Global Technical Regulation No. 20

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 20
Description:Electric Vehicle Safety (EVS).
Official Title:Global Technical Regulation on Electric Vehicle Safety (EVS).
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2018-05-03
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:189
Vehicle Types:Bus, Car, Component, Heavy Truck, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Electrical and Electronic
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Keywords:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.20
May 3, 2018
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum 20:
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 20
GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE SAFETY (EVS)
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 14, 2018)

CONTENTS (Continued)
5.3. Requirements with regard to installation and functionality of rechargeable electrical
energy storage system (REESS) in a vehicle
5.3.1. Installation of REESS on a vehicle
5.3.2. Warning in the event of operational failure of vehicle controls that manage REESS safe
operation
5.3.3. Warning in the case of a thermal event within the REESS
5.3.4. Warning in the event of low energy content of REESS
5.4. Requirements with regard to the safety of REESS – in-use
5.4.1. General principle
5.4.2. Vibration
5.4.3. Thermal shock and cycling
5.4.4. Fire resistance
5.4.5. External short circuit protection
5.4.6. Overcharge protection
5.4.7. Over-discharge protection
5.4.8. Over-temperature protection
5.4.9. Overcurrent protection
5.4.10. Low-temperature protection
5.4.11. Management of gases emitted from REESS
5.4.12. Thermal propagation
5.5. Requirements with regard to the safety of REESS – post-crash
5.5.1. Vehicle based test
5.5.2. REESS - component based test

CONTENTS (Continued)
7. Heavy duty vehicles – performance requirements
7.1. Requirements of a vehicle with regard to its electrical safety – in-use
7.1.1. Protection against electric shock
7.1.2. Functional safety
7.2. Requirements with regard to installation and functionality of REESS in a vehicle
7.2.1. Installation of REESS on a vehicle
7.2.2. Warning in the event of operational failure of vehicle controls that manage REESS safe
operation
7.2.3. Warning in the case of a thermal event within the REESS
7.2.4. Warning in the event of low energy content of REESS
7.3. Requirements with regard to the safety of REESS – in-use
7.3.1. General principle
7.3.2. Vibration
7.3.3. Thermal shock and cycling
7.3.4. Fire resistance
7.3.5. External short circuit protection
7.3.6. Overcharge protection
7.3.7. Over-discharge protection
7.3.8. Over-temperature protection
7.3.9. Reserved
7.3.10. Low-temperature protection
7.3.11. Management of gases emitted from REESS
7.3.12. Thermal propagation
7.4. Requirements with regard to the safety of REESS simulating inertial load
7.4.1. Mechanical shock

GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 20
I. STATEMENT OF TECHNICAL RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION
A. INTRODUCTION
1. Electromobility represents the concept of using electric powertrain technologies with a
view to address climate change, improve air quality and reduce fossil fuel dependency.
The current regulatory pressure to lower CO and pollutant emissions is helping to
drive an increasing market penetration of vehicles utilizing electric powertrain
(hereafter, "electrically propelled vehicles" or "EV"). Furthermore, many governments
support the development and deployment of EV by financing research or offering
incentives for consumers. Consequently, the automotive industry is investing in
research and development, as well as the production capacity for electric vehicles, at a
scale not seen in the past.
2. Together with support measures for industry development, many governments have
already started to define their regulatory framework for EV, mostly in order to ensure
their safety and thus gain consumer confidence, but also in consideration of
environmental performance measures.
3. Because of the relatively small volume of EV and their components currently produced,
any degree of convergence between regulatory obligations can result in economies of
scale and cost reductions for automotive manufacturers – critical in the context of
economic recovery and the general cost-sensitiveness of the industry.
4. This United Nations Global Technical Regulation (UN GTR) introduces
performance-oriented requirements that address potential safety risks of EVs while in
use and after a crash event, including electrical shocks associated with the high voltage
circuits of EVs and potential hazards associated with lithium-ion batteries and/or other
Rechargeable Electrical Energy Storage Systems (REESS) (in particular, containing
flammable electrolyte).
5. UN GTR requirements are based on the best available data, scientific research and
analysis and reflect the outcome of technical discussions between the experts
representing the industry, testing authorities and the Governments of Canada, China,
European Union, Japan, Republic of Korea and the United States of America.
B. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
6. The Executive Committee of the 1998 Agreement (AC.3) gave, in November 2011, its
general support to a joint proposal by the United States of America, Japan and the
European Union to establish two working groups to address the safety and
environmental issues associated with EVs. That proposal
(ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2012/36. and Corr.1) was submitted to the World Forum for
Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) at its March 2012 session for further
consideration and formal adoption. AC.3 has adopted this proposal with China as one
of the co-sponsors together with Japan, United States and European Union.

15. Potential risk of "toxic gases" from non-aqueous electrolyte:
2. Warning Signals
During the informal working group discussion, and based on analysis and data
provided by European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), a potential risk
related to the release and evaporation of non-aqueous electrolyte and the potential
formation of a toxic atmosphere was discussed (EVSTF-04-13e, EVS-07-24e). As of
now, and although the topic is mentioned in various standards: UL 2580, SAE J2464,
SAE J2289, SAE J2990, ISO 6469, some of which even recommend gas/analytical
detection techniques, there is no clear measurement procedure suitable for all
scenarios (component/vehicle level,in-use/post-crash). Even with consideration of the
huge amount of electric and hybrid vehicles that are already on the street in Asia,
Europe and North America incidents of evaporation especially during in use are not
documented as of today. Nevertheless, more field or research data is required to define
an analytical technique suitable for detecting evaporated species from leaked
electrolyte. Based on the outcome of this research, modifications to the requirements
and methods with respect to leakage and evaporation of non-aqueous electrolyte may
be necessary in the future.
16. In relation to a requirement of a warning signal to the driver in the event of a failure of
the REESS, the informal working group was tasked with not only identifying safety
scenarios associated with REESS that require a warning, but also with the
development of requirements and test procedures that would test whether the warning
operates under the identified REESS related safety scenarios.
17. Three safety scenarios associated with REESS were identified where a warning to the
driver would be required. The first is operational failure of one or more aspects of
vehicle control(s) that manage the safe operation of the REESS. The second is when a
significant thermal event occurs internal to the REESS and the third is when the
REESS is at a low energy state. Details on the rationale for the selection of these three
safety scenarios are presented in Section E.
18. A survey of electrically propelled vehicles was conducted for developing test
procedures to evaluate the operation of the warning under specific safety scenarios.
The survey indicated that these test procedures would vary depending on electric
vehicle architectures and vehicle manufacturers. Therefore developing a single test
procedure would not be practicable and may be design restrictive. Consequently,
manufacturers would be required to submit, upon request, technical documentation
describing the functionality of the system triggering the warning for a given vehicle.
19. An attempt was made to develop specifications for the type of warning. However, due
to regional differences in how public perceives warnings and due to differences in
vehicle operation and designs, consensus could not be developed on the colour, style,
symbol, or text of the warning. Therefore, the characteristics of the warning are not
specified in this UN GTR.
20. This UN GTR does not specify detail characteristics of the warning in the form of test
requirements evaluating the warning function. Instead, the proposal of this UN GTR
requires manufacturers to provide relevant information specific to the vehicle about the
method of triggering driver warning and a description of the warning tell-tale.

23A.2.
Thermal Propagation Test
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 23B.
(a)
(b)
If no thermal runaway occurs, the tested device meets thermal propagation
requirement for the specific method of initiating thermal runaway. In order to
ensure the prevention of thermal propagation, the manufacturer should verify
that thermal runaway never occur by the remaining two candidate initiation
methods described in 23B.3.2;
If thermal runaway occurs:
(i)
(ii)
Pack level test: If no external fire or explosion occurs within 5min after the
warning for a thermal event is activated , the tested device meets thermal
propagation requirement. The observation shall be made by visual
inspection without disassembling the tested-device;
Vehicle level test: If no external fire or explosion and no smoke enters the
passenger cabin within 5min after the warning for a thermal event is
activated, the tested vehicle meets the thermal propagation requirement.
The observation shall be made by visual inspection without disassembling
the tested-device.
23B. Test Procedures
23B.1.
Purpose
The purpose of the thermal propagation test is to ensure the occupant safety in a
vehicle if thermal runaway occurs in the battery system.
23B.2.
Installations
This test shall be conducted either with the vehicle or the complete REESS or with
related REESS subsystem(s) including the cells and their electrical connections. If the
manufacturer chooses to test with related subsystem(s), the manufacturer shall
demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the performance of the
complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under the same conditions. In
case the electronic management unit (Battery Management Systems (BMS) or other
devices) for the REESS is not integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, it must be
operational to send warning signal.

(iv)
(v)
Speed: [0.1~10mm/s];
Position and direction: Select the position and direction where causing a
thermal runaway in a cell is possible (e.g. in vertical direction to
electrode layer). Insertion from vent of a cell is possible if thermal
runaway occurs. In this case, the cell that is perforated by nail is called
the "initiation cell".
If no thermal runaway occurs and the nail penetration test stops, refer to
Paragraph 23A;
(b)
Heating: Heating shall be conducted with the following conditions:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Shape: Planate or rod heater covered with ceramics, metal or insulator
shall be used. Heating area of heater contacting the cell shall not be
larger than area of cell surface wherever possible;
Heating procedure: After installation, the heater should be heated up to
its maximum power. Stop the initiation when the thermal runaway occurs
or the measured temperature following 23B.3.2 is over [300°C]. The stop
of initiation by heating should be reached within [30min];
Set position: Heating area of the heater is directly contacting the cell
surface. Set the heater to conduct its heat to initiation cell. The heater
position is correlated with the temperature sensor position, which is
described in 23B.3.6.
If no thermal runaway occurs and the heating test is stopped, refer to
Paragraph 23A.
[(c)
Overcharge:
The initiation cell is overcharged at a constant current (1/3C~1C-rate, provided
by manufacturer). Continue charging until thermal runaway occurs or the SOC
of the initiation cell reaches 200% SOC. Any other cells in the battery system
shall not be overcharged.
If no thermal runaway occurs and the overcharge is stopped, refer to 23A.]
23B.3.3.
Detection of Thermal Runaway.
Thermal runaway can be detected by the following conditions:
(i)
The measured voltage of the initiation cell drops;
(ii) The measured temperature exceeds [the maximum operating
temperature defined by the manufacturer];
(iii)
dT/dt ≥ [1°C/s] of the measured temperature.

Figure 2
Example of Set Positions of Temperature Sensor in Overcharge
Note: As for the set-up using a heater, place a temperature sensor on the far side of
heat conduction, for example, an opposite side of the position where heater is
placed (see Figure 3). If it is difficult to apply the temperature sensor directly,
place it at the location where the continuous temperature rise of initiation cell
can be detected.
Figure 3
Example of Set Positions of Heater and Temperature Sensor in Heating

27. The manufacturer must not only be concerned with the initial certification, but should also
monitor continued compliance of vehicles and/or items of motor vehicle equipment
throughout the production run. The American government does not specify the type of
quality control programme that a manufacturer should employ. That decision is left to the
manufacturer. However, to accomplish this, an effective quality control program should be
established to periodically inspect and test vehicles and/or items of motor vehicle equipment
randomly selected from the assembly line to ensure that the original performance is carried
through to all other units
2. Type Approval Process system of the European Union
28. The European Union approval scheme is based on the concept of 'type approval' and
conformity of production where this process provides a mechanism for ensuring that a type
of vehicle and its components meet the relevant environmental and safety requirements.
The type of vehicle and its components is required to be certified and approved by a
designated national approval authority before it is offered for sale in a particular country
(not necessarily the same country where type approval is obtained). This certification
includes testing, certification, and production conformity assessment. Once approved, the
whole vehicle can be sold throughout Europe Union (EU) with no further test approval
needed. The manufacturer has to provide each vehicle with a declaration (certificate of
conformity) that the vehicle complies with the approved vehicle type and the type-approval
authority shall check the conformity of production.
29. In accordance with the provision of the 1958 Agreement which concerns the Adoption of
Uniform Technical Prescriptions, an approval of parts and equipment of a vehicle issued by
a designated national Approval Authority (can be non-EU) based on UN Regulations will be
accepted in all EU member States and other Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement
(e.g. Japan, Russian Federation) as an equivalent to domestic approval. Therefore, parts
and equipment approved under UN Regulations are recognized for the EU approval of the
whole vehicle.
E. TECHNICAL RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION
1. Application/Scope
30. The application of the requirements of this UN GTR refers to the revised vehicle
classification and definitions outlined in the 1998 Global Agreement Special Resolution
No. 1 (S.R.1) concerning the common definitions of vehicle categories, masses and
dimensions.
31. Given that higher production volumes in the near future are expected for light and heavy
motor vehicles with electric powertrains, with these vehicles exhibiting similar potential
safety risks under similar operating conditions, this Regulation addresses expected
performance requirements that are pertinent for vehicle Categories 1 and 2.
32. In some regions of the world, low-mass, speed-restricted vehicles which operate only in
lower speed environments do not need to meet the high safety levels mandated for higher
speed vehicles, such as M and N Categories, which operate in all speed environments
including high speed ones.

(c)
(d)
The development direction of REESS, system integration and related technology
solutions is likely to differ from that of the passenger car technology in the future,
e.g. choice of battery technologies and optimization of performance characteristics,
charging solutions, etc. This trend is already starting to show in charging
technologies, where the heavy vehicle industry is moving in a direction to minimize
human involvement in charging operations, e.g. pantographs, inductive charging
plates, electrified roads, etc. Separating requirements for the heavy vehicles in this
Regulation facilitates future revisions, when the technical differences between these
vehicle segments are more pronounced;
1998 Ag. C.Ps., have requested to make adoption of the regulation on heavy vehicles
a Contracting Party option, which is simplified by separating the heavy vehicles in the
regulatory text.
38. A significant difference between passenger car and heavy vehicle manufacturers is that the
latter to a larger extent can be characterized as vehicle integrators. It is common for a heavy
vehicle manufacturer to produce both complete and incomplete vehicles, e.g. chassis. The
incomplete vehicles are further developed by another party, responsible for building the
body structure. It is also common for heavy vehicles, especially trucks, to change
application area and, therefore, be rebuilt with different body structures during different
phases in the service life. Consequently, implications, conditions and limitations of vehicle
based testing needs to be considered in detail for heavy vehicles, especially considering
incomplete vehicle compliance.
39. An additional feature of the heavy vehicle business model is that there is an overabundance
of variations of vehicles built around a range of similar chassis, each designed/customized
to fit a specific application and customer need. REESS positioning, orientation and fastening
will depend on the specific design elements and limitations of the application and customer
specifications. The option of component based testing is, therefore, essential for heavy
vehicles and vehicle-based tests should be avoided as far as possible in order to prevent
creating an excessive and unmanageable test load. In the exceptional case that it is not
possible to evaluate performance on a component level and a vehicle test is unavoidable,
there must be an established model for selecting a limited set of representative vehicle
designs to test for compliance of the entire range. The principles for the selection model will,
by nature, have to be test specific and based on the defined test objective.
40. Furthermore, when extending the scope of this Regulation to include heavy vehicles, it is
imperative to ensure that the performance requirements that are established as appropriate
for passenger vehicles do not become technology limiting for heavy vehicle development.
This is particularly important for criteria with high potential of becoming market normative for
components.
2. Requirements of a Vehicle with Regard to its Electrical Safety
(a)
Rationale for Electric Safety Requirements
41. A failure of a high voltage system may cause an electric shock to a (human) body. Such a
shock may happen with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current flow through
the skin, muscle or hair. Typically, the expression "electric shock" is used to denote an
unwanted exposure to electricity, hence the effects are considered undesirable.
42. The minimum current a human can feel depends on the current type (AC or DC) and
frequency. A person can feel at least 1mA (rms) of AC at 60Hz, while at least 5mA for DC.
The current may, if it is high enough, cause tissue damage or fibrillation, which leads to
cardiac arrest: 60mA of AC (rms, 60Hz) or 300–500mA of DC can cause fibrillation.

50. Furthermore exposed conductive parts (parts which can be touched with the standardized
Test Finger and becomes electrically energized under isolation failure conditions) have also
to be protected against indirect contact. This means that e.g. conductive barriers or
enclosures have to be galvanically connected securely to the electrical chassis.
51. Beside protection against direct and indirect contact, isolation resistance is required for AC
(Alternating Current) and DC (Direct Current) systems. Isolation resistance measured
against the electrical chassis is a physical dimension describing which maximum current
flowing through the human body is not dangerous.
52. While DC systems are less harmful to the human body (see Paragraph 5.1.1.2.4.1.),
100Ω/V are required. AC systems have to fulfil 500Ω/V.
53. The isolation resistance requirements of 100Ω/V for DC or 500Ω/V for AC allow maximum
body currents of 10mA and 2mA respectively.
(c)
Requirements During Charging
54. Vehicles with REESS that can be charged by conductively connecting to an external
grounded electric power supply must have a device that conductively connects the electrical
chassis to the earth ground during charging. This ensures that if there is a loss in electrical
isolation of the high voltage source during charging, and a human connects the vehicle
chassis, the magnitude of current flowing through the person is very low and in the safe
zone. This is because current will flow through the path of least resistance and therefore
most of the current resulting from a loss of electrical isolation would flow through the ground
connection rather than through the human body.
55. The electrical isolation from the chassis of high voltage sources that are connected to the
vehicle charge inlet during conductive charging (by connecting to AC external electric power
supply), must be greater than or equal to 500Ω/V. This ensures that the leakage current
during charging will be less than that needed to trip the Residual Current Device (RCD) or
the Charging Circuit Interrupting Device (CCID) during charging. During charging by
connecting to external AC electric supply, the protection measures are the RCD and CCIDs
that are located in the off-board electric vehicle supply equipment (i.e. charge connector).
The 500Ω/V electrical isolation of high voltage sources is only needed to ensure sufficiently
low levels of leakage current such that the RCDs and CCIDs are not tripped during normal
charging conditions. Requirements for RCDs and CCIDs are specified by national and
international electric standards such as the National Electric Code (NEC) – Article 625,
Underwriters Laboratory (UL) 2954 and adopted in different country and state laws.
Therefore, there may not be a need to specify requirements for RCDs and CCIDs in the
charge connectors in this Regulation. Each Contracting Party may assess the need based
on the electric code requirements in their respective countries.
(d)
Post-crash Requirements
56. Post-Crash requirements are the specifications that have to be fulfilled by the vehicles after
the impact to avoid any electric hazard to passengers of the vehicle or first responders.
They do not describe how the impact has to be conducted. This is the responsibility of each
1998 Ag. CPs.
57. The requirements are focused on the electric power train operating on high voltage as well
as the high voltage components and systems which are galvanically connected to it.

64. When evaluating the risk associated with electrical impulse (e.g. capacitor discharge), the
body resistance is a function of the voltage at the initiation of the electrical impulse. In the
real world case of capacitive discharges, the voltage is the highest at the beginning of the
pulse and drops as the capacitor discharges.
65. Table 10 in IEC TS 60479-1 details total body resistances R for a hand-to-hand current
path, large surface areas of contact, and in dry conditions. For wet contact conditions, the
values contained in Table 2 (of IEC TS 60479-1) would be sufficiently accurate/conservative
for direct current. Hand-to-hand contact is the most representative of the type of contact that
would be expected in real world contacts with electric vehicles. IEC TS 60479-1 also
contains information that permits calculation of internal body resistances and ventricular
fibrillation risk levels (heart factors) for other body contact/current paths through the human
body.
66. The lowest internal body resistance is obtained in a "hand to two feet" contact scenario.
However, this scenario is highly unlikely, since first responders and others, likely to contact
a vehicle post-crash would be wearing protective (and insulating) footwear. In addition, in
order to complete the circuit (and be exposed to harmful electrical current), the person
would need to simultaneously place their foot and hand on separate parts of a vehicle with
different electrical potentials. They would not be subjected to harm by simply contacting the
vehicle with their hand, with their feet placed on the ground.
67. In this analysis, we calculate the shock risk for both scenarios and note that they both are in
the acceptable risk zones outlined by IEC TS 60479-1. Table 1 below provides a
comparison of the fifth percent of population, large area of contact, wet, hand-to-hand body
resistances with the most conservative fifth percent of population, large area of contact, wet,
hand-to-two feet body resistances.
68. For the lowest 5% of the population, body resistances for large area of contact, wet, handto-hand
contact range from 1,175Ω for 25V to an asymptotic value of 575Ω for voltages
≥1,000Vdc. When, these values are adjusted to large area of contact, wet, hand-to-feet
contact, body resistances range from 1,022Ω at 25Vdc to 500Ω at voltages ≤1,000Vdc.
Table 1 below provides the body resistance values used in this analysis as a function of the
initial (highest) voltage present when the electrical impulse (capacitive discharge) is
initiated.

Figure 6
Body Current Versus Time of 0.2J Capacitors for Large Area Hand-to-hand
Contact Under Wet Conditions and Different Contact Voltages
70. Depending upon the initial charge level, the time durations of these pulses can exceed
10ms. As a result, the DC risk curves as well as the ventricular fibrillation risk curves need
to be jointly considered.
71. While instantaneous body currents can be compared to the IEC TS 60479-1 and
IEC TS 60479-2 risk curves, a more realistic assessment of risk should account for the time
history of the body current throughout the discharge event. As a result, international
standards account for this increased risk by calculating the root-mean-square (rms) body
current and comparing that current to the appropriate risk boundaries. IEC and SAE use
slightly different methods for making this calculation. IEC TS 60479-2 provides a simple
calculation (see Figure 7) that results in a single point value at 3T current. SAE integrates
the discharge body current/time history over the time duration where the body current is
greater than 2mA (below which body current is deemed to be benign). This provides a
continuous function that can be compared to the risk curve boundaries at any point during
its discharge. Figure 7 below illustrates the IEC and SAE methods.
Figure 7
Root-Mean-Square Current (i
) Computation Using the IEC TS 60479-2 and the SAE Methods

73. Figure 9 above plots rms body currents for 0.2J capacitive discharges for initial charge
voltages ranging from 60V to 1,000V. The coloured curves were generated using the SAE
method and the coloured dots represent the points calculated using the IEC TS 60479-2
formula. As can be seen in this figure the two calculation methods yield the same results at
the IEC method calculation point (3T duration).
74. In addition, 0.2J capacitors with charge voltages less than 350V will have discharge pulses
greater than 10ms and thus are subject to risk boundaries specified in IEC TS 60479-1.
Likewise, 0.2J capacitors with charge voltages greater than 350V will have discharge pulses
less than 10ms and are subject to risk boundaries specified in IEC TS 60479-2.
75. From these calculations, the maximum capacitor energy level that will not exceed the DC-2
and C1 boundary is 0.28J. This level is 40% greater than the 0.2J limit prescribed in the
UN GTR requirements. It is important to note that both the IEC and SAE methods yield
results that do not exceed the DC-2 and C1 boundaries.
76. Repeating the above calculations using hand-to-feet body resistance (highly unlikely
encountered in real-world contact situations) gives a limit value of 0.25J, which is 25%
greater than the 0.2J limit prescribed the requirements. The 0.25J limit matches that
prescribed in the most recent revision of the United States Department of Energy Electrical
Safety Handbook (DOE-HDBK-1092-2013).
77. In setting the 0.25J threshold contained in the 2013 version of the "DOE Handbook", the
authors cited a study that analysed the reflex response threshold of electrostatic discharge
shocks. This study , plus others referenced in IEEE the paper identified the 0.25J threshold
as the beginning of nuisance reflex action. The authors cite experience by many indicating
that a high voltage capacitor shock above 1J is not desirable. By 10J the reflex action can
become so severe that a person can be injured from muscle contractions.
78. The DOE classification of the hazards of high voltage capacitors benefited greatly from the
studies of impulse shock and from the development of various forms of the defibrillator.
Other than electrostatic discharge shocks (which can cause ignition of combustible
materials, but not adverse electrical shock) the high voltage group (>400V) is ranked in a
graded manner using 5 breakpoints. The lowest risk group (colour coded green) is the
<0.25J group, which can cause nuisance reflex action but will not cause injury (either due to
shock or muscle reflex).
79. A high voltage capacitor shock from 0.25J to 1J will cause a significant reflex action,
possibly causing injury from the reaction. Contact with this category, although not potentially
lethal, should be avoided and is appropriately colour coded yellow. The range from 10J to
1,000J includes possible death due to ventricular fibrillation, as well as damage to nerve
pathways and other tissue damage and thus is colour coded red.
80. In summary, the 0.2J limit provides adequate margin from the beginning of "nuisance reflex
action" and significant margin from the onset of potentially lethal effects such as ventricular
fibrillation].

87. However, research by NHTSA identified a potential scenario (see Figure 10) where the
agency was concerned that a human could potentially receive harmful levels of electrical
current from indirect contact with the barriers when there is a simultaneous loss of isolation
from opposite rails of the high-voltage bus in separate barriers. Many 1998 Ag. CPs, have
examined the likelihood of this scenario and concluded the risk for exposure to shock to be
very low in the real world. However, at least one Contracting Party felt that there should be
additional performance requirements to address this scenario (even if remote). As a result,
specifications limiting the maximum voltage between exposed conductive parts of high
voltage physical protection barriers were developed. Since, some 1998 Ag. CPs were not
convinced that the additional requirements are necessary, these specifications have been
implemented as an option for the Contracting Parties.
Figure 10
Potential Risk Scenario of Indirect Contact

Figure 11
Conventional Time/Current Zones of Effects of AC Currents (15Hz to 100Hz) on Persons for
Current Path Corresponding to Left Hand to Feet (Figure 20 from IEC TS 60479-1)
Figure 12
Conventional Time/Current Zones of Effects of DC Currents on Persons for Current Path
Corresponding to Left Hand to Feet (Figure 22 from IEC TS 60479-1)

98. To maintain minimum isolation resistance is the essential concept of electrical safety under
single failure conditions. However, the electric shock may occur only when both an isolation
loss and an additional failure occurs at the same time (i.e. isolation loss itself does not
cause an electric shock as long as other measures "protection against direct contact" and
"protection against indirect contact" are maintained). In order to prevent an electric shock in
the event of secondary failure following the isolation loss, two approaches are considered
effective,
(a)
(b)
ensure the robustness of electrical isolation under relevant environmental conditions,
or
urge the user to repair the vehicle when the minimum isolation resistance is not
maintained. However, it should be noted that the existence of the warning function is
not, per se, a safety prevention system and an interruption of the high voltage system
may be necessary e.g. during certain charging conditions.
99. Washing and driving through shallow standing water are considered as the examples of
usual conditions in normal vehicle operation, and in principle, all vehicles shall maintain
isolation resistance after being exposed to water under such environmental conditions. Two
test procedures for protection against water effects are foreseen with a view to evaluate the
robustness of electrical isolation under such environmental conditions, in particular, for
vehicles with a poor electrical and vehicle design.
100. Advanced electrical and vehicle design and technological solutions, such as insulation that
shields the electrical equipment and other devices which might be in a potential contact with
a high voltage bus and the electrical chassis, including fully encapsulated systems, can
increase the odds of maintaining isolation resistance after exposure to water. In such a
case, conducting a vehicle level test may not be necessary, as the high voltage system of
the vehicle maintains electrical isolation after water exposure. Evidence demonstrating how
the electrical design or components of the vehicle located outside the passenger
compartment or externally attached, after water exposure remain safe is sufficient.
101. Alternatively, vehicles equipped with isolation monitoring system can also contribute to the
safety of vehicle occupants in case isolation resistance has been compromised, e.g. after
exposure to water. On-board isolation resistance monitoring system monitors the isolation
resistance of the vehicle's high voltage bus and provides a warning to the driver if the
minimum isolation resistance is not maintained.
102. with the warning, the user will take the vehicle for repair and therefore the risk of secondary
failure that may cause electrical shock will be mitigated. However the warning alone may not
be considered sufficient, in particular for those individuals who do not have the possibility to
observe/or are aware of the warning signal (e.g. passers-by, first responders).
103. The confirmation method for the functions of the on-board isolation resistance monitoring
system is based on FMVSS 305, which is the same concept as that of UN GTR No.13.
7. Rationale for REESS Requirements
(a)
Definitions of Terms Related to REESS Requirements and its Applicability:
104. The following terms are used for setting the pass-fail criteria of REESS requirements:
(a) Electrolyte leakage (3.16.);
(b) Venting (3.50.);

110. Since this UN GTR specifies requirements to evaluate the proper functioning of vehicle
controls that manage REESS safe operation in overcharge, over-discharge, over
temperature and overcurrent conditions, the warning requirement only addresses the
condition of operational failure of vehicle controls that manage safe operation of REESS.
111. Due to the complexity and varied designs of vehicle controls that manage REESS safe
operation, no single test procedure could be developed that would fully evaluate whether a
warning tell-tale turns on in the event of operational failure of vehicle controls. Therefore,
manufacturers are required to provide documentation demonstrating that a warning to the
driver will be provided in the event of operational failure of one or more aspects of vehicle
controls that manage REESS safe operation.
112. Driver warning due to a thermal event within the REESS: Real world data indicates that a
thermal event within a battery pack is a major safety critical event associated with electric
powered vehicles that can result in smoke, fire and/or explosion that can pose a safety
hazard to occupants in the vehicle. A thermal event is when the temperature within the
battery pack is significantly higher than the maximum operating temperature (even at
reduced power). A warning should be provided to the driver in the event of a significant
thermal event within the battery pack. In order to avoid design restrictive requirements,
manufacturers are required to provide documentation on the parameters that trigger the
warning and a description of the system for triggering the warning.
113. Driver warning to notify low energy content of REESS: The purpose of this warning is to
notify the driver that the remaining stored energy in the REESS would only permit the
vehicle to be driven a short distance. This warning would alert the driver to charge the
REESS as soon as possible, so that the EV would not be stranded on the road.
114. At the indicated low state of charge specified by the vehicle manufacturer, the following
performance is generally expected:
(a)
(b)
It is possible to move the vehicle out of traffic using its own propulsion system;
A minimum energy reserve is available for the lighting system as required by National
and/or International Standards or regulations, when there is no independent energy
storage for the auxiliary electrical systems.
115. As the traffic conditions and layouts of charging stations vary in different countries, it is
difficult and unnecessary to set a mandatory limit of this "low energy". Manufacturers could
specify the limit value of REESS remaining energy themselves according to the certain road
conditions and performance of their product. It is also suggested that the remainder range
(including the driving condition) could be introduced to the driver in the owner's manual.
116. Currently, the most of conventional vehicles are equipped with a low fuel warning. When
there is little fuel left, the warning is given to the driver to refuel as soon as possible.
Traditionally, manufacturers have defined this threshold value on their own.
117. Although there are no recorded accidents for electric battery vehicles running out of energy,
it should be noted that in some countries, this warning is mandatory. It is beneficial to
regulate the necessary design for vehicle manufacturers at the current technical
development level. Due to the complexity of the vehicle warning, only basic requirements
can be proposed for regulatory purposes, but the inclusion of such requirements will
eliminate vehicle designs without a REESS low energy warning.

124. In this UN GTR it was felt that specifying the SOC as high as possible within the considered
constraints and technical capabilities would provide the highest margin of safety.
Constraints on the specification of SOC are the availability of external charging ports for the
tested-device, capabilities are limited by temperature related capacity variations ,
manufacturing tolerances and inaccuracies of capacity measurement, which according to
JRC can amount to 2% derived from each 1% tolerance for current and voltage
measurement. Further references provided by JRC confirm the variation of capacity as up to
10% for a thermal window between +10°C and +30°C as defined for the charging process
here.
125. The UN Regulation No. 100-02 defines the ambient temperature range for adjusting SOC
and testing at 20 ± 10°C. In the case of vehicle-based test, BMS (Battery Management
System) controls the SOC to achieve the highest SOC in a stable manner under such a
moderate temperature range. On the other hand, in case of component-based test, BMS
may not be installed on the tested-device resulting in potential fluctuation of the adjusted
SOC depending on the ambient temperature. Accordingly, it was recommended to tighten
the ambient temperature range for the component-based test. Further, the target
temperature was reviewed taking into account the ambient temperature conditions of other
safety standards or regulations and the limitations of existing testing facilities. As a
conclusion, the informal working group decided to specify the ambient temperature at
22 ± 5°C for component based and 20 ± 10°C for vehicle based testing.
126. Accounting for above-mentioned constraints, i.e. charging opportunities, the SOC setting is
split into three procedures:
(a)
(b)
For a test on vehicle level with availability of an external charging port the procedure
is deemed straight forward to normally charge the REESS until the vehicle's internal
control device automatically stops the charging process. In case of several charging
methods (e.g. normal or fast charging), the manufacturer must advise on the method
that delivers the higher SOC;
For a vehicle level test with a hybrid vehicle without external charge port the
adjustment of the SOC is generally not directly possible. The SOC level is adjusted
via complex internal algorithms by the vehicle's on-board control system. Overriding
such systems to enforce high SOC levels is not appropriate and may risk damage to
the test object and/or operator health and safety. Furthermore, such conditions are
not representative of the state of the vehicle in actual operation. HEVs generally try to
maintain their SOC around a mid-level in order to provide immediate capacity for
power delivery as well as for recuperation. Extreme SOC levels are by nature
transient events for such systems. As a consequence, no discrete SOC has been
defined for such applications. Given the diversity of vehicle system technologies and
architectures and to ensure that the highest practical SOC is obtained, the test
procedure specifies that the testing services/authorities consult the vehicle
manufacture on SOC measurement and setting procedures;

132. As Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria
sign-off may often also be mandatory for types of REESS (such as lithium metal batteries,
lithium ion batteries and lithium polymer batteries) subject to this Regulation, having the
opportunity to cover this test with test T3, is seen as an efficient approach.
133. However the load curve per Test T3 is assessed as too severe for automotive applications.
Despite the recent lowering of the high frequency amplitude in Test T3 from 8g to 2g for
"large batteries" with masses more than 12kg, even this amplitude is still not considered
representative for the typical sizes of REESS in vehicles, with a mass of 200kg or more.
Particularly the height of the amplitudes above 18Hz is seen as unrealistic and does not
correlate to the loads seen in road vehicles (except for hypothetical cases of REESS
mounted close to or onto a combustion engine). Due to the stiffness of vehicle bodies in
relation to the module weight frequencies, frequencies higher than 18Hz cannot be
transmitted at significant energy levels.
134. This UN GTR, therefore, uses the same frequency vertices as Test T3, albeit those for
smaller cells, but lowers the load curve above 18Hz and truncates it at 50Hz.
Figure 13
Comparison of Proposed with Test T3 Load Curve
135. The test duration is also aligned with Test T3, requiring 12 transitions from the minimum to
the maximum frequency and back within 15min., resulting in a total test duration of 3h.
136. While Test T3 requires the test to be performed in all three spatial directions, in vehicle
applications this load occurs in the vertical direction only, while the longitudinal and lateral
vehicle dynamic loads are significantly lower. The vibration test therefore needs to be
performed in the vertical installation direction only. When utilizing this option, the orientation
of the REESS in the vehicle must be restricted accordingly; this information shall be
communicated to the regulating entity by the vehicle manufacturer. The administrative
procedures to ensure such a communication will be specified by the regulating Contracting
Party.

Figure 14
Occurrence of Battery Temperature
148. According to these results, the real life scenario with highest temperature difference is
parking a vehicle outside (maybe overnight) at -40°C, starting the vehicle and heating up the
battery during operation to the highest temperature of 60°C.
(c)
Fire Resistance (Paragraphs 5.4.4. and 6.2.4. of this UN GTR)
149. The purpose of the test is to ensure that occupants have adequate time to evacuate the
vehicle in case of exposure to fire from outside of the vehicle due to e.g. a fuel spill from a
vehicle (either the vehicle itself or a nearby vehicle). Furthermore, the level of specification
is equivalent to the minimum safety levels specified for existing liquid fuelled vehicles and is
similar to the requirements for plastic fuel tanks in UN Regulation No.34. While specific data
regarding evacuation time requirements are not available, real-world experience with the
sufficiency of UN Regulation No. 34 indicates that the regulatory requirements are at a
sufficient level of performance to address the safety aspects of external fire exposure.
150. The test is required for REESS installed in a vehicle at a height lower than 1.5m above the
ground. The 1.5m limit is deemed appropriate since the impact of a fire on a REESS
installed at or above this height in a vehicle is considered insignificant given the inherent
presence of considerable vehicle structure that acts to shield the REESS from fuel pool fire
exposure when the REESS is mounted at and above that height.
151. The requirement for plastic fuel tanks in UN Regulation No. 34 specifies that it passes three
repetitions of the same test (i.e. 60s preheat + 60s direct exposure to flame + 60s indirect
exposure to flame). As evidenced by the high similarity of results for these tests (see
multiple UN Regulation No. 34 tests on the Figure 15) the number of tests specified in
Paragraphs 5.4.4. and 6.2.4. have been reduced from three to one. In order to compensate
for potential variations in fire exposure, the direct exposure phase of the test has been
increased by 10s. The 10s additional time was determined based on experimental data
presented in Figure 15 below which illustrates temperatures measured on a simulated
vehicle during fire exposure from 3 tests of UN Regulation No. 34 (i.e. 60s preheat + 60s
direct exposure to flame + 60s indirect exposure to flame) and modified versions of the test
of UN Regulation No. 34 (e.g. 90s direct exposure, no preheat period and 60s direct
exposure, no preheat period). These curves also confirm that the preheating period does
not influence the temperature rise curves for the device under test and thus have been
removed from the test procedures contained in this UN GTR.

Figure 17
Temperature Readings at Different Heights above a 0.25m Pool Fire
153. A significant difference between fuel tanks and REESS is that REESS can produce heat on
their own, possibly developing a thermal runaway. Therefore, the test procedure differs from
the procedure described in UN Regulation No. 34. No external cooling or extinguishment of
the tested device is conducted as is done in the fuel tank test to facilitate the search for
leaks. Instead, the tested device is observed for at least 3h to confirm that the temperature
decreases and no dangerous processes resulting in an explosion have been initiated during
the exposure.
154. Alternative test procedure using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) burner
(Paragraph 6.2.4.3.4.): it is inherently difficult to control the behaviour and conditions of the
flame in gasoline pool fire tests due to its turbulent nature. To improve flame controllability
and reproducibility, Korea Automobile Testing and Research Institute (KATRI) have
researched and proposed (EVS-02-07e) an LPG burner fire test for REESS (see illustration
of burner configuration in Figure 18). The test method is similar to UN GTR No.13
(Hydrogen container in hydrogen fuel cell vehicle). The LPG burner specified can control the
height and temperature of the flame by regulating the mass flow rate of LPG supplied. As a
result, fire tests performed with an LPG burner have the advantage of being more
controllable and hence repeatable/reproducible.

155. Research was conducted to develop LPG burner specifications to be equivalent in terms of
flame temperature and heat flux to typical gasoline pool fires.
156. Experts noted that the emissivity of fuel increases with increasing amount of carbon and
higher luminous flame (Figure 19). As a result, the heat flux can differ depending on the fuel
even if the flame temperature is equivalent. Based on testing and analysis conducted, it was
determined that the specifications developed for the LPG burner meet the necessary criteria
for equivalence. At this time, appropriate specifications and analysis on other potential fuel
types have not been conducted and as a result, they are not included in this UN GTR.
Figure 19
Emissivity of Different Fuel Flames

Figure 21
Flame Temperature and Heat Flux of
Gasoline Pool Fire (without Tested-device)
161. Table 3 compares the integral heat flux at each test condition. For the LPG burner test
(Paragraph 6.2.4.3.4. of this UN GTR), the integral heat flux during the direct flame
exposure time (i.e. the time to reach 800°C and 2 more minutes) at each LPG mass flow
rate is shown in Table 3 and compared with the integral heat flux during 130s (for Phases B
and C) for the gasoline pool fire test (Paragraph 6.2.4.3.3. of this UN GTR).
162. Test results revealed that the integral heat fluxes in the gasoline pool fire and LPG burner
fire tests were almost equivalent at an LPG mass flow rate of 200kg/h. For this reason, an
LPG mass flow rate of 200kg/h is considered appropriate during the test.

165. Since the temperatures were not found to be exactly equivalent, research was conducted
with different examples of potential tested-devices (i.e. various sizes of mocked up REESS)
to verify whether the temperature differences would result in significantly different results
and whether adjustments to the temperature sensor locations relative to the
tested-device would make the results more equivalent (EVSTF-08-54e).
166. When temperatures are measured, the average value of the five sensors is used to
determine the temperature condition to compensate for temperature deviations due to the
tested-device's structure or transient temperature variations. The flame temperature should
be measured continuously and an average temperature is calculated at least every second
for the duration of the fire exposure.
167. Temperature sensors should be located at adequate places which can represent the entire
area of the tested-device's bottom. At least one sensor should be located at the centre of
the tested-device and four sensors located near the edge of the tested-device with equal
distance in order to make sure that the tested-device is exposed to a uniform flame over the
entire bottom area (EVSTF-08-54e).
168. When determining a distance of 50mm below an irregularly shaped tested-device (e.g. a
tunnel shape), this distance is determined from the lowest point of the tested-device in the
orientation intended for the vehicle. As a result, all temperature sensors should be installed
at a distance of 50 ± 10mm below the lowest point of the tested-device's external surface
and in a single plane.
169. When the tested-device's bottom has significant surface geometry irregularities (e.g. deep
recesses, etc.), there may be insufficient airflow in that location which can result in lower
temperatures. For such cases, this location should be avoided when placing the
temperature measurement sensors.
(d)
External Short Circuit Protection (Paragraphs 5.4.5. and 6.2.5. of this UN GTR)
170. This test is to verify the performance of the vehicle controls (protection measure) against a
short circuit occurring external of the REESS. If certain protection device (e.g. fuse,
contactor, etc.) exists in the REESS, the functionality of such device will be evaluated and if
no such device exists, the robustness of the REESS against short circuit will be evaluated.
The test procedure has been developed based on existing standards and other technical
references. The resistance of the connection (5mΩ or less) is taken from SAE J2464
(Surface vehicle recommended practice, Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable
Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing, November, 2009) as specified
for pack hard short. The value of the short circuit resistance may need to be reviewed in the
future taking account for development of related regulations or standards for soft short
conditions.
171. This test procedure does not address the short circuit event inside the casing (battery pack
enclosure) of REESS, since the occurrence of such short circuit events will be assessed by
the other tests such as vibration, thermal shock and cycling, and mechanical impact.
172. The test is conducted under ambient temperature conditions and with SOC at the maximum
level (since higher SOC levels could result in higher likelihood of thermal
runaway/propagation in the event of failure of controls). The short circuit test may be
conducted with a complete REESS or REESS subsystem(s) for which the REESS
subsystem performance in the test represents that of the complete REESS. The test may
also be conducted at the vehicle level using breakout harness to apply the short circuit.

177. The test is conducted at normal ambient conditions with the SOC adjusted to about midlevel
of the range for normal operation. The test may be conducted at the vehicle level or with a
complete REESS. At the vehicle level, charge by vehicle operation (driving on a chassis
dynamometer) for vehicles that can be charged by on-board energy sources, and charge by
external electricity supply for externally chargeable vehicles will be used. For vehicles that
have the capability of charging the REESS by external electricity supply and by on-board
energy sources, vehicle operation by both methods shall be used. Alternatively, charging of
the REESS may be conducted using breakout harness if it can be connected just outside
the REESS to charge the REESS with external electricity supply equipment.For test with a
complete REESS, external charge/discharge equipment shall be used.
(h)
Over-discharge Protection (Paragraphs 5.4.7. and 6.2.7. of this UN GTR)
178. Over-discharging of REESS in itself cannot lead to a severe event. Some kinds of REESS
have special chemical reaction which can occur and that are irreversible. Subsequent
charging of such an over-discharged REESS may lead to fire or explosion. The aim of the
specified test is to verify the performance of the vehicle controls (protection measures) of
the REESS against over-discharge during its operation. In the case of the installation of
over-discharge protection measures (e.g. battery management system connected to
contactors) in the REESS, the functionality of the protection measures shall be proven by
terminating the discharge current or the temperature of the REESS is stabilized such that
the temperature varies by a gradient of less than 4°C through 2h (this ensures that though
the discharge may not be terminated, it is limited to a safe value). If no over-discharge
protection measures have been installed, the REESS has to be discharged to 25% of its
nominal voltage level. This termination criterion has been given in ISO12405 (Electrically
propelled road vehicles – Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and
systems) and SAE J2929 (Safety Standard for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion
Battery System Utilizing Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells). Finally, a standard charge and
a standard discharge shall be conducted, if allowed by the REESS, to assess the influence
of the over-discharge.
179. The test is conducted under ambient conditions and started with a low level of SOC to
reduce the test time. The test may be conducted at the vehicle level or with a complete
REESS or REESS subsystem(s). At the vehicle level, discharge by vehicle operation
(driving on a chassis dynamometer) and discharge of REESS through operation of auxiliary
equipment (heating, A/C, lights, radio, etc.) shall be conducted. In this case, both the tests
for discharge during driving and discharge due to operation of auxiliary equipment shall be
conducted because the two discharge modes may result in operation of different vehicle
controls. Alternatively, discharging of the REESS may be conducted using a discharge
resistor connected to a breakout harness if the harness can be connected to a location just
outside the REESS to discharge the REESS. For test with a complete REESS, external
charge/discharge equipment shall be used.
(i)
Over-temperature Protection (Paragraphs 5.4.8. and 6.2.8. of this UN GTR)
180. This test is to verify the performance of the protection measures of the REESS against
internal overheating during the operation, even under the failure or reduced operation of the
cooling function, if available. A failed cooling system can lead to higher REESS temperature
during the operation and may lead to thermal runaway of cells.

(l)
Management of Gases Emitted from REESS (Paragraph 5.4.11. and Annex 1 of this UN GTR)
185. Unusual conditions and/or abusive use (overcharge, short circuit, the presence of an
external heat source, etc.) can cause sudden increases in temperature of the cell. The
pressure generated, e.g. by the vaporization and decomposition of the electrolyte can then
lead to mechanical failures within the cell which could cause rupture of its outer casing. In
case of a pressure increase, the venting mechanism operates in order to prevent
uncontrolled bursting of the cell, which could be detrimental to the preservation of the
mechanical integrity of the battery, and therefore detrimental to the occupant. Accordingly,
the venting mechanism is an important safety feature widely implemented for automotive
batteries.
186. Venting, as defined in Paragraph 3.49. of this UN GTR, is the typical cause of emissions
from REESS and the phenomena are different between open-type traction batteries and all
other types of batteries. Cell venting may result in the release of gases and particulates from
the REESS, thereby potentially allowing occupant exposure to the emissions. In general, the
vehicle occupants should not be exposed to any hazardous environment caused by
emissions from REESS, but the hazard level and amount of such emissions are different
depending on the type of batteries and electrolytes.
187. Open-type traction battery means a type of battery requiring filling with liquid and generating
hydrogen gas that is released into the atmosphere. UN Regulation No.100 contains a
quantitative requirement for hydrogen emissions from open-type traction batteries and there
is sufficient experience among respective authorities and manufacturers for safe handling of
this type of batteries. Therefore, it is recommended to adopt the same test procedure for this
UN GTR as well.
188. Batteries other than open-type traction batteries using aqueous electrolyte, such as NiMH
battery or so-called "maintenance-free" lead-acid battery, may have a pressure adjust valve
which controls the internal pressure and will re-seal after the excess pressure is released.
The vented gases from such batteries contain hydrogen, but the amount of the emitted
gases is generally limited to small volume because of durability and reliability reasons.
Therefore, no hydrogen emission test is proposed for such batteries.
189. Batteries other than open-type traction batteries using non-aqueous electrolyte such as
lithium-ion battery, according to the current state of the art, have certain venting
mechanisms to preclude rupture or explosion. In general, the venting phenomena of
lithium-ion battery cells are separated in two cases: (a) associated with combustion and/or
decomposition of electrolyte, and (b) only caused by vaporisation of the electrolyte. In case
of condition (b), the amount of the gases is considered as less significant to pose additional
risk to the occupants. In case of condition (a), the emissions from the cells may increase the
risk to vehicle occupants if they are exposed to such substances.

194. Although the battery in REESS can pass current test standards, including
Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria,
Paragraph 38.3, UN Regulation No. 100, SAE-J2464, IEC-62133, GB/T-31485, thermal
runaway still occurs sporadically in practical operations due to, for example, internal short
circuit.
195. The internal short circuit of lithium ion battery has already been reported in field failures
(e.g. in consumer products). Requirements are needed to ensure that an internal short
failure occurring in an electric vehicle does not lead to significant risks for vehicle occupants.
However, no existing test standards can well simulate the thermal runaway triggered by
internal short circuit. The mechanism of internal short circuit is complex and requires years
of further study. However, it is certain that by rigorous control in the manufacturing as well
as improvements in cell design such as use of non-flammable electrolytes, ionic liquids,
heat resistant and puncture-proof separators, improved anode and cathode materials, the
possibility of spontaneous internal short circuit can be diminished.
196. Nevertheless a test is required to demonstrate that potential risks to vehicle occupants
associated with thermal propagation are appropriately minimized. Such a test needs to fulfil
the following conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The triggering of thermal runaway at single cell level must be repeatable, reproducible
and practicable;
The judgement of thermal runaway through common sensors, e.g. voltage and
temperature, needs to be practical, repeatable and reproducible;
The judgement of whether consequent thermal event involves severe thermal
propagation hazard needs to be unequivocal and evidence-based.
197. Acknowledging the safety risks associated with Thermal Propagation (TP), the working
group under the leadership of China, thoroughly considered extensive research performed
and generously shared by China and other parties. Recognising the rapid evolution of EV
technology, the practical experience gained in recent years and the increased expected
uptake of EVs, the working group concluded that coverage and comprehensive treatment of
TP is of crucial importance.
198. Notwithstanding the divergent opinions from different experts and the still dynamic situation
regarding research, the urgent need to agree a practical solution for Phase 1 which
guarantees an acceptable level of safety to occupants until a more robust solution is
developed in Phase 2, is recognised. It means a consistent test procedure will finally replace
the interim documentation requirement.
199. As the result of thermal propagation, the cell may emit gases which can exit from the
REESS. Regarding the risk of gases, the working group made the following observation in
EVS-12-07: "Assessment of potential safety risks of this requires more research to evaluate
whether limits for emissions are required, for which species and which technique can be
used to measure these. It was not possible to research and analyse this in Phase 1.
Therefore, it will be considered in Phase 2 of this Regulation."
200. Given the limitations surrounding development of a specific test to evaluate single cell
thermal runaway, it was decided to require the manufacturer to submit engineering
documentation to demonstrate the vehicle's ability to minimize the risk associated with
single cell thermal runaway.

(b)
Mechanical Integrity (Paragraphs 5.5.2.1.2. and 6.2.11. of this UN GTR)
207. The aim of this requirement is to verify the safety performance of the REESS under contact
loads which may occur during vehicle crash.
208. In order to enable the generic component testing/certification approach, a generic
component based integrity test for the REESS was developed.
209. The loads have been derived from REESS contact loads which have been observed on
vehicle crash tests according to UN Regulations Nos. 12, 94 and 95, using electric and
hybrid-electric vehicles which were available on the market. The REESS were installed in
various installation positions (see Figure 23).
210. The contact loads onto the REESS observed during the above tests and simulations did not
exceed 100kN (see Table 4).
Figure 23
Location of REESS
Table 4
Maximum Contact Load
Vehicle REESS position Maximum contact load
S 400 HYBRID
ML 450 HYBRID
Front
Rear Axle
B-Class F-CELL Rear Axle 100kN
A-Class E-CELL
Smart ED
Floor
Floor
211. Figure 24 shows, that the REESS in the investigated vehicles are not installed in the
extreme positions of the front or the rear of the vehicle. This is confirmed by vehicle
independent investigations (SAE 2011-01-0545 Analysis of Fuel Cell Vehicles Equipped
with Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems from a Road Accident Safety Perspective)
that show that, statistically, the highest rates of the deformation will be observed at the front
end and, at a smaller level, at the rear end of the vehicle (see Figure 24). Therefore, these
installation locations shall be excluded if the REESS is approved according to the generic
100kN integrity test according to Paragraph 6.2.11. of this UN GTR.

215. The static REESS load that shall be reached is therefore proposed as 100kN with a
maximum aberration of 5% to an upper threshold of 105kN. The hold time of the maximum
force shall be at least 100ms as an agreed duration of the crash pulse during vehicle crash
tests but shall not exceed 10s to avoid unrealistic severity. For the same reason, the onset
time for reaching the maximum contact load is limited to 3min. To allow the manufacturer
more flexibility and since it makes the conditions more severe, higher forces, longer onset
time and a longer hold time shall be allowed if requested by the manufacturer. The crush
plate from SAE J2464 is used to apply the contact load.
216. To enable the manufacturer of the REESS to achieve a certification at component level for
the REESS and considering that in numerous cases the contact load of the REESS during a
vehicle crash may be lower than the above required worst case 100kN.
217. The manufacturer may conduct the integrity test with a lower crush force than 100kN, but, in
this case, the vehicle manufacturer installing the REESS in the vehicle, shall provide
evidence, that, in the discussed vehicle application, the contact load on the REESS during
vehicle crash does not exceed the crush force applied for the certification test of the
REESS.
(c)
Rationale for Leakage Detection Technique
218. The vehicle user is expected to be able to continue vehicle operation after the in-use events
(e.g., vibration, thermal shock etc.). The "electrolyte leakage" can be a sign of internal
damage. In this case, stringent requirements should be applied, which is "no leakage". The
informal working group propose to use visual inspection for leakage detection, which is used
in the 02 series of amendments to UN Regulation No.100.
219. For post-crash events the user is expected to cease vehicle operation until certain
repair/maintenance is conducted. In this case, the requirement relevant to the accident
situation, in order to avoid additional risk to the occupants and the surrounding people,
should be applied. Here the main concern is the human contact with the corrosive/toxic
electrolyte and not the internal damage of the REESS. This is why most of the international
regulations, such as FMVSS 305, UN Regulations Nos.12, 94 and 95, limit the amount of
electrolyte leaked.
220. The main concern for the "aqueous electrolyte REESS" is the potential corrosive nature of
the electrolyte and hence during the post-crash situation any human contact (occupant as
well as the person surrounding the accident site) with the electrolyte should be avoided. As
significant amount of electrolyte is expected, the informal working group found that the
measurement techniques provided in the FMVSS 305 is best suited to measure the amount
of leaked aqueous electrolyte.
221. The amount of leakage for "non-aqueous electrolyte REESS" is expected to be lower than in
the case of 'aqueous electrolyte REESS'. This quantity, particularly if small, may not be
easily measurable with existing techniques (EVSTF-04-13e). The 'non-aqueous electrolytes'
are potentially toxic, irritant or harmful in addition to being flammable. This UN GTR requires
that there should not be any visible leakage outside the vehicle. This will ensure no contact
between the electrolyte and the people surrounding the crash site. In addition, there shall be
no leakage inside the passenger compartment in order to avoid contact with occupant. This
will be verified by visual inspection and this method is in line with existing regulations such
as UN Regulations Nos. 12, 94, 95 and FMVSS 305.

227. During the informal working group discussion, and based on analysis and data provided by
JRC, a potential risk related to the release and evaporation of non-aqueous electrolyte and
the potential formation of a toxic atmosphere was discussed (EVSTF-04-13e,
EVS-07-24e). As of now, and although the topic is mentioned in various standards,
(UL 2580, SAE J2464, SAE J2289, SAE J2990, ISO 6469) some of which even recommend
gas/analytical detection techniques, there is no clear measurement procedure suitable for all
scenarios (component/vehicle level, in-use/post-crash). Even with consideration of the huge
amount of electric and hybrid vehicles that are already on the street in Asia, North America
and Europe, incidents of evaporation especially during in-use are not yet documented.
Nevertheless, more field or research data is required to define an analytical technique
suitable for detecting on evaporated species from leaked electrolyte. Based on the outcome
of this research, modifications to the requirements and methods with respect to leakage and
evaporation of non-aqueous electrolyte may be necessary in the future.
10. Rationale for Heavy Duty Vehicles' Requirements
228. REESS comprising, multiple battery pack solutions are rather common in heavy vehicle
applications. For these cases, compliance testing on battery pack level is admissible if the
battery pack is a well-defined entity with some level of BMS control.
229. In this Regulations, safety requirements for heavy duty vehicles cover general electrical
safety for vehicle, vehicle specific functional safety, REESS safety in-use and inertial load
on REESS.
230. For most part, the tests and requirements for heavy vehicles are the same as for passenger
vehicles. The following paragraphs will address modifications and/or deviations that are
specific to and motivated by heavy vehicle applications.
(a)
Electrical Safety for Vehicle
231. The fundamentals for protecting against an electrical shock and the technical justification for
the requirements are the same for both light vehicles and heavy duty vehicles (see
Paragraphs 41 – 53 above).
232. The risk for direct contact depends on the location of the charging interface on the vehicle.
Charging interfaces, located out of reach are exempted from the requirements of direct
contact for all heavy duty vehicles. Anthropometric data has been used to calculate
appropriate distances for Category 1-2 vehicles with roof mounted charging devices to
safe-guard vehicle occupants. Calculation of wrap around distance for roof mounted
charging devices for Category 2 vehicles will be considered in UN GTR Phase 2 since these
operate on different principles and the technology is less mature. Until this time, Category 2
vehicles which are professionally operated are exempted. Out of reach conditions for live
parts located underneath for all heavy duty vehicles will be investigated in UN GTR
Phase 2.
233. Overcurrent protection will be considered in UN GTR Phase 2 for heavy vehicles due to time
constraints. The current test proposal is vehicle based and was deemed inappropriate for
heavy vehicles as it is unclear how to apply on vehicles that have different charging
technologies. More discussion is needed in Phase 2 to address different charging
methodologies.

(e)
(f)
(g)
flammability, toxicity and corrosiveness of vented gas (e.g. quantification of venting
for tests addressing safety of REESS post-crash, potential risk of 'toxic gases' from
non-aqueous electrolyte);
thermal propagation and methods of initiation in battery system;
post-crash REESS safety assessment and stabilization procedures;
(h) light electric vehicles (e.g. Categories L and L );
(i)
protection during AC and DC charging and feeding process.
2. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
241. Current UN GTR No.13, global technical regulation on hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles, also
includes electrical safety requirements. The informal working group thoroughly reviewed,
discussed and agreed the technical requirements for protection against electric shock
applicable for any kinds of electric powertrain foreseeable today including those of fuel cell
electric vehicles. In order to avoid any inconsistencies between the two UN GTRs, the
informal working group recommends WP.29 to revise UN GTR No. 13 by removing the
requirements on electrical safety with reference to this UN GTR. It is also recommended
that any Contracting Party that intends to implement UN GTR No. 13 into their national
legislation before the amendment recommended above, should use the technical
requirements of this Regulation with respect to the electrical safety rather than those
currently in UN GTR No. 13.
3. Confidentiality of Information
242. As described in Section E above, this UN GTR includes specific requirements for
manufacturer to provide technical documentations that address specific aspects, such as
REESS warnings (Paragraphs 5.3.2., 5.3.3., 7.2.2. and 7.2.3.), low-temperature protection
(Paragraphs 5.4.10. and 7.3.10.) and thermal propagation (Paragraphs 5.4.12. and 7.3.12.).
In order to describe the required aspects sufficiently, such documentation will include
manufacturer's confidential and proprietary information, where it is indispensable to protect
the intellectual properties therein. Accordingly, 1998 Ag. Cps. implementing this Regulation
should take necessary measures to protect such intellectual properties by allowing
confidential treatment of the documentation if requested by the manufacturer.










China – GB/T 18384.2:2015 – Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Safety
Specifications – Part 2: Vehicle Operational Safety Means and Protection against
Failures
China – GB/T 18384.3:2015 – Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Safety
Specifications – Part 3 Protection of Persons against Electric Shock
China – GB/T 31498:2015 – The Safety Requirement of Electric Vehicle Post Crash
China – GB/T 24549:2009 – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles – Safety Requirements
Canada – CMVSS 305 – Electric Powered Vehicles: Electrolyte Spillage and
Electrical Shock Protection
Republic of Korea – Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Article 18-2 – High Voltage
System, Test Procedure Table 1 – Part 47. Safety Test for High Voltage System
Republic of Korea – Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Article 18-3 – Rechargeable
Energy Storage System (REESS), Test Procedure Table 1 – Part 48. Safety Test for
REESS
Republic of Korea – Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Article 91-4 – High Voltage
System in Crash Test, Test Procedure Table 1 – Part 47. Safety Test for High Voltage
System
Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and
Criteria, Paragraph 38.3 (LITHIUM METAL AND LITHIUM ION BATTERIES)
244. List of relevant standards for Electric Vehicle Safety:






ISO 6469-1:2009 Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Safety Specifications – Part
1: On-board Rechargeable Energy Storage System (remark: Standard is under
review to incorporate the requirements from ISO12405-3 to apply all types of REESS)
ISO 6469-2:2009 Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Safety Specifications – Part
2: Vehicle Operational Safety Means and Protection against Failures
ISO 6469-3:2011 Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Safety Specifications – Part
3: Protection of Persons against Electric Shock
ISO 6469-4:2015 Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Safety Specifications – Part
4: Post Crash Electrical Safety
ISO 17409:2015 Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Connection to an External
Electric Power Supply – Safety Requirements
ISO/TR 8713: 2012 Electrically propelled road vehicles – Vocabulary
● ISO/IEC 15118-1:2013 Road Vehicles – Vehicle to Grid Communication Interface –
Part 1: General Information and Use-case Definition
● ISO/IEC 15118-2:2014 Road Vehicles – Vehicle to grid Communication Interface –
Part 2: Network and Application Protocol Requirements


IEC 61851-24:2014 Electric Vehicles Conductive Charging System – Part 24: Digital
Communication Between a DC EV Charging Station and an Electric Vehicle for
Control of DC Charging
● IEC 62196-1:2014 Plugs, Socket-outlets, Vehicle Connectors and Vehicle Inlets –
Conductive Charging of Electric Vehicles – Part 1: General Requirements
● IEC 62196-2:2011 Plugs, Socket-outlets, Vehicle Connectors and Vehicle Inlets –
Conductive Charging of Electric Vehicles – Part 2: Dimensional Compatibility and
Interchangeability Requirements for AC Pin and Contact-tube Accessories












IEC 62196-3:2014 Plugs, Socket-outlets, and Vehicle Couplers – Conductive
Charging of Electric Vehicles – Part 3: Dimensional Compatibility and
Interchangeability Requirements for Dedicated DC and Combined AC/DC. Pin and
Contact-tube Vehicle Couplers
IEC 62660-2:2010 Secondary Lithium-ion Cells for the Propulsion of Electric Road
Vehicles – Part 2: Reliability and Abuse Testing
IEC 62660-3:2016 Secondary Lithium-ion Cells for the Propulsion of Electric Road
Vehicles – Part 3: Safety Requirements of Cells and Modules
IEC 62752:2016 In-cable Control and Protection Device for Mode 2 Charging of
Electric Road Vehicles (IC-CPD)
SAE J1766:2014 Recommended Practice for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Battery Systems Crash Integrity Testing
SAE J1772:2016 Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive
Charge Coupler
SAE J2578:2014 Recommended Practice for General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety
SAE J2929:2013 Safety Standard for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery
Systems Utilizing Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells
SAE J2464:2009 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage
System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing
SAE J2344:2010 Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Safety
SAE J2380:2009 Vibration Testing of Electric Vehicle Batteries
UL 2580:2013 Batteries for Use in Electric Vehicles
H. BENEFITS AND COSTS
245. At this time, the UN GTR does not attempt to quantify costs and benefits for Phase 1. While
the goal of the UN GTR is to enable increased market penetration of EV, the resulting rates
and degrees of penetration are currently insignificant and may vary substantially from one
Contracting Party to another and from one year to another. Therefore, a quantitative
cost-benefit analysis would not be meaningful.

(b)
For vehicles of Category 1-2 and Category 2 with GVM exceeding
3,500kg , the requirements of Paragraphs 7 and 8 shall apply in
accordance with the general requirements specified in Paragraph 4.
2.3. Contracting Parties may exclude the following vehicles from the application of this
Regulation:
(a)
(b)
A vehicle with four or more wheels whose unladen mass is not more than
350kg, not including the mass of traction batteries, whose maximum design
speed is not more than 45km/h, and whose engine cylinder capacity and
maximum continuous rated power in the case of hybrid electric vehicles do
not exceed 50cm for spark (positive) ignition engines and 4kW for electric
motors respectively; or whose maximum continuous rated power in the case
of battery electric vehicles does not exceed 4kW; and
A vehicle with four or more wheels, other than that classified under (a)
above, whose unladen mass is not more than 450kg (or 650kg for vehicles
intended for carrying goods), not including the mass of traction batteries and
whose maximum continuous rated power does not exceed 15kW.
3. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Regulation, the following definitions apply:
3.1. "Active driving possible mode" means the vehicle mode when application of
pressure to the accelerator pedal (or activation of an equivalent control) or release
of the brake system will cause the electric power train to move the vehicle.
3.2. "Aqueous electrolyte" means an electrolyte based on water solvent for the
compounds (e.g. acids, bases) providing conducting ions after its dissociation.
3.3. "Automatic disconnect" means a device that when triggered, conductively
separates the electric energy sources from the rest of the high voltage circuit of
the electric power train.
3.4. "Breakout harness" means connector wires that are connected for testing
purposes to the REESS on the traction side of the automatic disconnect.
3.5. "Cell" means a single encased electrochemical unit containing one positive and
one negative terminal, which exhibits a voltage differential across its two terminals
and used as rechargeable energy storage device.
3.6. "Conductive connection" means the connection using connectors to an external
power supply when the rechargeable energy storage system (REESS) is charged.
3.7. "Connector" means the device providing mechanical connection and
disconnection of high voltage electrical conductors to a suitable mating component
including its housing

3.23. "Flammable electrolyte" means an electrolyte that contains substances
classified as Class 3 "flammable liquid" under "UN Recommendations on the
Transport of Dangerous Goods – Model Regulations (Revision 17 from June
2011), Volume I, Chapter 2.3"
3.24. "High voltage" means the classification of an electric component or circuit, if its
working voltage is >6V and ≤1,500Vdc or >30V and ≤1,000Vac root mean square
(rms).
3.25. "High voltage bus" means the electrical circuit, including the coupling system for
charging the REESS, that operates on high voltage. Where electrical circuits, that
are galvanically connected to each other and fulfilling the specific voltage
condition, only the components or parts of the electric circuit that operate on high
voltage are classified as a high voltage bus.
3.26. "Indirect contact" means the contact of persons with exposed conductive parts.
3.27. "Live parts" means conductive part(s) intended to be electrically energized under
normal operating conditions.
3.28. "Luggage compartment" means the space in the vehicle for luggage
accommodation, bounded by the roof, hood, floor, side walls, as well as by the
barrier and enclosure provided for protecting the occupants from direct contact
with high voltage live parts, being separated from the passenger compartment by
the front bulkhead or the rear bulk head.
3.29. "Manufacturer" means the person or body who is responsible to the approval
authority for all aspects of the approval process and for ensuring conformity of
production. It is not essential that the person or body is directly involved in all
stages of the construction of the vehicle or component which is the subject of the
approval process.
3.30. "Non-aqueous electrolyte" means an electrolyte not based on water as the
solvent.
3.31. "Normal operating conditions" includes operating modes and conditions that
can reasonably be encountered during typical operation of the vehicle including
driving at legally posted speeds, parking and standing in traffic, as well as,
charging using chargers that are compatible with the specific charging ports
installed on the vehicle. It does not include, conditions where the vehicle is
damaged, either by a crash, road debris or vandalization, subjected to fire or water
submersion, or in a state where service and or maintenance is needed or being
performed.
3.32. "On-board isolation resistance monitoring system" means the device which
monitors the isolation resistance between the high voltage buses and the electrical
chassis.
3.33. "Open-type traction battery" means a type of battery requiring filling with liquid
and generating hydrogen gas that is released into the atmosphere.

3.45. "Thermal event" means the condition when the temperature within the REESS is
significantly higher (as defined by the manufacturer) than the maximum operating
temperature.
3.46. "Thermal runaway" means an uncontrolled increase of cell temperature caused
by exothermic reactions inside the cell.
3.47. "Thermal propagation" means the sequential occurrence of thermal runaway
within a battery system triggered by thermal runaway of a cell in that battery
system.
3.48. "Vehicle connector" means the device which is inserted into the vehicle inlet to
supply electric energy to the vehicle from an external electric power supply.
3.49. "Vehicle inlet" means the device on the externally chargeable vehicle into which
the vehicle connector is inserted for the purpose of transferring electric energy
from an external electric power supply.
3.50. "Venting" means the release of excessive internal pressure from cell or battery in
a manner intended by design to preclude rupture or explosion.
3.51. "Working voltage" means the highest value of an electrical circuit voltage
root-mean-square (rms), specified by the manufacturer, which may occur between
any conductive parts in open circuit conditions or under normal operating
condition. If the electrical circuit is divided by galvanic isolation, the working
voltage is defined for each divided circuit, respectively.
4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1. The vehicles prescribed in Paragraph 2.2.(a) shall meet the requirements of
Paragraphs 5.1. and 5.2. using the test conditions and procedures in
Paragraph 6.1.
4.2. The REESS for the vehicles prescribed in Paragraph 2.2.(a), regardless of its
nominal voltage or working voltage, shall meet the requirements of
Paragraphs 5.4. and 5.5. using the test conditions and procedures in
Paragraph 6.2. The REESS shall be installed on the vehicles that meet the
requirement of Paragraph 5.3.
4.3. The vehicles prescribed in Paragraph 2.2.(b) shall meet the requirements of
Paragraphs 7.1. using the test conditions and procedures in Paragraph 8.1.
4.4. The REESS for the vehicles prescribed in Paragraph 2.2.(b), regardless of its
nominal voltage or working voltage, shall meet the requirements of Paragraphs
7.3. and 7.4. using the test conditions and procedures in Paragraph 8.2. The
REESS shall be installed on the vehicles that meet the requirement of
Paragraph 7.2.
4.5. Each Contracting Party under the UN 1998 Agreement may maintain its existing
national crash tests (e.g. frontal, side, rear, or rollover) and shall use the
provisions of Paragraph 5.2. for compliance.

Figure 1
Marking of High Voltage Equipment
5.1.1.1.4.2. The symbol shall be visible on enclosures and electrical protection barriers, which,
when removed, expose live parts of high voltage circuits. This provision is optional
to any connectors for high voltage buses. This provision shall not apply to the case
where electrical protection barriers or enclosures cannot be physically accessed,
opened, or removed; unless other vehicle components are removed with the use
of tools.
5.1.1.1.4.3. Cables for high voltage buses which are not located within enclosures shall be
identified by having an outer covering with the colour orange.
5.1.1.2. Protection against Indirect Contact
5.1.1.2.1. For protection against electric shock which could arise from indirect contact, the
exposed conductive parts, such as the conductive electrical protection barrier and
enclosure, shall be conductively connected and secured to the electrical chassis
with electrical wire or ground cable, by welding, or by connection using bolts, etc.
so that no dangerous potentials are produced.
5.1.1.2.2. The resistance between all exposed conductive parts and the electrical chassis
shall be lower than 0.1Ω when there is current flow of at least 0.2A.
The resistance between any two simultaneously reachable exposed conductive
parts of the electrical protection barriers that are less than 2.5m from each other
shall not exceed 0.2Ω. This resistance may be calculated using the separately
measured resistances of the relevant parts of electric path.
This requirement is satisfied if the connection has been established by welding. In
case of doubts or the connection is established by other means than welding, a
measurement shall be made by using one of the test procedures described in
Paragraph 6.1.4.
5.1.1.2.3. In the case of motor vehicles which are intended to be connected to the grounded
external electric power supply through the conductive connection, a device to
enable the conductive connection of the electrical chassis to the earth ground for
the external electric power supply shall be provided.
The device shall enable connection to the earth ground before exterior voltage is
applied to the vehicle and retain the connection until after the exterior voltage is
removed from the vehicle.

5.1.1.2.4.4. Isolation resistance requirement for the coupling system for charging the REESS
For the vehicle inlet intended to be conductively connected to the external AC
electric power supply and the electrical circuit that is conductively connected to the
vehicle inlet during charging the REESS, the isolation resistance between the high
voltage bus and the electrical chassis shall comply with the requirements of
Paragraph 5.1.1.2.4.1. when the vehicle connector is disconnected and the
isolation resistance is measured at the high voltage live parts (contacts) of the
vehicle inlet. During the measurement, the REESS may be disconnected.
The measurement shall be conducted according to Paragraph 6.1.1.
5.1.1.3. Protection against Water Effects
The vehicles shall maintain isolation resistance after exposure to water
(e.g. washing, driving through standing water). This paragraph shall not apply to
electrical circuits that are galvanically connected to each other, where the DC part
of these circuits is connected to the electrical chassis and the specific voltage
condition is fulfilled.
5.1.1.3.1. The vehicle manufacturer can choose to comply with requirements specified in
Paragraph 5.1.1.3.2. or those specified in Paragraph 5.1.1.3.3.
5.1.1.3.2. The vehicle manufacturers shall provide evidence and/or documentation to the
regulatory or testing entity as applicable on how the electrical design or the
components of the vehicle located outside the passenger compartment or
externally attached, after water exposure remain safe and comply with the
requirements described in Annex 2. If the evidence and/or documentation
provided is not satisfactory the regulatory or testing entity as applicable shall
require the manufacturer to perform a physical component test based on the same
specifications as those described in Annex 2.
5.1.1.3.3. If the test procedures specified in Paragraph 6.1.5. are performed, just after each
exposure, and with the vehicle still wet, the vehicle shall then comply with isolation
resistance test given in Paragraph 6.1.1., and the isolation resistance
requirements given in Paragraph 5.1.1.2.4. shall be met. In addition, after a 24hr
pause, the isolation resistance test specified in Paragraph 6.1.1. shall again be
performed, and the isolation resistance requirements given in Paragraph 5.1.1.2.4.
shall be met.
5.1.1.3.4. Each Contracting Party may elect to adopt the following requirement as an
alternative to the requirements in Paragraph 5.1.1.3.1.
If an isolation resistance monitoring system is provided, and the isolation
resistance less than the requirements given in Paragraph 5.1.1.2.4. is detected, a
warning shall be indicated to the driver. The function of the on-board isolation
resistance monitoring system shall be confirmed as described in Paragraph 6.1.2.

5.2.2.1. Absence of High Voltage
The voltages V , V and V of the high voltage buses shall be equal or less than
30Vac (rms) or 60Vdc within 60s after the impact when measured in accordance
with Paragraph 6.1.6.2.2.
5.2.2.2. Low Electrical Energy
The Total Energy (TE) of unidirectional single impulse currents in the form of
rectangular and sinusoidal impulses or capacitor discharges from high voltage
electrical components shall be less than 0.2J when measured and calculated in
accordance with Formula (a) of Paragraph 6.1.6.2.3.
Alternatively, the TE may be calculated by the measured voltage V of the high
voltage bus and the capacitance of the X-capacitors (Cx) specified by the
manufacturer according to Formula (b) of Paragraph 6.1.6.2.3.
The energy stored in the Y-capacitors (TE , TE ) shall also be less than 0.2J.
This shall be calculated by measuring the voltages V and V of the high voltage
buses and the electrical chassis, and the capacitance of the Y-capacitors specified
by the manufacturer according to Formula (c) of Paragraph 6.1.6.2.3.
5.2.2.3. Physical Protection
For protection against direct contact with high voltage live parts, the protection
degree IPXXB shall be provided.
The assessment shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 6.1.6.2.4.
In addition, for protection against electric shock which could arise from indirect
contact, the resistance between all exposed conductive parts of electrical
protection barriers/enclosures and electrical chassis shall be lower than 0.1Ω and
the resistance between any two simultaneously reachable exposed conductive
parts of electrical protection barriers/enclosures that are less than 2.5m from each
other shall be less than 0.2Ω when there is current flow of at least 0.2A.
These requirements are satisfied if the connection has been established by
welding. In case of doubt or the connection is established by mean other than
welding, measurements shall be made by using one of the test procedures
described in Paragraph 6.1.4.
Each Contracting Party under the UN 1998 Agreement may additionally apply the
following requirement:
The voltage between all exposed conductive parts of electrical protection
barriers/enclosures and electrical chassis and the voltage between any two
simultaneously reachable exposed conductive parts of electrical protection
barriers/enclosures that are less than 2.5m from each other shall be less than or
equal to 30Vac (rms) or 60Vdc as measured in accordance with
Paragraph 6.1.6.2.4.1.

5.3.2. Warning in the event of operational failure of vehicle controls that manage REESS
safe operation.
The vehicle shall provide a warning to the driver when the vehicle is in active
driving possible mode in the event of operational failure of the vehicle controls that
manage the safe operation of the REESS. Vehicle manufacturers shall make
available, at the request of the regulatory or testing entity as applicable with its
necessity, the following documentation explaining safety performance of the
system level or sub-system level of the vehicle:
5.3.2.1. A system diagram that identifies all the vehicle controls that manage REESS
operations. The diagram must identify what components are used to generate a
warning due to operational failure of vehicle controls to conduct one or more basic
operations.
5.3.2.2. A written explanation describing the basic operation of the vehicle controls that
manage REESS operation. The explanation must identify the components of the
vehicle control system, provide description of their functions and capability to
manage the REESS, and provide a logic diagram and description of conditions
that would lead to triggering of the warning.
In case of optical warning, the tell-tale shall, when illuminated, be sufficiently bright
to be visible to the driver under both daylight and night-time driving conditions,
when the driver has adapted to the ambient roadway light conditions.
This tell-tale shall be activated as a check of lamp function either when the
propulsion system is turned to the "On" position, or when the propulsion system is
in a position between "On" and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a
check position. This requirement does not apply to the tell-tale or text shown in a
common space.
5.3.3. Warning in the Case of a Thermal Event within the REESS
The vehicle shall provide a warning to the driver in the case of a thermal event in
the REESS (as specified by the manufacturer) when the vehicle is in active driving
possible mode. Vehicle manufacturers shall make available, at the request of the
regulatory or testing entity as applicable with its necessity, the following
documentation explaining safety performance of the system level or sub-system
level of the vehicle:
5.3.3.1. The parameters and associated threshold levels that are used to indicate a
thermal event (e.g. temperature, temperature rise rate, SOC level, voltage drop,
electrical current, etc.) to trigger the warning.
5.3.3.2. A system diagram and written explanation describing the sensors and operation of
the vehicle controls to manage the REESS in the event of a thermal event.
In case of optical warning, the tell-tale shall, when illuminated, be sufficiently bright
to be visible to the driver under both daylight and night-time driving conditions,
when the driver has adapted to the ambient roadway light conditions.

The evidence of electrolyte leakage shall be verified by visual inspection without
disassembling any part of the tested-device. An appropriate technique shall, if
necessary, be used in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the
REESS resulting from the test. The evidence of venting shall be verified by visual
inspection without disassembling any part of the tested-device.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 6.1.1. shall not be less than 100Ω/V.
5.4.4. Fire Resistance
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.4.
This test is required for REESS containing flammable electrolyte.
This test is not required when the REESS as installed in the vehicle, is mounted
such that the lowest surface of the casing of the REESS is more than 1.5m above
the ground. At the choice of the manufacturer, this test may be performed where
the lower surface of the REESS's is higher than 1.5m above the ground. The test
shall be carried out on one test sample.
During the test, the tested-device shall exhibit no evidence of explosion.
5.4.5. External Short Circuit Protection
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.5.
During the test there shall be no evidence of; electrolyte leakage, rupture
(applicable to high voltage REESS only), venting (for REESS other than open-type
traction battery), fire or explosion.
The evidence of electrolyte leakage shall be verified by visual inspection without
disassembling any part of the tested-device. An appropriate technique shall, if
necessary, be used in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the
REESS resulting from the test. The evidence of venting shall be verified by visual
inspection without disassembling any part of the Tested Device.
The short circuit protection control of the REESS shall terminate the short circuit
current, or the temperature measured on the casing of the tested-device or the
REESS shall be stabilized, such that the temperature gradient varies by less than
4°C through 2h after introducing the short circuit.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 6.1.1. shall not be less than 100Ω/V.
5.4.6. Overcharge Protection
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.6.
During the test there shall be no evidence of electrolyte leakage, rupture
(applicable to high voltage REESS only), venting (for REESS other than open-type
traction battery), fire or explosion.

The overcurrent protection control of the REESS shall terminate charging or the
temperature measured on the casing of the REESS shall be stabilized, such that
the temperature gradient varies by less than 4°C through 2h after the maximum
overcurrent charging level is reached.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 6.1.1. shall not be less than 100Ω/V.
5.4.10. Low-temperature Protection
Vehicle manufacturers must make available, at the request of the regulatory or
testing entity as applicable with its necessity, the following documentations
explaining safety performance of the system level or sub-system level of the
vehicle to demonstrate that the vehicle monitors and appropriately controls
REESS operations at low temperatures at the safety boundary limits of the
REESS:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A system diagram;
Written explanation on the lower boundary temperature for safe operation of
REESS;
Method of detecting REESS temperature;
Action taken when the REESS temperature is at or lower than the lower
boundary for safe operation of the REESS.
5.4.11. Management of Gases Emitted from REESS
5.4.11.1. Under vehicle operation including the operation with a failure, the vehicle
occupants shall not be exposed to any hazardous environment caused by
emissions from REESS.
5.4.11.2. For the open-type traction battery, requirement of Paragraph 5.4.11.1. shall be
verified by following test procedure.
5.4.11.2.1. The test shall be conducted following the method described in Annex 1 of this
Regulation. The hydrogen sampling and analysis shall be the ones prescribed.
Other analysis methods can be approved if it is proven that they give equivalent
results.
5.4.11.2.2. During a normal charge procedure in the conditions given in Annex 1, hydrogen
emissions shall be below 125g during 5h, or below 25 × t g during t (in h) where t
is the time of overcharging at constant current.
5.4.11.2.3. During a charge carried out by a charger presenting a failure (conditions given in
Annex 1), hydrogen emissions shall be below 42g. Furthermore, the charger shall
limit this possible failure to 30min.
5.4.11.3. For REESS other than open-type traction battery, the requirement of
Paragraph 5.4.11.1. is deemed to be satisfied, if all requirements of the following
tests are met: Para. 6.2.2. (vibration), Para. 6.2.3. (thermal shock and cycling),
Para. 6.2.5. (external short circuit protection), Para. 6.2.6. (overcharge protection),
Para. 6.2.7. (over-discharge protection), Para. 6.2.8. (over-temperature protection)
and Para. 6.2.9. (overcurrent protection).

5.4.12.2.4. For each identified risk mitigation function or characteristic:
5.4.12.2.4.1. A description of its operation strategy;
5.4.12.2.4.2. Identification of the physical system or component which implements the function;
5.4.12.2.4.3. One or more of the following engineering documents relevant to the manufacturers
design which demonstrates the effectiveness of the risk mitigation function:
(a)
(b)
Tests performed including procedure used and conditions and resulting
data;
Analysis or validated simulation methodology and resulting data.
5.5. Requirements with Regard to the Safety of REESS – Post-crash
If any vehicle crash test under this Regulation is conducted, the requirements of
Paragraphs 5.5.1.1. to 5.5.1.3. shall be satisfied.
These requirements can be met by a separate crash test from that for the
evaluation of occupant protection performance under the relevant crash
regulations. This is only possible, if the electrical components do not influence the
occupant protection performance.
However, if the REESS satisfies the requirements of Paragraph 5.5.2., the
requirements of this paragraph are considered as satisfied for the respective
direction of the crash test.
5.5.1. Vehicle Based Test
5.5.1.1. Electrolyte Leakage
5.5.1.1.1. In case of aqueous electrolyte REESS
For a period from the impact until 60min after the impact, there shall be no
electrolyte leakage from the REESS into the passenger compartment and no more
than 7% by volume of the REESS electrolyte with a maximum of 5.0l leaked from
the REESS to the outside of the passenger compartment. The leaked amount of
electrolyte can be measured by usual techniques of determination of liquid
volumes after its collection. For containers containing Stoddard, coloured coolant
and electrolyte, the fluids shall be allowed to separate by specific gravity then
measured.
5.5.1.1.2. In case of non-aqueous electrolyte REESS
For a period from the impact until 60min after the impact, there shall be no liquid
electrolyte leakage from the REESS into the passenger compartment, luggage
compartment and no liquid electrolyte leakage to outside the vehicle. This
requirement shall be verified by visual inspection without disassembling any part
of the vehicle.

5.5.2.1.2. Mechanical Integrity
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.11.
The REESS certified according to this paragraph shall be mounted in a position
which is between the two planes;
(a)
(b)
A vertical plane perpendicular to the centre line of the vehicle located
420mm rearward from the front edge of the vehicle, and
A vertical plane perpendicular to the centre line of the vehicle located
300mm forward from the rear edge of the vehicle.
The crush force specified in Paragraph 6.2.11.3.2.1. may be replaced with the
value declared by the manufacturer, where the crush force shall be documented in
the relevant administration document as a mounting restriction, which shall also be
referred to in compliance assessments for the vehicle. In this case, the vehicle
manufacture who uses such REESS shall demonstrate that the contact force to
the REESS will not exceed the figure declared by the REESS manufacturer. Such
force shall be determined by the vehicle manufacturer using test data obtained
from either actual or simulated crash tests as specified in the applicable crash
regulations in relevant impact directions.
Manufacturers may use forces derived from data obtained from alternative crash
test procedures, but these forces shall be equal to or greater than the forces that
would result from using data in accordance with the applicable crash regulations.
During the test, there shall be no evidence of electrolyte leakage, fire or explosion.
The evidence of electrolyte leakage shall be verified by visual inspection without
disassembling any part of the tested-device. An appropriate technique shall, if
necessary, used in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the
REESS resulting from the test.
An appropriate coating, if necessary, may be applied to the physical protection
(casing) in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the REESS
resulting from the test. Unless the manufacturer provides a means to differentiate
between the leakage of different liquids, all liquid leakage shall be considered as
the electrolyte.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance of the tested-device shall
ensure at least 100Ω/V for the whole REESS measured in accordance with
Paragraph 6.1.1., or the protection IPXXB shall be fulfilled for the tested-device
when assessed in accordance with Paragraph 6.1.6.2.4.

6.1.1.2.1. Measurement Method using DC Voltage from External Sources
6.1.1.2.1.1. Measurement Instrument
An isolation resistance test instrument capable of applying a DC voltage higher
than the working voltage of the high voltage bus shall be used.
6.1.1.2.1.2. Measurement Method
An isolation resistance test instrument is connected between the live parts and the
electrical chassis. The isolation resistance is subsequently measured by applying
a DC voltage at least half of the working voltage of the high voltage bus.
If the system has several voltage ranges (e.g. because of boost converter) in
conductively connected circuit and some of the components cannot withstand the
working voltage of the entire circuit, the isolation resistance between those
components and the electrical chassis can be measured separately by applying at
least half of their own working voltage with those components disconnected.
6.1.1.2.2. Measurement Method using the Vehicle's own REESS as DC Voltage Source
6.1.1.2.2.1. Test Vehicle Conditions
The high voltage-bus is energized by the vehicle's own REESS and/or energy
conversion system and the voltage level of the REESS and/or energy conversion
system throughout the test shall be at least the nominal operating voltage as
specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
6.1.1.2.2.2. Measurement Instrument
The voltmeter used in this test shall measure DC values and have an internal
resistance of at least 10MΩ.
6.1.1.2.2.3. Measurement Method
6.1.1.2.2.3.1. First Step
The voltage is measured as shown in Figure 2 and the high voltage bus voltage
(V ) is recorded. V shall be equal to or greater than the nominal operating voltage
of the REESS and/or energy conversion system as specified by the vehicle
manufacturer.

Figure 3
Measurement of V '
If V is greater than V , a standard known resistance (Ro) is inserted between the
positive side of the high voltage bus and the electrical chassis. with Ro installed,
the voltage (V ') between the positive side of the high voltage bus and the
electrical chassis is measured. (See Figure 4). The electrical isolation (Ri) is
calculated according to the formula shown below. This electrical isolation value
(in Ω) is divided by the nominal operating voltage of the high voltage bus (in V).
The electrical isolation (Ri) is calculated according to the following formula:
Ri = Ro*(V /V ' – V /V ) or Ri = Ro*V *(1/V ' – 1/V )

(b)
If the minimum isolation resistance value required in accordance with
Paragraphs 5.1.1.2.4.1. or 5.1.1.2.4.2. is 100Ω/V, insert a resistor with
resistance Ro between the positive terminal of the electric power train and
the electrical chassis. The magnitude of the resistor, Ro, shall be such that:
1/(1/(95×V) – 1/Ri) ≤ Ro < 1/(1/(100×V) – 1/Ri)
where V is the working voltage of the electric power train.
(c)
If the minimum isolation resistance value required in accordance with
Paragraphs 5.1.1.2.4.1. or 5.1.1.2.4.2. is 500Ω/V, insert a resistor with
resistance Ro between the positive terminal of the electric power train and
the electrical chassis. The magnitude of the resistor, Ro, shall be such that:
1/(1/(475×V) – 1/Ri) ≤ Ro < 1/(1/(500×V) – 1/Ri)
where V is the working voltage of the electric power train.
6.1.3. Protection against Direct Contact to Live Parts
6.1.3.1. Access Probes
Access probes to verify the protection of persons against access to live parts are
given in Table 1.
6.1.3.2. Test Conditions
The access probe is pushed against any openings of the enclosure with the force
specified in Table 1. If it partly or fully penetrates, it is placed in every possible
position, but in no case shall the stop face fully penetrate through the opening.
Internal electrical protection barriers are considered part of the enclosure.
A low-voltage supply (of not less than 40V and not more than 50V) in series with a
suitable lamp is connected, if necessary, between the probe and live parts inside
the electrical protection barrier or enclosure.
The signal-circuit method is also applied to the moving live parts of high voltage
equipment.
Internal moving parts may be operated slowly, where this is possible.
6.1.3.3. Acceptance Conditions
The access probe shall not touch live parts.
If this requirement is verified by a signal circuit between the probe and live parts,
the lamp shall not light.
In the case of the test for protection degree IPXXB, the jointed test finger may
penetrate to its 80mm length, but the stop face (diameter 50mm × 20mm) shall not
pass through the opening. Starting from the straight position, both joints of the test
finger are successively bent through an angle of up to 90° with respect to the axis
of the adjoining section of the finger and are placed in every possible position.

Figure 5
Jointed Test Finger
Material: metal, except where otherwise specified
Linear dimensions in mm.
Tolerances on dimensions without specific tolerance:
(a)
(b)
on angles: 0/10s;
on linear dimensions:
(i) up to 25mm: 0/-0.05;
(ii) over 25mm: ±0.2.
Both joints shall permit movement in the same plane and the same direction through an angle
of 90° with a 0 to +10° tolerance.

6.1.5. Test Procedure for Protection against Water Effects
6.1.5.1. Washing
This test is intended to simulate the normal washing of vehicles, but not specific
cleaning using high water pressure or underbody washing.
The areas of the vehicle regarding this test are border lines, i.e. a seal of two parts
such as flaps, glass seals, outline of opening parts, outline of front grille and seals
of lamps.
All border lines shall be exposed and followed in all directions with the water
stream using a hose nozzle and conditions in accordance with IPX5 as specified in
Annex 2.
6.1.5.2. Driving through Standing Water
The vehicle shall be driven in a wade pool, with 10cm water depth, over a distance
of 500m at a speed of 20km/h, in a time of approximately 1.5min. If the wade pool
used is less than 500m in length, then the vehicle shall be driven through it several
times. The total time, including the periods outside the wade pool, shall be less
than 10min.
6.1.6. Test Conditions and Test Procedure Regarding Post-crash
6.1.6.1. Test Conditions
6.1.6.1.1. General
The test conditions specified in Paragraphs 6.1.6.1.2. to 6.1.6.1.4. are used.
6.1.6.1.2. Electric Power Train Adjustment
6.1.6.1.2.1. The SOC of the REESS shall be adjusted in accordance with the
Paragraph 6.2.1.2.
6.1.6.1.2.2. The electric power train shall be energized with or without the operation of the
original electrical energy sources (e.g. engine-generator, REESS or electric
energy conversion system), however:
6.1.6.1.2.2.1. It is permissible to perform the test with all or parts of the electric power train not
being energized insofar as there is no negative influence on the test result. For
parts of the electric power train not energized, the protection against electric shock
shall be proved by either physical protection or isolation resistance and
appropriate additional evidence.
6.1.6.1.2.2.2. If the electric power train is not energized and an automatic disconnect is
provided, it is permissible to perform the test with the automatic disconnect being
triggered. In this case it shall be demonstrated that the automatic disconnect
would have operated during the impact test. This includes the automatic activation
signal as well as the conductive separation considering the conditions as seen
during the impact.

Figure 7
Measurement of V , V , V
6.1.6.2.3. Assessment procedure for low electrical energy
Prior to the impact a switch S and a known discharge resistor R is connected in
parallel to the relevant capacitance (Figure 8).
(a)
Not earlier than 10s and not later than 60s after the impact the switch S
shall be closed while the voltage V and the current I are measured and
recorded. The product of the voltage V and the current I shall be
integrated over the period of time, starting from the moment when the
switch S is closed (tc) until the voltage V falls to zero (th). The
resulting integration equals the total energy (TE) in J.
(b)
When V is measured at a point in time between 10s and 60s after the
impact and the capacitance of the X-capacitors (C ) is specified by the
manufacturer, total energy (TE) shall be calculated according to the
following formula:
TE = 0.5 × C × V

Starting from the straight position, both joints of the test finger are rotated
progressively through an angle of up to 90° with respect to the axis of the
adjoining section of the finger and are placed in every possible position.
Internal electrical protection barriers are considered part of the enclosure.
If appropriate, a low-voltage supply (of not less than 40V and not more than 50V)
in series with a suitable lamp is connected between the Jointed Test Finger and
high voltage live parts inside the electrical protection barrier or enclosure.
The requirements of Paragraph 5.2.2.3. are met if the Jointed Test Finger
described in Paragraph 6.1.3. is unable to contact high voltage live parts.
If necessary a mirror or a fiberscope may be used in order to inspect whether the
Jointed Test Finger touches the high voltage buses.
If this requirement is verified by a signal circuit between the Jointed Test Finger
and high voltage live parts, the lamp shall not light.
6.1.6.2.4.1. Voltage Between Exposed Conductive Barriers
The voltage difference between exposed conductive parts of electrical protection
barriers and the electrical chassis shall be measured. The voltage difference
between two simultaneously reachable exposed conductive parts of electrical
protection barriers/enclosures shall be measured or calculated using other
measured voltages.
6.1.6.2.5. Isolation Resistance
The measurement shall be conducted according to Paragraph 6.1.1. with the
following precaution.
All measurements for calculating voltage(s) and electrical isolation are made after
a minimum of 10s after the impact.
6.1.6.2.6. Electrolyte Leakage
An appropriate coating, if necessary, may be applied to the physical protection
(casing) in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the REESS
resulting from the test. Unless the manufacturer provides a means to differentiate
between the leakage of different liquids, all liquid leakage shall be considered as
the electrolyte.
6.2. Test Procedures for REESS
6.2.1. General Procedures
6.2.1.1. Procedure for Conducting a Standard Cycle
Procedure for conducting a standard cycle for a complete REESS, REESS
subsystem(s), or complete vehicle.
A standard cycle shall start with a standard discharge and is followed by a
standard charge. The standard cycle shall be conducted at an ambient
temperature of 20 ± 10°C.

(c)
In case that the REESS or REESS sub-system is used as the tested-device,
the tested-device shall be charged to the highest SOC in accordance with
the procedure specified by the manufacturer for normal use operation until
the charging process is normally terminated. Procedures specified by the
manufacturer for manufacturing, service or maintenance may be considered
as appropriate if they achieve an equivalent SOC as for that under normal
operating conditions. In case the tested-device does not control SOC by
itself, the SOC shall be charged to not less than 95% of the maximum
normal operating SOC defined by the manufacturer for the specific
configuration of the tested-device.
6.2.1.2.3. When the vehicle or REESS subsystem is tested, the SOC shall be no less than
95% of the SOC according to Paragraphs 6.2.1.2.1. and 6.2.1.2.2. for REESS
designed to be externally charged and shall be no less than 90% of SOC
according to Paragraphs 6.2.1.2.1. and 6.2.1.2.2. for REESS designed to be
charged only by an energy source on the vehicle. The SOC will be confirmed by a
method provided by the manufacturer.
6.2.2. Vibration Test
6.2.2.1. Purpose
6.2.2.2. Installations
The purpose of this test is to verify the safety performance of the REESS under a
vibration environment which the REESS will likely experience during the normal
operation of the vehicle.
6.2.2.2.1. This test shall be conducted either with the complete REESS or with REESS
subsystem(s). If the manufacturer chooses to test with REESS subsystem(s), the
manufacturer shall demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the
performance of the complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under
the same conditions. If the electronic management control unit for the REESS is
not integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, then the electronic management
unit may be omitted from installation on the tested-device if so requested by the
manufacturer.
6.2.2.2.2. The tested-device shall be firmly secured to the platform of the vibration machine
in such a manner as to ensure that the vibrations are directly transmitted to the
tested-device.
The Test-Device should be mounted with its original mounting points and holders
as mounted in the vehicle. The holders should be firmly secured to the platform of
the vibration machine in such a manner as to ensure that the vibrations are
directly transmitted to the holders of the tested-device.

6.2.3. Thermal Shock and Cycling Test
6.2.3.1. Purpose
6.2.3.2. Installations
6.2.3.3. Procedures
The purpose of this test is to verify the resistance of the REESS to sudden
changes in temperature. The REESS shall undergo a specified number of
temperature cycles, which start at ambient temperature followed by high and low
temperature cycling. It simulates a rapid environmental temperature change which
a REESS would likely experience during its life.
This test shall be conducted either with the complete REESS or with REESS
subsystem(s). If the manufacturer chooses to test with REESS subsystem(s), the
manufacturer shall demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the
performance of the complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under
the same conditions. If the electronic management unit for the REESS is not
integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, then the electronic management unit
may be omitted from installation on the tested-device if so requested by the
manufacturer.
6.2.3.3.1. General Test Conditions
The following conditions shall apply to the tested-device at the start of the test:
(a)
(b)
At the beginning of the test, the SOC shall be adjusted in accordance with
the Paragraph 6.2.1.2.;
All protection devices, which would affect the function of the tested-device
and which are relevant to the outcome of the test shall be operational.
6.2.3.3.2. Test Procedure
The tested-device shall be stored for at least 6h at a test temperature equal to 60
± 2°C or higher if requested by the manufacturer, followed by storage for at least
6h at a test temperature equal to -40 ± 2°C or lower if requested by the
manufacturer. The maximum time interval between test temperature extremes
shall be 30min. This procedure shall be repeated until a minimum of 5 total cycles
are completed, after which the tested-device shall be stored for 24h at an ambient
temperature of 22 ± 5°C.
After the storage for 24h, a standard cycle as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1. shall
be conducted, if not inhibited by the tested-device.
The test shall end with an observation period of 1h at the ambient temperature
conditions of the test environment.

6.2.4.3.2.2. Component based test (according to test procedure described in
Paragraph 6.2.4.3.3. (Gasoline pool fire) or Paragraph 6.2.4.3.4. (LPG burner)).
In case of component based test, the manufacturer may choose either Gasoline
pool fire test or LPG burner test.
6.2.4.3.3. Gasoline pool fire test set up for both vehicle-based and component-based test.
The tested-device shall be placed on a grating table positioned above the fire
source, in an orientation according to the manufacturer's design intent.
The grating table shall be constructed by steel rods, diameter 6-10mm, with 4-6cm
in between. If needed the steel rods could be supported by flat steel parts.
The flame to which the tested-device is exposed shall be obtained by burning
commercial fuel for positive-ignition engines (hereafter called "fuel") in a pan. The
quantity of fuel shall be sufficient to permit the flame, under free-burning
conditions, to burn for the whole test procedure.
The fire shall cover the whole area of the pan during whole fire exposure. The pan
dimensions shall be chosen so as to ensure that the sides of the tested-device are
exposed to the flame. The pan shall therefore exceed the horizontal projection of
the tested-device by at least 20cm, but not more than 50cm. The sidewalls of the
pan shall not project more than 8cm above the level of the fuel at the start of the
test.
6.2.4.3.3.1. The pan filled with fuel shall be placed under the tested-device in such a way that
the distance between the level of the fuel in the pan and the bottom of the testeddevice
corresponds to the design height of the tested-device above the road
surface at the unladed mass if Paragraph 6.2.4.3.2.1. is applied or approximately
50cm if Paragraph 6.2.4.3.2.2. is applied. Either the pan, or the testing fixture, or
both, shall be freely movable.
6.2.4.3.3.2. During Phase C of the test, the pan shall be covered by a screen. The screen shall
be placed 3cm +/- 1cm above the fuel level measured prior to the ignition of the
fuel. The screen shall be made of a refractory material, as prescribed in Figure 13.
There shall be no gap between the bricks and they shall be supported over the
fuel pan in such a manner that the holes in the bricks are not obstructed. The
length and width of the frame shall be 2cm to 4cm smaller than the interior
dimensions of the pan so that a gap of 1cm to 2cm exists between the frame and
the wall of the pan to allow ventilation. Before the test the screen shall be at least
at the ambient temperature. The firebricks may be wetted in order to guarantee
repeatable test conditions.
6.2.4.3.3.3. If the tests are carried out in the open air, sufficient wind protection shall be
provided and the wind velocity at pan level shall not exceed 2.5km/h.

Figure 11
Phase C: Indirect Exposure to Flame
6.2.4.3.3.4.4. Phase D: End of test (Figure 12).
The burning pan covered with the screen shall be moved back to the position
described in Phase A. No extinguishing of the tested-device shall be done. After
removal of the pan, the tested-device shall be observed until such time as the
surface temperature of the tested-device has decreased to ambient temperature
or has been decreasing for a minimum of 3h.
Figure 12
Phase D: End of Test

6.2.4.3.4.6. The tested-device shall be exposed to flame for 2min after the averaged
temperature reaches 800°C within 30s. The averaged temperature shall be
maintained at 800-1,100°C for 2min.
6.2.4.3.4.7. After direct exposure to flame the tested-device shall be observed until such time
as the surface temperature of the tested-device has decreased to ambient
temperature or has been decreasing for a minimum of 3h.
6.2.5. External Short Circuit Protection
6.2.5.1. Purpose
6.2.5.2. Installations
6.2.5.3. Procedures
The purpose of this test is to verify the performance of the short circuit protection
to prevent the REESS from any further related severe events caused by short
circuit current.
This test shall be conducted either with a complete vehicle or with the complete
REESS or with the REESS subsystem(s). If the manufacturer chooses to test with
REESS subsystem(s), the tested-device shall be able to deliver the nominal
voltage of the complete REESS and the manufacturer shall demonstrate that the
test result can reasonably represent the performance of the complete REESS with
respect to its safety performance under the same conditions. If the electronic
management unit for the REESS is not integrated in the casing enclosing the cells,
then the electronic management unit may be omitted from installation on the
tested-device at the request of the manufacturer.
For a test with a complete vehicle, the manufacturer may provide information to
connect a breakout harness to a location just outside the REESS that would
permit applying a short circuit to the REESS.
6.2.5.3.1. General test conditions
The following condition shall apply to the test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 10°C or at a
higher temperature if requested by the manufacturer;
At the beginning of the test, the SOC shall be adjusted according to
Paragraph 6.2.1.2.;
For testing with a complete REESS or REESS subsystem(s), at the
beginning of the test, all protection devices which would affect the function
of the tested-device and which are relevant to the outcome of the test shall
be operational;
For testing with a complete vehicle, a breakout harness is connected to the
manufacturer specified location and vehicle protections systems relevant to
the outcome of the test shall be operational.

6.2.6.3. Procedures
6.2.6.3.1. General Test Conditions
The following requirements and conditions shall apply to the test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 10°C or at a
higher temperature if requested by the manufacturer;
The SOC of REESS shall be adjusted around the middle of normal
operating range by normal operation recommended by the manufacturer
such as driving the vehicle or using an external charger. The accurate
adjustment is not required as long as the normal operation of the REESS is
enabled;
For vehicle-based test of vehicles with on-board energy conversion systems
(e.g. internal combustion engine, fuel cell, etc.), fill the fuel to allow the
operation of such energy conversion systems;
At the beginning of the test, all protection devices which would affect the
function of the tested-device and which are relevant to the outcome of the
test shall be operational. All relevant main contactors for charging shall be
closed.
6.2.6.3.2. Charging
The procedure for charging the REESS for vehicle-based test shall be in
accordance with Paragraphs 6.2.6.3.2.1. and 6.2.6.3.2.2. and shall be selected as
appropriate for the relevant mode of vehicle operation and the functionality of the
protection system. Alternatively, the procedure for charging the REESS for
vehicle-based test shall be in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.6.3.2.3. For
component-based test, the charging procedure shall be in accordance with
Paragraph 6.2.6.3.2.4.
6.2.6.3.2.1. Charge by Vehicle Operation.
This procedure is applicable to the vehicle-based tests in active driving possible
mode:
(a)
For vehicles that can be charged by on-board energy sources (e.g. energy
recuperation, on-board energy conversion systems), the vehicle shall be
driven on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle operation on a chassis
dynamometer (e.g. simulation of continuous down-hill driving) that will
deliver as high charging current as reasonably achievable shall be
determined, if necessary, through consultation with the manufacturer.

6.2.6.3.2.3. Charge by connecting breakout harness (vehicle-based test)
This procedure is applicable to vehicle-based tests for both externally chargeable
vehicles and vehicles that can be charged only by on-board energy sources and
for which the manufacturer provides information to connect a breakout harness to
a location just outside the REESS that permits charging of the REESS:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The breakout harness is connected to the vehicle as specified by the
manufacturer. The trip current/voltage setting of the external
charge-discharge equipment shall be at least 10% higher than the
current/voltage limit of thetested-device. The external electricity supply
equipment is connected to the breakout harness. The REESS shall be
charged by the external electricity power supply with the maximum charge
current specified by the manufacturer;
The charging shall be terminated when the vehicle's overcharge protection
control terminates the REESS charge current. Where vehicle's overcharge
protection control fails to operate, or if there is no such control, the charging
shall be continued until the REESS temperature is 10°C above its maximum
operating temperature specified by the manufacturer. In the case where
charge current is not terminated and where the REESS temperature
remains less than 10°C above the maximum operating temperature, vehicle
operation shall be terminated 12h after the start of charging by external
electricity supply equipment;
Immediately after the termination of charging, one standard cycle as
described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1. (for a complete vehicle) shall be conducted,
if it is not prohibited by the vehicle.
6.2.6.3.2.4. Charge by external electricity supply (component-based test)
This procedure is applicable to component-based test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The external charge/discharge equipment shall be connected to the main
terminals of the REESS. The charge control limits of the test equipment
shall be disabled;
The REESS shall be charged by the external charge/discharge equipment
with the maximum charge current specified by the manufacturer. The
charging shall be terminated when the REESS overcharge protection
control terminates the REESS charge current. Where overcharge protection
control of the REESS fails to operate, or if there is no such control, the
charging shall be continued until the REESS temperature reaches 10°C
above its maximum operating temperature specified by the manufacturer. In
the case where charge current is not terminated and where the REESS
temperature remains less than 10°C above the maximum operating
temperature, vehicle operation shall be terminated 12h after the start of
charging by external electricity supply equipment;
Immediately after the termination of charging, one standard cycle as
described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1. shall be conducted, if it is not prohibited by
the REESS, with external charge-discharge equipment.

6.2.7.3.2.1. Discharge by Vehicle Driving Operation
This procedure is applicable to the vehicle-based tests in active driving possible
mode:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The vehicle shall be driven on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle
operation on a chassis dynamometer (e.g. simulation of continuous driving
at steady speed) that will deliver as constant discharging power as
reasonably achievable shall be determined, if necessary, through
consultation with the manufacturer;
The REESS shall be discharged by the vehicle operation on a chassis
dynamometer in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.7.3.2.1.(a). The vehicle
operation on the chassis dynamometer shall be terminated when the
vehicle's over-discharge protection control terminates REESS discharge
current or the temperature of the REESS is stabilized such that the
temperature varies by a gradient of less than 4°C through 2h. Where an
over-discharge protection control fails to operate, or if there is no such
control, then the discharging shall be continued until the REESS is
discharged to 25% of its nominal voltage level;
Immediately after the termination of discharging, one standard charge
followed by a standard discharge as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1. shall
be conducted if it is not prohibited by the vehicle.
6.2.7.3.2.2. Discharge by Auxiliary Electrical Equipment (Vehicle-based Test)
This procedure is applicable to the vehicle-based tests in stationary condition:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The vehicle shall be switched in to a stationary operation mode that allow
consumption of electrical energy from REESS by auxiliary electrical
equipment. Such an operation mode shall be determined, if necessary,
through consultation with the manufacturer. Equipments (e.g. wheel chocks)
that prevent the vehicle movement may be used as appropriate to ensure
the safety during the test;
The REESS shall be discharged by the operation of electrical equipment,
air-conditioning, heating, lighting, audio-visual equipment, etc., that can be
switched on under the conditions given in Paragraph 6.2.7.3.2.2.(a). The
operation shall be terminated when the vehicle's over-discharge protection
control terminates REESS discharge current or the temperature of the
REESS is stabilised such that the temperature varies by a gradient of less
than 4°C through 2h. Where an over-discharge protection control fails to
operate, or if there is no such control, then the discharging shall be
continued until the REESS is discharged to 25% of its nominal voltage level;
Immediately after the termination of discharging, one standard charge
followed by a standard discharge as described in Paragraph 6.2.1.1. shall
be conducted if it is not prohibited by the vehicle.

6.2.8. Over-temperature Protection Test
6.2.8.1. Purpose
The purpose of this test is to verify the performance of the protection measures of
the REESS against internal overheating during operation. In the case that no
specific protection measures are necessary to prevent the REESS from reaching
an unsafe state due to internal over-temperature, this safe operation must be
demonstrated.
6.2.8.2. The test may be conducted with a complete REESS according to
Paragraphs 6.2.8.3. and 6.2.8.4. or with a complete vehicle according to
Paragraphs 6.2.8.5. and 6.2.8.6.
6.2.8.3. Installation for Test Conducted Using a Complete REESS
6.2.8.3.1. Ancillary systems that do not influence to the test results may be omitted from the
tested-device. The test may be performed with a modified tested-device provided
these modifications shall not influence the test results.
6.2.8.3.2. Where a REESS is fitted with a cooling function and where the REESS will remain
functional in delivering its normal power without a cooling function system being
operational, the cooling system shall be deactivated for the test.
6.2.8.3.3. The temperature of the tested-device shall be continuously measured inside the
casing in the proximity of the cells during the test in order to monitor the changes
of the temperature. The on-board sensors, if existing, may be used with
compatible tools to read the signal.
6.2.8.3.4. The REESS shall be placed in a convective oven or climatic chamber. If
necessary, for conduction the test, the REESS shall be connected to the rest of
vehicle control system with extended cables. An external charge/discharge
equipment may be connected under supervision by the vehicle manufacturer.
6.2.8.4. Test procedures for test conducted using a complete REESS
6.2.8.4.1. At the beginning of the test, all protection devices which affect the function of the
tested-device and are relevant to the outcome of the test shall be operational,
except for any system deactivation implemented in accordance with
Paragraph 6.2.8.3.2.
6.2.8.4.2. The tested-device shall be continuously charged and discharged by the external
charge/discharge equipment with a current that will increase the temperature of
cells as rapidly as possible within the range of normal operation as defined by the
manufacturer until the end of the test. Alternatively, the charge and discharge may
be conducted by vehicle driving operations on chassis dynamometer where the
driving operation shall be determined through consultation with the manufacturer
to achieve the conditions above.

6.2.8.6. Test Procedures for Test Conducted Using a Complete Vehicle
6.2.8.6.1. The vehicle shall be continuously charged and discharged in a manner that will
increases the temperature of REESS cells as rapidly as possible within the range
of normal operation as defined by the manufacturer until the end of the test.
The charge and discharge will be conducted by vehicle driving operations on
chassis dynamometer where the driving operation shall be determined through
consultation with the manufacturer to achieve the conditions above.
For a vehicle that can be charged by an external power supply, the charging may
be conducted using an external power supply if more rapid temperature increase
is expected.
6.2.8.6.2. The test will end when one of the followings is observed:
(a)
(b)
The vehicle terminates the charge and/or discharge;
The temperature of the REESS is stabilised such that the temperature
varies by a gradient of less than 4°C through 2h;
(c) Any failure of the acceptance criteria prescribed in Paragraph 5.4.8.;
(d)
3h elapse from the time of starting the charge/discharge cycles in
Paragraph 6.2.8.6.1.
6.2.9. Overcurrent Protection Test
6.2.9.1. Purpose
The purpose of this test is to verify the performance of the overcurrent protection
during DC external charging to prevent the REESS from any severe events
caused by excessive levels of charge current as specified by the manufacturer.
6.2.9.2. Test conditions:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 10°C;
The SOC of REESS shall be adjusted around the middle of normal
operating range by normal operation recommended by the manufacturer
such as driving the vehicle or using an external charger. The accurate
adjustment is not required as long as the normal operation of the REESS is
enabled;
The overcurrent level (assuming failure of external DC electricity supply
equipment) and maximum voltage (within normal range) that can be applied
shall be determined, if necessary, through consultation with the
manufacturer.
6.2.9.3. The overcurrent test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 6.2.9.4. or
Paragraph 6.2.9.5., as applicable and in accordance with manufacturer
information.

6.2.9.6. The test shall end with an observation period of 1h at the ambient temperature
conditions of the test environment.
6.2.10. Mechanical Shock Test
6.2.10.1. Purpose
6.2.10.2. Installations
The purpose of this test is to verify the safety performance of the REESS under
inertial loads which may occur during a vehicle crash.
6.2.10.2.1. This test shall be conducted either with the complete REESS or with REESS
subsystem(s). If the manufacturer chooses to test with REESS subsystem(s), the
manufacturer shall demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the
performance of the complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under
the same conditions. If the electronic management unit for the REESS is not
integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, then the electronic management unit
may be omitted from installation on the tested-device if so requested by the
manufacturer.
6.2.10.2.2. The tested-device shall be connected to the test fixture only by the intended
mountings provided for the purpose of attaching the REESS or REESS subsystem
to the vehicle.
6.2.10.3. Procedures
6.2.10.3.1. General Test Conditions and Requirements
The following condition shall apply to the test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
the test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 10°C;
at the beginning of the test, the SOC shall be adjusted in accordance with
the Paragraph 6.2.1.2.;
at the beginning of the test, all protection devices which affect the function
of the tested-device and which are relevant to the outcome of the test, shall
be operational.
6.2.10.3.2. Test Procedure
The tested-device shall be decelerated or accelerated in compliance with the
acceleration corridors which are specified in Figure 14 and Tables 3 or 4. The
manufacturer shall decide whether the tests shall be conducted in either the
positive or negative direction or both.
For each of the test pulses specified, a separate tested-device may be used.
The test pulse shall be within the minimum and maximum value as specified in
Tables 3 or 4. A higher shock level and /or longer duration as described in the
maximum value in Tables 3 or 4 can be applied to the tested-device if
recommended by the manufacturer.
The test shall end with an observation period of 1h at the ambient temperature
conditions of the test environment.

Table 4
Values for Category 1-2 Vehicles and Category 2 Vehicles with GVM>3.5t
Acceleration (g)
Point
Time (ms)
Longitudinal
Transverse
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
20
50
65
100

7. HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES – PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
7.1. Requirements of a Vehicle with Regard to its Electrical Safety – In-use
7.1.1. Protection against Electric Shock
These electrical safety requirements apply to high voltage buses under conditions
where they are not connected to the external electric power supply.
7.1.1.1. Protection against Direct Contact
High voltage live parts shall comply with Paragraphs 7.1.1.1.1. and 7.1.1.1.2. for
protection against direct contact. Conductive connection devices not energized
except during charging of the REESS are exempted from this requirement if
located on the roof of the vehicle out of reach for a person standing outside of the
vehicle. For Category 1-2 vehicles, the minimum wrap around distance from the
instep of the vehicle to the roof mounted charging devices is 3.00m. In case of
multiple steps due to elevated floor inside the vehicle, the wrap around distance is
measured from the bottom most step at entry, as illustrated in Figure 16.
Electrical protection barriers, enclosures, solid insulators and connectors shall not
be opened, disassembled or removed e.g. without the use of tools, an operator
controlled activation/deactivation device, or equivalent.
However, connectors (including the vehicle inlet) are allowed to be separated
without the use of tools, if they meet one or more of the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
They comply with Paragraphs 7.1.1.1.1. and 7.1.1.1.2. when separated; or
They are provided with a locking mechanism (at least two distinct actions
are needed to separate the connector from its mating component).
Additionally, other components, not being part of the connector, shall be
removable only with the use of tools, an operator controlled
activation/deactivation device or equivalent, in order to be able to separate
the connector; or
The voltage of the live parts becomes equal or below 60Vdc or equal or
below 30Vac (rms) within 1s after the connector is separated.

7.1.1.1.4.2. The symbol shall be visible on enclosures and electrical protection barriers, which,
when removed, expose live parts of high voltage circuits. This provision is optional
to any connectors for high voltage buses. This provision shall not apply to the
cases:
(a)
(b)
Where electrical protection barriers or enclosures cannot be physically
accessed, opened, or removed; unless other vehicle components are
removed with the use of tools, using an operator controlled
activation/deactivation device, or equivalent, or
Where electrical protection barriers or enclosures are located underneath
the vehicle floor.
7.1.1.1.4.3. Cables for high voltage buses which are not located within enclosures shall be
identified by having an outer covering with the colour orange.
7.1.1.2. Protection against Indirect Contact
7.1.1.2.1. For protection against electric shock which could arise from indirect contact, the
exposed conductive parts, such as the conductive electrical protection barrier and
enclosure, shall be conductively connected and secured to the electrical chassis
with electrical wire or ground cable, by welding, or by connection using bolts, etc.
so that no dangerous potentials are produced.
7.1.1.2.2. The resistance between all exposed conductive parts and the electrical chassis
shall be lower than 0.1Ω when there is current flow of at least 0.2A.
The resistance between any two simultaneously reachable exposed conductive
parts of the electrical protection barriers that are less than 2.5m from each other
shall not exceed 0.2Ω. This resistance may be calculated using the separately
measured resistances of the relevant parts of electric path.
This requirement is satisfied if the connection has been established by welding. In
case of doubts or the connection is established by other means than welding, a
measurement shall be made by using one of the test procedures described in
Paragraph 8.1.4.
7.1.1.2.3. In the case of motor vehicles which are intended to be connected to the grounded
external electric power supply through the conductive connection, a device to
enable the conductive connection of the electrical chassis to the earth ground for
the external electric power supply shall be provided.
The device shall enable connection to the earth ground before exterior voltage is
applied to the vehicle and retain the connection until after the exterior voltage is
removed from the vehicle.
Compliance to this requirement may be demonstrated either by using the
connector specified by the car manufacturer, by visual inspection or drawings.
The above requirements are only applicable for vehicles when charging from a
fixed, dedicated charging point, with a harness of a maximum length, through a
vehicle connector containing a plug and an inlet.

7.1.1.2.4.4. Isolation resistance requirement for the coupling system for charging the REESS
For the vehicle conductive connection device intended to be conductively
connected to the external AC electric power supply and the electrical circuit that is
conductively connected to the vehicle conductive connection device during
charging of the REESS, the isolation resistance between the high voltage bus and
the electrical chassis shall comply with the requirements of Paragraph 7.1.1.2.4.1.
when the vehicle connector is disconnected and the isolation resistance is
measured at the high voltage live parts (contacts) of the vehicle conductive
connection device. During the measurement, the REESS may be disconnected.
The measurement shall be conducted according to Paragraph 8.1.1.
7.1.1.3. Protection against Water Effects
The vehicles shall maintain isolation resistance after exposure to water
(e.g. washing, driving through standing water). This paragraph shall not apply to
electrical circuits that are galvanically connected to each other, where the DC part
of these circuits is connected to the electrical chassis and the specific voltage
condition is fulfilled.
7.1.1.3.1. The vehicle manufacturer can choose to comply with requirements specified in
Paragraph 7.1.1.3.2. or those specified in Paragraph 7.1.1.3.3.
7.1.1.3.2. The vehicle manufacturers shall provide evidence and/or documentation to the
regulatory or testing entity as applicable on how the electrical design or the
components of the vehicle located outside the passenger compartment or
externally attached, after water exposure remain safe and comply with the
requirements described in Annex 2. If the evidence and/or documentation
provided is not satisfactory the regulatory or testing entity as applicable shall
require the manufacturer to perform a physical component test based on the same
specifications as those described in Annex 2.
7.1.1.3.3. If the test procedures specified in Paragraph 8.1.5. are performed, just after each
exposure, and with the vehicle still wet, the vehicle shall then comply with isolation
resistance test given in Paragraph 8.1.1., and the isolation resistance
requirements given in Paragraph 7.1.1.2.4. shall be met. In addition, after a 24h
pause, the isolation resistance test specified in Paragraph 8.1.1. shall again be
performed, and the isolation resistance requirements given in Paragraph 7.1.1.2.4.
shall be met.
A representative vehicle shall be selected for testing and a compliant test result for
this vehicle shall constitute evidence of compliance for all variations of vehicles,
provided that the REESS and the REESS installation on the vehicles are the
same.
7.1.1.3.4. Each Contracting Party may elect to adopt the following requirement as an
alternative to the requirements in Paragraph 7.1.1.3.1.
If an isolation resistance monitoring system is provided, and the isolation
resistance less than the requirements given in Paragraph 7.1.1.2.4. is detected, a
warning shall be indicated to the driver. The function of the on-board isolation
resistance monitoring system shall be confirmed as described in Paragraph 8.1.2.

7.2.2.2. A written explanation describing the basic operation of the vehicle controls that
manage REESS operation. The explanation must identify the components of the
vehicle control system, provide description of their functions and capability to
manage the REESS, and provide a logic diagram and description of conditions
that would lead to triggering of the warning.
In case of optical warning, the tell-tale shall, when illuminated, be sufficiently bright
to be visible to the driver under both daylight and night-time driving conditions,
when the driver has adapted to the ambient roadway light conditions.
This tell-tale shall be activated as a check of lamp function either when the
propulsion system is turned to the "On" position, or when the propulsion system is
in a position between "On" and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a
check position. This requirement does not apply to the tell-tale or text shown in a
common space.
7.2.3. Warning in the Case of a Thermal Event within the REESS
The vehicle shall provide a warning to the driver in the case of a thermal event in
the REESS (as specified by the manufacturer) when the vehicle is in active driving
possible mode. Vehicle manufacturers shall make available, at the request of the
regulatory or testing entity as applicable with its necessity, the following
documentation explaining safety performance of the system level or sub-system
level of the vehicle:
7.2.3.1. The parameters and associated threshold levels that are used to indicate a
thermal event (e.g. temperature, temperature rise rate, SOC level, voltage drop,
electrical current, etc.) to trigger the warning.
7.2.3.2. A system diagram and written explanation describing the sensors and operation of
the vehicle controls to manage the REESS in the event of a thermal event.
In case of optical warning, the tell-tale shall, when illuminated, be sufficiently bright
to be visible to the driver under both daylight and night-time driving conditions,
when the driver has adapted to the ambient roadway light conditions.
This warning tell-tale shall be activated as a check of lamp function either when
the propulsion system is turned to the "On" position, or when the propulsion
system is in a position between "On" and "Start" that is designated by the
manufacturer as a check position. This requirement does not apply to the optical
signal or text shown in a common space.
7.2.4. Warning in the Event of Low Energy Content of REESS
For BEVs (vehicles in which propulsion system are powered only by a REESS), a
warning to the driver in the event of low REESS state of charge shall be provided.
Based on engineering judgment, the manufacturer shall determine the necessary
level of REESS energy remaining, when the driver warning is first provided.
In case of optical warning, the tell-tale shall, when illuminated, be sufficiently bright
to be visible to the driver under both daylight and night-time driving conditions,
when the driver has adapted to the ambient roadway light conditions.

7.3.5. External Short Circuit Protection
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.5.
During the test there shall be no evidence of; electrolyte leakage, rupture
(applicable to high voltage REESS only), venting (for REESS other than open-type
traction battery), fire or explosion.
The evidence of electrolyte leakage shall be verified by visual inspection without
disassembling any part of the tested-device. An appropriate technique shall, if
necessary, be used in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the
REESS resulting from the test. The evidence of venting shall be verified by visual
inspection without disassembling any part of the tested-device.
The REESS's short circuit protection control shall terminate the short circuit
current, or the temperature measured on the casing of the tested-device or the
REESS shall be stabilized, such that the temperature gradient varies by less than
4°C through 2h after introducing the short circuit.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 8.1.1. shall not be less than 100Ω/V.
7.3.6. Overcharge Protection
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.6.
During the test there shall be no evidence of electrolyte leakage, rupture
(applicable to high voltage REESS only), venting (for REESS other than open-type
traction battery), fire or explosion.
The evidence of electrolyte leakage shall be verified by visual inspection without
disassembling any part of the tested-device. An appropriate technique shall, if
necessary, be used in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the
REESS resulting from the test. The evidence of venting shall be verified by visual
inspection without disassembling any part of the tested-device.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 8.1.1. shall not be less than 100Ω/V.
7.3.7. Over-discharge Protection
The test shall be conducted in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.7.
During the test there shall be no evidence of; electrolyte leakage, rupture
(applicable to high voltage REESS only), venting (for REESS other than open-type
traction battery), fire or explosion.
The evidence of electrolyte leakage shall be verified by visual inspection without
disassembling any part of the tested-device. An appropriate technique shall, if
necessary, be used in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the
REESS resulting from the test. The evidence of venting shall be verified by visual
inspection without disassembling any part of the tested-device.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 8.1.1. shall not be less than 100Ω/V.

7.3.11.2.2. During a normal charge procedure in the conditions given in Annex 1, hydrogen
emissions shall be below 125g during 5h, or below 25 × t g during t (in h) where t
is the time of overcharging at constant current.
7.3.11.2.3. During a charge carried out by a charger presenting a failure (conditions given in
Annex 1), hydrogen emissions shall be below 42g. Furthermore, the charger shall
limit this possible failure to 30min.
7.3.11.3. For REESS other than open-type traction battery, the requirement of
Paragraph 7.3.11.1. is deemed to be satisfied, if all requirements of the following
tests are met: Para. 8.2.2. (vibration), Para. 8.2.3. (thermal shock and cycling),
8.2.5. (external short circuit protection), Para. 8.2.6. (overcharge protection),
Para. 8.2.7. (over-discharge protection), Para. 8.2.8. (over-temperature protection)
and Para. 8.2.9. (overcurrent protection).
7.3.12. Thermal Propagation
For the vehicles equipped with a REESS containing flammable electrolyte, the
vehicle occupants shall not be exposed to any hazardous environment caused by
thermal propagation which is triggered by an internal short circuit leading to a
single cell thermal runaway. To ensure this, the requirements of
Paragraphs 7.3.12.1. and 7.3.12.2. shall be satisfied.
7.3.12.1. The vehicle shall provide an advance warning indication to allow egress or 5min
prior to the presence of a hazardous situation inside the passenger compartment
caused by thermal propagation which is triggered by an internal short circuit
leading to a single cell thermal runaway such as fire, explosion or smoke. This
requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the thermal propagation does not lead to a
hazardous situation for the vehicle occupants. This warning shall have
characteristics in accordance with Paragraph 7.2.3.2. The vehicle manufacturer
shall make available, at the request of the regulatory or testing entity as applicable
with its necessity, the following documentation explaining safety performance of
the system level or sub-system level of the vehicle:
7.3.12.1.1. The parameters (for example, temperature, voltage or electrical current) which
trigger the warning indication.
7.3.12.1.2. Description of the Warning System

An appropriate coating, if necessary, may be applied to the physical protection
(casing) in order to confirm if there is any electrolyte leakage from the REESS
resulting from the test. Unless the manufacturer provides a means to differentiate
between the leakage of different liquids, all liquid leakage shall be considered as
the electrolyte.
After the test, the tested-device shall be retained by its mounting and its
components shall remain inside its boundaries.
For a high voltage REESS, the isolation resistance of the tested-device shall
ensure at least 100Ω/Volt for the whole REESS measured after the test in
accordance with Paragraph 7.2.1., or the protection IPXXB shall be fulfilled for the
tested-device when assessed in accordance with Paragraph 8.1.3.
8. HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES – TEST PROCEDURES
8.1. Test Procedures for Electrical Safety
8.1.1. Isolation Resistance Measurement Method
8.1.1.1. General
The isolation resistance for each high voltage bus of the vehicle is measured or
shall be determined by calculating the measurement values of each part or
component unit of a high voltage bus.
8.1.1.2. Measurement Method
The isolation resistance measurement is conducted by selecting an appropriate
measurement method from among those listed in Paragraphs 8.1.1.2.1. to
8.1.1.2.2., depending on the electrical charge of the live parts or the isolation
resistance.
Megohmmeter or oscilloscope measurements are appropriate alternatives to the
procedure described below for measuring isolation resistance. In this case, it may
be necessary to deactivate the on-board isolation resistance monitoring system.
The range of the electrical circuit to be measured is clarified in advance, using
electrical circuit diagrams. If the high voltage buses are conductively isolated from
each other, isolation resistance shall be measured for each electrical circuit.
If the operating voltage of the tested-device (V , Figure 18) cannot be measured
(e.g. due to disconnection of the electric circuit caused by main contactors or fuse
operation), the test may be performed with a modified tested-device to allow
measurement of the internal voltages (upstream the main contactors).
Moreover, modifications necessary for measuring the isolation resistance may be
carried out, such as removal of the cover in order to reach the live parts, drawing
of measurement lines and change in software.

Figure 18
Measurement of V , V , V
8.1.1.2.2.3.2. Second Step
8.1.1.2.2.3.3. Third Step
8.1.1.2.2.3.4. Fourth Step
The voltage (V ) between the negative side of the high voltage bus and the
electrical chassis is measured and recorded (see Figure 18).
The voltage (V ) between the positive side of the high voltage bus and the
electrical chassis is measured and recorded (see Figure 18).
If V is greater than or equal to V , a standard known resistance (Ro) is inserted
between the negative side of the high voltage bus and the electrical chassis. with
Ro installed, the voltage (V ') between the negative side of the high voltage bus
and the electrical chassis is measured (see Figure 19).

Figure 20
Measurement of V '
8.1.1.2.2.3.5. Fifth Step
The electrical isolation value Ri (in Ω) divided by the working voltage of the high
voltage bus (in V) results in the isolation resistance (in Ω/V).
Note 1: The standard known resistance Ro (in Ω) is the value of the minimum
required isolation resistance (in Ω/V) multiplied by the working voltage of
the vehicle plus/minus 20% (in V). Ro is not required to be precisely this
value since the equations are valid for any Ro; however, a Ro value in
this range should provide good resolution for the voltage measurements.
8.1.2. Confirmation Method for Functions of On-board Isolation Resistance Monitoring
System
The on-board isolation resistance monitoring system specified in
Paragraph 7.1.1.2.4.3. for fuel cell vehicles and that specified in
Paragraph 7.1.1.3.4. for protection against water effects shall be tested using the
following procedure:
(a)
Determine the isolation resistance, Ri, of the electric power train with the
electrical isolation monitoring system using the procedure outlined
Paragraph 8.1.1.;

In case of the tests for protection IPXXD, the access probe may penetrate to its
full length, but the stop face shall not fully penetrate through the opening.
Table 5
Access Probes for the Tests for Protection of Persons
against Access to Hazardous Parts
First
numeral
Addit.
letter
2 B
Access probe
(Dimensions in mm)
Test force
10N ± 10%
4, 5, 6 D
1N ± 10%

8.1.4. Test Method for Measuring Electric Resistance:
(a)
Test method using a resistance tester.
The resistance tester is connected to the measuring points (typically,
electrical chassis and electro conductive enclosure/electrical protection
barrier) and the resistance is measured using a resistance tester that meets
the specification that follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Resistance tester: Measurement current at least 0.2A;
Resolution: 0.01Ω or less;
The resistance R shall be less than 0.1Ω.
(b)
Test method using DC power supply, voltmeter and ammeter.
Example of the test method using DC power supply, voltmeter and ammeter
is shown below.
8.1.4.1. Test Procedure
Figure 23
Example of Test Method Using DC Power Supply
The DC power supply, voltmeter and ammeter are connected to the measuring
points (Typically, electrical chassis and electro conductive enclosure/electrical
protection barrier).
The voltage of the DC power supply is adjusted so that the current flow becomes
at least 0.2A.
The current "I" and the voltage "V" are measured.
The resistance "R" is calculated according to the following formula:
R = V / I
The resistance R shall be less than 0.1Ω.
Note: If lead wires are used for voltage and current measurement, each lead
wire shall be independently connected to the electrical protection
barrier/enclosure/electrical chassis. Terminal can be common for voltage
measurement and current measurement.

Standard charge:
The charge procedure shall be defined by the manufacturer. If not specified, then
it shall be a charge with C/3 current. Charging is continued until normally
terminated. Charge termination shall be according to Paragraph 8.2.1.2.2 for
REESS or REESS subsystem.
For a complete vehicle that can be charged by an external source, charge
procedure using an external electric power supply shall be defined by the
manufacturer. For a complete vehicle that can be charged by on-board energy
sources, a charge procedure using a dynamometer shall be defined by the
manufacturer. Charge termination will be according to vehicle controls.
8.2.1.2. Procedures for SOC Adjustment
8.2.1.2.1. The adjustment of SOC shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 10°C
for vehicle-based tests and 22 ± 5°C for component-based tests.
8.2.1.2.2. The SOC of the tested-device shall be adjusted according to one of the following
procedures as applicable. Where different charging procedures are possible, the
REESS shall be charged using the procedure which yields the highest SOC:
(a)
(b)
(c)
For a vehicle with a REESS designed to be externally charged, the REESS
shall be charged to the highest SOC in accordance with the procedure
specified by the manufacturer for normal operation until the charging
process is normally terminated;
For a vehicle with a REESS designed to be charged only by an energy
source on the vehicle, the REESS shall be charged to the highest SOC
which is achievable with normal operation of the vehicle. The manufacturer
shall advise on the vehicle operation mode to achieve this SOC;
In case that the REESS or REESS sub-system is used as the
tested-device, the tested-device shall be charged to the highest SOC in
accordance with the procedure specified by the manufacturer for normal
use operation until the charging process is normally terminated. Procedures
specified by the manufacturer for manufacturing, service or maintenance
may be considered as appropriate if they achieve an equivalent SOC as for
that under normal operating conditions. In case the tested-device does not
control SOC by itself, the SOC shall be charged to not less than 95% of the
maximum normal operating SOC defined by the manufacturer for the
specific configuration of the tested-device.
8.2.1.2.3. When the vehicle or REESS subsystem is tested, the SOC shall be no less than
95% of the SOC according to Paragraphs 8.2.1.2.1. and 8.2.1.2.2. for REESS
designed to be externally charged and shall be no less than 90% of SOC
according to Paragraphs 8.2.1.2.1. and 8.2.1.2.2. for REESS designed to be
charged only by an energy source on the vehicle. The SOC will be confirmed by a
method provided by the manufacturer.

Table 6
Frequency and Acceleration
Frequency
(Hz)
7 – 18
18 – 30
30 – 50
Acceleration
(m/s )
10
gradually reduced from 10 to 2
2
At the request of the manufacturer, a higher acceleration level as well as a higher
maximum frequency may be used.
At the choice of the manufacturer, a vibration test profile determined by the
vehicle-manufacturer verified for the vehicle application may be used as a
substitute for the frequency – acceleration correlation of Table 6. The REESS
certified according to this condition shall be limited to the installation for a specific
vehicle type.
After the vibration profile, a standard cycle as described in Paragraph 8.2.1.1.
shall be conducted, if not inhibited by the tested-device.
The test shall end with an observation period of 1h at the ambient temperature
conditions of the test environment.
8.2.3. Thermal Shock and Cycling Test
8.2.3.1. Purpose
8.2.3.2. Installations
The purpose of this test is to verify the resistance of the REESS to sudden
changes in temperature. The REESS shall undergo a specified number of
temperature cycles, which start at ambient temperature followed by high and low
temperature cycling. It simulates a rapid environmental temperature change which
a REESS would likely experience during its life.
This test shall be conducted either with the complete REESS or with REESS
subsystem(s). If the manufacturer chooses to test with subsystem(s), the
manufacturer shall demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the
performance of the complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under
the same conditions. If the electronic management unit for the REESS is not
integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, then the electronic management unit
may be omitted from installation on the tested-device if so requested by the
manufacturer.

8.2.4.3. Procedures
8.2.4.3.1. General Test Conditions
The following requirements and conditions shall apply to the test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The test shall be conducted at a temperature of at least 0°C;
At the beginning of the test, the SOC shall be adjusted in accordance with
the Paragraph 8.2.1.2.;
At the beginning of the test, all protection devices which affect the function
of the tested-device and are relevant for the outcome of the test shall be
operational.
8.2.4.3.2. Test Procedure
A vehicle based test or a component based test shall be performed at the
discretion of the manufacturer.
8.2.4.3.2.1. Vehicle based test (according to test procedure described in Paragraph 8.2.4.3.3.).
The tested-device shall be mounted in a testing fixture simulating actual mounting
conditions as far as possible; no combustible material should be used for this with
the exception of material that is part of the REESS. The method whereby the
tested-device is fixed in the fixture shall correspond to the relevant specifications
for its installation in a vehicle. In the case of a REESS designed for a specific
vehicle use, vehicle parts which affect the course of the fire in any way shall be
taken into consideration.
8.2.4.3.2.2. Component based test (according to test procedure described in
Paragraph 8.2.4.3.3. (Gasoline pool fire) or Paragraph 8.2.4.3.4. (LPG burner))
In case of component based test, the manufacturer may choose either Gasoline
pool fire test or LPG burner test.
8.2.4.3.3. Gasoline pool fire test set up for both vehicle-based and component-based test.
The tested-device shall be placed on a grating table positioned above the fire
source, in an orientation according to the manufacturer's design intent.
The grating table shall be constructed by steel rods, diameter 6-10mm, with 4-6cm
in between. If needed the steel rods could be supported by flat steel parts.
The flame to which the tested-device is exposed shall be obtained by burning
commercial fuel for positive-ignition engines (hereafter called "fuel") in a pan. The
quantity of fuel shall be sufficient to permit the flame, under free-burning
conditions, to burn for the whole test procedure.

8.2.4.3.3.4.2. Phase B: Direct Exposure to Flame (Figure 25).
The tested-device shall be exposed to the flame from the freely burning fuel for
70s.
Figure 25
Phase B: Direct Exposure to Flame
8.2.4.3.3.4.3. Phase C: Indirect Exposure to Flame (Figure 26).
As soon as Phase B has been completed, the screen shall be placed between the
burning pan and the tested-device. The tested-device shall be exposed to this
reduced flame for a further 60s.
As a compliance alternative to conducting Phase C of the test, Phase B may, at
the choice of the manufacturer, be continued for an additional 60s.
8.2.4.3.3.4.4. Phase D: End of Test (Figure 27).
Figure 26
Phase C: Indirect Exposure to Flame
The burning pan covered with the screen shall be moved back to the position
described in Phase A. No extinguishing of the tested-device shall be done. After
removal of the pan the tested-device shall be observed until such time as the
surface temperature of the tested-device has decreased to ambient temperature
or has been decreasing for a minimum of 3h.

8.2.4.3.4.4. All temperature sensors shall be installed at a height of 5 ± 1cm below the lowest
point of the tested-device's external surface when oriented as described in
Paragraph 8.2.4.3.4.1. At least one temperature sensor shall be located at the
centre of tested-device, and at least four temperature sensors shall be located
within 10cm from the edge of the tested-device towards its centre with nearly
equal distance between the sensors.
8.2.4.3.4.5. The bottom of tested-device shall be exposed to the even flame directly and
entirely by fuel combustion. LPG burner flame shall exceed the horizontal
projection of the tested-device by at least 20cm.
8.2.4.3.4.6. The tested-device shall be exposed to flame for 2min after the averaged
temperature reaches 800°C within 30s. The averaged temperature shall be
maintained 800-1,100°C for 2min.
8.2.4.3.4.7. After direct exposure to flame the tested-device shall be observed until such time
as the surface temperature of the tested-device has decreased to ambient
temperature or has been decreasing for a minimum of 3h.
8.2.5. External Short Circuit Protection
8.2.5.1. Purpose
8.2.5.2. Installations
The purpose of this test is to verify the performance of the short circuit protection
to prevent the REESS from any further related severe events caused by short
circuit current.
This test shall be conducted either with a complete vehicle or with the complete
REESS or with the REESS subsystem(s). If the REESS consists of multiple
REESS subsystems, either connected in series or in parallel, the test can be
performed on a single REESS subsystem which includes an electronic
management unit and (if it exists) a REESS protection device intended to be
operational. If the manufacturer chooses to test with REESS subsystem(s), the
manufacturer shall demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the
performance of the complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under
the same conditions. If the electronic management unit for the REESS is not
integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, then the electronic management unit
may be omitted from installation on the tested-device at the request of the
manufacturer.
For a test with a complete vehicle, the manufacturer may provide information to
connect a breakout harness to a location just outside the REESS that would
permit applying a short circuit to the REESS.

8.2.6. Overcharge Protection Test
8.2.6.1. Purpose
8.2.6.2. Installations
8.2.6.3. Procedures
The purpose of this test is to verify the performance of the overcharge protection
to prevent the REESS from any further related severe events caused by a too high
SOC.
This test shall be conducted, under standard operating conditions, either with a
complete vehicle or with the complete REESS. Ancillary systems that do not
influence to the test results may be omitted from the tested-device.
The test may be performed with a modified tested-device provided these
modifications shall not influence the test results.
8.2.6.3.1. General Test Conditions
The following requirements and conditions shall apply to the test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 10°C or at a
higher temperature if requested by the manufacturer;
The SOC of REESS shall be adjusted around the middle of normal
operating range by normal operation recommended by the manufacturer
such as driving the vehicle or using an external charger. The accurate
adjustment is not required as long as the normal operation of the REESS is
enabled;
For vehicle-based test of vehicles with on-board energy conversion systems
(e.g. internal combustion engine, fuel cell, etc.), fill the fuel to allow the
operation of such energy conversion systems;
At the beginning of the test, all protection devices which would affect the
function of the tested-device and which are relevant to the outcome of the
test shall be operational. All relevant main contactors for charging shall be
closed.
8.2.6.3.2. Charging
The procedure for charging the REESS for vehicle-based test shall be in
accordance with Paragraphs 8.2.6.3.2.1. and 8.2.6.3.2.2. and shall be selected as
appropriate for the relevant mode of vehicle operation and the functionality of the
protection system. Alternatively, the procedure for charging the REESS for
vehicle-based test shall be in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.6.3.2.3. For
component-based test, the charging procedure shall be in accordance with
Paragraph 8.2.6.3.2.4.

8.2.6.3.2.3. Charge by Connecting Breakout Harness (Vehicle-based Test)
This procedure is applicable to vehicle-based tests for both externally chargeable
vehicles and vehicles that can be charged only by on-board energy sources and
for which the manufacturer provides information to connect a breakout harness to
a location just outside the REESS that permits charging of the REESS:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The breakout harness is connected to the vehicle as specified by the
manufacturer. The trip current/voltage setting of the external
charge-discharge equipment shall be at least 10% higher than the
current/voltage limit of the tested-device. The external electricity supply
equipment is connected to the breakout harness. The REESS shall be
charged by the external electricity power supply with the maximum charge
current specified by the manufacturer;
The charging shall be terminated when the vehicle's overcharge protection
control terminates the REESS charge current. Where vehicle's overcharge
protection control fails to operate, or if there is no such control, the charging
shall be continued until the REESS temperature is 10°C above its maximum
operating temperature specified by the manufacturer. In the case where
charge current is not terminated and where the REESS temperature
remains less than 10°C above the maximum operating temperature, vehicle
operation shall be terminated 12h after the start of charging by external
electricity supply equipment;
Immediately after the termination of charging, one standard cycle as
described in Paragraph 8.2.1.1. (for a complete vehicle) shall be conducted,
if it is not prohibited by the vehicle.
8.2.6.3.2.4. Charge by External Electricity Supply (Component-based Test)
This procedure is applicable to component-based test:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The external charge/discharge equipment shall be connected to the main
terminals of the REESS. The charge control limits of the test equipment
shall be disabled;
The REESS shall be charged by the external charge/discharge equipment
with the maximum charge current specified by the manufacturer. The
charging shall be terminated when the REESS overcharge protection
control terminates the REESS charge current. Where overcharge protection
control of the REESS fails to operate, or if there is no such control, the
charging shall be continued until the REESS temperature reaches 10°C
above its maximum operating temperature specified by the manufacturer. In
the case where charge current is not terminated and where the REESS
temperature remains less than 10°C above the maximum operating
temperature, vehicle operation shall be terminated 12h after the start of
charging by external electricity supply equipment;
Immediately after the termination of charging, one standard cycle as
described in Paragraph 8.2.1.1. shall be conducted, if it is not prohibited by
the REESS, with external charge-discharge equipment.
8.2.6.4. The test shall end with an observation period of 1h at the ambient temperature
conditions of the test environment.

8.2.7.3.2.1. Discharge by Vehicle Driving Operation
This procedure is applicable to the vehicle-based tests in active driving possible
mode:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The vehicle shall be driven on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle
operation on a chassis dynamometer (e.g. simulation of continuous driving
at steady speed) that will deliver as constant discharging power as
reasonably achievable shall be determined, if necessary, through
consultation with the manufacturer;
The REESS shall be discharged by the vehicle operation on a chassis
dynamometer in accordance with Paragraph 8.2.7.3.2.1.(a). The vehicle
operation on the chassis dynamometer shall be terminated when the
vehicle's over-discharge protection control terminates REESS discharge
current or the temperature of the REESS is stabilised such that the
temperature varies by a gradient of less than 4°C through 2h. Where an
over-discharge protection control fails to operate, or if there is no such
control, then the discharging shall be continued until the REESS is
discharged to 25% of its nominal voltage level;
Immediately after the termination of discharging, one standard charge
followed by a standard discharge as described in Paragraph 8.2.1.1. shall
be conducted if it is not prohibited by the vehicle.
8.2.7.3.2.2. Discharge by Auxiliary Electrical Equipment (Vehicle-based Test)
This procedure is applicable to the vehicle-based tests in stationary condition:
(a)
(b)
(c)
The vehicle shall be switched in to a stationary operation mode that allow
consumption of electrical energy from REESS by auxiliary electrical
equipment. Such an operation mode shall be determined, if necessary,
through consultation with the manufacturer. Equipments (e.g. wheel chocks)
that prevent the vehicle movement may be used as appropriate to ensure
the safety during the test;
The REESS shall be discharged by the operation of electrical equipment,
air-conditioning, heating, lighting, audio-visual equipment, etc., that can be
switched on under the conditions given in Paragraph 8.2.7.3.2.2.(a). The
operation shall be terminated when the vehicle's over-discharge protection
control terminates REESS discharge current or the temperature of the
REESS is stabilised such that the temperature varies by a gradient of less
than 4°C through 2h. Where an over-discharge protection control fails to
operate, or if there is no such control, then the discharging shall be
continued until the REESS is discharged to 25% of its nominal voltage level;
Immediately after the termination of discharging, one standard charge
followed by a standard discharge as described in Paragraph 8.2.1.1. shall
be conducted if it is not prohibited by the vehicle.

8.2.8. Over-temperature Protection Test
8.2.8.1. Purpose
The purpose of this test is to verify the performance of the protection measures of
the REESS against internal overheating during operation. In the case that no
specific protection measures are necessary to prevent the REESS from reaching
an unsafe state due to internal over-temperature, this safe operation must be
demonstrated.
8.2.8.2. The test may be conducted with a complete REESS according to
Paragraphs 8.2.8.3. and 8.2.8.4. or with a complete vehicle according to
Paragraphs 8.2.8.5 and 8.2.8.6.
8.2.8.3. Installation for Test Conducted Using a Complete REESS
8.2.8.3.1. Ancillary systems that do not influence to the test results may be omitted from the
tested-device. The test may be performed with a modified tested-device provided
these modifications shall not influence the test results.
8.2.8.3.2. Where a REESS is fitted with a cooling function and where the REESS will remain
functional in delivering its normal power without a cooling function system being
operational, the cooling system shall be deactivated for the test.
8.2.8.3.3. The temperature of the tested-device shall be continuously measured inside the
casing in the proximity of the cells during the test in order to monitor the changes
of the temperature. The on-board sensors, if existing, may be used with
compatible tools to read the signal.
8.2.8.3.4. The REESS shall be placed in a convective oven or climatic chamber. If
necessary, for conduction the test, the REESS shall be connected to the rest of
vehicle control system with extended cables. An external charge/discharge
equipment may be connected under supervision by the vehicle manufacturer.
8.2.8.4. Test procedures for test conducted using a complete REESS
8.2.8.4.1. At the beginning of the test, all protection devices which affect the function of the
tested-device and are relevant to the outcome of the test shall be operational,
except for any system deactivation implemented in accordance with
Paragraph 8.2.8.3.2.
8.2.8.4.2. The tested-device shall be continuously charged and discharged by the external
charge/discharge equipment with a current that will increase the temperature of
cells as rapidly as possible within the range of normal operation as defined by the
manufacturer until the end of the test. Alternatively, the charge and discharge may
be conducted by vehicle driving operations on chassis dynamometer where the
driving operation shall be determined through consultation with the manufacturer
to achieve the conditions above.

8.2.8.6. Test Procedures for Test Conducted Using a Complete Vehicle
8.2.8.6.1. The vehicle shall be continuously charged and discharged in a manner that will
increases the temperature of REESS cells as rapidly as possible within the range
of normal operation as defined by the manufacturer until the end of the test.
The charge and discharge will be conducted by vehicle driving operations on
chassis dynamometer where the driving operation shall be determined through
consultation with the manufacturer to achieve the conditions above.
For a vehicle that can be charged by an external power supply, the charging may
be conducted using an external power supply if more rapid temperature increase
is expected.
8.2.8.6.2. The test will end when one of the followings is observed
(a)
(b)
The vehicle terminates the charge and/or discharge;
The temperature of the REESS is stabilised such that the temperature
varies by a gradient of less than 4°C through 2h;
(c) Any failure of the acceptance criteria prescribed in Paragraph 7.3.8.;
(d)
3h elapse from the time of starting the charge/discharge cycles in
Paragraph 8.2.8.6.1.
8.2.9. Reserved
8.2.10. Mechanical Shock Test
8.2.10.1. Purpose
8.2.10.2. Installations
The purpose of this test is to verify the safety performance of the REESS under
inertial loads which may occur during a vehicle crash.
8.2.10.2.1. This test shall be conducted either with the complete REESS or with REESS
subsystem(s). If the manufacturer chooses to test with REESS subsystem(s), the
manufacturer shall demonstrate that the test result can reasonably represent the
performance of the complete REESS with respect to its safety performance under
the same conditions. If the electronic management unit for the REESS is not
integrated in the casing enclosing the cells, then the electronic management unit
may be omitted from installation on the tested-device if so requested by the
manufacturer.
8.2.10.2.2. The tested-device shall be connected to the test fixture only by the intended
mountings provided for the purpose of attaching the REESS or REESS subsystem
to the vehicle.

Table 7
Values for Vehicles with GVM between 3,500kg and 12,000kg
Acceleration (g)
Point
Time (ms)
Longitudinal
Transverse
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
20
50
65
100

Figure 1
Determination of Hydrogen Emissions during the Charge Procedures of the REESS

4.3. Temperature Recording
4.3.1. The temperature in the chamber is recorded at two points by temperature sensors, which
are connected so as to show a mean value. The measuring points are extended
approximately 0.1m into the enclosure from the vertical centre line of each side-wall at a
height of 0.9 ± 0.2m.
4.3.2. The temperatures in the proximity of the cells are recorded by means of the sensors.
4.3.3. Temperatures shall, throughout the hydrogen emission measurements, be recorded at a
frequency of at least once per minute.
4.3.4. The accuracy of the temperature recording system shall be within ±1.0K and the
temperature shall be capable of being resolved to ±0.1K.
4.3.5. The recording or data processing system shall be capable of resolving time to ±15s.
4.4. Pressure Recording
4.4.1. The difference ∆p between barometric pressure within the test area and the enclosure
internal pressure shall, throughout the hydrogen emission measurements, be recorded at a
frequency of at least once per minute.
4.4.2. The accuracy of the pressure recording system shall be within ±2hPa and the pressure shall
be capable of being resolved to ±0.2hPa.
4.4.3. The recording or data processing system shall be capable of resolving time to ±15s.
4.5. Voltage and Current Intensity Recording
4.5.1. The charger voltage and current intensity (battery) shall, throughout the hydrogen emission
measurements, be recorded at a frequency of at least once per minute.
4.5.2. The accuracy of the voltage recording system shall be within ±1V and the voltage shall be
capable of being resolved to ±0.1V.
4.5.3. The accuracy of the current intensity recording system shall be within ±0.5A and the current
intensity shall be capable of being resolved to ±0.05A.
4.5.4. The recording or data processing system shall be capable of resolving time to ±15s.
4.6. Fans
The chamber shall be equipped with one or more fans or blowers with a possible flow of
0.1 to 0.5m /s in order to thoroughly mix the atmosphere in the enclosure. It shall be
possible to reach a homogeneous temperature and hydrogen concentration in the chamber
during measurements. The vehicle in the enclosure shall not be subjected to a direct stream
of air from the fans or blowers.

5.1.1.2. Initial Charge of the REESS
The charge is carried out:
(a)
with the charger;
(b) In an ambient temperature between 293K and 303K.
The procedure excludes all types of external chargers.
The end of REESS charge criteria corresponds to an automatic stop given by the charger.
This procedure includes all types of special charges that could be automatically or manually
initiated like, for instance, the equalisation charges or the servicing charges.
5.1.1.3. Procedure from Paragraphs 5.1.1.1. and 5.1.1.2. shall be repeated 2 times.
5.1.2. Discharge of the REESS
The REESS is discharged while driving on the test track or on a chassis dynamometer at a
steady speed of 70 ± 5% from the maximum thirty minutes speed of the vehicle.
Stopping the discharge occurs:
(a)
(b)
When an indication to stop the vehicle is given to the driver by the standard on-board
instrumentation, or
When the maximum speed of the vehicle is lower than 20km/h.
5.1.3. Soak
within fifteen minutes of completing the battery discharge operation specified in
Paragraph 5.2., the vehicle is parked in the soak area. The vehicle is parked for a minimum
of 12h and a maximum of 36h, between the end of the traction battery discharge and the
start of the hydrogen emission test during a normal charge. For this period, the vehicle shall
be soaked at 293 ± 2K.
5.1.4. Hydrogen Emission Test During a Normal Charge
5.1.4.1. Before the completion of the soak period, the measuring chamber shall be purged for
several minutes until a stable hydrogen background is obtained. The enclosure mixing
fan(s) shall also be turned on at this time.
5.1.4.2. The hydrogen analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the test.
5.1.4.3. At the end of the soak, the test vehicle, with the engine shut off and the test vehicle windows
and luggage compartment opened shall be moved into the measuring chamber.
5.1.4.4. The vehicle shall be connected to the mains. The REESS is charged according to normal
charge procedure as specified in Paragraph 5.1.4.7. below.
5.1.4.5. The enclosure doors are closed and sealed gas-tight within 2min from electrical interlock of
the normal charge step.

5.1.5.8. The start of a failure charge for hydrogen emission test period begins when the chamber is
sealed. The hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to
give the initial readings C , T and P for the failure charge test.
These figures are used in the hydrogen emission calculation (Paragraph 6. of this Annex).
The ambient enclosure temperature T shall not be less than 291K and no more than 295K
during the charging failure period.
5.1.5.9. Procedure of Charging Failure
The charging failure is carried out with the suitable charger and consists of the following
steps:
(a) Charging at constant power during t' ;
(b)
Charging at maximum current as recommended by the manufacturer during 30min.
During this phase, the charger shall supply maximum current as recommended by the
manufacturer.
5.1.5.10. The hydrogen analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately before the end of the test.
5.1.5.11. The end of test period occurs t' + 30min after the beginning of the initial sampling, as
specified in Paragraph 5.1.5.8. above. The times elapsed are recorded. The hydrogen
concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the final readings
C , T and P for the charging failure test, used for the calculation in Paragraph 6 of this
Annex.
5.2. Component Based Test
5.2.1. REESS Preparation
The ageing of REESS shall be checked, to confirm that the REESS has performed at least
5 standard cycles (as specified in Paragraph 6.2.1.).
5.2.2. Discharge of the REESS
5.2.3. Soak
The REESS is discharged at 70 ± 5% of the nominal power of the system.
Stopping the discharge occurs when minimum SOC as specified by the manufacturer is
reached.
within 15min of the end of the REESS discharge operation specified in Paragraph 5.2.2.
above, and before the start of the hydrogen emission test, the REESS shall be soaked at
293 ± 2K for a minimum period of 12h and a maximum of period of 36h.
5.2.4. Hydrogen Emission Test During a Normal Charge
5.2.4.1. Before the completion of the REESS's soak period, the measuring chamber shall be purged
for several minutes until a stable hydrogen background is obtained. The enclosure mixing
fan(s) shall also be turned on at this time.
5.2.4.2. The hydrogen analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the test.

5.2.5.6. The REESS shall be charged according to the failure charge procedure as specified in
Paragraph 5.2.5.9. below.
5.2.5.7. The chamber shall be closed and sealed gas-tight within 2min from electrical interlock of the
failure charge step.
5.2.5.8. The start of a failure charge for hydrogen emission test period begins when the chamber is
sealed. The hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to
give the initial readings C , T and P for the failure charge test.
These figures are used in the hydrogen emission calculation (Paragraph 6. of this Annex).
The ambient enclosure temperature T shall not be less than 291K and no more than 295K
during the charging failure period.
5.2.5.9. Procedure of Charging Failure
The charging failure is carried out with a suitable charger and consists of the following
steps:
(a) Charging at constant power during t' ;
(b)
Charging at maximum current as recommended by the manufacturer during 30min.
During this phase, the charger shall supply maximum current as recommended by the
manufacturer.
5.2.5.10. The hydrogen analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately before the end of the test.
5.2.5.11. The end of test period occurs t' + 30min after the beginning of the initial sampling, as
specified in Paragraph 5.2.5.8. above. The times elapsed are recorded. The hydrogen
concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the final readings
C , T and P for the charging failure test, used for the calculation in Paragraph 6. below.
6. CALCULATION
The hydrogen emission tests described in Paragraph 5. above allow the calculation of the
hydrogen emissions from the normal charge and charging failure phases. Hydrogen
emissions from each of these phases are calculated using the initial and final hydrogen
concentrations, temperatures and pressures in the enclosure, together with the net
enclosure volume.
The formula below is used:

ANNEX 1 – APPENDIX 1
CALIBRATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR HYDROGEN EMISSION TESTING
1. CALIBRATION FREQUENCY AND METHODS
All equipment shall be calibrated before its initial use and then calibrated as often as
necessary and in any case in the month before type approval testing. The calibration methods
to be used are described in this appendix.
2. CALIBRATION OF THE ENCLOSURE
2.1. Initial Determination of Enclosure Internal Volume
2.1.1. Before its initial use, the internal volume of the chamber shall be determined as follows. The
internal dimensions of the chamber are carefully measured, taking into account any
irregularities such as bracing struts. The internal volume of the chamber is determined from
these measurements.
The enclosure shall be latched to a fixed volume when the enclosure is held at an ambient
temperature of 293K. This nominal volume shall be repeatable within ±0.5% of the reported
value.
2.1.2. The net internal volume is determined by subtracting 1.42m from the internal volume of the
chamber. Alternatively the volume of the test vehicle with the luggage compartment and
windows open or REESS may be used instead of the 1.42m .
2.1.3. The chamber shall be checked as in Paragraph 2.3. of this Annex. If the hydrogen mass does
not agree with the injected mass to within ±2% then corrective action is required.
2.2. Determination of Chamber Background Emissions
This operation determines that the chamber does not contain any materials that emit
significant amounts of hydrogen. The check shall be carried out at the enclosure's
introduction to service, after any operations in the enclosure which may affect background
emissions and at a frequency of at least once per year.
2.2.1. Variable-volume enclosure may be operated in either latched or unlatched volume
configuration, as described in Paragraph 2.1.1. above. Ambient temperature shall be
maintained at 293 ± 2K, throughout the 4h period mentioned below.
2.2.2. The enclosure may be sealed and the mixing fan operated for a period of up to 12h before the
4h background-sampling period begins.
2.2.3. The analyser (if required) shall be calibrated, then zeroed and spanned.
2.2.4. The enclosure shall be purged until a stable hydrogen reading is obtained, and the mixing fan
turned on if not already on.
2.2.5. The chamber is then sealed and the background hydrogen concentration, temperature and
barometric pressure are measured. These are the initial readings C , T and P used in the
enclosure background calculation.

2.4. Calculation
The calculation of net hydrogen mass change within the enclosure is used to determine the
chamber's hydrocarbon background and leak rate. Initial and final readings of hydrogen
concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are used in the following formula to
calculate the mass change.
Where:
M = hydrogen mass, in grams
C = measured hydrogen concentration into the enclosure, in ppm volume
V
= enclosure volume in cubic metres (m ) as measured in Paragraph 2.1.1. above.
V = compensation volume in m , at the test temperature and pressure
T
P
= ambient chamber temperature, in K
= absolute enclosure pressure, in kPa
k = 2.42
Where:
i is the initial reading
f is the final reading
3. CALIBRATION OF THE HYDROGEN ANALYSER
The analyser should be calibrated using hydrogen in air and purified synthetic air. See
Paragraph 4.8.2. of Annex 1.
Each of the normally used operating ranges is calibrated by the following procedure:
3.1. Establish the calibration curve by at least five calibration points spaced as evenly as possible
over the operating range. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas with the highest
concentrations to be at least 80% of the full scale.
3.2. Calculate the calibration curve by the method of least squares. If the resulting polynomial
degree is greater than 3, then the number of calibration points shall be at least the number of
the polynomial degree plus 2.
3.3. The calibration curve shall not differ by more than 2% from the nominal value of each
calibration gas.

ANNEX 2
VERIFICATION METHOD FOR TESTING AUTHORITIES CONFIRMING DOCUMENT BASED
ISOLATION RESISTANCE COMPLIANCE OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN OF THE VEHICLE AFTER
WATER EXPOSURE
This Annex describes the applicable requirements when certifying the manufacturers' high voltage
equipment or system components against adverse water effects rather than a physical test. As a general
rule, the electrical design or components of the vehicles shall comply with the requirements as specified
in Paragraphs "5.1.1.1. or 7.1.1.1. Protection against direct contact, 5.1.1.2. or 7.1.1.2. Protection against
indirect contact", and 5.1.1.2.4. or 7.1.1.2.4. respectively. Isolation resistance and this will be separately
verified by the testing authority. Vehicle manufacturers shall provide information to testing authorities to
identify, as a point of reference, the mounting location for each high-voltage component in/on the vehicle.
1. Documentation shall contain the following information:
(a)
(b)
on how the manufacturer tested isolation resistance compliance of electrical design of
the vehicle by using fresh water;
on how, after the test had been carried out, the high-voltage component or system was
inspected for ingress of water and how, depending on its mounting location, each high
voltage component/system met the appropriate degree of protection against water.
2. The testing authority will verify and confirm the authencity of documented conditions that have
been observed, and should have been complied with, during the process of certification by
manufacturer:
2.1. It is permitted that, during the test, the moisture contained inside the enclosure is partly
condensed. The dew which may be deposited is not considered as ingress of water. For the
purpose of the tests, the surface area of the tested high-voltage component or system is
calculated with an accuracy of 10%. If possible, the tested high-voltage component or system is
run energized. If the tested high-voltage component or system is energized, adequate safety
precautions are taken.
2.2. For electrical components, externally attached (e.g. in engine compartment), open underneath,
both exposed or protected locations, the testing authority shall verify, with a view to confirming
the compliance, whether the test is conducted by spraying the high-voltage component or
system from all practicable directions with a stream of water from a standard test nozzle as
shown in Figure 1. The following parameters are observed during the test in particular:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Nozzle internal diameter: 6.3mm;
Delivery rate: 11.9 – 13.2l/min;
Water pressure at the nozzle: approximately 30kPa (0.3bar);
Test duration per m of surface area of the tested high-voltage component or system:
1min;
Minimum test duration: 3min;

Figure 2
IEC 927/01
Splashing Test Nozzle
Note:
1.
Cock
7.
Spray nozzle – brass with 121 holes Ø0,5:
2.
Pressure gauge
1 hole in centre
3.
Hose
2 inner circles of 12 holes at 30° pitch
4.
Moving shield – aluminium
4 outer circles of 24 holes at 15° pitch
5.
Spray nozzle
8.
Machine under test
6.
Counter weight
3. The entire high voltage system or each component is checked to comply with the isolation
resistance requirement in Paragraph 5.1.1.2.4. or Paragraph 7.1.1.2.4. with the following
conditions:
(a)
(b)
The electric chassis shall be simulated by an electric conductor, e.g. a metal plate, and
the components are attached with their standard mounting devices to it;
Cables, where provided, shall be connected to the component.
4. The parts designed not to be wet during operation are not allowed to be wet and no
accumulation of water which could have reached them is tolerated inside the high-voltage
component or system.
Electric Vehicle Safety (EVS).