Global Technical Regulation No. 22

Name:Global Technical Regulation No. 22
Description:In-vehicle Battery Durability for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.
Official Title:United Nations Global Technical Regulation on In-vehicle Battery Durability for Electrified Vehicles.
Country:ECE - United Nations
Date of Issue:2022-04-14
Amendment Level:Original
Number of Pages:40
Vehicle Types:Car, Component, Light Truck
Subject Categories:Electrical and Electronic, Emissions and Fuel Consumption
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Keywords:

battery, vehicle, vehicles, range, socr, gtr, part, energy, soce, durability, ube, values, verification, electric, performance, test, certified, annex, mpr, measured, data, manufacturer, manufacturers, degradation, means, determined, monitors, family, iwg, monitor, procedure, sample, life, requirements, number, years, capacity, case, time, electrified, distance, information, table, usable, technical, certification, power, selected, batteries, testing

Text Extract:

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ECE/TRANS/180/Add.22
April 14, 2022
GLOBAL REGISTRY
Created on November 18, 2004, Pursuant to Article 6 of the
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL
REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH
CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES
(ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1)
DONE AT GENEVA ON JUNE 25, 1998
Addendum 22:
UNITED NATIONS GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 22
UNITED NATIONS GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON IN-VEHICLE BATTERY
DURABILITY FOR ELECTRIFIED VEHICLES
(ESTABLISHED IN THE GLOBAL REGISTRY ON MARCH 9, 2022)

UN GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION NO. 22
UN GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON IN-VEHICLE BATTERY DURABILITY FOR
ELECTRIFIED VEHICLES
I. STATEMENT OF TECHNICAL RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION
A. INTRODUCTION
1. Owing to the pressing need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and other air
pollutants, the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to grow in the future. A key
component of these vehicles is the traction battery that is used to store and deliver energy
to power the movement of the vehicle and the systems within it. Improvements in the
performance of batteries to deliver increased driving range, reduced charging times and
greater affordability are a significant focus for manufacturers and technological
developments in this area are expected to accelerate the uptake of electrified vehicles by
consumers.
2. Despite the expected improvements in the performance of new electrified vehicles, the
continued in-use performance of the battery over time is not currently regulated. The
primary motivation for this GTR therefore stems from the recognition that the environmental
performance of electrified vehicles may be affected by excess degradation of the battery
system over time.
3. Loss of electric range and loss of vehicle energy efficiency are both primary concerns. Loss
of electric range could lead to a loss of utility, meaning electric vehicles are driven less and
therefore displace less distance travelled that might otherwise be driven in conventional
vehicles. A loss in utility could also dampen consumer sentiment and curb the market
growth necessary for electric vehicle sales to deliver on fleet emissions reductions. Loss of
vehicle efficiency could impact the upstream emissions by increasing the amount of
electricity needed per vehicle distance travelled. Both can affect not only the utility of the
vehicle to the consumer, but also the environmental performance of the vehicle. Loss of
environmental performance is important, in particular because governmental regulatory
compliance programs often credit electrified vehicles with a certain level of expected
environmental benefit, which might not be realized over the life of the vehicle if excess
battery degradation occurs.
4. In addition to changes in range and energy consumption, hybrid electric vehicles are often
equipped with both a conventional and electric powertrain, and for these vehicles the criteria
pollutant emissions from the conventional powertrain could be impacted by the degradation
of the battery over time.
5. This GTR therefore aims to provide a harmonised methodology to address these concerns
by introducing a method by which the health of the battery can be monitored over time and
by setting minimum performance requirements for the durability of the battery.

(iii)
A provisional in-service conformity test which will include generic usage criteria
and a statistical method.
Phase 2:
(b)
Develop a second version of the UN GTR on in-vehicle battery durability with the
following:
(i)
(ii)
The development of a methodology to define Normal Usage Indices (NUI)
based on data read from vehicles
Refined performance criteria requirements for in-vehicle battery durability
through assessment of further modelling and data collected from real vehicles
and the use of NUIs
C. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
Battery Degradation in Electrified Vehicles
12. The effect of battery degradation on environmental performance is likely to differ
significantly among the various electrified vehicle architectures (PEV, OVC-HEV and
NOVC-HEV). The primary forms of battery degradation are capacity degradation and power
degradation. Capacity degradation is the loss of energy capacity, resulting in a loss of
electric driving range (for PEVs and OVC-HEVs) and possibly increased use of the engine
during hybrid operation (for NOVC-HEVs). Power degradation is the loss of battery power,
which can also lead to increased use of the engine for OVC-HEV and NOVC-HEVs and
possibly reduced performance of the vehicle overall.
13. There are at least six major vehicle operating parameters that affect in-vehicle battery
durability. Each differs in importance depending on electrified vehicle architecture:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Discharge rates, as determined by vehicle duty cycle and operator use including, but
not limited to, vehicle speed, auxiliary loads, towing, payload and ambient conditions;
Charge rates, as determined by type (normal, fast, super-fast) and frequency of
charging;
State of charge (SOC) window used in system operation of the battery and the
amount typically used between charge events (depth of discharge);
Battery temperature during operation (operation includes all temperature exposures
from vehicle purchase through retirement, both while being operated and during
periods of charging and inactivity);
Time (calendar life);
Other uses not reflected in calendar life or distance travelled, such as Vehicle to Grid
(V2G).

19. A number of further measures are employed by manufacturers to limit battery degradation.
These typically include, but are not limited to, the use of properly optimised battery
management systems (BMS) and battery thermal management. BMS can reduce stress on
the battery and prolong battery life by controlling some operations to protect the battery
cells, maintain cell charge balancing and moderate the battery temperature. For example,
BMS might control enhanced cooling systems, limit fast charging events through modulation
of the charging current, control the available state of charge window, keep the cell voltages
balanced, or reduce the maximum available torque as necessary to protect battery health.
The inputs to BMS can include anything from ambient conditions and driver behaviour to
individual cell metrics. Each manufacturer, vehicle, battery and cell could have unique and
highly optimised BMS, that are updated and improved with every iteration. BMS are very
complex and generally considered highly proprietary and should not be tampered with out of
environmental and safety concerns. Another important factor is the battery thermal
management capability. While some batteries are only passively cooled by ambient air,
others are actively cooled and heated by use of forced air, liquid coolant, or refrigerant,
which leads to greater BMS control over battery operating temperature and hence longer
life.
Prediction and/or Estimation of Battery Degradation
20. Accelerated aging is a familiar technique used by many manufacturers as a component of
their battery durability testing methods. This technique assumes that a regime of rapid aging
cycles can be translated to a projected useful life in service. However, it is uncertain
whether the translation from accelerated aging to an in-use life projection is equally
applicable to all forms of lithium-ion chemistries either currently in use or in the future.
21. One of the major mechanisms by which capacity and power degradation occurs in these
chemistries is the microscopic fragmentation that accompanies swelling and contraction of
anode and cathode materials during cycling. Specific chemistries differ significantly in this
respect, suggesting that the relation between rapid cycling and long-term cycling may also
differ significantly. An accelerated test that accurately projects useful life for one chemistry
may therefore predict poor life for another chemistry, even though both chemistries may
achieve an equal life in actual use.
22. Furthermore, accelerated ageing cannot take into account the real use of batteries inside
vehicles and therefore can only partially estimate the real degradation.
23. To monitor degradation in-use, most manufacturers employ some form of in situ, on-board
capacity estimation through the BMS. This estimation can vary in accuracy and precision
depending on a number of factors including the sensors and estimation algorithm used, the
charge/discharge behaviour of the user, and the cell type and cell model parameters.
Proprietary algorithms are used to handle inaccuracies and output an estimate that can be
utilised by other systems within the vehicle.
24. There are currently no requirements on the accuracy of on-board monitors and the
estimates generated are not typically easily accessible to the vehicle user. The IWG on EVE
has therefore made a decision to set the performance requirement in this field.

Battery Performance Requirements
30. The key battery durability requirements set out within this GTR are defined in terms of MPR.
MPR are expressed as a minimum allowable value of SOCE or SOCR after a given length
of time or distance travelled. This follows a similar format applied by manufacturers when
providing warranty for electrified vehicles.
31. In determining appropriate MPR values for this GTR the IWG on EVE considered a range of
publicly available data as well as input from stakeholders within the IWG, which is
summarised Paragraphs 32. to 37. below.
32. Warranty analysis was conducted by the US EPA to understand the current warranty
offering from manufacturers for electric vehicle batteries. The review primarily focussed on
the US market, but values were also consistent with typical offerings within the European
market. The review showed that batteries are covered for failure for between 7 to 10 years
and typically up to 160,000km . Warranties that define failure in terms of a specific capacity
retention specified between 60 and 75% retention, most commonly 70%. Warranty offerings
of 8 years or 160,000km were found to be the most common. It has been highlighted by
manufacturers that warranty offerings are not based solely on the technical performance of
the battery and include further considerations from a commercial and customer satisfaction
perspective. Nevertheless, the review provides an insight into the degree of confidence in
products currently on the market.
33. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has developed a dedicated
in-vehicle battery durability assessment module within its 'Transport Technology and
Mobility Assessment' (TEMA) platform. This is based on performance-based models as this
class of models is the most suitable to be used with large-scale real-world driving data.
TEMA is a modular big data platform designed to reproduce mobility behaviours of vehicles
from datasets of navigation system data of conventional fuel vehicles and quantify possible
impacts of new vehicle technologies on real-world mobility while supporting transport policy
assessment.
34. TEMA combines recent performance-based capacity and power fade models for Lithium-ion
batteries from literature with information on battery and vehicle architectures, together with
real world vehicle driving data from different geographical areas of Europe, to develop a
scenario-based analysis for predicting in-vehicle performance degradation of automotive
traction batteries. The analysis includes the calendar and cycle capacity fade of three
Lithium-ion variants (LiFePO , NCM with spinel Mn and NCM-LMO) in different vehicle
architectures (OVC-HEV and PEV of different driving range segments), combined with
different recharging strategies to explore the effect of different driving duty cycles related to
different mobility patterns and environmental temperatures. Preliminary analyses on vehicle
battery power fade have been also carried out.
35. The TEMA model was used to estimate the capacity retention of traction batteries after a
range of distances and time periods to allow consideration of appropriate choices for MPR.
Example TEMA modelling results in Figure I/1 for two different mid-sized BEVs
configurations either charged with slow or fast charging show greater than 70% capacity
retention after 8 years. This result is generally consistent with prevailing warranty practice
observed in the warranty survey. Additionally, good agreement was previously found
between TEMA modelling results and electric vehicle lifetime performance testing data
provided by Environment and Climate Change Canada and Transport Canada during work
within the previous mandate of the IWG on EVE.

Figure I/2
Example Comparison Between Estimated Results from the TEMA Model with In-use Data from
Geotab
37. Further analysis of the publicly available Geotab data was conducted by Japan and the
Alliance for Automotive Innovation, where available SOH data was extrapolated to time
points of 5 and 8 years to understand the expected SOH. Japan's analysis indicated that
90% of the vehicle models within the sample were able to achieve approximately 80% SOH
after 5 years and 70% after 8 years. The Alliance for Automotive Innovation conducted
similar analysis, but also included probability estimates which indicated that between 85 and
90% of the current fleet covered by the Geotab data would be able to meet an 80% SOH
target after 5 years.
38. Following consideration of the available evidence and views of stakeholders within the IWG
on EVE, two sets of MPR values were introduced based upon two different time and
distance combinations. This approach allows coverage of the wide range of different
distance-based requirements needed across Contracting Parties and provides the option for
a Contracting Party to optionally apply only one of the MPR if appropriate for their market.
39. The MPR values selected were deemed to be sufficiently achievable based on the available
evidence presented within the IWG, whilst also being sufficiently stringent to achieve the
goal of preventing substandard products from entering the market. Following discussion
within the IWG, the same MPR were set for OVC-HEVs and PEVs.
40. It was highlighted by manufacturers that the understanding and estimation of SOCR after a
given duration of use or distance travelled currently presents an increased challenge
compared to SOCE. There are many factors other than those originating from the battery
leading to greater uncertainty of SOCR, including the measurement, test to test variability
and precision of range retention calculations. As the majority of the evidence assessed by
the IWG was also based primarily on remaining capacity or battery energy, it was decided to
only monitor but not subject SOCR to an MPR requirement within Phase 1. No electric
range based MPR have been selected at this point in time due to the above concerns with
SOCR estimation. Inclusion of MPR for SOCR in future has, however, been highlighted as
an area of importance for a number of Contracting Parties. Therefore, a placeholder for
these values has been included to allow inclusion within a future amendment to the GTR.

In-use verification
44. To ensure the accuracy of the SOCE/SOCR monitors and also ensure that MPR are being
met it was necessary to introduce a two part in-use verification process, with Part A verifying
the accuracy of the monitors and Part B verifying the battery durability against MPR.
45. Part A verification involves measurement of the UBE/electric range under the applicable test
procedure and determination of a measured SOCE/SOCR by dividing by the respective
values from certification. These measured values can then be compared to the on-board
values from the SOCE/SOCR monitors to ensure the accuracy is within a given tolerance.
For this purpose, the resolution of the on-board values from SOCE/SOCR was set to 1 part
in 100, and the required accuracy defined by a statistical process as described below.
46. A pass or fail decision on a sample of vehicles will be reached through a statistical process,
which evaluates the average of the ratios of measured/on-board-indicated SOCE/SOCR
from a series of vehicles tested. After testing a minimum of 3 vehicles a decision on either a
pass or fail decision or on testing a further vehicle will be reached, on the basis of a
statistical formula considering the quantitative deviation of the latter average from a value
A = (1 + tolerance) and the variance of these ratios over the whole test series with a
tolerance = 5% granted for a single test due to technical reasons. The method proposed is
particularly suitable for cases where a quantity (such as SOCE/SOCR) is likely to differ from
the 'true' measured quantity continuously and reflects the method used for evaluating the
conformity of production (CoP) in UN Regulation No. 154.
47. As Part A verification is expected to involve a relatively small number of sample vehicles to
limit the testing burden, it is important to ensure that the sample result is not unduly
impacted by the abnormal use or poor maintenance of a vehicle within the sample. A vehicle
survey has therefore been introduced within Annex 1 containing information designed to
ensure that the vehicle has been properly used and maintained according to the
specifications of the manufacturer. Any vehicles not meeting the required criteria may be
removed from the test sample.
48. Due to the accuracy of the SOCE/SOCR monitors being assured through verification in
Part A, it is possible to verify the battery durability of a sample of vehicles within Part B
through remote collection of the on-board SOCE/SOCR values, together with information on
the age of the vehicles and the distance travelled. Where a vehicle has been equipped with
V2X capabilities, an equivalent virtual distance will be calculated using the V2X discharge
energy and the certified energy consumption. This will be summed with the distance
travelled to calculate the total distance. This approach avoids the need for further testing of
vehicles within Part B and enables a simple route to the assessment of a large sample size
of vehicles, thereby minimising the impact that outliers (e.g. vehicles that have been used
abnormally) may have on the sample result.
49. It is recognised that SOCE/SOCR values read from a sample of vehicles are likely to be in
the form of a distribution, with values for individual vehicles dependent on the vehicle usage
and any inherent variation in the performance of the vehicle or traction battery. Where a
vehicle has been used abnormally (e.g. with prolonged periods of storage or being regularly
used in extremes of temperature) this may also give rise to more significant degradation of
battery health. To reduce the impact of vehicles that may have been used abnormally, it was
decided to make the overall pass decision dependent on more than or equal to 90% of
monitor values read from the vehicle sample being above the MPR. This approach thereby
ensures that the MPR is being met by the significant majority of the vehicle sample, whilst
accounting for abnormal usage.

F. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GTR
57. The mandate for development of this GTR included the future development of
improvements to the GTR within Phase 2 that includes, but not limited to:
(a)
(b)
The development of a methodology to define Normal Usage Indices (NUIs) based on
data read from vehicles; and
Refined performance criteria requirements for in-vehicle battery durability through
assessment of further modelling and data collected from real vehicles and the use of
NUIs.
58. The concept of an NUI is a data field stored on the vehicle that represents a history or
assessment of lifetime usage patterns of the vehicle that are influential to battery
degradation. For example, one NUI might characterise temperature exposures during the
life of the vehicle, while another might characterise charging rates or number of
fast-charging events. The definition of NUIs was highlighted within the discussions of the
IWG on EVE as a technically challenging task that will require further data collection and
validation to achieve. It could, however, provide an alternative and more robust means of
handling SOCE/SOCR values recorded from vehicles that have been used abnormally in
future. The possibility of incorporating NUIs within this GTR should therefore be explored.
59. The implementation of this GTR by Contracting Parties will enable the collection of further
data on SOCE and SOCR to better inform our understanding of battery health degradation.
This information will, in turn, allow further refinement of the GTR, including MPR values,
based upon the latest available battery technologies employed within the market. This will
be important given the rapid development of technology in the field of battery technology for
electrified vehicles that is already underway.
60. The monitoring of SOCR values following the implementation of this GTR will provide a
sound basis for the consideration of appropriate range-based MPR in a future revision to
this GTR. Equally, the monitoring of both SOCE and SOCR for Category 2 vehicles should
allow the inclusion of MPR for this category of vehicle in future.

3.7. "Certified range" (Range ) refers to the electric driving range that was determined
during certification of the vehicle, according to Annex 3 of this GTR.
3.8. "Measured range" (Range ) means the electric range determined at the present
point in the lifetime of the vehicle by the test procedure used for certification, according
to Annex 3 of this GTR.
3.9. "State of certified energy" (SOCE) means the measured or on-board UBE
performance at a specific point in its lifetime, expressed as a percentage of the certified
usable battery energy.
3.10. "State of certified range" (SOCR) means the measured or on-board electric range at a
specific point in its lifetime, expressed as a percentage of the certified range.
3.11. "Minimum Performance Requirement" (MPR) means the minimum durability
performance, in terms of SOCE or SOCR at a specific point in the life of the vehicle, that
constitutes compliance with the durability provisions of this GTR.
3.12. "Declared Performance Requirement" (DPR) means an SOCE or SOCR value
declared by the manufacturer that is greater than that of the corresponding MPR and
which then becomes the minimum durability performance that constitutes compliance of
that manufacturer with the durability provisions of this GTR.
3.13. "SOCR monitor" means an apparatus installed in the vehicle that maintains an estimate
of the state of certified range by means of an algorithm operating on data collected from
the vehicle systems.
3.14. "SOCE monitor" means an apparatus installed in the vehicle that maintains an estimate
of the state of certified energy by means of an algorithm operating on data collected from
the vehicle systems.
3.15.
"On-board SOCR” (SOCR
) means an estimate of state of certified range produced
by an SOCR monitor.
3.16.
"On-board SOCE" (SOCE
) means an estimate of state of certified energy produced
by an SOCE monitor.
3.17. "Measured SOCR" (SOCR ) means the state of certified range as determined by
the measured range divided by the certified range, according to Paragraph 6.3.2. of this
GTR.
3.18. "Measured SOCE" means the state of certified energy as determined by the measured
usable battery energy divided by the certified usable battery energy.
3.19. "V2X" means the use of the traction batteries to cover external power and energy
demand, such as V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) for grid stabilization by utilising traction batteries,
V2H (Vehicle-to-Home) for utilizing traction batteries as residential storage for local
optimisation or emergency power sources in times of power failure, and V2L
(Vehicle-to-Load, only connected loads are supplied) for use in times of power failure
and/or outdoor activity in normal times.
3.20. "Total discharge energy during V2X" means the total amount of discharged energy
during V2X which needs to be provided according to Annex 2.

For the purposes of consumer information, the manufacturer shall make easily available
to the owner of the vehicle the most recently determined value of the SOCE monitor via
at least one appropriate method. The resolution for the customer values shall be
determined in agreement with the authorities. For example:
(a)
(b)
(c)
dashboard indicator;
infotainment system;
remote access (such as via mobile-phone applications).
5.2. Battery Performance Requirements
The battery durability requirements of this GTR are defined in terms of Minimum
Performance Requirements (MPRi), which represent minimum allowable values for
SOCE and SOCR at specific points in the lifetime of the vehicle. Vehicles falling under
the categories of OVC-HEVs and PEVs shall meet both of the Minimum Performance
Requirements in Tables 1 and 2 below. The MPRs may differ depending on the category
of the vehicle and type of propulsion.
In order to address regional considerations, a Contracting Party may optionally elect to
enforce only one of the two Minimum Performance Requirements (MPRi) in each of the
tables below (i.e. either the one ending at 5 years or 100,000km, or the one ending at
8 years or 160,000km).
Table 1
Battery Energy based (SOCE) MPR
Vehicle age/km for Categories 1-1 and 1-2 in the scope
of this GTR
OVC-HEV
PEV
From start of life to 5 years or 100,000km, whichever comes
first
Vehicles more than 5 years or 100,000km, and up to
whichever comes first of 8 years or 160,000km
80% 80%
70% 70%
Vehicle age/km for Category 2 in the scope of this GTR OVC-HEV PEV
From start of life to 5 years or 100,000km, whichever comes
first
Vehicles more than 5 years or 100,000km, and up to
whichever comes first of 8 years or 160,000km
(Reserved)
(Reserved)
(Reserved)
(Reserved)

6. IN-USE VERIFICATION
6.1. Definitions of Families
Vehicles having the same characteristics with respect to their evaluation under Part A or
Part B below shall be grouped into vehicle families for the purpose of compliance
verification. Families under Part A shall have the same characteristics with respect to
verification of the SOCR/SOCE monitors. Families under Part B shall have the same
characteristics with respect to verification of battery durability.
Families with the same characteristics with respect to compliance verification shall be
defined as follows:
6.1.1. For Part A: Verification of Monitors
Only vehicles that are substantially similar with respect to the following elements may be
part of the same monitor family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Algorithm for estimating on-board SOCR and on-board SOCE;
Sensor configuration (for sensors used in determination of SOCR and SOCE
estimates);
Characteristics of battery cell which have a non-negligible influence on accuracy of
monitor;
Type of vehicle (PEVs or OVC-HEVs).
At the request of the manufacturer, with the approval of the responsible authority and
with appropriate technical justification, the manufacturer may deviate from the above
criteria for families.
6.1.2. For Part B: Verification of Battery Durability
Only vehicles that are substantially similar with respect to the following elements may be
part of the same battery durability family:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Type and number of electric machines, including net power, construction type
(asynchronous/synchronous, etc.), and any other characteristics having a
non-negligible influence on battery durability;
Type of battery (dimensions, type of cell, including format and chemistry, capacity
(Ampere-hour), nominal voltage, nominal power;
Battery management system (BMS) (with regards to battery durability monitoring
and estimations);
Passive and active thermal management of the battery;
Type of electric energy converter between the electric machine and battery,
between the recharge-plug-in and battery, and any other characteristics having a
non-negligible influence on battery durability;

In cases where UBE
is higher than the UBE
, the SOCE
shall be set to
100%. In cases where Range
is higher than the Range
, the SOCR
shall be set to 100%.
6.3.3. Statistical Method for Pass/Fail Decision for a Sample of Vehicles
Separate statistics shall be calculated for the SOCR monitor and the SOCE monitor.
An adequate number of vehicles (at least 3 and not more than 16) shall be selected from
the same monitor family for testing following a vehicle survey (see Annex 1) which
contains information designed to ensure that the vehicle has been properly used and
maintained according to the specifications of the manufacturer. The following statistics
shall be used to take a decision on the accuracy of the monitor.
For evaluating the SOCR/SOCE monitors normalised values shall be calculated:
Where
SOC is the on-board SOCR/SOCE read from the vehicle i ; and
SOC is the measured SOCR/SOCE of the vehicle i.
For the total number of N tests and the normalised values of the tested vehicles, x , x ,
… x , the average X and the standard deviation s shall be determined:
and
For each N tests 3 ≤ N ≤ 16, one of the three following decisions can be reached, where
the factor A shall be set at 5:
(a) Pass the family if X ≤ A – (t + t ) s
(b) Fail the family if X > A + (t – t ) s

6.4. Part B: Verification of Battery Durability
6.4.1. Frequency of Verifications
Data shall be collected yearly by the authorities from a statistically adequate sample of
vehicles within the same battery durability family. The decision on the number of the
vehicles in the sample may be taken by the responsible authority based on risk
assessment methodology, but in principle should not be less than 500.
If the number of vehicles in the sample is less than 500, then on the request of the
manufacturer and with the agreement of the responsible authority, a maximum of 5% of
the values may be excluded from the sample. In such a case, the manufacturer needs to
provide adequate information on the reason behind the exclusion for each vehicle to the
authority.
If the number of vehicles in the sample is equal to or more than 500, then all vehicles
shall be included in the sample. The data read shall be those of the SOCR and SOCE
monitors (and other relevant data, such as those defined in Annex 2). SOCR and SOCE
monitors of vehicles of Category 2 and SOCR monitors of Category 1-1 and 1-2 vehicles
shall be monitored.
6.4.2. Pass/Fail Criteria for the Battery Durability Family
A battery durability family shall pass if equal to or more than 90% of monitor values read
from the vehicle sample are above the MPRi or DPRi.
A battery durability family shall fail if less than 90% of monitor values read from the
vehicle sample are above the MPRi or DPRi.
6.4.3. Corrective Measures for the Battery Durability Family
In case of a fail for a battery durability family, corrective measures shall be taken with the
agreement of the responsible authority in order to bring the family or part of the family
affected by the issue into compliance.
6.5. Process Flow Charts for Part A and Part B
The flow charts below illustrate the various steps in the verification process of Part A
(Figure 1) and Part B (Figure 2).

7. ROUNDING
Figure 2
Flow Chart for Part B : Verification of Battery Durability
7.1. When the digit immediately to the right of the last place to be retained is less than 5, that
last digit retained shall remain unchanged.
Example:
If a result is 1.2344kWh but only three places of decimal are to be retained, the final
result shall be 1.234kWh.
7.2. When the digit immediately to the right of the last place to be retained is greater than or
equal to 5, that last digit retained shall be increased by 1.
Example:
If a result is 1.2346kWh but only three places of decimal are to be retained, and because
6 is greater than 5, the final result shall be 1.235kWh.

Energy capacity and type of battery
Gearbox type (auto/manual):
Drive axle (FWD/AWD/RWD):
Tyre size (front and rear if different):
Average fuel consumption for PHEVs
Is the vehicle involved in a recall or service
campaign?
If yes: Which one? Have the campaign repairs
already been done?
The repairs must have been done before selecting
the vehicle.
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Vehicle Owner Interview
(the owner will only be asked the main questions and
shall have no knowledge of the implications of the
replies)
Name of the owner (only available to the
accredited inspection body or
laboratory/technical service)
Contact (address/telephone) (only available to
the accredited inspection body or
laboratory/technical service)
x
x
How many owners did the vehicle have?
Did the odometer work?
If no, the vehicle cannot be selected.
Was the vehicle used for one of the following?
As car used in show-rooms?
As a taxi?
As a delivery vehicle?
For racing/motor sports? x
As a rental car?
Has the vehicle carried heavy loads over the
specifications of the manufacturer?
If yes, the vehicle cannot be selected.
Have there been major engine, electric motor or
vehicle repairs?
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Vehicle Examination and Maintenance by the
Testing Centre (please use the relevant entries
according to the type of vehicle)
x = Exclusion
Criteria
x = Checked
and reported
Relevant for
BEV
Was the vehicle not charged adequately for the
last month?
If the vehicle was not charged adequately for the last
month (as evidenced by values read from the vehicle
under Point 9, Annex 2) and the tester wishes to use
it for testing, then it has to be conditioned by driving
the vehicle no less than 50km and in a manner that
results in discharge of at least 50% of the usable
capacity of the battery, followed by a full recharge.
x
Note:
Fuel tank level (full / empty)
Is the fuel reserve light ON? If yes, refuel before test.
x
Are there any warning lights on the instrument
panel activated indicating a vehicle or exhaust
after-treatment system malfunctioning that
cannot be resolved by normal maintenance?
(Malfunction Indication Light, Engine Service
Light, etc?)
If yes, the vehicle cannot be selected
x
Is the SCR light on after engine-on?
If yes, the reagent should be filled, or the repair
executed before the vehicle is used for testing.
x
Visual inspection exhaust system
Check leaks between exhaust manifold and end of
tailpipe. Check and document (with photos)
If there is damage or leaks, the vehicle cannot be
tested
x
Exhaust gas relevant components
Check and document (with photos) all emissions
relevant components for damage.
If there is damage, the vehicle cannot be tested
x
Air filter and oil filter
Check for contamination and damage. Change if
damaged or heavily contaminated or less than
800km before the next recommended change.
x
Wheels (front & rear)
Check whether the wheels are freely moveable or
blocked or impeded by the brake.
If not freely moveable, the vehicle cannot be
selected.
x
Y

ANNEX 2
VALUES TO BE READ FROM VEHICLES:
1.
On board SOCE value
2.
On board SOCR value
3.
Odometer (in km)
4.
Date of manufacture of the vehicle
5.
Total distance (sum of the distance driven and the virtual distance) [km], if applicable
6.
Percentage of virtual distance [in per cent], if applicable
7.
Worst case certified energy consumption of PART B family [Wh/km], if applicable
8.
Total discharge energy in V2X [Wh], if applicable
9.
Last charged by more than 50% SOC swing on [Date]
10.
Maximum, minimum, average ambient temperature the vehicle was exposed to during its lifetime
Note:

2.1.2. Certified UBE Values for PEVs
Parameters
Explanation
UBE Shortened Test Procedure (STP) Consecutive Cycle Procedure (CCP)
UBE is the adjusted measured
usable battery energy (UBE) of the
vehicle at certification:
UBE = UBE x AF
where:
UBE
is the measured usable
battery energy
according to GTR15
Annex 8, Table A8/11
Step no.1 at
certification. In case of
more than one test
(number of tests), the
determined UBE values
shall be averaged.
UBE is the adjusted measured
usable battery energy (UBE) of the
vehicle at certification:
UBE = UBE x AF
where:
UBE
is the measured usable
battery energy
according to GTR15
Annex 8, Table A8/10
Step no.1 at
certification. In case of
more than one test
(number of tests), the
determined UBE values
shall be averaged.
AF
is the adjustment factor
determined according to
GTR15, Annex 8,
Table A8/11 Step no. 6.
AF
is the adjustment factor
determined according to
GTR15, Annex 8,
Table A8/10 Step no. 7.
UBE shall be rounded according to Paragraph 7 of this GTR:
- To the nearest whole number in case unit is Wh
- To three significant numbers in case unit is kWh
In the case the interpolation method is applied, UBE shall be
determined by selecting
- The maximum UBE amongst vehicle H and vehicle L;
- The AF which is closest to 1.
2.2. Range for PEVs
2.2.1. Measured Range Values for PEVs
Parameters
Explanation
Range Shortened Test Procedure (STP) Consecutive Cycle Procedure (CCP)
Range value (PER ) shall be
determined according to GTR15
Annex 8, Table A8/11, Step no. 4.
No rounding shall be applied on Range .
Range value (PER ) shall be
determined according to GTR15
Annex 8, Table A8/10, step no. 5.

The required input parameter UBE is calculated as follows:
where:
ΔE is the measured electric energy change of battery i, Wh;
i
n
is the index number of the considered battery;
is the total number of batteries;
and:
where:
U(t) is the voltage of battery i, V;
I(t) is the electric current of battery i, A;
t is the time at the beginning of the charge-depleting test, s;
t is the time at the end of the confirmation cycle of the
charge-depleting test, s;
is the conversion factor from Ws to Wh.

3.1.2. Certified UBE Values for OVC-HEVs
Parameters
Explanation
UBE
UBE
is the adjusted measured usable battery energy (UBE) of the
vehicle at certification:
Where:
UBE = UBE x AF
UBE
is the measured usable battery energy according to
Paragraph 3.1.1. of this Annex, Wh;
A is the adjustment factor determined as described below.
At the option of the Contracting Party, one out of the following two
adjustment factors shall be selected:
- Adjustment factor 1:
where:
EC is the electric energy consumption EC according to
GTR15 Annex 8, Table A8/8, Step no. 14 at certification,
Wh/km;
EC
is the measured electric energy consumption EC
according to GTR15 Annex 8, Table A8/8, Step no. 13 at
certification. Wh/km.
- Adjustment factor 2:
where:
EC
is EC according to GTR15 Annex 8, Table A8/9, Step no. 8
at certification, Wh/km;
EC
is measured EC according to GTR15 Annex 8, Table A8/9,
Step no. 7 at certification. Wh/km.

In-vehicle Battery Durability for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.