall be
rounded to the nearest
whole number.
EC shall be
rounded to the first place of
decimal.
AER
, km;
AER
, km;
FC
,
kg/100km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EAER
, km;
EAER
, km.
FC shall be
rounded to the third place
of decimal.
EC and EC shall be
rounded to the nearest
whole number.
Output available for each
individual vehicles.
R shall be rounded
according to Paragraph 7.
of this UN GTR to the
nearest whole number.
R
4.7. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of PEVs
The results shall be calculated in the order described in Table A8/10 of the consecutive
cycle procedure and in the order described in Table A8/11 in the case of the shortened test
procedure. All applicable results in the column "Output" shall be recorded. The column
"Process" describes the paragraphs to be used for calculation or contains additional
calculations.
4.7.1. Stepwise Procedure for Calculating the Final Test Results of PEVs in Case of the
Consecutive Cycles Procedure
For the purpose of this Table, the following nomenclature within the questions and results is
used:
j
index for the considered period.

Step No.
Source
Input
Process
Output
3
Output step
1
ΔE
UBE
, Wh;
, Wh.
Calculation of weighting factors
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of
this Annex.
Output step
2
4 Output step
1
Output step
2
Output step
3
5 Output step
1
Output step
4
n
;
n
;
n
;
n
;
n
;
n
.
ΔE , Wh;
d , km;
UBE , Wh.
n
;
n
;
n
;
n
;
n
;
n
.
All weighting
factors
UBE
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, Wh;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
Note: The number of weighting
factors depends on the applicable
cycle that was used (3- or 4-
phase WLTC). In the case of 4-
phase WLTCs, the output in
brackets might be needed in
addition.
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle
L.
Calculation of electric energy
consumption at the REESSs
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of
this Annex.
Calculation of the electric energy
consumption from the first
applicable WLTP test cycle
EC as described in Appendix
8,
Paragraph 1.1. to this Annex.
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle
L.
Calculation of pure electric range
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.2. of
this Annex.
Output available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle
L.
K
K
K
(K )
K
K
K
(K )
K
K
K
(K )
K
K
K
(K )
K
K
K
(K )
K
K
K
(K )
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km.

Step No. Source Input Process Output
8 Output step
7
EC
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
Adjustment of the electric energy
consumption for the purpose of
COP as described in Appendix 8,
Paragraph 1.1. to this Annex.
EC
, Wh/km.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and
vehicle L.
9
If the
interpolation
method is
not applied,
step No. 10
is not
required
and the
output of
this step is
the final
result.
Output step
7
Output step
8
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
Intermediate rounding according
to Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, intermediate
rounding shall be performed
according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR.
PER and PER shall be
rounded to the first place of
decimal.
EC and EC shall be rounded
to the first place of decimal.
EC shall be rounded to the
first place of decimal.
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
l, Wh/km;
EC
,
Wh/km;
EC ,
Wh/km.
The output is available for vehicle
H and vehicle L.
In case that the interpolation
method is not applied, final
rounding of the test results
according to Paragraph 7. of this
UN GTR.
PER and PER shall be
rounded to the nearest whole
number.
EC and EC shall be rounded
to the nearest whole number.
EC shall be rounded to the
nearest whole number.

Table A8/11
Calculation of Final PEV Values Determined by Application the Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure
Table A8/11 shall be performed separately for results after 4 phases and for results after 3 phases.
For results after 4 phases;
The considered periods shall be the low phase, medium phase, high phase, extra high phase, the
applicable WLTP city test cycle and the applicable WLTP test cycle.
For results after 3 phases;
The considered periods shall be the low phase, medium phase, high phase and the applicable WLTP
test cycle.
Step No.
Source
Input
Process
Output
1
Annex 8
Test results
Results measured according to
ΔE
, Wh;
Appendix 3 to this Annex, and
d , km;
pre-calculated according to
Paragraph 4.3. of this Annex.
Usable battery energy according
to Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. of this
Annex.
Recharged electric energy
according to Paragraph 3.4.4.3. of
this Annex.
UBE , Wh;
E , Wh.
Output is available for each test.
E shall be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to
the first place of decimal.
2 Output step
1
ΔE
UBE
, Wh;
, Wh.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle L and vehicle
H.
Calculation of weighting factors
according to Paragraph 4.4.2.1. of
this Annex.
Output is available for each test.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available for vehicle H and vehicle
L.
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K

Step No.
6
If the
interpolation
method is
not applied,
step No. 9
is not
required
and the
output of
this step
for
PER
and
EC
is the final
result.
Source
Outputt step PER
4
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
Outputt step EC
5
EC
EC
EC
EC
EC
Outputt step
3
EC
Input
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
, Wh/km.
Processs
Averaging of tests for all input
values.
Declaration of PER
EC based on PER
and EC .
and
Alignment of EC in case c of city,
low, med, high and exHigh e
based on the ratio between
EC and EC :
Output
PER
PER
PER ,
PER ,
PER
PER
PER
, km;
, km;
km;
km;
, km;
, km;
, km;
Alignment of PER in case of city, ,
low, med, high and exHigh e
based on the ratio between
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
PER
and PERR :
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km;
EC
, Wh/km.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available
for vehicle H and
vehicle L. PER as well as
EC shall be rounded
according to Paragraph 7. of thiss
UN GTR
to the number of
places of decimal specified in
Table A6/1 of Annexx 6.
7
Outputt step EC
6
EC
EC
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km;
, Wh/km.
In the case that the interpolation
method is not applied,
PER and EC shall
be rounded according to
Paragraph 7. of this UN GTR to
the nearest whole number.
Adjustment of the electric
energy consumption
for the
purpose
of COP as described d in
Appendix 8, Paragraph 1.1. to
this Annex.
EC
, Wh/km.
In the case that the interpolation
method is applied, the output is
available
for vehicle H and
vehicle L.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 1
REESS STATE OF CHARGE PROFILE
1. TEST SEQUENCES AND REESS PROFILES: OVC-HEVS AND OVC-FCHVS,
CHARGE-DEPLETING AND CHARGE-SUSTAINING TEST
1.1. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs according to Option 1
Charge-depleting Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 1 test
(Figure A8.App1/1).
Figure A8.App1/1
OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs, Charge-depleting Type 1 Test
1.2. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs according to Option 2
Charge-sustaining Type 1 test with no subsequent charge-depleting Type 1 test
(Figure A8.App1/2).
Figure A8.App1/2
OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs, Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test

1.4. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs according to Option 4
Charge-sustaining
Type
1
test
with
subsequent
charge-depleting
Type
1
test
(Figure A8.App1/4)
Figure A8.App1/4
OVC-HEVs and OVC-FCHVs, Charge-sustaining Type 1 Test with Subsequent Charge-depleting
Type 1 Test

3. TEST SEQUENCES PEV
3.1. Consecutive Cycles Procedure (Figure A8.App1/6)
Figure A8.App1/6
Consecutive Cycles Test Sequence PEV
3.2. Shortened Test Procedure (Figure A8.App1/7)
Figure A8.App1/7
Shortened Test Procedure Test Sequence for PEVs

1.2. The correction criterion c is the ratio between the absolute value of the REESS electric
energy change ΔE and the fuel energy and shall be calculated as follows:
Where:
ΔE
is the charge-sustaining REESS energy change according to Paragraph 1.1.2.
of this Appendix, Wh;
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel according to
Paragraph 1.2.1. of this Appendix in the case of NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs,
and according to Paragraph 1.2.2. of this Appendix in the case of
NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs, Wh.
1.2.1. Charge-sustaining Fuel Energy for NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs
The charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel for NOVC-HEVs and
OVC-HEVs shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
E = 10 × HV × FC × d
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel of the applicable
WLTP test cycle of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, Wh;
HV
is the heating value according to Table A6.App2/1, kWh/l;
FC is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption of the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test, not corrected for the energy balance,
determined according to Paragraph 6. of Annex 7, using the gaseous emission
compound values according to Table A8/5, step No. 2, 1/100km;
d is the distance driven over the corresponding applicable WLTP test cycle, km;
10 conversion factor to Wh.
1.2.2. Charge-sustaining Fuel Energy for NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs
The charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel for NOVC-FCHVs and
OVC-FCHVs shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
E is the charge-sustaining energy content of the consumed fuel of the applicable
WLTP test cycle of the charge-sustaining Type 1 test, Wh;
121 is the lower heating value of hydrogen, MJ/kg;

(c) The difference in M between any two adjacent measurements, related to the
electric energy change during the test, shall be less than or equal to 10g/km.
(d)
In addition to (b), the test with the highest negative electric energy change and the
test with the highest positive electric energy change shall not be within the region that
is defined by:
Where:
E is the energy content of the consumed fuel calculated according to
Paragraph 1.2. of this Appendix, Wh.
(e) The difference in M between the test with the highest negative electric energy
change and the mid-point, and the difference in M between the mid-point and
the test with the highest positive electric energy change shall be similar and
preferably be within the range defined by (d). If this requirement is not feasible, the
responsible authority shall decide if a retest is necessary.
The correction coefficients determined by the manufacturer shall be reviewed and approved
by the responsible authority prior to its application.
If the set of at least five tests does not fulfil criterion (a) or criterion (b) or both, the
manufacturer shall provide evidence to the responsible authority as to why the vehicle is not
capable of meeting either or both criteria. If the responsible authority is not satisfied with the
evidence, it may require additional tests to be performed. If the criteria after additional tests
are still not fulfilled, the responsible authority shall determine a conservative correction
coefficient, based on the measurements.
2.3. Calculation of Correction Coefficients K and K
2.3.1. Determination of the Fuel Consumption Correction Coefficient K
For NOVC-FCHVs and OVC-FCHVs, the fuel consumption correction coefficient K ,
determined by driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined using the following
equation:
Where:
K is the fuel consumption correction coefficient, (kg/100km)/(Wh/km);
EC
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km
EC
is the mean charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of n
tests based
on the REESS depletion according to the equation below, Wh/km;

2.3.2. Determination of CO Mass Emission Correction Coefficient K
For OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs, the CO mass emission correction coefficient K ,
determined by driving a set of charge-sustaining Type 1 tests, is defined by the following
equation:
Where:
K is the CO mass emission correction coefficient, (g/km)/(Wh/km);
EC
is the charge-sustaining electric energy consumption of test n based on the
REESS depletion according to Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix, Wh/km;
EC is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining electric energy
consumption of n tests based on the REESS depletion according to
Paragraph 2.3.1. of this Appendix, Wh/km;
M is the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of test n, not corrected for the
energy balance, calculated according Table A8/5, step No. 2, g/km;
M is the arithmetic average of the charge-sustaining CO mass emission of n
tests based on the CO mass emission, not corrected for the energy
balance, according to the equation below, g/km;
n
is the index number of the considered test;
n is the total number of tests;
and:
The CO mass emission correction coefficient shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7. of
this UN GTR to four significant figures. The statistical significance of the CO mass emission
correction coefficient shall be evaluated by the responsible authority.
2.3.2.1. It is permitted to apply the CO mass emission correction coefficient developed from tests
over the whole applicable WLTP test cycle for the correction of each individual phase.
2.3.2.2. Additional to the requirements of Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix, at the request of the
manufacturer and upon approval of the responsible authority, separate CO mass emission
correction coefficients K for each individual phase may be developed. In this case, the
same criteria as described in Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix shall be fulfilled in each
individual phase and the procedure described in Paragraph 2.3.2. of this Appendix shall be
applied for each individual phase to determine phase-specific correction coefficients.

3.1.1.3. Test Procedure
3.1.1.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected according
to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.1.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex shall
be driven.
3.1.1.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the Type 1
test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.1.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraph 3.1.1.1. to
Paragraph 3.1.1.3. inclusive of this Appendix.
3.1.2. Option 2 Test Sequence
3.1.2.1. Preconditioning
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 2.1.1. or Paragraph 2.1.2.
of Appendix 4 to this Annex.
3.1.2.2. REESS Adjustment
After preconditioning, soaking according to Paragraph 2.1.3. of Appendix 4 to this Annex
shall be omitted and a break, during which the REESS is permitted to be adjusted, shall be
set to a maximum duration of 60min. A similar break shall be applied in advance of each
test. Immediately after the end of this break, the requirements of Paragraph 3.1.2.3. of this
Appendix shall be applied.
Upon request of the manufacturer, an additional warm-up procedure may be conducted in
advance of the REESS adjustment to ensure similar starting conditions for the correction
coefficient determination. If the manufacturer requests this additional warm-up procedure,
the identical warm-up procedure shall be applied repeatedly within the test sequence.
3.1.2.3. Test Procedure
3.1.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected according
to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.1.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex shall
be driven.
3.1.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the Type 1
test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.1.2.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test may be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraphs 3.1.2.2. and
3.1.2.3. of this Appendix.

3.2.1.3. Test Procedure
3.2.1.3.1. The driver-selectable mode shall be selected according to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to
this Annex.
3.2.1.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex shall
be driven.
3.2.1.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the
charge-sustaining Type 1 test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.2.1.3.4. To obtain a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test can be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraph 3.2.1.1. to
Paragraph 3.2.1.3. inclusive of this Appendix.
3.2.2. Option 2 Test Sequence
3.2.2.1. Preconditioning
The test vehicle shall be preconditioned according to Paragraph 3.3.1.1. of this Annex.
3.2.2.2. REESS Adjustment
After preconditioning, the soaking according to Paragraph 3.3.1.2. of this Annex shall be
omitted and a break, during which the REESS is permitted to be adjusted, shall be set to a
maximum duration of 60min. A similar break shall be applied in advance of each test.
Immediately after the end of this break, the requirements of Paragraph 3.2.2.3. of this
Appendix shall be applied.
Upon request of the manufacturer, an additional warm-up procedure may be conducted in
advance of the REESS adjustment to ensure similar starting conditions for the correction
coefficient determination. If the manufacturer requests this additional warm-up procedure,
the identical warm-up procedure shall be applied repeatedly within the test sequence.
3.2.2.3. Test Procedure
3.2.2.3.1. The driver-selectable mode for the applicable WLTP test cycle shall be selected according
to Paragraph 3. of Appendix 6 to this Annex.
3.2.2.3.2. For testing, the applicable WLTP test cycle according to Paragraph 1.4.2. of this Annex shall
be driven.
3.2.2.3.3. Unless stated otherwise in this Appendix, the vehicle shall be tested according to the Type 1
test procedure described in Annex 6.
3.2.2.3.4. To get a set of applicable WLTP test cycles that are required for the determination of the
correction coefficients, the test can be followed by a number of consecutive sequences
required according to Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix consisting of Paragraphs 3.2.2.2. and
3.2.2.3. of this Appendix.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 3
DETERMINATION OF REESS CURRENT AND REESS VOLTAGE FOR
NOVC-HEVS, OVC-HEVS, PEVS, OVC-FCHVS AND NOVC-FCHVS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Appendix defines the method and required instrumentation to determine the REESS
current and the REESS voltage of NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs, PEVs, OVC-FCHVs and
NOVC-FCHVs.
1.2. Measurement of REESS current and REESS voltage shall start at the same time as the test
starts and shall end immediately after the vehicle has finished the test.
1.3. The REESS current and the REESS voltage of each phase shall be determined.
1.4. A list of the instrumentation used by the manufacturer to measure REESS voltage and
current (including instrument manufacturer, model number, serial number, last calibration
dates (where applicable)) during:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The Type 1 test according to Paragraph 3 of this Annex;
The procedure to determine the correction coefficients according to Appendix 2 of this
Annex (where applicable);
Any procedure which may be required by a Contracting Party
Shall be provided to the responsible authority.
2. REESS CURRENT
REESS depletion is considered as a negative current.
2.1. External REESS Current Measurement
2.1.1. The REESS current(s) shall be measured during the tests using a clamp-on or closed type
current transducer. The current measurement system shall fulfil the requirements specified
in Table A8/1 of this Annex. The current transducer(s) shall be capable of handling the peak
currents at engine starts and temperature conditions at the point of measurement.
In order to have an accurate measurement, zero adjustment and degaussing shall be
performed before the test according to the instrument manufacturer's instructions.
2.1.2. Current transducers shall be fitted to any of the REESS on one of the cables connected
directly to the REESS and shall include the total REESS current.
In case of shielded wires, appropriate methods shall be applied in accordance with the
responsible authority.

Table A8
App3/1
NOVC-HEV
Test Events Paragraph 3.1.
OVC-HEV CS condition
NOVC-FCHV
OVC-FCHV CS condition
REESS energy change-based
correction procedure
(Appendix 2)
OVC-HEV CD condition
OVC-FCHV CD condition
PEV
shall not to be
used
shall be used
60V or more
shall not to be
used
Paragraph 3.2.
shall be used
Less than 60V
allowed to use
Paragraph 3.3.
shall not to be
used
allowed to use

2.2.3. Application of a Normal Charge
Normal charging is the transfer of electricity to an electrified vehicle with a power of less
than or equal to 22kW.
Where there are several possible methods to perform a normal AC charge (e.g. cable,
induction, etc.), the charging procedure via cable shall be used.
Where there are several AC charging power levels available, the highest normal charging
power shall be used. An AC charging power lower than the highest normal AC charging
power may be selected if recommended by the manufacturer and by approval of the
responsible authority.
2.2.3.1. The REESS shall be charged at an ambient temperature as specified in Paragraph 2.2.2.2.
of Annex 6 either with the on-board charger if fitted.
In the following cases, a charger recommended by the manufacturer and using the charging
pattern prescribed for normal charging shall be used if:
(a)
No on-board charger is fitted, or
(b) The charging time exceeds the soaking time defined in Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6.
The procedures in this paragraph exclude all types of special charges that could be
automatically or manually initiated, e.g. equalization charges or servicing charges. The
manufacturer shall declare that, during the test, a special charge procedure has not
occurred.
2.2.3.2. End-of-charge Criterion
The end-of-charge criterion is reached when the on-board or external instruments indicate
that the REESS is fully charged. If the charging is performed during soaking and finished
before the minimum required soaking time as defined in Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6, the
vehicle shall stay connected to the grid at least until the minimum required soaking time is
reached.
3. PEV PRECONDITIONING AND SOAKING
3.1. Initial Charging of the REESS
Initial charging of the REESS consists of discharging the REESS and applying a normal
charge.
3.1.1. Discharging the REESS
The discharge procedure shall be performed according to the manufacturer's
recommendation. The manufacturer shall guarantee that the REESS is as fully depleted as
is possible by the discharge procedure.
3.1.2. Soaking and Application of a Normal Charge
Soaking of the vehicle shall be performed in accordance with Paragraph 2.7. of Annex 6.
During soak, the REESS shall be charged using the normal charging procedure as defined
in Paragraph 2.2.3. of this Appendix.

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 6
SELECTION OF DRIVER-SELECTABLE MODES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENT
1.1. The manufacturer shall select the driver-selectable mode for the Type 1 test procedure
according to Paragraphs 2. to 4. inclusive of this Appendix which enables the vehicle to
follow the considered test cycle within the speed trace tolerances according to
Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.2. of Annex 6. This shall apply to all vehicle systems with
driver-selectable modes including those not solely specific to the transmission.
1.2. The manufacturer shall provide evidence to the responsible authority concerning:
(a)
(b)
The availability of a predominant mode under the considered conditions;
The maximum speed of the considered vehicle;
and if required:
(c)
(d)
(e)
The best and worst case mode identified by the evidence on the fuel consumption
and, if applicable, on the CO mass emission/fuel consumption in all modes. See
Paragraph 2.6.6.3. in Annex 6;
The highest electric energy consuming mode;
The cycle energy demand (according to Paragraph 5 of Annex 7 where the target
speed is replaced by the actual speed).
1.3. On the basis of technical evidence provided by the manufacturer and with the agreement of
the responsible authority, the dedicated driver-selectable modes, such as "mountain mode"
or "maintenance mode" which are not intended for normal daily operation but only for
special limited purposes, shall not be considered. Irrespective of the driver-selectable mode
selected for the Type 1 test according to Paragraph 2. and 3. of this Appendix, the vehicle
shall comply with the criteria emissions limits in all remaining driver-selectable modes used
for forward driving.
2. OVC-HEVS AND OVC-FCHVS EQUIPPED WITH A DRIVER-SELECTABLE MODE
UNDER CHARGE-DEPLETING OPERATING CONDITION
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-depleting
Type 1 test shall be selected according to the following conditions.
The flow chart in Figure A8.App6/1 illustrates the mode selection according to this
Paragraph.
2.1. If there is a predominant mode that enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle
under charge-depleting operating condition, this mode shall be selected.

Figure A8.App6/1a
OVC-HEV and OVC-FCHV: CD Type 1 Test - Mode Selectable Switch

3.
OVC-HEVS, NOVC-HEVS, OVC-FCHVS AND NOVC-FCHVS EQUIPPED WITH A
DRIVER-SELECTABLE
MODE
UNDER
CHARGE-SUSTAINING
OPERATING
CONDITION
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the charge-sustaining
Type 1 test shall be selected according to the following conditions.
The flow chart in Figure A8.App6/2 illustrates the mode selection according to this
Paragraph.
3.1. If there is a predominant mode that enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle
under charge-sustaining operating condition, this mode shall be selected.
3.2. If there is no predominant mode or if there is a predominant mode but this mode does not
enable the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating
condition, the mode for the test shall be selected according to the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
If there is only one mode which allows the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle
under charge-sustaining operating conditions, this mode shall be selected;
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle under
charge-sustaining operating conditions and none of those modes is a configurable
start mode, the worst case mode for CO emissions and fuel consumption shall be
selected;
If several modes are capable of following the reference test cycle under
charge-sustaining operating conditions and at least two or more of those modes are a
configurable start mode, the worst case mode for CO emissions and fuel
consumption shall be selected.
3.3. If there is no mode according to Paragraph 3.1. and Paragraph 3.2. of this Appendix that
enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle, the reference test cycle shall be
modified according to Paragraph 9. of Annex 1:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is a predominant mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified
reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, this mode shall be
selected.
If there is no predominant mode but other modes which allow the vehicle to follow the
modified reference test cycle under charge-sustaining operating condition, the worst
case mode for CO emissions and fuel consumption of these modes shall be
selected.
If there is no mode which allows the vehicle to follow the modified reference test cycle
under charge-sustaining operating condition, the mode or modes with the highest
cycle energy demand shall be identified and the worst case mode for CO emissions
and fuel consumption of those modes shall be selected. In the case that at least two
or more of these modes are a configurable start mode, the worst case mode for CO
emissions and fuel consumption shall be selected from these modes.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the reference test cycle can be replaced by the
applicable WLTP city test cycle and the worst case mode for CO emissions and fuel
consumption shall be selected.

Figure A8.App6/2b
NOVC-HEV, OVC-HEVs, NOVC-FCHVs, OVC-FCHVs: CS Type 1 Test – Mode Selectable Switch
Figure A8.App6/2a and Figure A8.App6/2b
Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode for OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs, OVC-FCHVs and NOVC-FCHVs
under Charge-sustaining Operating Condition
4. PEVS EQUIPPED WITH A DRIVER-SELECTABLE MODE
For vehicles equipped with a driver-selectable mode, the mode for the test shall be selected
according to the following conditions.
The flow chart in Figure A8.App6/3 illustrates the mode selection according to this
Paragraph.
4.1. If there is a predominant mode that enables the vehicle to follow the reference test cycle,
this mode shall be selected.

Figure A8.App6/3a
PEV: Mode Selectable Switch

ANNEX 8 – APPENDIX 7
FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF
COMPRESSED HYDROGEN FUEL CELL HYBRID VEHICLES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Fuel consumption shall be measured using the gravimetric method in accordance with
Paragraph 2. of this Appendix.
At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, fuel
consumption may be measured using either the pressure method or the flow method. In this
case, the manufacturer shall provide technical evidence that the method yields equivalent
results. The pressure and flow methods are described in ISO 23828.
2. GRAVIMETRIC METHOD
Fuel consumption shall be calculated by measuring the mass of the fuel tank before and
after the test.
2.1. Equipment and Setting
2.1.1. An example of the instrumentation is shown in Figure A8.App7/1. One or more off-vehicle
tanks shall be used to measure the fuel consumption. The off-vehicle tank(s) shall be
connected to the vehicle fuel line between the original fuel tank and the fuel cell system.
2.1.2. For preconditioning, the originally installed tank or an external source of hydrogen may be
used.
2.1.3. The refuelling pressure shall be adjusted to the manufacturer's recommended value.
2.1.4. Difference of the gas supply pressures in lines shall be minimized when the lines are
switched.
2.1.5. Balance
In the case that influence of pressure difference is expected, the manufacturer and the
responsible authority shall agree whether correction is necessary or not.
2.1.5.1. The balance used for fuel consumption measurement shall meet the specification of
Table A8.App7/1.
Table A8.App7/1
Analytical Balance Verification Criteria
Measurement System Resolution Precision
Balance 0.1g maximum ±0.02 maximum
Fuel consumption (REESS charge balance = 0) during the test, in mass, standard
deviation.

2.2.3. The test shall be conducted by fuelling from the off-vehicle tank.
2.2.4. The off-vehicle tank shall be removed from the line.
2.2.5. The mass of the tank and fuel consumed after the test shall be measured.
2.2.5.1. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval of the responsible authority, the
change in weight of the hydrogen in the auxiliary line between points 2 and 4 in
Figure A8.App7/1 due to changes in temperature and pressure may be taken into
consideration.
2.2.6. The non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption FC from the measured mass
before and after the test shall be calculated using the following equation:
Where:
FC
is the non-balanced charge-sustaining fuel consumption measured during the test,
kg/100km;
g
g
d
is the mass of the tank at the start of the test, kg;
is the mass of the tank at the end of the test, kg;
is the distance driven during the test, km.
2.2.7. If required by a Contracting Party, separate fuel consumption FC as defined in
Paragraphs 4.2.1.2.4. and 4.2.1.2.5. of this Annex shall be calculated for each individual
phase in accordance with Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix. The test procedure shall be
conducted with off-vehicle tanks and connections to the vehicle fuel line which are
individually prepared for each phase.

1.1.1. In the case that the interpolation method is applied, the values declared and used for
verifying the conformity of production with respect to the electric energy consumption of
vehicle H and vehicle L shall be the input values for the interpolation of the individual electric
energy consumption values according to Paragraph 1.2. of this Appendix.
1.2. Interpolation of the Individual Electric Energy Consumption Value of PEVs
This paragraph shall only be applied in the case the interpolation method is applied. The
interpolated electric energy consumption value shall be declared and used for verifying the
conformity of production with respect to the electric energy consumption of the individual
vehicle:
where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC
EC
EC
K
is the electric energy consumption of an individual vehicle for the conformity
of production, Wh/km;
is the electric energy consumption of vehicle L for the conformity of
production determined according to Paragraph 1.1. of this Appendix,
Wh/km;
is the electric energy consumption of vehicle H for the conformity of
production determined according to Paragraph 1.1. of this Appendix,
Wh/km;
is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle, according to Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex.
2. CALCULATION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION VALUES OF OVC-HEVS FOR
CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
This paragraph shall only be applied if there is no engine start in the first cycle of the
charge-depleting Type 1 test during Type Approval. In the case there is an engine start, this
paragraph shall be omitted.
2.1. The following value shall be declared and used for verifying the conformity of production
with respect to electric energy consumption value of OVC-HEVs:
where:
EC = EC × AF
i
EC
is representing – in the case the interpolation method is applied – the index
L for vehicle L and the index H for vehicle H. In the case the interpolation
method is not applied, index i is representing the vehicle tested and
Paragraph 2.2. of this Appendix shall be omitted.
is the charge-depleting electric energy consumption based on the REESS
depletion of the first applicable WLTC test cycle of the charge-depleting
Type 1 test provided for the verification during the conformity of production
test procedure;

2.2. Interpolation of the Individual Charge-depleting Electric Energy Consumption Value
This paragraph shall only be applied in the case the interpolation method is applied. The
interpolated electric energy consumption value shall be declared and used for verifying the
conformity of production with respect to the electric energy consumption value of the
individual vehicle:
where:
EC = EC + K × (EC − EC )
EC
EC
EC
K
is the charge-depleting electric energy consumption of an individual vehicle
for the conformity of production, Wh/km;
is the charge-depleting electric energy consumption of vehicle L for the
conformity of production determined according to Paragraph 2.1. of this
Appendix, Wh/km;
is the charge-depleting electric energy consumption of vehicle H for the
conformity of production determined according to Paragraph 2.1. of this
Appendix, Wh/km;
is the interpolation coefficient for the considered individual vehicle for the
applicable WLTP test cycle, according to Paragraph 4.5.3. of this Annex.

ANNEX 10
REQUIREMENTS FOR VEHICLES THAT USE A REAGENT FOR THE EXHAUST
AFTER-TREATMENT SYSTEM
1. This Annex sets out the requirements for vehicles that rely on the use of a reagent for the
after-treatment system in order to reduce emissions. Every reference in this Annex to
'reagent tank' shall be understood as also applying to other containers in which a reagent is
stored.
1.1. The capacity of the reagent tank shall be such that a full reagent tank does not need to be
replenished over an average driving range of 5 full fuel tanks providing the reagent tank can
be easily replenished (e.g. without the use of tools and without removing vehicle interior
trim. The opening of an interior flap, in order to gain access for the purpose of reagent
replenishment, shall not be understood as the removal of interior trim). If the reagent tank is
not considered to be easy to replenish as described above, the minimum reagent tank
capacity shall be at least equivalent to an average driving distance of 15 full fuel tanks.
However, in the case of the option in Paragraph 3.5., where the manufacturer chooses to
start the warning system at a distance which may not be less than 2,400km before the
reagent tank becomes empty, the above restrictions on a minimum reagent tank capacity
shall not apply.
1.2. In the context of this Annex, the term "average driving distance" shall be taken to be derived
from the fuel or reagent consumption during a Type 1 test for the driving distance of a fuel
tank and the driving distance of a reagent tank respectively.
2. REAGENT INDICATION
2.1. The vehicle shall include a specific indicator on the dashboard that informs the driver when
reagent levels are below the threshold values specified in Paragraph 3.5.
3. DRIVER WARNING SYSTEM
3.1. The vehicle shall include a warning system consisting of visual alarms that informs the
driver when an abnormality is detected in the reagent dosing, e.g. when emissions are too
high, the reagent level is low, reagent dosing is interrupted, or the reagent is not of a quality
specified by the manufacturer. The warning system may also include an audible component
to alert the driver.
3.2. The warning system shall escalate in intensity as the reagent approaches empty. It shall
culminate in a driver notification that cannot be easily defeated or ignored. It shall not be
possible to turn off the system until the reagent has been replenished.
3.3. The visual warning shall display a message indicating a low level of reagent. The warning
shall not be the same as the warning used for the purposes of OBD or other engine
maintenance. The warning shall be sufficiently clear for the driver to understand that the
reagent level is low (e.g. "urea level low", "AdBlue level low", or "reagent low").

5.4. A deviation of more than 50% between the average reagent consumption and the average
demanded reagent consumption by the engine system over a period of 30min of vehicle
operation, shall result in the activation of the driver warning system in Paragraph 3., which
shall display a message indicating an appropriate warning (e.g. "urea dosing malfunction",
"AdBlue dosing malfunction", or "reagent dosing malfunction"). If the reagent consumption is
not rectified within 50km of the activation of the warning system then the driver inducement
requirements of Paragraph 8. shall apply.
5.5. In the case of interruption in reagent dosing activity the driver warning system as referred to
in Paragraph 3. shall be activated, which shall display a message indicating an appropriate
warning. Where the reagent dosing interruption is initiated by the engine system because
the vehicle operating conditions are such that the vehicle's emission performance does not
require reagent dosing, the activation of the driver warning system as referred to in
Paragraph 3. may be omitted, provided that the manufacturer has clearly informed the
approval authority when such operating conditions apply. If the reagent dosing is not
rectified within 50km of the activation of the warning system then the driver inducement
requirements of Paragraph 8. shall apply.
6. MONITORING NO EMISSIONS
6.1. As an alternative to the monitoring requirements referred to in Paragraphs 4. and 5.,
manufacturers may use exhaust gas sensors directly to sense excess NO levels in the
exhaust.
6.2. The manufacturer shall demonstrate that use of the sensors referred to in Paragraph 6.1.
and any other sensors on the vehicle, results in the activation of the driver warning system
as referred to in Paragraph 3., the display of a message indicating an appropriate warning
(e.g. "emissions too high – check urea", "emissions too high – check AdBlue", "emissions
too high – check reagent"), and the activation of the driver inducement system as referred to
in Paragraph 8.3., when the situations referred to in Paragraphs 4.2., 5.4., or 5.5. occur.
For the purposes of this paragraph these situations are presumed to occur if the applicable
NO OBD threshold limit set out in Table 4 of Paragraph 6.8.2. is exceeded.
NO emissions during the test to demonstrate compliance with these requirements shall be
no more than 20% higher than the OBD threshold limits.
7. STORAGE OF FAILURE INFORMATION
7.1. Where reference is made to this paragraph, non-erasable Parameter Identifiers (PID) shall
be stored identifying the reason for and the distance travelled by the vehicle during the
inducement system activation. The vehicle shall retain a record of the PID for at least
800 days or 30,000km of vehicle operation. The PID shall be made available via the serial
port of a standard diagnostic connector upon request of a generic scan tool in accordance
with the provisions of Paragraph 6.5.3.1. of Appendix 1 to Annex 11. The information stored
in the PID shall be linked to the period of cumulated vehicle operation, during which it has
occurred, with an accuracy of not less than 300 days or 10,000km.
7.2. Malfunctions in the reagent dosing system attributed to technical failures (e.g. mechanical or
electrical faults) shall also be subject to the OBD requirements in Annex 11.

8.3.1.2. In the case that the inducement system was activated at the level described in
Paragraph 8.2.(b), engine restarts shall be prevented immediately after the vehicle has
travelled a distance expected to be sufficient for driving 75% of the average driving range of
the vehicle with a complete tank of fuel since the activation of the inducement system.
8.3.1.3. In the case that the inducement system was activated at the level described in
Paragraph 8.2.(c), engine restarts shall be prevented immediately after the vehicle has
travelled a distance expected to be sufficient for driving the average driving range of the
vehicle with 5% of the capacity of the reagent tank, since the activation of the inducement
system.
8.3.1.4. In addition, engine restarts shall be prevented immediately after the reagent tank becomes
empty, should this situation occur earlier than the situations specified in Paragraphs 8.3.1.1,
8.3.1.2., or 8.3.1.3.
8.3.2. A "no start after refuelling" system results in a vehicle being unable to start after re-fuelling if
the inducement system has activated.
8.3.3. A "fuel-lockout" approach prevents the vehicle from being refuelled by locking the fuel filler
system after the inducement system activates. The lockout system shall be robust to
prevent it being tampered with.
8.3.4. The requirements in this paragraph and sub-paragraphs are at the option of the Contracting
Party.
A "performance restriction" approach restricts the speed of the vehicle after the inducement
system activates. The level of speed limitation shall be noticeable to the driver and
significantly reduce the maximum speed of the vehicle. Such limitation shall enter into
operation gradually or after an engine start. Shortly before engine restarts are prevented,
the speed of the vehicle shall not exceed 50km/h.
8.3.4.1. In the case that the warning system was activated at least 2,400km before the reagent tank
was expected to become empty, or the irregularities described in Paragraphs 4. or 5. or the
NO levels described in Paragraph 6.2. have occurred, engine restarts shall be prevented
immediately after the vehicle has travelled a distance expected to be sufficient for driving
the average driving range of the vehicle with a complete tank of fuel since the activation of
the inducement system.
8.3.4.2. In the case that the inducement system was activated at the level described in
Paragraph 8.2.(b), engine restarts shall be prevented immediately after the vehicle has
travelled a distance expected to be sufficient for driving 75% of the average driving range of
the vehicle with a complete tank of fuel since the activation of the inducement system.
8.3.4.3. In the case that the inducement system was activated at the level described in
Paragraph 8.2.(c), engine restarts shall be prevented immediately after the vehicle has
travelled a distance expected to be sufficient for driving the average driving range of the
vehicle with 5% of the capacity of the reagent tank, since the activation of the inducement
system.
8.3.4.4. In addition, engine restarts shall be prevented immediately after the reagent tank becomes
empty, should this situation occur earlier than the situations specified in Paragraphs 8.3.4.1,
8.3.4.2. or 8.3.4.3.

9.6. The instructions shall explain how the warning system and driver inducement systems work.
In addition, the consequences of ignoring the warning system and not replenishing the
reagent shall be explained.
10. OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT SYSTEM
Manufacturers shall ensure that any exhaust aftertreatment system which uses a reagent
retains its emission control function during all ambient conditions, especially at low ambient
temperatures. This includes taking measures to prevent the complete freezing of the
reagent during parking times of up to 7 days at 258K (-15°C) with the reagent tank 50% full.
If the reagent is frozen, the manufacturer shall ensure that the reagent shall be liquefied and
ready for use within 20min of the vehicle being started at 258K (-15°C) measured inside the
reagent tank.

3.2.1.3. For vehicles designed to accommodate the installation of power take-off units, disablement
of affected monitoring systems is permitted provided disablement occurs only when the
power take-off unit is active.
In addition to the provisions of this paragraph the manufacturer may temporarily disable the
OBD system in the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For flex fuel or mono/bi-fuel gas vehicles during 1min after re-fuelling to allow for the
recognition of fuel quality and composition by the ECU;
For bi-fuel vehicles during 5s after fuel switching to allow for readjusting engine
parameters;
The manufacturer may deviate from these time limits if it can demonstrate that
stabilisation of the fuelling system after re-fuelling or fuel switching takes longer for
justified technical reasons. In any case, the OBD system shall be re-enabled as soon
as either the fuel quality and composition is recognised, or the engine parameters are
readjusted.
3.2.2. Engine Misfire in Vehicles Equipped with Positive Ignition Engines
3.2.2.1. Manufacturers may adopt higher misfire percentage malfunction criteria than those declared
to the authority, under specific engine speed and load conditions where it can be
demonstrated to the authority that the detection of lower levels of misfire would be
unreliable.
3.2.2.2. When a manufacturer can demonstrate to the authority that the detection of higher levels of
misfire percentages is still not feasible, or that misfire cannot be distinguished from other
effects (e.g. rough roads, transmission shifts, after engine starting; etc.) the misfire
monitoring system may be disabled when such conditions exist.
3.2.3. Identification of deterioration or malfunctions may be also be conducted outside an OBD
driving cycle (e.g. after engine shutdown).
3.3. Description of Tests
3.3.1. The tests are carried out on the vehicle used for the Type 5 durability test, given in
Annex 12 to this UN GTR, and using the test procedure in Appendix 1 to this Annex. Tests
are carried out at the conclusion of the Type 5 durability testing.
When no Type 5 durability testing is carried out, or at the request of the manufacturer, a
suitably aged and representative vehicle may be used for these OBD demonstration tests.
3.3.2. The OBD system shall indicate the failure of an emission-related component or system
when that failure results in emissions exceeding any of the OBD thresholds as defined by
the Contracting Party.
3.3.2.1. The OBD thresholds for vehicles that are type approved according to the emission limits as
defined by the Contracting Party.

3.3.3.5. Fuel System
Malfunction of fuel supply system when the emissions exceed any OBD threshold as
defined by the Contracting Party.
3.3.3.6. Secondary Air System
Malfunction of exhaust secondary air system when the emissions exceed any OBD
threshold as defined by the Contracting Party.
3.3.3.7. Valve Timing System
Malfunction of variable valve timing mechanism when the emissions exceed any OBD
threshold as defined by the Contracting Party.
3.3.3.8. The electronic evaporative emission purge control shall, at a minimum, be monitored for
circuit continuity.
3.3.3.9. For direct injection positive ignition engines any malfunction, which may lead to emissions
exceeding the particulate OBD threshold limits as defined by the Contracting Party and
which has to be monitored according to the requirements of this Annex for compression
ignition engines, shall be monitored.
3.3.3.10. Comprehensive Components
Unless otherwise monitored the following shall be monitored for circuit continuity:
(a)
(b)
Any other emission-related power-train component connected to a computer, the
failure of which may result in tailpipe emissions exceeding the OBD thresholds as
defined by the Contracting Party; or
Any relevant sensors used to enable monitoring functions to be carried out.
3.3.3.11. Other Emission Control System
If active on the selected fuel, any other emission control systems, the failure of which may
result in tailpipe emissions exceeding the OBD thresholds as defined by the Contracting
Party shall be monitored.
3.3.4. Monitoring Requirements for Vehicles Equipped with Compression-ignition Engines
In satisfying the requirements of Paragraph 3.3.2. of this Annex the OBD system shall
monitor:
3.3.4.1. Where fitted, reduction in the efficiency of the catalytic converter.
3.3.4.2. Where fitted, the functionality and integrity of the particulate trap.
3.3.4.3. The fuel-injection system electronic fuel quantity and timing actuator(s) is/are monitored for
circuit continuity and total functional failure.
3.3.4.4. Malfunctions and the reduction in efficiency of the EGR system shall be monitored.

3.5. Activation of Malfunction Indicator (MI)
3.5.1. The OBD system shall incorporate a malfunction indicator readily perceivable to the vehicle
operator. The MI shall not be used for any other purpose except to indicate emergency
start-up ,emission default modes or limp-home routines to the driver. The MI shall be visible
in all reasonable lighting conditions. When activated, it shall display a symbol in conformity
with ISO 2575. A vehicle shall not be equipped with more than one general purpose MI for
emission-related problems. Separate specific purpose tell tales (e. g. brake system, fasten
seat belt, oil pressure, etc.) are permitted. The use of red colour for an MI is prohibited.
3.5.2. For strategies requiring more than two preconditioning cycles for MI activation, the
manufacturer shall provide data and/or an engineering evaluation which adequately
demonstrates that the monitoring system is equally effective and timely in detecting
component deterioration. Strategies requiring on average more than ten OBD driving cycles
for MI activation are not accepted. The MI shall also activate whenever the engine control
enters a permanent emission default mode of operation if any of the OBD thresholds as
defined by the Contracting Party are exceeded or if the OBD system is unable to fulfil the
basic monitoring requirements specified in Paragraph 3.3.3. or 3.3.4. of this Annex. The MI
shall operate in a distinct warning mode, e.g. a flashing light, under any period during which
engine misfire occurs at a level likely to cause catalyst damage, as specified by the
manufacturer. The MI shall also activate when the vehicle's ignition is in the "key-on"
position before engine starting or cranking and de-activate after engine starting if no
malfunction has previously been detected.
3.6. Fault Code Storage
3.6.1. The OBD system shall record pending and confirmed fault code(s) indicating the failure
status of the emission control system.
3.6.1.1. Upon detection of a malfunction or if a permanent emission default mode of operation is
activated, the OBD system shall store a pending fault code.
3.6.1.2. After storage of a pending fault code, if the identified malfunction is again detected before
the end of the next two OBD driving cycles, in which the monitoring occurs, the MI shall be
activated and a confirmed fault code shall be stored that identifies the type of malfunction. A
confirmed fault code shall also be stored, if a permanent emission default mode of operation
is active in accordance with Paragraph 3.5.2.
3.6.2. In the case of vehicles equipped with positive ignition engines, misfiring cylinders need not
be uniquely identified if a distinct single or multiple cylinder misfire fault code is stored.
3.7. Extinguishing the MI
3.7.1. If misfire at levels likely to cause catalyst damage (as specified by the manufacturer) is not
present any more, or if the engine is operated after changes to speed and load conditions
where the level of misfire will not cause catalyst damage, the MI may be switched back to
the previous state of activation during the first OBD driving cycle on which the misfire level
was detected and may be switched to the normal activated mode on subsequent OBD
driving cycles. If the MI is switched back to the previous state of activation, the
corresponding fault codes and stored freeze-frame conditions may be erased.

3.9.2. Two separate OBD systems, one for each fuel type.
3.9.2.1. The following procedures shall be executed independently of each other when the vehicle is
operated on petrol or on (NG/biomethane)/LPG:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Activation of malfunction indicator (MI) (see Paragraph 3.5. of this Annex);
Fault code storage (see Paragraph 3.6. of this Annex);
Extinguishing the MI (see Paragraph 3.7. of this Annex);
Erasing a fault code (see Paragraph 3.8. of this Annex).
3.9.2.2. The separate OBD systems can reside in either one or more computers.
3.9.3. Specific Requirements Regarding the Transmission of Diagnostic Signals from Bi-fuelled
Gas Vehicles.
3.9.3.1. On a request from a diagnostic scan tool, the diagnostic signals shall be transmitted on one
or more source addresses. The use of source addresses is described in the standard listed
in Paragraph 6.5.3.2.(a) of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
3.9.3.2. Identification of fuel specific information can be realized:
(a)
(b)
(c)
By use of source addresses; and/or
By use of a fuel select switch; and/or
By use of fuel specific fault codes.
3.9.4. Regarding the status code (as described in Paragraph 6.5.1.2.2. of Appendix 1), one of the
following two options has to be used, if one or more of the diagnostics reporting readiness is
fuel type specific:
(a)
(b)
The status code is fuel specific, i.e. use of two status codes, one for each fuel type;
The status code shall indicate fully evaluated control systems for both fuel types
(petrol and (NG/biomethane)/LPG)) when the control systems are fully evaluated for
one of the fuel types.
If none of the diagnostics reporting readiness is fuel type specific, then only one status code
has to be supported.
3.10. Additional Provisions for Vehicles Employing Engine Shut - off Strategies.
3.10.1. Driving Cycle
3.10.1.1. Autonomous engine restarts commanded by the engine control system following an engine
stall may be considered a new OBD driving cycle or a continuation of the existing OBD
driving cycle.

4.5. Deficiency Period
4.5.1. A deficiency may be carried-over for a period of two years after the date of type-approval
unless it can be adequately demonstrated that substantial vehicle hardware modifications
and additional lead-time beyond two years would be necessary to correct the deficiency. In
such a case, the deficiency may be carried-over for a period not exceeding three years.
4.5.2. A manufacturer may request that the responsible authority grant a deficiency retrospectively
when such a deficiency is discovered after the original type-approval. In this case, the
deficiency may be carried-over for a period of two years after the date of notification to the
responsible authority unless it can be adequately demonstrated that substantial vehicle
hardware modifications and additional lead-time beyond two years would be necessary to
correct the deficiency. In such a case, the deficiency may be carried-over for a period not
exceeding three years.
4.6. At the request of the manufacturer, a vehicle with an OBD system may be accepted for
type-approval with regard to emissions, even though the system contains one or more
deficiencies such that the specific requirements of this Annex are not fully met, provided that
the specific administrative provisions set out in section Paragraph 3 of this Annex are
complied with.

2.2. Alternatively, at the request of the manufacturer, malfunction of one or more components
may be electronically simulated according to the requirements of Paragraph 6. of this
Appendix.
2.3. Manufacturers may request that monitoring take place outside the Type 1 test cycle if it can
be demonstrated to the responsible authority that monitoring during conditions encountered
during the Type 1 test cycle would impose restrictive monitoring conditions when the vehicle
is used in service.
3. TEST VEHICLE AND FUEL
3.1. Vehicle
3.2. Fuel
The test vehicle shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 2.3. of Annex 6 to this
Regulation.
The appropriate reference fuel as described in Annex 3 to this UN GTR shall be used for
testing. The fuel type for each failure mode to be tested (described in Paragraph 6.3. of this
Appendix) may be selected by the responsible authority from the reference fuels described
in Annex 3 to this UN GTR in the case of the testing of a mono-fuelled gas vehicle or of a
bi-fuelled gas vehicle. The selected fuel type shall not be changed during any of the test
phases (described in Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.3. of this Appendix). In the case of the use of
LPG or NG/biomethane as a fuel it is permissible that the engine is started on petrol and
switched to LPG or NG/biomethane after a pre-determined period of time which is controlled
automatically and not under the control of the driver.
4. TEST TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
4.1. The test temperature and pressure shall meet the requirements of the Type 1 test as
described in Annex 6 to this UN GTR.
5. TEST EQUIPMENT
5.1. Chassis Dynamometer
The chassis dynamometer shall meet the requirements of Annex 5 to this UN GTR.
6. OBD TEST PROCEDURE
An overview of the OBD test procedure is provided in Figure A11.App1/1. This is for
information purposes only.

6.2. Vehicle Preconditioning
6.2.1. Preconditioning for Adaption
Preconditioning for adaption consists of two parts:
(a)
(b)
Preconditioning for adaption without fault
Preconditioning for adaption with fault
upon the choice of the manufacturer.
The preconditioning for adaption consists of one or more consecutive WLTC 3-phase tests.
At the request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the responsible authority,
alternative method for adaption may be used instead of 3-phase-tests.
If the fault code is stored after preconditioning for adaption, manufacturer shall delete the
fault code.
6.2.2. Preconditioning for Monitoring
According to the engine type and after introduction of one of the failure modes given in
Paragraph 6.3. of this Appendix, the vehicle shall be preconditioned by driving at least two
consecutive 3-phase-WLTC tests.
6.2.3. At the request of the manufacturer with approval by the responsible authority, alternative
preconditioning methods may be used.
The reason for the use of additional preconditioning cycles or alternative preconditioning
methods as well as details of these cycles/methods shall be recorded.
6.3. Selection of Failure Modes
For the purpose of the type approval the total number of failures simulated shall not exceed
four (4) and shall be selected from the failure modes described in the Paragraph 6.3.1. and
6.3.2. In the case of testing a bi-fuel gas vehicle, both fuel types shall be used within the
maximum of four (4) simulated failures at the discretion of the responsible authority.
6.3.1. Vehicles equipped with positive ignition engines:
Test the vehicle by simulation of a failure of a component under Paragraph 3.3.3. by
replacement with a defective or deteriorated component or the electronic simulation of such
a failure.
Tests shall only be performed if the respective component is equipped and a failure results
in emissions above any OBD threshold.

6.4.2. Vehicles fitted with compression-ignition engines:
6.4.2.1. After vehicle preconditioning according to Paragraph 6.2. of this Appendix, the test vehicle is
driven over a Type 1 test.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The MI shall be activated at the latest before the end of this test under any of the conditions
given in Paragraph 6.4.2.2. The MI may also be activated during preconditioning. The
technical service may substitute those failure modes by others in accordance with
Paragraph 3.3.4.8. of this Annex.
Option B
Except as provided for below in Paragraph 6.4.3., the MI shall be activated at the latest
before the end of this test under any of the conditions given in Paragraph 6.4.2.2. The MI
may also be activated during preconditioning. The technical service may substitute those
failure modes by others in accordance with Paragraph 3.3.4.8. of this Annex.
6.4.2.2. Test the vehicle by simulation of a failure of a component under Paragraph 3.3.4. by
replacement with a defective or deteriorated component or the electronic simulation of such
a failure that results in emissions exceeding any applicable OBD threshold as defined by the
Contracting Party.
6.4.3. At the option of the Contracting Party, if the MI first illuminates after emissions exceed the
applicable limit(s) of Paragraph 3.3.2. by more than 20%, the test vehicle shall be retested
with the tested system or component adjusted so that the MI will illuminate without
emissions exceeding the applicable limit(s) of Paragraph 3.3.2. by more than 20%.
If the system or component cannot be adjusted to meet this criterion because a default
mode is used when a malfunction is detected (e.g., open loop fuel control used after an O
sensor malfunction is determined, etc.), the manufacturer may request the Technical
Service to retest the test vehicle with the system or component adjusted to the worst
acceptable limit (i.e., the applicable monitor indicates the system or component's
performance is passing but at the closest possible value relative to the monitor threshold
value at which a fault would be detected that would invoke the default mode and illuminate
the MI). The Technical Service may approve the request upon determining that the
manufacturer has submitted data and/or engineering evaluation that describe the default
mode including its technical necessity. The manufacturer may request the Technical Service
to accept this additional test data when the system or component's performance is at the
worst acceptable limit within a margin of error necessary to accommodate testing variability
and/or other practical limitations in setting the performance at the absolute worst acceptable
limit. The Technical Service may accept this additional test data upon determining that the
test data adequately demonstrate that emissions do not exceed the applicable limit(s) of
Paragraph 3.3.2. by more than 20% at the tested worst acceptable limit and that emissions
will not exceed the applicable limit(s) of Paragraph 3.3.2. by more than 20% before
performance exceeds the monitor threshold for fault detection. With respect to performing
the OBD system test over the Type 1 test, two sets of test data are necessary for the
approval by the Technical Service: a) original test data with malfunction detection and MI
illumination and emissions exceeding the applicable limit(s) of Paragraph 3.3.2. by more
than 20% due to default mode activation, and b) additional test data without malfunction
detection and without MI illumination and without emissions exceeding the applicable limit(s)
of Paragraph 3.3.2. by more than 20% due to no default mode activation.

6.5.1.3. On-Board Monitoring Test Results
For all emission control systems for which specific on-board evaluation tests are conducted
according to this Annex (catalyst, oxygen sensor, etc.), except misfire detection, fuel system
monitoring and comprehensive component monitoring, the results of the most recent test
performed by the vehicle and the limits to which the system is compared shall be made
available.
6.5.1.5. Software Calibration Identification
The software calibration identification number (CAL ID) shall be made available.
6.5.1.6. For all monitored components and systems, stored pending and confirmed fault codes shall
be made available.
6.5.1.7. All data required to be stored in relation to OBD in-use performance according to the
provisions of Paragraph 7.6. of this Appendix (if applicable) shall be made available.
6.5.2. The emission control diagnostic system is not required to evaluate components during
malfunction if such evaluation would result in a risk to safety or component failure.
6.5.3. The emission control diagnostic system shall provide for standardised and unrestricted
access and conform to the following ISO standards and/or SAE specification. Later versions
may be used at the manufacturers' discretion.
6.5.3.1. The following standard shall be used as the on-board to off-board communications link:
(a) ISO 15765-4:2016 "Road vehicles – Diagnostics on Controller Area Network (CAN) –
Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems", dated February 1, 2016.
6.5.3.2. Standards used for the transmission of OBD relevant information:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
ISO 15031-5 "Road vehicles - communication between vehicles and external test
equipment for emissions-related diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic
services", dated 2015 or SAE J1979 dated February 2017;
ISO 15031-4 "Road vehicles – Communication between vehicle and external test
equipment for emissions related diagnostics – Part 4: External test equipment", dated
2014 or SAE J1978 dated April 30, 2002;
ISO 15031-3 "Road vehicles – Communication between vehicle and external test
equipment for emissions related diagnostics Part 3: Diagnostic connector and related
electrical circuits: specification and use", dated 2016 or SAE J 1962 dated July 2016;
ISO 15031-6 "Road vehicles – Communication between vehicle and external test
equipment for emissions related diagnostics – Part 6: Diagnostic trouble code
definitions", dated 2015 or SAE J2012 dated December 2016;
ISO 27145 "Road vehicles – Implementation of World-Wide Harmonized On-Board
Diagnostics (WWH-OBD)" dated 2012-08-15 with the restriction, that only 6.5.3.1.(a)
may be used as a data link;
ISO 14229:2013 "Road vehicles – Unified diagnostic services (UDS) with the
restriction, that only 6.5.3.1.(a) may be used as a data link".
The standards (e) and (f) may be used as an option instead of (a).

7.1.4. If, according to the requirements of this Annex, the vehicle is equipped with a specific
monitor M, IUPR shall be greater or equal to the following minimum values:
(a)
(b)
(c)
0.260 for secondary air system monitors and other cold start related monitors;
0.520 for evaporative emission purge control monitors;
0.336 for all other monitors.
7.1.5. Vehicles shall comply with the requirements of Paragraph 7.1.4. of this Appendix for a
mileage of at least the target useful life, as defined in Paragraph 1. of Annex 12 of this
UN GTR.
7.1.6. The requirements of this paragraph are deemed to be met for a particular monitor M, if for
all vehicles of a particular OBD family manufactured in a particular calendar year the
following statistical conditions hold:
(a)
(b)
The average IUPR is equal or above the minimum value applicable to the monitor;
More than 50% of all vehicles have an IUPR equal or above the minimum value
applicable to the monitor.
7.2. Numerator
7.2.1. The numerator of a specific monitor is a counter measuring the number of times a vehicle
has been operated such that all monitoring conditions necessary for the specific monitor to
detect a malfunction in order to warn the driver, as they have been implemented by the
manufacturer, have been encountered. The numerator shall not be incremented more than
once per driving cycle, unless there is reasoned technical justification.
7.3. Denominator
7.3.1. The purpose of the denominator is to provide a counter indicating the number of vehicle
driving events, taking into account special conditions for a specific monitor. The
denominator shall be incremented at least once per driving cycle, if during this driving cycle
such conditions are met and the general denominator is incremented as specified in
Paragraph 7.5. of this Appendix unless the denominator is disabled according to
Paragraph 7.7. of this Appendix.
7.3.2. In addition to the requirements of Paragraph 7.3.1. of this Appendix:
(a)
(b)
Secondary air system monitor denominator(s) shall be incremented if the commanded
"on" operation of the secondary air system occurs for a time greater than or equal to
10s. For purposes of determining this commanded "on" time, the OBD system may
not include time during intrusive operation of the secondary air system solely for the
purposes of monitoring.
Denominators of monitors of systems only active during cold start shall be
incremented if the component or strategy is commanded "on" for a time greater than
or equal to 10s.

7.4. Ignition Cycle Counter
7.4.1. The ignition cycle counter indicates the number of ignition cycles a vehicle has experienced.
The ignition cycle counter may not be incremented more than once per driving cycle.
7.5. General Denominator
7.5.1. The general denominator is a counter measuring the number of times a vehicle has been
operated. It shall be incremented within 10s, if and only if, the following criteria are satisfied
on a single driving cycle:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Cumulative time since engine start is greater than or equal to 600s while at an
elevation of less than 2,440m above sea level and at an ambient temperature of
greater than or equal to -7°C;
Cumulative vehicle operation at or above 40km/h occurs for greater than or equal to
300s while at an elevation of less than 2,440m above sea level and at an ambient
temperature of greater than or equal to -7°C;
Continuous vehicle operation at idle (i.e. accelerator pedal released by driver and
vehicle speed less than or equal to 1.6km/h) for greater than or equal to 30s while at
an elevation of less than 2,440m above sea level and at an ambient temperature of
greater than or equal to -7°C.
7.6. Reporting and Increasing Counters
7.6.1. The OBD system shall report, in accordance with the ISO 15031-5 specifications of the
standard listed in Paragraph 6.5.3.2.(a) of this Appendix, the ignition cycle counter and
general denominator as well as separate numerators and denominators for the following
monitors, if their presence on the vehicle is required by this annex:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Catalysts (each bank to be reported separately);
Oxygen/exhaust gas sensors, including secondary oxygen sensors (each sensor to
be reported separately);
Evaporative system;
EGR system;
VVT system;
Secondary air system;
Particulate filter;
NO after-treatment system (e.g. NO adsorber, NO reagent/catalyst system);
Boost pressure control system.

7.7.2. Within 10s of the start of a Power Take-off Operation (PTO) that disables a monitor required
to meet the monitoring conditions of this Annex, the OBD system shall disable further
incrementing of the corresponding numerator and denominator for each monitor that is
disabled. When the PTO operation ends, incrementing of all corresponding numerators and
denominators shall resume within 10s.
7.7.3. The OBD system shall disable further incrementing of the numerator and denominator of a
specific monitor within 10s, if a malfunction of any component used to determine the criteria
within the definition of the specific monitor's denominator (i.e. vehicle speed, ambient
temperature, elevation, idle operation, engine cold start, or time of operation) has been
detected and the corresponding pending fault code has been stored. Incrementing of the
numerator and denominator shall resume within 10s when the malfunction is no longer
present (e.g. pending code erased through self-clearing or by a scan tool command).
7.7.4. The OBD system shall disable further incrementing of the general denominator within 10s, if
a malfunction has been detected of any component used to determine whether the criteria in
Paragraph 7.5. of this Appendix are satisfied (i.e. vehicle speed, ambient temperature,
elevation, idle operation, or time of operation) and the corresponding pending fault code has
been stored. The general denominator may not be disabled from incrementing for any other
condition. Incrementing of the general denominator shall resume within 10s when the
malfunction is no longer present (e.g. pending code erased through self-clearing or by a
scan tool command).

Table A12/2
Additive Deterioration Factors
Engine category
Gasoline fuel and
LPG
Compression
ignition
Assigned additive deterioration factors
CO NMHC NO
Particulate matter
(PM)
0.11 0.12 0.21 0.00
As there are no assigned deterioration factors for compression ignition vehicles,
manufacturers shall use the whole vehicle durability test procedures to establish
deterioration factors.
1.2. The whole vehicle durability test shall preferably be performed on a vehicle with the cycle
energy demand of the VH (as defined in Paragraph 4.2.1.1.2. of Annex 4) with the highest
cycle energy demand of all of the Interpolation Families to be included in the durability
family and shall be driven on a test track, on the road, or on a chassis dynamometer. The
cycle energy of the test vehicle may be further increased to cover future extensions.
1.3. At the option of the Contracting Party, the manufacturer may choose to use a bench ageing
durability test. The technical requirements for this test are set out in Paragraph 2.2. of this
Annex.
1.4. At the option of the Contracting Party the following procedure may be permitted
At the request of the manufacturer, the Type 1 test may be carried out applying the
assigned deterioration factors before the whole vehicle or bench ageing durability test has
been completed. On completion of the whole vehicle or bench ageing durability test, the
type approval results may be amended by replacing the assigned deterioration factors with
those measured in the whole vehicle or bench ageing durability test.
1.5. At the option of the Contracting Party, notwithstanding the requirement of this Annex, in the
case that the vehicle that reached mileage of target useful life by pattern A or pattern B
described in Appendix 3b to this Annex is provided to the type approval authority and the
result of Type 1 test with the vehicle fulfil the criteria emissions limits as defined by the
Contracting Party, the durability requirement is regarded to be satisfied.
2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
2.1. As the operating cycle for the whole vehicle durability test, the vehicle manufacturer shall
use the Standard Road Cycle (SRC) described in Appendix 3 to this Annex. This test cycle
shall be conducted until the vehicle has covered its target useful life.
At the option of the Contracting Party, as the operating cycle for the whole vehicle durability
test, the vehicle manufacturer shall choose one of the driving cycles described in
Appendix 3b to this Annex.

th
=
The time (in hours) measured within the prescribed temperature bin of
the vehicle's catalyst temperature histogram adjusted to a full useful life
basis e.g., if the histogram represented 400km, and useful life is
160,000km; all histogram time entries would be multiplied by 400
(160,000/400).
Total te
=
The equivalent time (in hours) to age the catalyst at the temperature of
Tr on the catalyst ageing bench using the catalyst ageing cycle to
produce the same amount of deterioration experienced by the catalyst
due to thermal deactivation over the 160,000km.
te for a bin =
The equivalent time (in hours) to age the catalyst at the temperature of
Tr on the catalyst ageing bench using the catalyst ageing cycle to
produce the same amount of deterioration experienced by the catalyst
due to thermal deactivation at the temperature bin of Tv over 160,000km.
Tr
=
The effective reference temperature (in K) of the catalyst on the catalyst
bench run on the bench ageing cycle. The effective temperature is the
constant temperature that would result in the same amount of ageing as
the various temperatures experienced during the bench ageing cycle.
Tv
=
The mid-point temperature (in K) of the temperature bin of the vehicle
on-road catalyst temperature histogram.
2.3.1.5. Effective reference temperature on the SBC. The effective reference temperature of the
SBC shall be determined for the actual catalyst system design and actual ageing bench
which will be used using the following procedures:
(a)
Measure time-at-temperature data in the catalyst system on the catalyst ageing
bench following the SBC. Catalyst temperature shall be measured at the highest
temperature location of the hottest catalyst in the system. Alternatively, the
temperature may be measured at another location providing that it is adjusted to
represent the temperature measured at the hottest location.
Catalyst temperature shall be measured at a minimum rate of 1Hz (one measurement
per second) during at least 20min of bench ageing. The measured catalyst
temperature results shall be tabulated into a histogram with temperature groups of no
larger than 10°C.
(b)
The BAT equation shall be used to calculate the effective reference temperature by
iterative changes to the reference temperature (Tr) until the calculated ageing time
equals or exceeds the actual time represented in the catalyst temperature histogram.
The resulting temperature is the effective reference temperature on the SBC for that
catalyst system and ageing bench.
2.3.1.6. Catalyst ageing bench. The catalyst ageing bench shall follow the SBC and deliver the
appropriate exhaust flow, exhaust constituents, and exhaust temperature at the face of the
catalyst.
All bench ageing equipment and procedures shall record appropriate information (such as
measured A/F ratios and time-at-temperature in the catalyst) to assure that sufficient ageing
has actually occurred.

3. TEST VEHICLE
3.1. The vehicle shall be VH. It shall be in good mechanical order; the engine and the
anti-pollution devices shall be new. The vehicle may be the same as that presented for the
Type 1 test; in this case the Type 1 test has to be done after the vehicle has run at least
3,000km of the ageing cycle of Appendix 3. to this Annex.
3.1.1. Special requirements for hybrid vehicles are provided in Appendix 4 to this Annex.
4. FUEL
The durability test is conducted with a suitable commercially available fuel.
5. VEHICLE MAINTENANCE AND ADJUSTMENTS
Maintenance, adjustments as well as the use of the test vehicle's controls shall be those
recommended by the manufacturer. If during the execution of the whole vehicle durability
test the vehicle experiences a failure not related to emissions and/or fuel consumption
and/or energy consumption, the manufacturer can fix the vehicle and continue with the
durability test. Otherwise the manufacturer shall consult the approval authority to find a
commonly agreed solution.
6. VEHICLE OPERATION ON TRACK, ROAD OR ON CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER
6.1. Operating Cycle
During operation on track, road or on roller test bench, the distance shall be covered
according to the driving schedule described in Appendix 3 of this Annex.
6.2. The durability test, or if the manufacturer has chosen, the modified durability test shall be
conducted until the vehicle has covered its target useful life.
6.3. Test Equipment
6.3.1. Chassis Dynamometer
6.3.1.1. When the durability test is performed on a chassis dynamometer, the dynamometer shall
enable the cycle described in Appendix 3 of this Annex to be carried out. In particular, it
shall be equipped with systems simulating inertia and resistance to progress.
6.3.1.2. The road load coefficients to be used shall be those for vehicle high (VH).
6.3.1.3. The vehicle cooling system should enable the vehicle to operate at temperatures similar to
those obtained on road (oil, water, exhaust system, etc.).
6.3.1.4. Certain other test bench adjustments and features are deemed to be identical, where
necessary, to those described in Annex 5 to this UN GTR (inertia, for example, which may
be mechanical or electronic).
6.3.1.5. The vehicle may be moved, where necessary, to a different bench in order to conduct
emission measurement tests.

7.1. A multiplicative exhaust emissionn deterioration factor shall be calculated for each pollutant
as follows:
Mi =
For Option A (as specified in Paragraph 7.0.) mass m emission of the pollutant i in
g/km interpolated to 5,000km,
For Option B (as specified in Paragraph 7.0.) - mass emission of the pollutant i in
g/km extrapolated to 3,000km
Mi =
mass emission of the pollutant i in g/km interpolated to the target useful life l
These interpolated values shall be carried out
to a minimum of four places to the right r of the
decimal point before dividing one by the other to determine the deterioration factor. The
result shall be rounded to three places to the right of the decimal d point.
If a deterioration factor is less than one, it is deemed to bee equal to one.
At the request of a manufacturer
, an additive
exhaust emission deterioration factor shall be
calculated for each pollutant as follows:
D . E . F . = Mi – Mi
If the additive deterioration factor r calculated with the above formula iss negative, then it shall
be put equal to zero.
These additive deterioration factors shall follow the same rules described for the
multiplicative deterioration factorss in relation to
Option A and a Option B specified above.

Figure A12 App1/2
Standard Bench Cycle
3. AGEING BENCH EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES
3.1. Ageing bench configuration. The ageing bench shall provide the appropriate exhaust flow
rate, temperature, air-fuel ratio, exhaust constituents and secondary air injection at the inlet
face of the catalyst.
The standard ageing bench consists of an engine, engine controller, and engine
dynamometer. Other configurations may be acceptable (e.g. whole vehicle on a
dynamometer, or a burner that provides the correct exhaust conditions), as long as the
catalyst inlet conditions and control features specified in this Appendix are met.
A single ageing bench may have the exhaust flow split into several streams providing that
each exhaust stream meets the requirements of this Appendix. If the bench has more than
one exhaust stream, multiple catalyst systems may be aged simultaneously.
3.2. Exhaust system installation. The entire catalyst(s)-plus-oxygen and/or air fuel ratio sensor(s)
system, together with all exhaust piping which connects these components, will be installed
on the bench. For engines with multiple exhaust streams (such as some V6 and V8
engines), each bank of the exhaust system will be installed separately on the bench in
parallel.
For exhaust systems that contain multiple in-line catalysts, the entire catalyst system
including all catalysts, all oxygen and/or air fuel ratio sensors and the associated exhaust
piping will be installed as a unit for ageing. Alternatively, each individual catalyst may be
separately aged for the appropriate period of time.

4. EXPERIMENTALLY DETERMINING THE R-FACTOR FOR BENCH AGEING
DURABILITY PROCEDURES
4.1. The R-Factor is the catalyst thermal reactivity coefficient used in the BAT equation.
Manufacturers may determine the value of R experimentally using the following procedures.
4.1.1. Using the applicable bench cycle and ageing bench hardware, age several catalysts
(minimum of 3 of the same catalyst design) at different control temperatures between the
normal operating temperature and the damage limit temperature. Measure emissions (or
catalyst inefficiency (1-catalyst efficiency)) for each exhaust constituent. Assure that the final
testing yields data between one- and two-times the emission standard.
4.1.2. Estimate the value of R and calculate the effective reference temperature (Tr) for the bench
ageing cycle for each control temperature according to Paragraph 2.3.1.4. of this Annex.
4.1.3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus ageing time for each catalyst. Calculate the
least-squared best-fit line through the data. For the data set to be useful for this purpose the
data should have an approximately common intercept between 0 and 6,400km. See
Figure A12 App1/3 for an example.
4.1.4. Calculate the slope of the best-fit line for each ageing temperature.
Figure A12 App1/3
Example of Catalyst Ageing
4.1.5. Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in Paragraph 4.1.4. of
this Appendix) along the vertical axis, versus the inverse of ageing temperature (1/(ageing
temperature, °K)) along the horizontal axis. Calculate the least squared best-fit lines through
the data. The slope of the line is the R-factor. See Figure A12 App1/4 for an example.

ANNEX 12 – APPENDIX 2
STANDARD DIESEL BENCH CYCLE (SDBC) (IF APPLICABLE)
1. INTRODUCTION
For particulate filters, the number of regenerations is critical to the ageing process. For
systems that require desulphurisation cycles (e.g. NO storage catalysts), this process is
also significant.
The standard diesel bench ageing durability procedure consists of ageing an after-treatment
system on an ageing bench which follows the SDBC described in this Appendix. The SDBC
requires use of an ageing bench with an engine as the source of feed gas for the system.
During the SDBC, the regeneration/desulphurisation strategies of the system shall remain in
normal operating condition.
2. The SDBC reproduces the engine speed and load conditions that are encountered in the
SRC cycle as appropriate to the period for which durability is to be determined. In order to
accelerate the process of ageing, the engine settings on the test bench may be modified to
reduce the system loading times. For example the fuel injection timing or EGR strategy may
be modified.
3. AGEING BENCH EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES
3.1. The standard ageing bench consists of an engine, engine controller, and engine
dynamometer. Other configurations may be acceptable (e.g. whole vehicle on a
dynamometer, or a burner that provides the correct exhaust conditions), as long as the
after-treatment system inlet conditions and control features specified in this Appendix are
met.
A single ageing bench may have the exhaust flow split into several streams provided that
each exhaust stream meets the requirements of this Appendix. If the bench has more than
one exhaust stream, multiple after-treatment systems may be aged simultaneously.
3.2. Exhaust system installation. The entire after-treatment system, together with all exhaust
piping which connects these components, will be installed on the bench. For engines with
multiple exhaust streams (such as some V6 and V8 engines), each bank of the exhaust
system will be installed separately on the bench.
The entire after-treatment system will be installed as a unit for ageing. Alternatively, each
individual component may be separately aged for the appropriate period of time.
In case of exhaust after-treatment system using reagent, the whole injection system shall be
fitted and working for ageing.

Lap
Description
Typical acceleration rate m/s
2
Idle 5s

The standard road cycle is represented graphically in the following figure:

Table A12/App3b.1
mode Driving conditions Operation time (s) Cumulative time (s)
1 Idling 10 10
2 Acceleration : 0 → 60km/h 30 40
3 Steady speed : 60km/h 15 55
4 Deceleration : 60 → 30km/h 15 70
5 Acceleration : 30 → 60km/h 15 85
6 Steady speed : 60km/h 15 100
7 Deceleration : 60 → 0km/h 30 130
8 repeat 1 to 7 nine times 1,170 1,300
9 Idling 10 1,310
10 Acceleration : 0 → 100 km/h 40 (50 ) 1,350 (1,360 )
11 Steady speed : 100km/h 200 (190 ) 1,550
12 Deceleration : 100 → 0km/h 50 1,600
13 repeat 1 to 12 until useful life
whichever lower 100km/h or V_max
for vehicles having engine displacement less than or equal to 0.660L, vehicle length
less than or equal to 3.40m, vehicle width less than or equal to 1.48m, and vehicle
height less than or equal to 2.00m, seats less than or equal to 3 in addition to a driver,
and payload less than or equal to 350kg
3. STANDARD ROAD CYCLE (SRC) DESCRIBED IN ANNEX 12 APPENDIX 3A

ANNEX 13
WLTP LOW TEMPERATURE TYPE 6 TEST (OPTIONAL ANNEX)
1. INTRODUCTION
This Annex describes the procedure for undertaking the Type 6 test defined in
Paragraph 6.2.4. of this UN GTR.
Fuel cell hybrid vehicles are exempted from the Type 6 test.
At the option of the Contracting Party this Annex may be omitted.
2. TYPE 6 TEST REQUIREMENTS
The Type 6 shall be undertaken according to the definitions, requirements and tests set out
in Paragraphs 3 to 7 of this UN GTR. Application and amendments to the requirements of
Annexes 1 to 8 inclusive of this UN GTR are specified in Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.8. of this
Annex.
2.1. Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycles (WLTC)
The requirements of Annex 1 shall apply for the purposes of this Annex.
2.2. Gear Selection and Shift Point Determination for Vehicles Equipped with Manual
Transmissions
The shifting procedures described in Annex 2 shall apply with the following specific
provision for Type 6 testing.
It is allowed to set n and ASM values which are different than those used for Type 1
testing.
2.3. Reference Fuels
The reference fuels to be used for the Type 6 test shall be those specified in Part II of
Annex 3, or Part I if a reference fuel is not provided in Part II. At the option of the
manufacturer and approval of the responsible authority a reference fuel as specified in Part I
of Annex 3 may be used.
2.3.1. For vehicles powered by NG/biomethane, one of the reference fuels specified in Table A3/9
and Table A3/11 of Part I of Annex 3 shall be selected for Type 6 testing.

2.4.3. The Type 6 test and its road load setting shall be performed on a 2WD dynamometer in the
case that the corresponding Type 1 test was done on a 2WD dynamometer and it shall be
performed on a 4WD dynamometer in the case that the corresponding Type 1 test was done
on a 4WD dynamometer.
2.4.3.1. Prior to any vehicle operation on a dynamometer in the context of this Annex, the tyre
pressure shall be adjusted to the same pressure as applied for the setting of the chassis
dynamometer at 23°C.
2.5. Test Equipment
The specifications for test equipment as set out in Annex 5 Paragraphs 1. to 3.2.6. and from
Paragraphs 3.3.3. to 7.4.2.3.1. shall apply for the purposes of this Annex. In addition,
Paragraphs 2.5.1 to 2.5.2.2. of this Annex shall apply.
2.5.1. Connection to Vehicle Exhaust
2.5.1.1. The start of the connecting tube is the exit of the tailpipe. The end of the connecting tube is
the sample point, or first point of dilution. For multiple tailpipe configurations where all the
tailpipes are combined, the start of the connecting tube shall be taken at the last joint of
where all the tailpipes are combined. In this case, the tube between the exit of the tailpipe
and the start of the connecting tube may or may not be insulated or heated.
2.5.1.2. The connecting tube between the vehicle and dilution system shall be designed so as to
minimize heat loss.
2.5.1.3. The connecting tube shall satisfy the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Be less than 6.1m long with an internal diameter not exceeding 105mm and shall be
heated to 70°C or higher.
Not cause the static pressure at the exhaust outlets on the vehicle being tested to
differ by more than ±0.75kPa at 50km/h, or more than ±1.25kPa for the duration of
the test from the static pressures recorded when nothing is connected to the vehicle
exhaust pipes. The pressure shall be measured in the exhaust outlet or in an
extension having the same diameter and as near as possible to the end of the
tailpipe. Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within
±0.25kPa may be used if a written request from a manufacturer to the responsible
authority substantiates the need for the tighter tolerance;
No component of the connecting tube shall be of a material that might affect the
gaseous or solid composition of the exhaust gas. To avoid generation of any particles
from elastomer connectors, elastomers employed shall be as thermally stable as
possible and have minimum exposure to the exhaust gas. It is recommended not to
use elastomer connectors to bridge the connection between the vehicle exhaust and
the connecting tube.

2.6.1.2. The test results shall be the values after the applicable adjustments specified in the
post-processing tables in Annex 7, using the steps which are applicable to those
adjustments.
2.6.1.3. Determination of Total Cycle Values
2.6.1.3.1. If during any of the tests a criteria emissions limit is exceeded, the vehicle shall be rejected.
2.6.1.3.2. If after the first test all criteria in row 1 of the applicable Table A13/1 are fulfilled, all values
shall be accepted as the certification values. If any one of the criteria in row 1 of the
applicable Table A13/1 is not fulfilled, a second test shall be performed with the same
vehicle.
If after the second test all criteria in row 2 of the applicable Table A13/1 are fulfilled, the
arithmetic average results of the two tests shall be calculated and shall be accepted as the
certification values.
Table A13/1
Criteria for Number of Tests
For pure ICE vehicles, NOVC-HEVs and OVC-HEVs charge-sustaining Type 6 test.
Test Judgement parameter Criteria emission
Row 1 First test First test results ≤ Regulation limit × 0.9
Row 2
Second test
Arithmetic average of the first
and second test results
≤ Regulation limit × 1.0
Each test result shall fulfil the regulation limit.
For OVC-HEVs charge-depleting Type 1 test.
Test
Judgement parameter
Criteria emissions
Row 1
First test
First test results
≤ Regulation limit × 0.9
Row 2
Second test
Arithmetic average of the first
and second test results
≤ Regulation limit × 1.0
"0.9" shall be replaced by "1.0" for charge-depleting Type 1 test for OVC-HEVs, only if
the charge-depleting test contains two or more applicable WLTC cycles.
Each test result shall fulfil the regulation limit.

2.6.2.2.1. The test cell shall have a temperature set point of -7°C. The tolerance of the actual value
shall be within ±5°C. The air temperature shall be measured at the test cell's cooling fan
outlet at a minimum frequency of 0.1Hz.
2.6.2.2.2. Paragraphs 2.2.2.1.2. and 2.2.2.1.3. of Annex 6, shall not apply to the Type 6 test.
2.6.2.2.3. The temperature set point of the soak area, specified in Paragraph 2.2.2.2. of Annex 6 shall
be -7°C for the Type 6 test.
2.6.2.2.4. The location of the temperature sensor for the soak area shall be representative to measure
the ambient temperature around the vehicle. The sensor shall be at least 10cm away from
the wall of the soak area and shall be shielded from direct air flow. The air flows in the soak
area shall be low to avoid unintended forced cooling.
2.6.2.3. Test Vehicle
2.6.2.3.1. General
The test vehicle shall conform in all its components with the production series, or, if the
vehicle is different from the production series, a full description shall be recorded. In
selecting the test vehicle, the manufacturer and the responsible authority shall agree which
vehicle model is representative for the Type 6 family.
The vehicle to be tested shall be representative of the family for which the Type 6 data are
determined, as described in Paragraph 5.14.1. of this UN GTR and Paragraph 2.6.3.2.2. of
this Annex.
2.6.2.3.2. Selection of Pure ICE, OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs for Type 6 Testing
2.6.2.3.2.1. In the case that a Type 6 family includes bi-fuel or flex-fuel vehicles, at least one of these
vehicles shall be selected for Type 6 testing. The selection shall be made in agreement
between the manufacturer and the approval authority. The selected vehicle shall be tested
on both types of reference fuel.
2.6.2.3.2.2. For every vehicle high (VH) and vehicle low (VL) of the interpolation families in a Type 6
family, the manufacturer shall specify a value PMRH (= highest power-to-mass ratio) and a
value PMRL (= lowest power-to-mass ratio).
Here the 'power-to-mass-ratio' corresponds to the ratio of the maximum net power of the
internal combustion engine as declared by the manufacturer and of the reference mass,
where "reference mass" means the mass of the vehicle in running order plus 25kg.

2.6.2.3.3. Selection of PEVs for Type 6 Testing
2.6.2.3.3.1. At least one vehicle which is expected to produce the lowest UBE ratio defined in
Paragraph 4.4.2.1.3. of Sub-annex 1 shall be selected from all vehicle high (VH) of the
interpolation families in a Type 6 family. In order for vehicles to be considered to belong to
the same family, the variation in battery capacity shall not exceed 55% of the vehicle with
the tested configuration within the family.
If the responsible authority determines that the selected vehicle does not fully represent the
family, an alternative and/or additional vehicle from other vehicle high (VH) of the
interpolation families shall be selected and tested.
2.6.2.3.3.2. At least one vehicle which is expected to produce the lowest ratio (i.e. combination of heater
efficiency and cabin volume) for the PER ratio defined in Paragraph 4.4.2.1.1. and which is
expected to produce the highest EC ratio defined in Paragraph 4.3.4.2.1. of Sub-annex 1
shall be selected from vehicle high (VH) or vehicle low (VL) of the interpolation families in a
Type 6 family. The measured values of a tested vehicle may be extended without further
testing to all family members which fulfil the family criteria defined in Paragraph 5.14.2. of
this UN GTR.
2.6.2.3.4. Run-in
2.6.2.4. Settings
If vehicles within the family include other features which may have a non-negligible influence
on the PER and/or EC ratio, these features shall also be identified and considered in the
selection of the test vehicle
If the responsible authority determines that the selected vehicle does not fully represent the
family, an alternative and/or additional vehicle from other vehicle high (VH) and/or vehicle
low (VL) of the interpolation families shall be selected and tested.
The requirements of Paragraph 2.3.3. shall apply to the Type 6 test.
2.6.2.4.1. Dynamometer settings shall be determined according to Paragraph 2.4. of this Annex.
2.6.2.4.2. Dynamometer Operation
2.6.2.4.2.1. The chassis dynamometer shall be warmed up in accordance with the dynamometer
manufacturer's recommendations, or as appropriate, so that the frictional losses of the
dynamometer are stabilized. The Type 6 test defined in Paragraph 2.6.2.8. shall be started
no longer than 30min after:
(a)
(b)
The completion of dynamometer warm up; or
After an applicable WLTC cycle has been performed by another vehicle on that
dynamometer.
2.6.2.4.2.2. If frictional losses of the dynamometer can be stabilized without warming the dynamometer,
the test can start following the dynamometer manufacturer's recommendations. The
manufacturer shall provide documentation on the validation of the systems upon request of
the responsible authority.

2.6.2.4.3.2. Passing-beam (dipped-beam) headlamps shall be switched ON within 0-9s after the start
of the test. If the vehicle is equipped with an automatic activation system for dipped-beam
headlamps without user selectable settings, actions shall be taken to simulate driving in
the hours of darkness (i.e. sufficient to activate at least the dipped beam headlamps). The
lights shall remain ON during the test.
2.6.2.4.3.3. If the vehicle is equipped with an electrical system(s) to defrost (rear window and/or
windscreen), these systems shall be switched on within 0-9s after the start of the first test.
If switch off is manually controlled, after the second 987 and before the second 992 of the
test, the system shall be switched off.
2.6.2.4.4. The requirements of Paragraphs 2.4.2.1.1. to 2.4.7.3. of Annex 6 shall apply to the Type 6
test, with the exception of Paragraph 2.4.5. which shall be replaced with the requirements
of Paragraph 2.4.3.1. of this Annex.
2.6.2.5. Preliminary Testing Cycles
Preliminary testing cycles may be carried out if requested by the manufacturer to follow
the speed trace within the prescribed limits but only prior to the soak before
preconditioning defined in Paragraph 2.6.2.6.1.2. of this Annex.
2.6.2.6. Test Vehicle Preconditioning
2.6.2.6.1. Vehicle Preparation
2.6.2.6.1.1. Fuel Tank Filling
The fuel tank(s) shall be filled with the specified test fuel. If the existing fuel in the fuel
tank(s) does not meet the specifications contained in Paragraph 2.3. of this Annex, the
existing fuel shall be drained prior to the fuel fill. The test fuel shall be at a temperature of
≤16°C. The evaporative emission control system shall neither be abnormally purged nor
abnormally loaded.
2.6.2.6.1.2. Soak Before Preconditioning (precond-soak)
2.6.2.6.1.2.1. Before preconditioning, Pure ICE vehicles shall be kept in an area with ambient conditions
as specified in Paragraphs 2.6.2.2.3. and 2.6.2.2.4. of this Annex for a minimum of 6h and
a maximum of 36h before preconditioning. This time shall be referred as t .
At the request of the manufacturer, and with the approval of the responsible authority, the
soak before preconditioning may be omitted if the manufacturer can justify that this soak
will have negligible effects on the criteria emissions. As an example, the effects on the
criteria emissions may be non-negligible in the case that the vehicle has an aftertreatment
system that uses a reagent.
2.6.2.6.1.2.2. The thermal comfort preconditioning function, if available, shall not be activated during this
soak.
2.6.2.6.1.2.3. The soak shall be performed without using a cooling fan and with all body parts positioned
as intended under normal parking operation.
2.6.2.6.1.2.4. In case that during the transfer from the soak area to the test cell the vehicle is exposed to
a temperature higher than -4°C, the transfer shall be undertaken as quickly as possible,
without any unjustified delay and for no longer than 20min.

2.6.2.6.6. Driver-selectable Modes
The requirements of Paragraph 2.6.6. of Annex 6 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
2.6.2.6.7. Voiding of the Type 1 Test and Completion of the Cycle
The requirements of Paragraph 2.6.7. of Annex 6 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
2.6.2.6.8. Data Required, Quality Control
2.6.2.7. Soaking
The requirements of Paragraph 2.6.8. of Annex 6 shall apply to the Type 6 test with the
exception of Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.5. which shall not apply.
2.6.2.7.1. Soak Before Testing (test-soak)
2.6.2.7.1.1. After preconditioning and before testing, vehicles shall be kept in a soak area with the
ambient conditions described in Paragraph 2.6.1.2. to this Annex.
2.6.2.7.1.2. In the case that during the transfer from the preconditioning to the soak area the vehicle is
exposed to a temperature higher than -4°C, the transfer shall be undertaken as quickly as
possible, without any unjustified delay and for no longer than 20mins.
2.6.2.7.1.3. During soaking the connecting tube, described in Paragraph 2.5.1.3. of this Annex, shall not
be connected to the vehicle.
2.6.2.7.1.4. The thermal comfort preconditioning function, if available, shall not be activated during this
soak.
2.6.2.7.1.5. The vehicle shall be soaked for a minimum of 12h and a maximum of 36h with the engine
compartment cover opened or closed. If not excluded by specific provisions for a particular
vehicle, cooling may be accomplished by forced cooling down to the set point temperature,
-7°C ± 2°C, for coolant and oil. If cooling is accelerated by fans, the air shall not be
additionally cooled and the fans shall be placed such that the cooling of the drive train,
engine and exhaust after-treatment system is achieved in a homogeneous manner.
2.6.2.7.1.6. In the case that during the transfer from the soak area to the test cell the vehicle is exposed
to a temperature higher than -4°C the transfer shall be undertaken as quickly as possible,
without any unjustified delay and for no longer than 20min and the vehicle shall be
restabilised by holding it at an ambient temperature of -7°C ± 3°C for at least six times as
long as the vehicle was exposed to the temperature higher than -4°C .
2.6.2.7.1.7. In the case that forced cooling was applied, once the vehicle reaches the set point
temperature, -7°C ± 2°C, for coolant and oil, the vehicle shall be cold-soaked within the
stabilized temperature for at least one hour before starting the emission test. During this
time, the ambient temperature shall be kept at -7°C ± 3°C.

ANNEX 13 – SUB-ANNEX 1
PURE ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Unless stated otherwise, all requirements in this Sub-annex shall apply to vehicles with and
without driver-selectable modes. Unless explicitly stated otherwise in this Sub-annex, all of
the requirements and procedures specified in this Annex shall continue to apply for
NOVC-HEVs, OVC-HEVs and PEVs.
1.1. Units, Accuracy and Resolution of Electric Parameters
Units, accuracy and resolution of measurements shall be as shown in Paragraph 1.1. of
Annex 8.
1.2. Emission and Fuel Consumption Testing
Parameters, units and accuracy of measurements shall be the same as those required for
pure ICE vehicles.
1.3. Rounding of Test Results
The requirements of Paragraph 1.3. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test with the
exception of the NO correction factor K .
1.4. Vehicle Classification
The requirements of Paragraph 1.4. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
For the Type 6 test the same applicable cycle shall be applied as for the Type 1 test, with
respect to downscaling and capped speed, if applicable.
1.5. OVC-HEVs, NOVC-HEVs and PEVs with Manual Transmissions
The requirements of Paragraph 1.5. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
2. RUN-IN OF TEST VEHICLE
The requirements of Paragraph 2. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
3. TEST PROCEDURE
3.1. General Requirements
The requirements of Paragraph 3.1. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test with the
addition of the requirements of Paragraph 3.1.1. of this Sub-annex.
3.1.1. Electric current of all REESSs and the electric voltage of all REESSs shall be determined
according to Appendix 3 to Annex 8.

3.2.3. The driver-selectable mode shall be set as described in the following test sequences
(Option 1 to Option 6).
3.2.4. Charge-depleting Type 6 Test with no Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test
(Option 1)
The test sequence according to Option 1, described in Paragraphs 3.2.4.1. to 3.2.4.7.
inclusive of this Sub-annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are
shown in Figure A13.SA1.App1/1 in Appendix 1 to this Sub-annex.
3.2.4.1. Vehicle Preparation, Preconditioning and Soaking Procedure
The vehicle shall be prepared, preconditioned and soaked according to Paragraph 2. of
Appendix 2 to this Sub-annex.
3.2.4.2. Test Conditions
3.2.4.2.1. The test shall be carried out with a fully charged REESS according to the charging
requirements as described in Paragraph 5. of Appendix 2 to this Sub-annex and with the
vehicle operated in charge-depleting operating condition as defined in Paragraph 3.3.5. of
this UN GTR.
3.2.4.2.2. Selection of a Driver-selectable Mode
The requirements of Paragraph 3.2.4.2.2. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
3.2.4.2.3. Setting of Auxiliary Devices
The requirements for auxiliary devices shall be those specified in Paragraph 2.6.2.4.3. of
this Annex.
3.2.4.3. Charge-depleting Type 6 Test Procedure
3.2.4.3.1. The charge-depleting Type 6 test procedure shall start within 1h after completion of the test
soak as defined in Paragraph 2.6. of Appendix 2 to this Sub-annex and shall consist of a
number of consecutive applicable test cycles, until charge-sustaining operating condition is
achieved.
As a manufacturer option, it is allowed to expand the 1h requirement.
3.2.4.3.2. There shall not be an interval period between consecutive test cycles unless there is a
justified reason for testing purposes. In that case, the interval shall be less than 30min and
the interval duration shall be documented in the test report.
3.2.4.3.3. The requirements of Paragraph 3.2.4.3.2. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
3.2.4.3.4. The requirements of Paragraph 3.2.4.3.3. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test.
3.2.4.4. End of the Charge-depleting Type 6 Test
The requirements of Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test with the
exception of the break-off criterion which shall refer to Paragraph 3.2.4.5. to this Sub-annex.

3.2.7. Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test with a Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 6 Test (Option 4)
The test sequence according to Option 4, described in Paragraphs 3.2.7.1. and 3.2.7.2. of
this Sub-annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in
Figure A13.SA1.App1/4 of Appendix 1 to this Sub-annex.
3.2.7.1. For the charge-sustaining Type 6 test, the procedure described in Paragraph 3.2.5. of this
Sub-annex shall be followed.
3.2.7.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-depleting Type 6 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.4. of this Sub-annex shall be followed. Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.4. inclusive of
Appendix 2 to this Sub-annex shall not apply.
3.2.8. Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test with a Subsequent Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test
(Option 5)
The test sequence according to Option 5, described in Paragraphs 3.2.8.1. and 3.2.8.2. of
this Sub-annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in
Figure A13.SA1.App1/5 of Appendix 1 to this Sub-annex.
3.2.8.1. For the first charge-sustaining Type 6 test, the procedure described in Paragraph 3.2.5. of
this Sub-annex shall be followed.
3.2.8.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-sustaining Type 6 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.5. of this Sub-annex shall be followed. Paragraphs 2.1. to 2.4. inclusive of
Appendix 2 to this Sub-annex shall not apply.
3.2.9. Charge-depleting Type 6 Test with a Subsequent Charge-depleting Test (Option 6)
The test sequence according to Option 6, described in Paragraphs 3.2.9.1. and 3.2.9.2. of
this Sub-annex, as well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in
Figure A13.SA1.App1/6 of Appendix 1 to this Sub-annex.
3.2.9.1. For the first charge-depleting Type 6 test, the procedure described in Paragraph 3.2.4. of
this Sub-annex, shall be followed.
3.2.9.2. Subsequently, the procedure for the charge-depleting Type 6 test described in
Paragraph 3.2.4. of this Sub-annex shall be followed. Paragraph 2.1. of Appendix 2 to this
Sub-annex shall not apply.
3.3. NOVC-HEVs
The test sequence described in Paragraphs 3.3.1. to 3.3.3. inclusive of this Sub-annex, as
well as the corresponding REESS state of charge profile, are shown in
Figure A13.SA1.App1/7 of Appendix 1 to this Sub-annex.
3.3.1. Vehicle Preparation, Preconditioning and Soaking Procedure
The vehicle shall be prepared, preconditioned and soaked according to the procedures in
Paragraph 4. of Appendix 2 to this Sub-annex.

3.4.3.2. Break-off Criterion
The requirements of Paragraph 3.4.4.2.3. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test. This
criterion shall not be applied when the constant speed segment defined in
Paragraph 3.4.3.3.2. of this Sub-annex is excluded.
3.4.3.3. Speed Trace
The PEV Type 6 test procedure consists of one dynamic segment (DS), followed by one
constant speed segment (CSS) as shown in Figure A13.SA1/2.
3.4.3.3.1. Dynamic Segment
Figure A13.SA1/2
PEV Type 6 Test Procedure Speed Trace
The dynamic segment consists of (3) applicable WLTP test cycles (WLTC) in accordance
with Paragraph 1.4.2.1. of Annex 8.
3.4.3.3.2. Constant Speed Segment
The constant speed shall be the same speed as that of the Type 1 test according to
Paragraph 3.4.4.2.1.2. (a) of Annex 8.
The constant speed segment shall be excluded when UBE measurement is not required.
4. CALCULATIONS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC AND PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLES.
4.1. Calculations of Gaseous Emission Compounds, Particulate Matter Emission and
Particle Number Emission
4.1.1. Charge-sustaining Mass Emission of Gaseous Emission Compounds, Particulate Matter
Emission and Particle Number Emission for OVC-HEVs and NOVC-HEVs
The requirements of Paragraph 4.1.1. of Annex 8 shall apply to the Type 6 test with adding
the following. The charge-sustaining gaseous emission compounds shall be calculated
according to Paragraph 3. to 3.2.2. of Annex 7.
4.1.1.1. Vehicles Equipped with Periodically Regenerating Systems
Gaseous emission compounds and particulate matter emission shall be corrected by
applying the additive offset or multiplicative factor according to Appendix 1 to Annex 6

4.3.4.2.1. For Individual Vehicles within Same Low Temperature Family
The following ratio shall be calculated and applied to the final test result determined in
step 10 of Table A8/10 to Annex 8 in the case of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test
procedure or determined in step 9 of TableA8/11 to Annex 8 in the case of the shortened
Type 1 test procedure for individual vehicle Type 6 results.
EC = K * EC
where:
EC
K
is the interpolated electric energy consumption for individual vehicles
according to step 10 of Table A8/10 of Annex 8 in the case of the
consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure or according to step 9 according to
Table A8/11 of Annex 8 in the case of the shortened Type 1 test procedure,
in km;
is the low temperature electric energy consumption ratio;
and K = EC / EC
where:
EC
is the electric energy consumption determined according to step 10 of
Table A8/10 to Annex 8 in the case of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test
procedure or according to step 9 of TableA8/11 to Annex 8 in the case of
the Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure, Wh/km
EC is the electric energy consumption determined according to
Paragraph 4.3.4.2. of this Sub-annex, Wh/km
4.3.4.2.2. In the case that additional test was performed within the same low temperature family
Separate K shall be determined according to Paragraph 4.3.4.2.1. of this Sub-annex
and applied to only the same interpolation family.
In the case that multiple K are available in the same low temperature family, the
lowest K shall be used.
4.4. Calculation of Electric Ranges
4.4.1. [Reserved]
4.4.2. Pure Electric Range (PER)
The ranges determined in this paragraph shall only be calculated if the vehicle was able to
follow the applicable WLTP test cycle within the speed trace tolerances according to
Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.2. of Annex 6 during the entire considered period.

K
is the
weighting factor for the
applicable WLTP W test cycle of DS of the PEV
Type 6 test procedure;
and:
where:
K
K
K


is the
weighting factor for the
applicable 1st WLTP test cycle of DS of the
PEV Type 6 test procedure;
is the
weighting factor for the
applicable 2nd WLTP test cycle of DS of the
PEV Type 6 test procedure;
is the
weighting factor for the
applicable 3rd WLTP test cycle of DS of the
PEV Type 6 test procedure;
is the
electric energy change of all REESSs during thee applicable 1st WLTP
test cycle of the PEV Type 6 test procedure, Wh.
is the
electric energy change of all REESSs during the applicable 2nd
WLTP
test cycle of the PEV Type 6 test procedure, Wh.
4.4.2.1.1.
For Individual Vehicles within Same Low Temperature Family
The following ratio shall be calculated and applied to final test result determined in step 10
of Table A8/10 to Annex 8 in thee case of the consecutive cycle Type 1 test procedure or
determined in step 9 of TableA8/11 to Annex 8 in the case c of the shortened Type 1 test
procedure for individual vehicle Type 6 results.
PER
Where:
= K
* PER
PER
K
is the interpolated pure electric range for individual vehicles according to
step 10 of Table A8/10 to Annex 8 in case of the consecutive cycle
Type 1 test procedure or determined inn step 9 of Table A8/11 of Annex 8
in case of the shortened Type 1 test procedure, in km
is the low temperature pure electric range ratio

SUB-ANNEX 1 – APPENDIX 1
REESS STATE OF CHARGE PROFILE
1. TEST SEQUENCES AND REESS PROFILES: OVC-HEVS, CHARGE-DEPLETING
TYPE 6 AND CHARGE-SUSTAINING TYPE 6 TEST
1.1. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 1
Charge-depleting Type 6 test with no subsequent charge-sustaining Type 6 test
(Figure A13.SA1.App1/1)
Figure A13.SA1.App1/1
OVC-HEVs, Charge-depleting Type 6 Test
1.2. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 2
Charge-sustaining Type 6 test with no subsequent charge-depleting Type 6 test
(Figure A13.SA1.App1/2).
Figure A13.SA1.App1/2
OVC-HEVs, Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test

1.4. Test Sequence OVC-HEVs According to Option 4
Charge-sustaining Type 6 test with subsequent charge-depleting Type 6 test
(Figure A13.SA1.App1/4)
Figure A13.SA1.App1/4
OVC-HEVs, Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test with Subsequent Charge-depleting Type 6 Test

2. TEST SEQUENCE NOVC-HEVS
Charge-sustaining Type 6 test (Figure A13.SA1.App1/7)
Figure A13.SA1.App1/7
NOVC-HEVs Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test
3. TEST SEQUENCES PEV
PEV Type 6 test procedure (Figure A13.SA1.App1/8)
Figure A13.SA1.App1/8
PEV Type 6 Test Sequence

2.4. Preconditioning
2.4.1. At the start of the preconditioning test, the test cell shall have a temperature set point of
-7°C and the tolerance of the actual value shall be within ±3°C. During preconditioning, the
tolerance of the actual value shall be within ±5°C.
2.4.2. The vehicle shall be driven over one applicable WLTP test cycle under charge-sustaining
operating condition. During this preconditioning cycle, the charging balance of the REESS
shall be determined. At the end of preconditioning, the REEC value defined in
Paragraph 3.2.4.5.2. of Annex 8 shall be below 0.06. This criteria applies to only discharge
side.
2.5. Transfer from Preconditioning to Soak
Paragraph 2.3. of this Appendix shall be applied.
2.6. Soak after Preconditioning and before the Test (test-soak)
2.6.1. After preconditioning and before testing, the vehicle shall be kept in a soak area with the
ambient conditions described in Paragraph 2.6.2.2.3. of this Annex.
2.6.2. Soaking of the vehicle shall be performed according to Paragraph 2.6.2.7.1.5. of this Annex.
2.6.2.1. Specific Provisions for the Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test
2.6.2.1.1. The vehicle shall not be connected to the grid.
2.6.2.2. Specific Provisions for the Charge-depleting Type 6 Test
2.6.2.2.1. Forced cooling as described in Paragraph 2.6.2.7.1.5. of this Annex shall not be applied.
2.6.2.2.2. The vehicle shall be connected to the grid and start REESS charging using the normal
charging procedure as defined in Paragraph 5 of this Appendix within 1h after the end of
preconditioning.
Soak and charge shall continue until the end-of-charge criterion described in Paragraph 5.
of this Sub-annex is reached. At the request of the manufacturer, the soak time may be
extended to up to 36h.
The recharged electric energy shall be measured according to Paragraph 6. of this
Appendix.
2.7. Transfer from Soak to Type 6 Testing
2.7.1. Transfer when the Test Procedure Starts with a Charge-sustaining Type 6 Test
Paragraphs 2.6.2.7.1.6. and 2.6.2.7.1.7. of this Annex shall be applied.

4. NOVC-HEV PREPARATION, PRECONDITIONING AND SOAKING
4.1. Vehicle Preparation Procedure
Paragraph 2.1. of this Appendix shall be applied.
4.2. Soak before Preconditioning (precond-soak)
Provisions described in Paragraph 2.6.2.6.1.2. of this Annex shall be applied.
4.3. Preconditioning
4.3.1. Paragraph 2.4.1. of this Appendix shall be applied.
4.3.2. The vehicle shall be driven over one applicable WLTP test cycle under charge-sustaining
operating condition.
4.4. Soak after Preconditioning and before Test (test-soak)
Paragraph 2.6.2.7. of this Annex shall be applied.
5. APPLICATION OF A NORMAL CHARGE
Normal charging is the transfer of electricity to an electrified vehicle with a power of less
than or equal to 22kW.
Where there are several possible methods to perform a normal AC charge (e.g. cable,
induction, etc.), the charging procedure via cable shall be used.
Where there are several AC charging power levels available, the highest normal charging
power shall be used. An AC charging power lower than the highest normal AC charging
power may be selected if recommended by the manufacturer and by approval of the
responsible authority.
5.1. The REESS shall be charged at an ambient temperature as specified in
Paragraph 2.6.2.2.3. of this Annex with the on-board charger if fitted.
The vehicle shall be connected to the mains within 60min after the preconditioning. The
REESS is fully charged when the end-of-charge criterion, as defined in Paragraph 5.2. of
this Appendix, is reached.
In the following cases, a charger recommended by the manufacturer and using the charging
pattern prescribed for normal charging shall be used if:
(a)
No on-board charger is fitted, or
(b) The charging time exceeds the maximum soaking time defined in
Paragraph 2.6.2.7.1.5. of this Annex.
The procedures in this paragraph exclude all types of special charges that could be
automatically or manually initiated, e.g. equalization charges or servicing charges. The
manufacturer shall declare that, during the test, a special charge procedure has not
occurred.

ANNEX 14
CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. This Annex provides the Conformity of Production (CoP) test requirements relating to the
Type 1 test and to checking the conformity of the vehicle for On-board Diagnostics (OBD).
1.2. The manufacturer shall check the conformity of production by conducting the appropriate
tests in accordance with Table A14/1 of this Annex.
The specific procedures for conformity of production are set out in Paragraphs 2. to 4. and
Appendices 1 to 3.
Table A14/1
Type 1 Applicable Type-1 CoP Requirements for the Different Types of Vehicle
Type of vehicle Criteria emissions CO emissions Fuel Efficiency
Pure ICE
NOVC-HEV
Yes
Yes
OVC-HEV Yes CD and CS
Contracting Party
option
Contracting Party
option
Contracting Party
option CS only
Contracting Party
option
Contracting Party
option
Contracting Party
option CS only
Electric energy
consumption
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Yes
CD only
PEV
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Yes
NOVC-FCHV
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Exempted
Not Applicable
OVC-FCHV
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Exempted
Exempted
1.3. CoP Family
Only if there is combustion engine operation during a valid CD Type 1 test for CoP
verification
The manufacturer is allowed to split the CoP family into smaller CoP families.
If the vehicle production takes place in different production facilities, different CoP families
shall be created for each facility. An interpolation family can be represented in one or more
CoP families.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The manufacturer may request to merge these CoP families. The responsible authority shall
evaluate on the basis of the supplied evidence by the manufacturer whether such a merge
is justified.

Option B:
The frequency for product verification on the Type 1 test performed by the manufacturer
shall have a minimum frequency per CoP family of one verification per 12 months.
1.4.2. If the number of vehicles produced within the CoP family exceeds 7,500 vehicles per
12 months, the minimum verification frequency per CoP family shall be determined by
dividing the planned production volume per 12 months by 5,000 and mathematically
rounding this number to the nearest integer.
1.4.3. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
If the number of vehicles produced within the CoP family exceeds 17,500 vehicles per
12 months, the frequency per CoP family shall be at least one verification per 3 months.
Option B:
If the number of vehicles produced within the CoP family exceeds 5,000 vehicles per month,
the frequency per CoP family shall be at least one verification per month.
1.4.4. The product verifications shall be evenly distributed over the period of 12 months or over the
production period in the case that this is less than 12 months. The last product verification
shall reach a decision within 12 months unless the manufacturer can justify that an
extension of a maximum of one month is necessary.
1.4.5. The planned production volume of the CoP family per a 12-month period shall be monitored
by the manufacturer on a monthly basis, and the responsible authority shall be informed if
any change in the planned production volume causes changes to either the size of the CoP
family or the Type 1 test frequency.
1.6. Audits by the Responsible Authority
Audits by the responsible authority shall be conducted according to regional legislation.
Where the interpolation method is used, verification of the interpolation calculation may be
carried out by, or at the request of, the responsible authority as part of the audit process.
If the responsible authority is not satisfied with the audit results, physical tests shall directly
be carried out on production vehicles as described in Paragraphs 2. to 4. to verify the
conformity of the vehicle production.
At the option of the Contracting Party, the manufacturers arrangements and documented
control plans shall be based on a risk assessment methodology consistent with the
international standard ISO 31000:2018 – Risk Management – Principles and guidelines.
1.7. Physical Test Verifications by the Responsible Authority
Physical test verifications by the responsible authority shall be conducted according to
regional legislation.

At the choice of the Contracting Party, the maximum sample size shall be one of the
following options:
Option A: 16 vehicles
Option B: 32 vehicles for criteria emissions, 11 for fuel efficiency and electric energy
consumption.
Figure A14/1
Flowchart of the CoP Test Procedure for the Type 1 Test

2.5. Test Fuel
2.5.1. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
All CoP tests shall be conducted with commercial fuel. However, at the manufacturer's
request, the reference fuels in accordance with the specifications in Annex 3 may be used
for the Type 1 test.
Option B:
All CoP tests shall be conducted with reference fuels in accordance with the specifications
in Annex 3 for the Type 1 test. However, at the request of the manufacturer the mileage
accumulation for the run-in in Paragraph 1.7. of Appendix 3 to this Annex may be conducted
with commercial fuel.
2.5.2. Tests for conformity of production of vehicles fuelled by LPG or NG/biomethane may be
performed with a commercial fuel of which the C3/C4 ratio lies between those of the
reference fuels in the case of LPG, or of one of the high or low caloric fuels in the case of
NG/biomethane. In all cases a fuel analysis shall be presented to the responsible authority.
2.6. Criteria for Validity of Speed Trace Tolerances and Drive Trace Indices of the Type 1
CoP Test
3. Reserved
The speed trace tolerances and drive trace indices shall fulfil the criteria specified in
Paragraph 2.6.8.3. of Annex 6.
4. CHECKING THE CONFORMITY OF THE VEHICLE FOR ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
(OBD)
4.1. When the responsible authority determines that the quality of production seems
unsatisfactory, a vehicle shall be randomly taken from the family and subjected to the tests
described in Appendix 1 to Annex 11.
4.2. The production shall be deemed to conform if this vehicle meets the requirements of the
tests described in Appendix 1 to Annex 11.
4.3. If the vehicle tested does not satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 4.1., a further random
sample of four vehicles shall be taken from the same family and subjected to the tests
described in Appendix 1 to Annex 11. The tests may be carried out on vehicles which have
completed a maximum of 15,000km with no modifications.
4.4. The production shall be deemed to conform if at least three vehicles meet the requirements
of the tests described in Appendix 1 to Annex 11.

2.3. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The conformity of production with regard to CO mass emissions shall be verified on the
basis of the values for the tested vehicle as described in Paragraph 2.3.1. and applying a
run-in factor as defined in Paragraph 2.4. of this Annex.
Option B:
The conformity of production with regard to fuel efficiency shall be verified on the basis of
the values for the tested vehicle as described in Paragraph 1.3.1. and applying a run-in
factor as defined in Paragraph 2.4. of this Annex.
2.3.1. CO Mass Emission Values for CoP/Fuel Efficiency Values for CoP
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
In the case the interpolation method is not applied, the CO mass emission value M
according to step 7 of Table A7/1 of Annex 7 shall be used for verifying the conformity of
production.
In the case the interpolation method is applied, the CO mass emission value M for
the individual vehicle according to step 10 of Table A7/1 of Annex 7 shall be used for
verifying the conformity of production.
Option B:
In the case the interpolation method is not applied, the fuel efficiency value FE according
to step 8 of Table A7/1 of Annex 7 shall be used for verifying the conformity of production.
In the case the interpolation method is applied, the fuel efficiency value FE for the
individual vehicle according to step 10 of Table A7/1 of Annex 7 shall be used for verifying
the conformity of production.
3. VERIFICATION OF COP ON CO MASS EMISSIONS/FUEL EFFICIENCY OF
NOVC-HEVS
3.1. The vehicle shall be tested as described in Paragraph 3.3. of Annex 8.
3.2. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
During this test, the CO mass emission M of the NOVC-HEV shall be determined
according to step 6 of Table A8/5 of Annex 8.
Option B:
During this test, the fuel efficiency FE of the NOVC-HEV shall be determined
according to step 1 of Table A8/6 of Annex 8.

4.2.1. Consecutive Cycle Type 1 Test Procedure Values for CoP
In the case the interpolation method is not applied, the electric energy consumption value
EC according to step 9 of Table A8/10 of Annex 8 shall be used for verifying the
conformity of production.
In the case that the interpolation method is applied, the electric energy consumption value
EC for the individual vehicle according to step 10 of Table A8/10 of Annex 8 shall be
used for verifying the conformity of production.
4.2.2. Shortened Type 1 Test Procedure Values for CoP
In the case the interpolation method is not applied, the electric energy consumption value
EC according to step 8 of Table A8/11 of Annex 8 shall be used for verifying the
conformity of production.
In the case the interpolation method is applied, the electric energy consumption value
EC for the individual vehicle according to step 9 of Table A8/11 of Annex 8 shall be
used for verifying the conformity of production.
5. VERIFICATION OF COP ON CO MASS EMISSIONS/FUEL EFFICIENCY OF OVC-HEVS
5.1. At the request of the manufacturer it is allowed to use different test vehicles for the
charge-sustaining test and charge-depleting test.
5.2. Verification of the Charge-sustaining CO Mass Emissions/Fuel Efficiency, as
Applicable, for Conformity of Production.
5.2.1. The vehicle shall be tested according to the charge-sustaining Type 1 test as described in
Paragraph 3.2.5. of Annex 8.
5.2.2. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
During this test, the charge-sustaining CO mass emission M shall be determined
according to step 6 of Table A8/5 of Annex 8.
Option B:
During this test, the charge-sustaining fuel efficiency FE shall be determined
according to step 1 of Table A8/6 of Annex 8.
5.2.3. At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the following options shall be selected:
Option A:
The conformity of production with regard to charge-sustaining CO mass emissions shall be
verified on the basis of the values for the tested vehicle as described in Paragraph 5.2.3.1.
for charge-sustaining CO mass emissions, and applying a run-in factor as defined in
Paragraph 2.4. of this Annex.

5.3.1.2. First Cycle of the Charge-Depleting Type 1 Test
5.3.1.2.1. The vehicle shall be tested according to the charge-depleting Type 1 test as described in
Paragraph 3.2.4. of Annex 8 while the break-off criterion of the charge-depleting Type 1 test
procedure shall be considered reached when having finished the first applicable WLTP test
cycle and replace the break-off criterion of the charge-depleting Type 1 test procedure
according to Paragraph 3.2.4.4. of Annex 8.
During this test cycle, the DC electric energy consumption from the REESS(s) EC
shall be determined according to Paragraph 4.3. of Annex 8 where ΔE shall be the
electric energy change of all REESS and d shall be the actual driven distance during this
test cycle.
5.3.1.2.2. In this cycle, there is no engine operation allowed. If there is engine operation, the test
during conformity of production shall be considered as void.
5.3.2. The conformity of production with regard to the charge-depleting electric energy
consumption shall be verified on the basis of the values for the tested vehicle as described
in Paragraph 5.3.2.1. in the case that the vehicle is tested according to Paragraph 5.3.1.1.
and as described in Paragraph 5.3.2.2. in the case that the vehicle is tested according to
Paragraph 5.3.1.2.
5.3.2.1. Conformity of Production for a Test according to Paragraph 5.3.1.1.
In the case that the interpolation method is not applied, the charge-depleting electric energy
consumption value EC according to step 16 of Table A8/8 of Annex 8 shall be used
for verifying the conformity of production.
In the case the interpolation method is applied, the charge-depleting electric energy
consumption value EC for the individual vehicle according to step 17 of Table A8/8 of
Annex 8 shall be used for verifying the conformity of production.
5.3.2.2. Conformity of Production for a Test according to Paragraph 5.3.1.2.
In the case the interpolation method is not applied, the charge-depleting electric energy
consumption value EC according to step 16 of Table A8/8 of Annex 8 shall be
used for verifying the conformity of production.
In the case the interpolation method is applied, the charge-depleting electric energy
consumption value EC for the individual vehicle according to step 17 of
Table A8/8 of Annex 8 shall be used for verifying the conformity of production.

Option B:
Case A: the manufacturer's production standard deviationn is satisfactory.
With a minimum sample size of 3, the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a
lot passing a test with 40% of thee production
defective iss 0.95 (producer's risk = 5%) while
the probability of a lot being accepted with 65% off the production defective is 0.l
(consumer's risk = 10%).
For each
of the criteria emissions as defined by the Contractingg Party, the
following
procedure is used (see Figure A14/1 in Paragraph 2.3.2. of o this Annex) where:
L = the natural logarithm of the limit value for the criteria emission, e
x = the natural logarithm of the measurement
for the i-th vehicle v of thee sample,
s = an estimate of the
production standard deviation (afterr taking the natural logarithm of the
measurements),
n = the current sample number.
Compute
for the sample the test statistic quantifying the sum of the standard deviations from
the limit and defined as:
If the test statistic is greater than the pass decision number for thee sample size given in
Table A14.App2/1, the criteria emission is passed;
If the test statistic is less than the fail decision number for the sample size
given in
Table A14.App2/1, the pollutant is failed; otherwise, an additional a vehicle is tested and the
calculation reapplied to the sample with a sample size onee unit greater.
Table A14.App2/1
Pass/Fail Decisionn Number for the Sample Size
Cumulative number of tested vehicles
(current sample size)
3
4
5
6
7
8
Pass decision
threshold
3.327
3.261
3.195
3.129
3.063
2.997
Fail decision
threshold
-4.724
-4.79
-4.856
-4.922
-4.988
-5.054

The measurements
of the criteria emissions as defined by the Contracting
Party are
considered to be log
normally distributed and shall first be transformed by taking their
natural logarithms.
Let m andd m denote the minimum and maximum sample sizes
respectively (m = 3 and m = 32) and let n denote the current sample number.
If the natural logarithms of the measurements in the series are x ,
natural logarithm of the limit valuee for the pollutant, then define:
x ..., x and L is the
d = x – L
And
Sample size
(n)
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Table A14.App2/2
Minimum Sample Size = 3
Pass decision threshold (A )
-0.80381
-0.76339
-0.72982
-0.69962
-0.67129
-0.64406
-0.61750
-0.59135
-0.56542
-0.53960
-0.51379
-0.48791
-0.46191
-0.43573
-0.40933
-0.38266
Fail decision threshold (B )
16.64743
7.68627
4.67136
3.25573
2.45431
1.94369
1.59105
1.33295
1.13566
0.97970
0.85307
0.74801
0.65928
0.58321
0.51718
0.45922

3.
3.1.
CO EMISSIONS, FUEL EFFICIENCY AND ELECTRIC ENERGY E CONSUMPTION
Statistical Procedure
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the followingg options shall be selected:
Option A:
For the total number of N tests and the measurement results of the tested vehicles, x , x , …
x , the average X and the standard deviation s shall bee determined:
and
Option B:
For the total number of N tests and the measurement results of the tested vehicles, x , x , …
x , the average X and the standard deviation σ shall bee determined:
and
3.2.
Statistical Evaluation
At the choice of the Contracting Party, one of the followingg options shall be selected:
Option A:
For the evaluation of CO emissions the normalised values shall be calculated as follows: f
where:
CO
CO
is the CO
emission measured for individual vehicle v i
is the declared CO value for the
individual vehicle

EC
is the declared electric energy consumption for the individual vehicle i,
according to Appendix 8 to Annex 8. In the case that the complete
charge-depleting Type 1 test has been applied, EC
shall be determined
according to Paragraph 5.3.2.1. of Appendix 1 to this Annex. In the case that
only the first cycle is tested for verification of CoP, EC
shall be determined
according to Paragraph 5.3.2.2. of Appendix 1 to this Annex.
The normalised x values shall be used to determine the parameters X and s according to
Paragraph 3.1.
3.3. Pass/fail Criteria
At the choice of the Contracting Party, either the requirements of Paragraph 3.3.1. or the
requirements of Paragraph 3.3.2. shall be applied:
3.3.1. Evaluation of CO Emissions and Electric Energy Consumption
For each number of tests, one of the three following decisions can be reached, where the
factor A shall be set at 1.01:
(i) Pass the family if X ≤ A – (t + t ) ∙ s
(ii) Fail the family if X > A + (t – t ) ∙ s
(iii)
Take another measurement if:
A – (t
+ t
) ∙ s < X
≤ A +(t
– t
) ∙ s
where:
parameters t
, t
, t
, and t
are taken from the Table A14.App2/3.
Table A14.App2/3
Pass/Fail Decision Number for the Sample Size
PASS
FAIL
Tests (i)
t
t
t
t
3
1.686
0.438
1.686
0.438
4
1.125
0.425
1.177
0.438
5
0.850
0.401
0.953
0.438
6
0.673
0.370
0.823
0.438
7
0.544
0.335
0.734
0.438
8
0.443
0.299
0.670
0.438
9
0.361
0.263
0.620
0.438
10
0.292
0.226
0.580
0.438

3.3.2.2.
For the evaluation of EC (Electric consumption in Wh/km) the followingg provisions apply:
(a) If 3 ≤ N_Evaluation ≤ 10
(i)
Pass the
family if X
≤ 1.000
(ii)
Take another measurement if X
>1.000 >
(b)
If N = 11
(i)
Pass the
family if all the following
decisions can c be reached
i. X
≤ 1.000 +
ii.
X
≤ 1.000 +
iii.
x ≤ 1.000 + 3 � σ
(ii)
Fail the family f if one of the following decisions can be reached
i. X
>1.000 +
ii.
X
> 1.000 +
iii.
x > 1.000 + 3 � σ
where:
N_Evaluation
iss the total number of vehicle tested
evaluation
during the
applicable
N_CoP family f
iss the total number of vehicle tested inn the CoP family during
the year
(e.g. If the vehicle ested for the first evaluation is 11 andd the vehiclee tested for
the second evaluation is 4, N_ Evaluation=4
and N_CoP family=15)
In any case, if N_CoP family > 10, x ≤ 1.000 + 3 � σ shalll be satisfied.
3.3.2.3.
If the number of vehicles produced within the CoP family exceeds 7,500 vehicles per
12 months, for the second or later evaluation,
"a. If 3 ≤ N_ _Evaluation ≤ 10" may be replaced
by "a. If N_Evaluation = 3" and "b. If N_ Evaluation = 11" may be replaced
by "b. If
N_Evaluation = 4". For the second or later year, this provision shall not be used for f the first
evaluation for the CoP family in the year.
σ shall be
determinedd from the test result of first 10 tested vehicles after start of production
for each CoP family. σ shall not be changed once σ is determined for the CoP family even
for the second or later years. At the request of the manufacturer and with the approval of the
responsible authority, and with reasonable evidence and a appropriate data, σ may be
changed.

1.4. At the request of the manufacturer and with approval by the responsible authority, it is
allowed to perform the run-in procedure on multiple test vehicles. In this case, the valid test
results of all tested vehicles shall be considered for the determination of the run-in factors.
1.5. Chassis Dynamometer Setting
1.5.1. The chassis dynamometer shall be set to the target road load for the test vehicle, according
to the procedure specified in Paragraph 7. of Annex 4.
The chassis dynamometer shall be set independently prior to each test before the run-in
mileage accumulation and shall be set once for the post-run-in tests after the run-in mileage
accumulation.
1.5.2. At the choice of the Contracting Party, the following option may be allowed:It is allowed to
apply the same dynamometer setting value which was generated during type approval
testing for all testing.
1.6. Before the run-in, the test vehicle shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedure
specified in Annex 6 and Annex 8. The test shall be repeated until three valid test results
have been obtained. Drive trace indexes shall be calculated according to Paragraph 7. of
Annex 7 and these shall fulfil the specified criteria in Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.4. of Annex 6. The
system odometer setting D shall be recorded prior to each test. The measured criteria
emissions, CO emissions, fuel efficiency and electric energy consumption shall be
calculated according to Step 4a of Table A7/1 in Annex 7 or Step 4a of Table A8/5 in
Annex 8.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, the following requirement may be added: The signal
of the acceleration control position shall be recorded during all tests at a sampling frequency
of 10Hz. It is allowed to use the OBD acceleration control position signal for this purpose.
The responsible authority may request the manufacturer to evaluate this signal to ensure
that the test result is performed correctly.
1.7. After the initial tests, the test vehicle shall be run-in under normal driving conditions.
OVC-HEVs shall be driven predominantly in charge-sustaining operating conditions. The
driving pattern, test conditions and fuel during the run-in shall be in accordance with the
manufacturer's engineering judgement. The run-in distance shall be less than or equivalent
to the distance driven during the run-in of the vehicle which was tested for the type approval
of the interpolation family, in accordance with Paragraph 2.3.3. of Annex 6 or Paragraph 2.
of Annex 8.
1.8. After the run-in, the test vehicle shall be tested according to the Type 1 test procedure
specified in Annex 6 and Annex 8. The test shall be repeated until a number of valid test
results have been obtained.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, this number shall be one of the following options:
Option A: three tests
Option B: two tests
Drive trace indexes shall be calculated according to Paragraph 7. of Annex 7 and these
shall fulfil the specified criteria in Paragraph 2.6.8.3.1.4. of Annex 6.

1.11.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, the following requirement may be added:
M = C
∙ (D – D ) + C
where:
M
C
C
For the determinationn of the run-in factor for all applicablee criteria emissions, the coefficients
C and
C shall be calculated with a least squares regression analysis to four
significant digits on all valid tests before and after the run-in:
is the measured mass criteria emission component C
is the slope of the linearr regression line, g/km
is the constant value of the linear regression line, g/km
The manufacturer will provide statistical evidence to the responsible authority that the fit is
sufficiently statistically justified and the uncertainty marginn based on the variation in the data
should be
taken into account to avoid an overestimation of o the run-in effect.
1.12.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, the following requirement may be added:
The run-idetermined by the following equation:
factor RI (j) for criteria emission
component
C of CoP
test vehicle
j shall be
where:
D
D
M
is the average distance of the valid tests after the run-in, km
is the system odometer setting of the CoP test vehicle, km
is the mass emission of component C on the CoP test vehicle, g/km
In the case that D is lower than the minimum D , D shall be b replaced by the minimum D .
1.13.
The run-ithe procedure specified in Paragraphs 1.9., 1.9.1. and 1.10. of this Appendix, where CO in
factor RI (j) for electric energy consumption
shall be determined according to
the formulae is replaced by EC.
At the choice of the Contracting Party, the following requirement may be added:
The run-ibe determined according to the procedure specifiedd in Paragraphs 1.9. (excluding
factor RI (j) for fuel efficiency and RI (j) for electric energy consumption shall
Paragraph 1.9.1.) and 1.10. of this Appendix, where CO in the formulae is replaced by FE
and EC respectively.

Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).