Global Technical Regulation No. 17
|Global Technical Regulation No. 17
|Crankcase and Evaporative Emissions - Two or Three Wheeled Motor Vehicles.
|Global Technical Regulation on the Measurement Procedure for Two or Three Wheeled Motor Vehicles Equipped with a Combustion Engine with Regard to the Crankcase and Evaporative Emissions.
|ECE - United Nations
|Date of Issue:
|Number of Pages:
|Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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March 8, 2017
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 17
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON THE MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE
FOR TWO- OR THREE-WHEELED MOTOR VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH A COMBUSTION
ENGINE WITH REGARD TO THE CRANKCASE AND EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON NOVEMBER 17, 2016)
Text of the Global Technical Regulation
Scope and application
List of acronyms and symbols
Test Type III requirements: Emissions of crankcase gases
Test Type IV requirements: Evaporative emissions
Fuel tank permeability test procedure
Fuel storage and delivery system permeation test procedure
Sealed Housing for Evaporation Determination (SHED) test procedure
Ageing test procedures for evaporative emission control devices
Calibration of equipment for evaporative emission testing
Propulsion family definition with regard to Test Type IV requirements
Administrative provisions Test Type IV
Reference fuel specifications
4. This GTR covers the following test types:
Test Type III, emissions of crankcase gases;
The section on emissions from crankcase gases includes the obligation for the
vehicle manufacturer to submit a statement to the approval authority to ensure that no
emissions from the crankcase gas ventilation system can escape to the atmosphere
in the useful life of the vehicle. In a future amendment of this GTR the section on Test
Type III will be expanded with physical, harmonized test procedures which the
approval authority may request under to be defined conditions. The test procedure
will be designed to validate the statement if deemed necessary that no crankcase
emissions are escaping to the environment in the useful life of the vehicle.
Test Type IV, evaporative emissions.
The section on evaporative emissions includes a cascade of three tests to determine
the evaporative emissions, from a simple permeability test for non-metallic fuel tanks,
a fuel and delivery system permeation test, or a Sealed House for Evaporation
Determination (SHED) based test to determine the evaporative emissions from the
entire vehicle in a sealed house test.
5. This GTR is based on the work of the Informal Working Group (IWG) on Environmental and
Propulsion unit Performance Requirements (EPPR) of vehicles, from now on referred to as
EPPR IWG, which held its first meeting during the sixty-fifth GRPE in January 2013 and on
the initial proposal by the European Union (EU, represented by the European
B. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GTR
6. The EU put forward and announced their intention of setting up a working group during the
sixty-third and sixty-fourth meetings of GRPE in January and June 2012 and in the 157th
session of WP.29 in June 2012.
7. With the mandate (informal document: WP.29-158-15) WP.29 accepted at the 158th
session (November 13-16, 2012) to establish the EPPR IWG under GRPE. The official
mandate document is available on the UNECE website with the symbol
8. At the seventy-second GRPE session in January 2016, a formal proposal for this new GTR
was tabled for adoption. Subsequently the proposal was submitted to the June 2016 session
of WP.29 for adoption by the Executive Committee for the 1998 Agreement (AC.3).
9. Ongoing developments of test types and procedures and global discussion on
harmonization have resulted in the technical requirements contained within this GTR. The
final text of the GTR is presented in Section II of this document.
D. DISCUSSION OF THE ISSUES ADDRESSED BY THE GTR
1. List of Issues
13. This GTR brings together the harmonized test procedures to determine the crankcase
emissions and evaporative emissions of vehicles in the scope of this GTR. The process to
develop this GTR followed the methodology discussed in Chapter C.2, where important
issues discussed and addressed during the development were among others:
14. For both Test Types III and IV:
Definition and provision on useful life.
15. For Test Type III in particular:
The need for the inclusion of physical crankcase emission test requirements and associated
16. For Test Type IV in particular:
Adaptation of provisions for three-wheeled vehicles where necessary;
Providing a series of three alternative evaporative emission test types to allow testing
to be carried out involving varying degree of complexity;
The appropriate SHED test preparation and preconditioning test cycle;
Durability of evaporative emission control devices:
Confirmation on applying a fixed deterioration factor as alternative to physical
durability testing of evaporative emission control devices;
The notion of "degreened" evaporative emission control device;
Incorporation of bench ageing durability test Procedure B (based on California
evaporative emission requirements);
(iv) The number of charging/discharging durability cycles for ageing Procedure A;
Blending of the reference fuel with ethanol affecting the durability of the carbon
(vi) Durability requirements of evaporative emission control valves and linkages.
Criteria of the propulsion unit family.
22. For Test Type III crankcase emissions: a written declaration from the vehicle manufacturer
that the propulsion unit is equipped with a closed crankcase system preventing crankcase
gas to be discharged directly into the atmosphere as a first step. The EPPR IWG decided
that the physical crankcase emission test(s) which a Contracting Party may require to
validate the declaration under certain conditions to be defined will be developed together
and when agreed this GTR will be amended accordingly.
23. For evaporative emissions, there is a choice of three alternative test procedures:
Non-metallic fuel tank permeability test as assessment of the evaporative emissions
from the most relevant component on the vehicle– the fuel tank is half filled and
weighed daily over an 8-week period to determine the mass of fuel lost over that
Fuel tank and supply system permeation test – a similar test to the fuel tank
permeability test but with additional preconditioning treatment to simulate partial
deterioration of the system as would occur in normal use and determination of the
evaporative losses of the fuel lines;
SHED test as assessment of the evaporative emissions of the whole vehicle,
comprising of a diurnal test (emissions due to an increase in the temperature of the
fuel and vapour in the fuel tank) and a hot soak test (evaporative emissions occurring
after the engine warming up to the operational temperature by driving over a
pre-conditioning test cycle on a chassis dynamometer) of the complete vehicle.
24. In order to take into account that the assessment will become more accurate, but at the
same time that the cost of testing will become more expensive, the EPPR IWG has
developed a test hierarchy in which the whole vehicle assessment with respect to
evaporative emissions in a SHED test is higher placed on the hierarchy ladder than the
permeation test, assessing only the relevant system of fuel tank and tubing in the
assumption that the larger share of evaporative emissions stems from the fuel tank and fuel
delivery system, respectively assessment through the permeability test of a non-metallic fuel
tank as the one of the main relevant components only. For a two-wheeled motorcycle, a
motorcycle with side-car and a tricycle the EPPR IWG decided that a SHED test shall be
conducted. For two- and three-wheeled mopeds, Contracting Parties are left the choice
which of the three alternative test types should apply. Only one out of the three alternative
test types shall be required for these types of mopeds.
7. Reference Fuel
29. For the crankcase emissions and the evaporative emissions test, the reference fuels
specified Annex 8 may be selected by the Contracting Parties in order to be representative
for the local market fuel. In the future, upon availability of scientific evidence and agreement
among the Contracting Parties the number of reference fuel specifications should be
reduced in order to further reduce test and administrative burden on vehicle manufacturers
and approval authorities.
30. With respect to application of the appropriate evaporative emission Test Type IV procedure
the EPPR IWG agreed that a two-wheeled motorcycle and a motorcycle with side car should
be subject to the Class C SHED test. With respect to tricycles the same concept of
classification could be accepted as explained in Chapter D.4. and also for such types of
three-wheeled vehicles it could be agreed that the Class C SHED test should apply. This
decision was set-out in Paragraph 22.214.171.124. of Chapter 7 of Section II. For two- and
three-wheeled mopeds the EPPR IWG felt that more time was needed to assess and decide
if Class B permeation test or Class C SHED test was more appropriate for such vehicle
types. Subsequently some flexibility to Contracting Parties is provided in Paragraph 126.96.36.199.
of Chapter 7 of Section II pending the outcome of this assessment and decision. In order to
take this future decision into account and to further harmonize Test Type IV requirements
Paragraph 188.8.131.52. should be amended accordingly in due course.
8. Regulatory Impact and Economic Effectiveness
31. Increasingly, mopeds, motorcycles and other vehicles in the scope of GTR are being
designed for the world market. To the extent that manufacturers are preparing substantially
different models in order to meet different emission regulations and methods of measuring
CO emission and fuel or energy consumption, testing costs and other production values
are increased. It would be more economically efficient to have manufacturers using a similar
test procedure worldwide wherever possible to prove satisfactory environmental
performance before being placed on the market. A prerequisite for that is a harmonized
definition of the test procedures for measuring crankcase emissions and evaporative
emissions. It is anticipated that the test procedures in this GTR will provide a common test
programme for manufacturers to use in countries worldwide and thus reduce the amount of
resources utilized to test vehicles in the scope of this GTR. These savings will accrue not
only to the manufacturers, but more importantly, to the consumers and the authorities as
well. However, developing a test programme just to address the economic question does
not address the mandate given when work on this GTR was first started, which is to reduce
hydrocarbon emissions from crankcase gas and evaporative emissions.
9. Potential Cost Effectiveness
32. At the time of writing this revision of the GTR, the data is not available to undertake a full
impact assessment of the test procedures contained. Specific cost effectiveness values in
markets around the globe can be quite different, depending on the national or regional
market situation. While there are no calculated values here, the belief of the technical group
is that there are clear and significant benefits comparing to low anticipated cost increases
associated with this GTR.
The definitions set out in GTR No. 2 shall apply. In addition the following definitions
shall apply in this GTR:
3.1. "Crankcase emissions" means emissions from spaces in or external to an engine
which are connected to the oil sump crankcase by internal or external ducts through
which gases and vapour can escape;
3.2. "Engine crankcase" means the spaces in or external to an engine which are
connected to the oil sump by internal or external ducts through which gases and vapour
3.3. "Evaporative emissions" means the hydrocarbon vapours lost from the fuel system of
a vehicle other than those from exhaust emissions meaning the hydrocarbon vapours
lost from the fuel tank and fuel supply system of a motor vehicle and not those from
3.4. "Fuel tank breathing losses" means hydrocarbon emissions caused by temperature
changes in the fuel tank;
3.5. "Fuel tank" means a type of energy storage system that stores the fuel;
3.6. "Hot soak losses" means hydrocarbon emissions arising from the fuel system of a
stationary vehicle after a period of driving (assuming a ratio of C H );
3.7. "Non-exposed" type of fuel tank means that the fuel tank, except the fuel tank cap, is
not directly exposed to radiation of sunlight;
3.8. "Permeability test" means testing of the hydrocarbon losses through the walls of the
non-metallic fuel storage;
3.9. "Permeation" means the hydrocarbon losses through the walls of the fuel storage and
delivery systems, generally tested by weight loss;
3.10. "Positive ignition engine" or "PI engine" means a combustion engine working
according to the principles of the "Otto" cycle;
3.11. "SHED test" means a vehicle test in a sealed house for evaporation determination, in
which a special evaporative emission test is conducted;
3.12. "Useful life" means the relevant period of distance and/or time over which compliance
with the evaporative total hydrocarbon emission limits has to be assured;
3.13. "Vehicle propulsion unit family" for the purpose of evaporative emission testing
means a manufacturers grouping of vehicles which, through their design as defined in
Annex 6 of this GTR, have similar evaporative emission characteristics for the purpose
of this GTR.
5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1. Vehicles, systems, and components shall be so designed, constructed and assembled
by the manufacturer, so as to enable the vehicle, in normal use and maintained
according to the prescriptions of the manufacturer, to comply with the provisions of this
GTR during its useful life.
6. TEST TYPE III REQUIREMENTS: EMISSIONS OF CRANKCASE GASES
6.1.1. Test Type III shall be conducted in order to demonstrate that zero emissions from the
crankcase and/or if applicable the crankcase ventilation system can escape directly into
6.2. General Provisions
6.2.1. Zero emissions from the crankcase and/or if applicable the crankcase ventilation
system may escape directly into the atmosphere from any vehicle throughout its useful
life. For this purpose Contracting Parties may require:
184.108.40.206. A written declaration from the vehicle manufacturer that the propulsion unit is equipped
with a closed crankcase system preventing crankcase gas to be discharged directly
into the ambient atmosphere. In this case the Type III Test requirements may be
6.2.2. The manufacturer shall provide the approval authority of the Contracting Party or its
designated agency with technical details and drawings to prove that the engine or
engines are so constructed as to prevent vapour of any fuel, lubrication oil or crankcase
gases from escaping to the atmosphere from the crankcase gas ventilation system.
6.2.2. A physical verification may be conducted that the crankcase breather is not let out into
6.2.3. Type III Test is not applicable for vehicles equipped with a two-stroke engine containing
a scavenging port between the crank case and the cylinder(s).
7.2.3. The following three classes of Type IV testing are listed in hierarchical order as follows:
220.127.116.11. Class A; the test procedure in Annex 1 sets out the permeability test procedure of a
non-metallic fuel storage; as a component.
18.104.22.168. Class B; the test procedure in Annex 2 sets out the permeation test procedures of the
fuel storage and delivery systems.
22.214.171.124. Class C; the SHED test is described in Annex 3 and sets out the evaporative emission
test procedure for a whole vehicle.
7.2.4. Test hierarchy and obligations of contracting parties
Each class shall consist of one or more tests, which are listed in Table 3, together with
the SHED type required for the tests, if any.
Evaporative Emission Test Class
Permeability test of a non-metallic
fuel tank as component
Permeation test of the fuel storage
and delivery system
SHED test of the whole vehicle,
short diurnal test (fuel temp. change)
SHED test of the whole vehicle, hot
soak loss test
Evaporative Emissions Test Class
126.96.36.199. A Category 3 two-wheeled motorcycle, a motorcycle with sidecar and a tricycle shall be
tested according to the Class C evaporative emission test procedure.
188.8.131.52. For other Category 3 types of two- or three-wheeled vehicles the Contracting Party may
decide to apply one test procedure only from the three evaporative emission test
procedure classes listed in Paragraph 7.2.3.
7.4. Test Limits
Test Type IV Limits
Type IV Test Class Mandated
by the Contracting Party for the
Whole Vehicle in its Territory:
Test Conditions/Test Subject Test Limits (Stage 1)
40°C ± 2°C: 20,000mg/24h
23°C ± 2°C: 10,000mg/24h
Fuel tank 1,500mg/m /24h
Fuel tubing 15,000mg/m /24h
C – 2,000mg/test
7.5. Propulsion Family Definition with Regard to Test Type IV
A representative parent vehicle shall be selected to test and demonstrate to the
approval authority of the Contracting Party or its designated agency the Test Type IV
requirements based on the propulsion family definition in accordance with Annex 6. All
members of the family shall comply with the applicable requirements and performance
limits set out in this GTR.
The vehicle manufacturer shall fill out the information document in accordance with the
template laid down in Annex 7 and submit it to the approval authority of the Contracting
Party or its designated agency.
FUEL STORAGE AND DELIVERY SYSTEM PERMEATION TEST PROCEDURE
1.1. For the purposes of the requirements of this Annex, the minimum fuel system components
falling within the scope of this Annex consist of a fuel tank and fuel line sub-assembly. Other
components that form part of the fuel delivery system, fuel metering and control system are
not subject to the requirements of this Annex.
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL STORAGE AND DELIVERY SYSTEM PERMEATION TEST
2.1. Measure permeation emissions by weighing a sealed fuel tank before and after a
temperature-controlled soak according to the flow charts shown in Figure A2/1.
3. PRECONDITIONING FUEL SOAK FOR THE FUEL STORAGE AND DELIVERY SYSTEM
To precondition the fuel tank in the fuel storage and delivery system permeation test, the
following five steps shall be followed:
3.1. The fuel tank shall be filled with reference fuel and sealed. The filled tank shall be soaked at
an ambient temperature of 28°C ± 5°C for 20 weeks or at 43°C ± 5°C for ten weeks.
Alternatively, a shorter period of time at a higher temperature may be used as soak time if
the manufacturer can prove to the approval authority of the Contracting Party or its
designated agency that the hydrocarbon permeation rate has stabilised.
3.2. The fuel tank's internal surface area shall be determined in square metres accurate to at
least three significant figures. The manufacturer may use less accurate estimates of the
surface area if it is ensured that the surface area will not be overestimated.
3.3. The fuel tank shall be filled with the reference fuel to its nominal capacity.
3.4. The fuel tank and fuel shall equilibrate to 28°C ± 5°C or 43°C ± 5°C in the case of the
alternative short test.
3.5. The fuel tank shall be sealed using fuel caps and other fittings (excluding petcocks) that can
be used to seal openings in a production fuel tank. In cases where openings are not
normally sealed on the fuel tank (such as hose-connection fittings and vents in fuel caps),
these openings may be sealed using non-permeable fittings such as metal or fluoropolymer
4. FUEL TANK PERMEATION TEST PROCEDURE
To run the test, the following steps shall be taken for a fuel tank preconditioned as specified
in Paragraph 3.
4.1. Weigh the sealed fuel tank and record the weight in mg. This measurement shall be taken
within eight hours of filling of the fuel tank with test fuel.
4.2. The fuel tank shall be placed in a ventilated, temperature-controlled room or enclosure.
4.3. The test room or enclosure shall be closed and sealed and the test time shall be recorded.
4.4. The test room or enclosure temperature shall be continuously maintained at 28°C ± 5°C for
14 days. This temperature shall be continuously monitored and recorded.
5. FUEL TANK PERMEATION TEST RESULT CALCULATION
5.1. At the end of the soak period, the weight in mg of the sealed fuel tank shall be recorded.
Unless the same fuel is used in the preconditioning fuel soak and the permeation test run,
weight measurements shall be recorded on five separate days per week of testing. The test
is void if a linear plot of tank weight vs. test days for the full soak period for permeation
testing yields a linear regression correlation coefficient r < 0.8.
5.2. The weight of the filled fuel tank at the end of the test shall be subtracted from the weight of
the filled fuel tank at the beginning of the test.
6. FUEL TANK DURABILITY TESTING
6.1. A separate durability demonstration for each substantially different combination of treatment
approaches and non-metallic tank materials shall be performed by taking the following
6.1.1. Pressure Cycling
A pressure test shall be conducted by sealing the tank and cycling it between 115.1kPa
absolute pressure (+2.0psig) and 97.9kPa absolute pressure (−0.5psig) and back to
115.1kPa absolute pressure (+2.0psig) for 10,000 cycles at a rate of 60s per cycle.
6.1.2. UV Exposure
A sunlight exposure test shall be conducted by exposing the fuel tank to an ultraviolet light
of at least 24W/m (0.40W-hr/m /min) on the tank surface for at least 450h. Alternatively, the
non-metallic fuel tank may be exposed to direct natural sunlight for an equivalent period of
time, as long as it is ensured that it is exposed to at least 450 daylight hours.
6.1.3. Slosh Testing
A slosh test shall be conducted by filling the non-metallic fuel tank to 40% of its capacity
with the reference fuel or with a commercial premium-grade fuel at the choice of the
manufacturer and to the satisfaction of the approval authority the Contracting Party or its
designated agency. The fuel tank assembly shall be rocked at a rate of 15 cycles per minute
until one million total cycles are reached. An angle deviation of +15° to −15° from level shall
be used and the slosh test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 28°C ± 5°C.
6.2. Final Fuel Tank Durability Test Results
Following the durability testing, the fuel tank shall be soaked according to the requirements
of Paragraph 3. to ensure that the permeation rate is stable. The period of slosh testing and
the period of ultraviolet testing may be considered to be part of this soak, provided that the
soak begins immediately after the slosh testing. To determine the final permeation rate, the
fuel tank shall be drained and refilled with fresh reference fuel. The permeation test run laid
down in Paragraph 4. shall be repeated immediately after this soak period. The same test
fuel requirement shall be used for this permeation test run as for the permeation test run
conducted prior to the durability testing. The final test results shall be calculated in
accordance with Paragraph 5.
6.3. The manufacturer may request that any of the durability tests be excluded if it can be clearly
demonstrated to the approval authority of the Contracting Party or its designated agency
that this does not affect the emissions from the fuel tank.
6.4. The length of "soak" during durability testing may be included in the fuel soak period
provided that fuel remains in the tank. Soak periods may be shortened to ten weeks if
performed at 43°C ± 5°C.
SEALED HOUSING FOR EVAPORATION DETERMINATION (SHED) TEST PROCEDURE
1. DESCRIPTION OF SHED TEST
The evaporative emission SHED test (Figure A3/1) consists of a conditioning phase and a
test phase, as follows:
Diurnal (breathing loss) test;
Hot soak loss test.
Mass emissions of hydrocarbons from the tank breathing loss and the hot soak loss phases
are added together to provide an overall result for the test.
2.2. Test Vehicles
The degreened test vehicle, which shall be representative of the vehicle type with regard to
environmental performance to be approved, shall be in good mechanical condition and,
before the evaporative test, have been run in and driven at least 1,000km after first start on
the production line. The evaporative emission control system shall be connected and
functioning correctly over this period and the carbon canister and evaporative emission
control valve subjected to normal use, undergoing neither abnormal purging nor abnormal
3. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER AND EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS ENCLOSURE
3.1. The chassis dynamometer shall meet the requirements of Annex 6 of GTR No. 2 provided
that in the case of 3 wheeled vehicles the chassis dynamometer shall be capable of
accommodating three-wheeled vehicles (e.g. two rollers, long single roller).
3.2. Evaporative Emission Measurement Enclosure (SHED)
The evaporative emission measurement enclosure shall be a gas-tight rectangular
measuring chamber able to contain the vehicle under test. The vehicle shall be accessible
from all sides when inside and the enclosure when sealed shall be gas-tight. The inner
surface of the enclosure shall be impermeable to hydrocarbons. At least one of the surfaces
shall incorporate a flexible impermeable material or other device to allow the equilibration of
pressure changes resulting from small changes in temperature. Wall design shall be such
as to promote good dissipation of heat.
3.3. Analytical Systems
3.3.1. Hydrocarbon Analyser
184.108.40.206. The atmosphere within the chamber is monitored using a hydrocarbon detector of the Flame
Ionisation Detector (FID) type. Sample gas shall be drawn from the midpoint of one side wall
or the roof of the chamber and any bypass flow shall be returned to the enclosure,
preferably to a point immediately downstream of the mixing fan.
220.127.116.11. The hydrocarbon analyser shall have a response time to 90% of final reading of less than
1.5s. Its stability shall be better than 2% of full scale at zero and at 80 ± 20% of full scale
over a 15min period for all operational ranges.
18.104.22.168. The repeatability of the analyser expressed as one standard deviation shall be better than
1% of full scale deflection at zero and at 80 ± 20% of full scale on all ranges used.
22.214.171.124. The operational ranges of the analyser shall be chosen to give best resolution over the
measurement, calibration and leak-checking procedures.
Example Fuel Tank with Appropriate Positioning of
Fuel Tank Heating Pads to Control Fuel and Vapour Temperatures
3.4.4. With temperature sensors positioned as in Paragraph 3.5.2., the fuel heating device shall
make it possible to evenly heat the fuel and fuel vapour in the tank in accordance with the
heating function described in 126.96.36.199. The heating system shall be capable of controlling the
fuel and vapour temperatures to ±1.7°C of the required temperature during the tank heating
3.4.5. Notwithstanding the requirements of Paragraph 3.4.2., if a manufacturer is unable to meet
the heating requirement specified, due to use of thick-walled plastic fuel tanks for example,
then the closest possible alternative heat slope shall be used. Prior to the commencement
of any test, manufacturers shall submit engineering data to the technical service to support
the use of an alternative heat slope.
3.5. Temperature Recording
3.5.1. The temperature in the chamber is recorded at two points by temperature sensors which are
connected so as to show a mean value. The measuring points are extended approximately
0.1m into the enclosure from the vertical centre line of each side wall at a height of
0.9 ± 0.2m.
3.5.2. The temperatures of the fuel and fuel vapour shall be recorded by means of sensors
positioned in the fuel tank so as to measure the temperature of the prescribed test fuel at
the approximate mid-volume of the fuel. In addition, the vapour temperature in the fuel tank
shall be measured at the approximate mid-volume of the vapour.
3.5.3. When the fuel or vapour temperature sensors cannot be located in the fuel tank to measure
the temperature of the prescribed test fuel or vapour at the approximate mid-volume,
sensors shall be located at the approximate mid-volume of each fuel or vapour containing
cavity. The average of the readings from these sensors shall constitute the fuel or vapour
temperature. The fuel and vapour temperature sensors shall be located at least one inch
away from any heated tank surface. The approval authority may approve alternate sensor
locations where the specifications above cannot be met or where tank symmetry provides
3.5.4. Throughout the evaporative emission measurements, temperatures shall be recorded or
entered into a data processing system at a frequency of at least once per minute.
4. TEST PROCEDURE
4.1. Test Preparation
4.1.1. The vehicle is mechanically prepared before the test as follows:
The exhaust system of the vehicle shall not exhibit any leaks;
The vehicle may be steam-cleaned before the test;
The fuel tank of the vehicle shall be equipped with temperature sensors so that the
temperature of the fuel and fuel vapour in the fuel tank can be measured when it is
filled to 50% ± 2% of its capacity declared by the manufacturer;
Additional fittings, adaptors or devices may optionally be fitted to allow a complete
draining of the fuel tank. Alternatively, the fuel tank may be evacuated by means of a
pump or siphon that prevents fuel spillage.
4.2. Conditioning Phase
4.2.1. The vehicle shall be taken into the test area where the ambient temperature is between
20°C and 30°C.
4.2.2. Before switching off the engine, the test vehicle is placed on a chassis dynamometer and
driven a single time through the applicable Type I Test cycle specified:
188.8.131.52. In Annex 5 of GTR No. 2 as appropriate for the class of vehicle in the scope of GTR No. 2;
184.108.40.206. Alternatively to 220.127.116.11. for three-wheeled vehicles in the scope of this GTR at the choice of
the Contracting Party the applicable Type I Test set out in the national regulation of the
Contracting Party under the following conditions:
18.104.22.168.1. It shall first be ensured that the engine reaches its warm operational condition with a
minimum accumulated Type I Test time of 780s after start. In case the prescribed Type I
Test time is less than 780s, the running shall be continued till at least 780s is elapsed.
22.214.171.124.2. By means of exemption, a base two-wheeled motorcycle equipped with a sidecar may be
approved based on the Type IV evaporative emission test results of the base two-wheeled
4.2.3. The vehicle is parked in the test area for the minimum period stated in Table A3/1.
SHED Test – Minimum and Maximum Soak Periods
170cm ≤ engine capacity < 280cm
For exposed type of fuel tanks:
T = 0.3333 · t + 15.5°C
T = 0.3333 · t + 21.0°C
For non-exposed type of fuel tanks:
T = 0.2222 · t +15.5°C
T = 0.2222 · t + 21.0°C
T = required temperature of fuel (°C);
T = required temperature of vapour (°C);
t = time from start of the tank heat build in minutes.
126.96.36.199. The hydrocarbon analyser is set to zero and spanned immediately before the end of the
188.8.131.52. If the heating requirements in Paragraph 184.108.40.206. have been met over the 60 ± 2min period
of the test, the final hydrocarbon concentration in the enclosure is measured (C ,f). The
time or elapsed time of this measurement is recorded, together with the final temperature
and barometric pressure T and p .
220.127.116.11. The heat source is turned off and the enclosure door unsealed and opened. The heating
device and temperature sensor are disconnected from the enclosure apparatus. The vehicle
is now removed from the enclosure with the engine switched off.
18.104.22.168. To prevent abnormal loading of the carbon canister, fuel tank caps may be removed from
the vehicle during the period between the end of the diurnal test phase and the start of the
driving cycle. The driving cycle shall begin within 60min of the completion of the breathing
4.3.2. Driving Cycle
22.214.171.124. Following the tank breathing losses test, the vehicle is pushed or otherwise manoeuvred
onto the chassis dynamometer with the engine switched off. It is then driven through the
driving cycle specified for the class of vehicle tested.
5. CALCULATION OF RESULTS
5.1. The evaporative emission tests described in Paragraph 4. allow the hydrocarbon emissions
from the tank breathing and hot soak phases to be calculated. Evaporative losses from each
of these phases is calculated using the initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations,
temperatures and pressures in the enclosure, together with the net enclosure volume.
The formula below is used:
= k ⋅ V − 10
m = mass of hydrocarbon emitted over the test phase (grams);
C = hydrocarbon concentration measured in the enclosure (ppm (volume) C
= net enclosure volume in cubic metres corrected for the volume of the vehicle. If the
volume of the vehicle is not determined, a volume of 0.14m shall be subtracted;
T = ambient chamber temperature, K;
= barometric pressure in kPa;
= hydrogen to carbon ratio;
= 1.2 (12 + H/C);
i is the initial reading;
f is the final reading;
H/C is taken to be 2.33 for tank breathing losses;
H/C is taken to be 2.20 for hot soak losses.
AGEING TEST PROCEDURES FOR EVAPORATIVE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES
1. TEST METHODS FOR AGEING OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES
The SHED test shall be conducted with aged evaporative emission control devices fitted.
The ageing tests for those devices shall be conducted according to the procedures in this
2. CARBON CANISTER AGEING
A carbon canister representative of the propulsion family as set out in Annex 6. shall be
selected as test canister. Canister aging shall be conducted at the choice of manufacturer
by the carbon canister aging Procedure A or B.
Carbon Canister Gas Flow Diagram and Ports
2.1.3. Canister Purging Part of the Test Cycle
126.96.36.199. The test carbon canister shall be purged through the purge port and the tank port shall be
188.8.131.52. Four hundred carbon canister bed volumes shall be purged at a rate of 24l/min into the vent
2.2. Canister Ageing Test Procedure B
2.2.1. A test cycle will include loading the HC storing components with gasoline vapours up to 80%
by weight of its maximum storing capacity followed by 10min waiting with the system intake
port sealed. Then purge shall start using a flow rate of 28.3 ±5.5l/min at 20°C ± 5°C for
2.2.2. The method to be used to load the storing components consists of heating a container filled
with a pre-measured quantity of petrol up to 80°C. At 80°C approximately one third of the
petrol will evaporate. The evaporated petrol should be equivalent to 80% (by weight) of the
HC storing capacity of the HC storing components. The petrol vapours are allowed to enter
through the intake of the storing components.
2.2.3. The number of test cycles of carbon canister loading and purging shall correspond to the
number set out in Table A4/1.
The manufacturer shall report the results of the tests referred to in Paragraphs 2. and 3. of
this Annex in the information document according to the template set out in Annex 7.
2.2.7. Calculate the change in mass of hydrocarbons in the enclosure over the time of the test in
accordance with the equation in Paragraph 2.4. The background emission of the enclosure
shall not exceed 400mg.
2.3. Calibration and Hydrocarbon Retention Test of the Chamber
The calibration and hydrocarbon retention test in the chamber provides a check on the
calculated volume in Paragraph 2.1.1. and also measures any leak rate.
2.3.1. Purge the enclosure until a stable hydrocarbon concentration is reached. Turn on the mixing
fan, if it is not already on. The hydrocarbon analyser shall be calibrated (if necessary) then set
to zero and spanned immediately before the test.
2.3.2. Seal the enclosure and measure the background concentration, temperature and barometric
pressure. These are the initial readings C , p and T used in the enclosure calibration.
2.3.3. Inject approximately 4g of propane into the enclosure. The mass of propane shall be
measured to an accuracy of ±2% of the measured value.
2.3.4. Allow the contents of the chamber to mix for five minutes. The hydrocarbon analyser shall be
set to zero and spanned immediately before the following test. Measure the hydrocarbon
concentration, temperature and barometric pressure. These are the final readings C , p and
T for the calibration of the enclosure.
2.3.5. Using the readings taken in accordance with Paragraphs 2.3.2. and 2.3.4. and the formula in
Paragraph 2.4., calculate the mass of propane in the enclosure. This shall be within ±2% of
the mass of propane measured in accordance with Paragraph 2.3.3.
2.3.6. Allow the contents of the chamber to mix for a minimum of four hours. Then measure and
record the final hydrocarbon concentration, temperature and barometric pressure. The
hydrocarbon analyser shall be set to zero and spanned immediately before the end of the
2.3.7. Using the formula in 2.4, calculate the hydrocarbon mass from the readings taken in
Paragraphs 2.3.6. and 2.3.2. The mass may not differ by more than 4% from the hydrocarbon
mass calculated in accordance with Paragraph 2.3.5.
3.3. Oxygen Interference Check and Recommended Limits
The response factor (R ) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the ratio of the FID C reading
to the gas cylinder concentration, expressed as ppm C .
The concentration of the test gas shall be such as to give a response of approximately 80% of
full scale deflection, for the operating range. The concentration shall be known to an accuracy
of ±2% in reference to a gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas
cylinder shall be preconditioned for 24h at between 20.0°C and 30.0°C.
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and
thereafter at major service intervals. The reference gas to be used is propane balanced with
purified air which shall be taken to give a response factor of 1.00.
The test gas to be used for oxygen interference and the recommended response factor range
are given below:
Propane and nitrogen 0.95 ≤ R ≤ 1.05.
4. CALIBRATION OF THE HYDROCARBON ANALYSER
Each of the normally used operating ranges are calibrated by the following procedure:
4.1. Establish the calibration curve by at least five calibration points spaced as evenly as possible
over the operating range. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas with the highest
concentrations shall be at least 80% of the full scale.
4.2. Calculate the calibration curve by the method of least squares. If the resulting polynomial
degree is greater than 3, then the number of calibration points shall be at least the number of
the polynomial degree plus 2.
4.3. The calibration curve shall not differ by more than 2% from the nominal value of each
4.4. Using the coefficients of the polynomial derived from Paragraph 4.2., a table of indicated
reading against true concentration shall be drawn up in steps of no greater than 1% of full
scale. This is to be carried out for each analyser range calibrated. The table shall also
(a) Date of calibration;
(b) Span and zero potentiometer readings (where applicable), nominal scale;
Reference data of each calibration gas used;
(d) The actual and indicated value of each calibration gas used together with the percentage
4.5. Alternative technology (e.g. computer, electronically controlled range switch) may be used if it
can be shown to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it can ensure equivalent
Table A6/1 (Cont'd)
Classification Criteria Propulsion Family with Regard to Test Type IV
No. Classification Criteria Description Test Type IV
Liquid fuel hoses are identical and the surface area is
The fuel storage capacity declared by the
manufacturer is within a range of +10/-50% of the
nominal fuel tank volume
If the approval authority determines that, with regard
to the fuel storage capacity, the parent vehicle does
not fully represent the family, an alternative or
additional vehicle may be selected.
The fuel storage relief valve pressure setting is
identical or higher;
Identical method of storage of the fuel vapour (i.e. trap
form, storage medium, air cleaner (if used for
evaporative emission control) etc.);
2.1.9. Identical or higher volume of the carbon canister ; X
Identical method of purging of the stored vapour
(e.g. air flow, purge volume over the driving cycle);
Identical method of sealing and venting of the fuel
3.1. In the case of evaporative emission Classes B and C, the details are given in Table A6/1.
3.2. In the case of evaporative emission Class A, the details are given at Nos. 2.1., 2.1.4. and 2.1.6.
in Table A6/1.
Type IV, Fuel storage permeability test (yes/no)
Result fuel storage permeability test (mg/24h/test):
Type IV, Fuel storage and delivery system permeation test (yes/no)
Result fuel tank (mg/m /day):
Result fuel tubing (mg/m /day):
Type IV, SHED test (yes/no)
Result SHED test ( mg/test):